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Tribology in Industry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.429
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0354-8996 - ISSN (Online) 2217-7965
Published by U of Kragujevac Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Influence of Cutting Parameters on Surface Roughness in Grinding of 65G

    • Abstract:
      Authors D.D. Trung
      This article presents an experimental research in the grinding the 65G steel. The workpiece velocity, feed rate, and cutting depth are selected as the input parameters for each experiment. The experiments were performed according to a Box-Behnken matrix consisting of 15 experiments. ANOVA analysis results have determined the influence of the input parameters and the interaction between them on the surface roughness. A surface roughness model in the form of quadratic polynomial was constructed. Two data transformations including Box-Cox and Johnson were applied to construct two new surface roughness models. The comparison of three surface roughness models was conducted. The comparison results show that the model using the Johnson transformation has the highest accuracy, the model using the Box-Cox transformation has the accuracy ranked the second position and the model without data transformation had the lowest accuracy.
      Keywords65G steel grinding, Cutting parameter, Surface roughness model, Box-Cox transformation, Johnson transformation

      DOI :10.24874/ti.1009.11.20.01
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Comparison of Analytical and Experimental Force in Cylindrical Workpiece
           Drawing Process

    • Abstract:
      Authors O. Fanidi, A.A. Kostryukov, A.V. Shchedrin, I.Yu. Ignatkin
      A mathematical module for predicting and analyzing the drawing force is formed and verified. The process used in the current study is drawing. Geometric parameters of the deformation zone and the “selective transfer phenomenon” are also taken into consideration. The experimental verification is conducted through two tests: In the first test, the experimental blanks are cylindrical rods (steel 45, length 150 mm), and are preliminary machined by turning, and the drawplate made of steel 9xc, are used. Regular micro-relief (RMR) hardens the working surfaces of the drawplate. In the second test, the same conditions are applied except for the samples, which represent solid cylindrical billets made of steel 45 with a complicatedly modified surface layer, including a brass film, regular microgeometry, and a “servo-witte” copper film. As a result, in the first experiment, the discrepancies are in the range of -29.1% up to +23%. In the second experiment, the discrepancies are in the range of +1.38% up to +48.9%.
      KeywordsDrawing force, Micro-relief, Deformation zone, Lubricants

      DOI :10.24874/ti.1000.11.20.02
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Application of TOPSIS Method in Multi-Objective Optimization of the
           Grinding Process Using Segmented Grinding Wheel

    • Abstract:
      Authors D.D. Trung, N.V. Thien, N.-T. Nguyen
      Using a segmented grinding wheel improves chip release and heat release condition out of the cutting zone, facilitates the introduction of coolant into the cutting zone, as well as increases the ability to clean the grinding wheel surface. Therefore, using segmented grinding wheel promises to improve the quality and efficiency of the machining process. This paper presents a study about the multi-objective optimization of grinding process using a segmented grinding wheel. The parameters that are shosen as the output criteria are the surface roughness, amplitudes of system vibrations in X, Y, Z directions (Ax, Ay, Az), and the material removal rate (MRR). The experiments were performed in the surface grinding machine with the workpiece material of DIN 1.2379 steel and the grinding wheel material of aluminum oxide. The experimental matrix was designed using Taguchi method with nine experiment (orthogonal array L9) and with four input parameters (number of grooves, workpiece velocity, feed rate, and depth of cut). From the experimental data, the influence of input parameters on the output parameters were investigated. The TOPSIS method was applied to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. Then, the optimized set of input parameters was determined to ensure the minimum value of surface roughess, minimum values of three vibarion components, and to ensure the maximum value of MRR. Finally, the future research directions of this study were also proposed.
      KeywordsSegmented grinding wheel, Surface grinding, Surface roughness, Vibrations, MRR, Multi optimization, Taguchi, TOPSIS

      DOI :10.24874/ti.998.11.20.12
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Mechanical and Tribological Properties Evolution of [Si3N4/Al2O3]n
           Multilayer Coatings

    • Abstract:
      Authors C.H. Ortiz, E. Hernandez-Rengifo, A. Guerrero, W. Aperador, J.C. Caicedo
      Multilayer coatings [Si3N4/Al2O3]n have generated great interest due to their intriguing properties which have made them a potential candidate to be implemented in different processes within the food and pharmaceutical industries. Unfortunately, this multilayer system based on [Si3N4/Al2O3]n does not have strong tribological studies that could express in an emphatic way its own tribological characteristics. For this reason, the aim of this research consisted of a detailed study of the evolution of the mechanical and tribological properties of the [Si3N4/Al2O3]n coatings as a function of the bilayer number n=1, 10, 30 and 70, with special emphasis on the tribological analysis in a dry and lubricated environment. It was determined that the mechanical properties such as the hardness and the elastic modulus increased by 29% and 6.3%, while the friction coefficient in a dry and lubricated environment decreased by 33% and 81.8%, respectively, when increasing the bilayers from n=1 to n=70. Thus, the present study determined that the coating [Si3N4/Al2O3]70 presented ideal properties that make it a promising candidate to be implemented as a protective coating on processing devices within the food and pharmaceutical industry.
      KeywordsPhysical vapor deposition PVD, Mechanical properties, Multilayer coatings, Friction coefficient, Lubricated tribological properties

      DOI :10.24874/ti.952.08.20.01
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Comparison of Various Wet-Running Multi-Plate Clutches with Paper Friction
           Lining with Regard to Spontaneous Damage Behavior

    • Abstract:
      Authors T. Schneider, A.B. Bedrikow, K. Völkel, H. Pflaum,K. Stahl
      Wet-running multi-plate clutches fulfill a major safety-relevant role in drive trains and, as a result, damage to and failure of the clutch system must be strictly avoided, especially spontaneous damage. This paper deals with spontaneous damage to wet-running multi-plate clutches with paper friction lining with respect to spontaneous damage behavior. The paper presents a comparison method, by means of which the load-carrying capacity of various multi-plate clutches can be compared with regard to spontaneous damage based on experimental data and recommendations can be formulated. The experiments were performed on six different clutch variants, and the results were examined for significant differences. Various statistical tools were used to detect statistically significant variations. The experiments showed that higher load levels have a greater dispersion of the measured values, thus making comparisons more difficult. In the clutch variants investigated, significant changes in spontaneous damage behavior could only be detected when the cooling plate thickness or the carbon content was changed.
      KeywordsWet friction clutch, Spontaneous damage, Hot spots, Paper friction lining, Multiple plate clutch

      DOI :10.24874/ti.992.10.20.01
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Multi-objective Optimization in Turning Operation of AISI 1055 Steel Using
           DEAR Method

    • Abstract:
      Authors S. Nguyen Hong, U. Vo Thi Nhu
      This paper presents a study on multi-objective optimization of turning process AISI 1055 steel. It designs 9 experiments (L9) for a Taguchi test series matrix. The four parameters of input include spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, tool nose radius. The AISI 1055 steel machining operation experiments are carried out based on the matrix created. They are performed on a conventional lathe. The factors considered for evaluating the machining quality include surface roughness, cutting force in X, Y, Z directions and material removal rate (MRR). First, the research is carried out to identify the impact of the input parameters on the output parameters. Analysis of experimental results show that spindle speed significantly affects all three components of cutting force, but slightly influences the surface roughness. Regarding feed rate, this is the parameter that has a strong effect on surface roughness and cutting force Fx but not on the cutting force Fy and Fz. Meanwhile, the depth of cut has a considerable influence on the force in the x and y directions but a limited impact on the surface roughness and the force in the z direction. Similar to the cutting speed, the tool nose radius is noticeable to all three components of the cutting force and negligible to surface roughness. The second aim of this study is to determine the value of the cutting parameters to achieve the minimum of surface roughness and cutting force and the maximum of MRR. The Data Envelopment Analysis-based Ranking (Dear) method is applied to solve multi-objective problems. The paper identified the optimum values of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool nose radius are 910 rev/min, 0.194 mm/rev, 0.2 mm and 0.2 mm, respectively.
      KeywordsTurning AISI 1055 steel, Multi-objective optimization, Surface roughness, Cutting force, MRR, Taguchi, DEAR

      DOI :10.24874/ti.1006.11.20.01
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Tribo-Modeling of Drilling Processes

    • Abstract:
      Authors G.S. Panagopoulos, P.G. Nikolakopoulos
      The purpose of this paper was to investigate the wear rate and the temperature distribution of a single-layer TiN coated drill in H13 steel alloy workpiece, with the use of a numerical procedure and through relevant experiments. Simulation models were developed, and an experiment was conducted to evaluate the wear rate, as well as the wear mechanisms and the temperatures appeared during the process of drilling. The finite element method was used to simulate the drilling process. The Usui wear model was used for the drill’s wear rate estimation. Temperature measurements were carried out with a thermal imaging camera, and SEM microscopy was also used to characterize the coating’s wear. The maximum wear rate of the drill either of flat or for angled simulation setups is near . This value is obtained for maximum tool temperature, which in both cases is close to , however with different distribution within time. The comparative analysis of the simulation models and the experiment show that adhesion is the dominant wear mechanism and the values of the temperature are in good agreement ( difference) between the model and the measurements, even after the process temperature measurement. Because of the good chip evacuation and chip length the coated drills are suitable for drilling tough materials.
      KeywordsDrilling, FEM, Coating, Wear, H-13, WC, Adhesion, Temperature

      DOI :10.24874/ti.973.09.20.01
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Influence of Hybrid Cooling-Lubricating Strategy in the Turning of ASTM
           F2063 Austenitic Nickel-Titanium Alloy

    • Abstract:
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Influence of Feed Motion on Surface Friction of AISI 1045 Steel Machined
           by a Fine-Grinding Process

    • Abstract:
      Authors V.-H. Pham, T.-D. Nguyen
      Fine-grinding is a final machining method used to reach the low friction and high-quality surface. The workspeed (vw) and crossfeed (vc) motions are perpendicular to each other and differ in value during the grinding process. Thus, the surface quality in workspeed and crossfeed direction is not the same and leads to the anisotropy of friction in the working surface. This paper presents the results of the study on the direct effect of grinding parameters on anisotropic surface friction of AISI 1045 Steel. The research was performed on the UCETR- UMT multifunctional test system, and the experimental samples were ground under the workspeed of 15,4; 19.2, and 23 m/min, respectively, and crossfeed of 0.3 m/min. The research results show that the experimental coefficient is 7 to 17% larger than the calculated friction coefficient. The experimental friction force consists of 2 components: Fx is friction force according to the measuring motion direction, Fy is the perpendicular anisotropic friction force Fx. Total friction (Fx+Fy) changes 8-18% in the workspeed direction and 15-23% in the crossfeed direction in the experimental region. The value of the anisotropic friction force Fy varied from 0.78% to 41% compared to Fx. Therefore, the anisotropy friction can be expressed by the angle αani=arctg Fy/Fx, which depends on the direction of motion during the grinding and the grinding parameters.
      KeywordsSurface grinding, Surface friction, Anisotropy surface, Anisotropy surface friction

      DOI :10.24874/ti.943.08.20.01
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Investigation on Dry Sliding Wear Performance and Corrosion Resistance of
           13Cr5Ni2Mo Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

    • Abstract:
      Authors N.E. Beliardouh, S. Tlili, A. Oulabbas, C.E. Ramoul, S. Meddah, H. Kaleli
      This work aimed to study the microstructure, wear and corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS). Heat treatment applied to samples consists of quenching after austenitization at elevated temperature (1250 °C) followed by a double tempering at 650 °C. Conventional mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis and X-ray diffraction methods (XRD) are used to analyze the microstructure and to evaluate the wear mechanisms. The potentiodynamic polarisation and the electrochemical impedance spectroscoopy (EIS) methods are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance in both the 0.5M H2SO4 and 0.5M NaCl aggressive media. The microstructure is mainly composed with tempered lath martensite, small quantity of retained austenite and carbides. Oxidative and abrasive wear dominated the wear process in dry condition. During the corrosion process, the same mechanism of degradation was found in both the 0.5M NaCl and 0.5M H2SO4.
      KeywordsSupermartensitic Steel, Microstructure, Friction, Wear, Corrosion

      DOI :10.24874/ti.970.09.20.11
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • The Innovative Research Methodology of Tribological and Rheological
           Properties of Lubricating Grease

    • Abstract:
      Authors R. Kozdrach
      The article presents the methodology of tribological and rheological research of typical lubricating composition.The analysis of friction factor, friction work, frictional force, frictional power values during the test for the tested lubricating composition indicates a significant change in this parameters for lubricants. A change of the value of evaluated tribological parameters leads to a change in the structure of the composition carried out tests and a change in the effectiveness of the tribological protection of the tribosystem. The content of the thickener, base of oil and additive in the lubricant structure affects the level of the anti-wear properties, as evidenced by the results obtained during the tribological tests presented in this article.The DWS (Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy) technique provides the ability to obtain information about the viscoelastic state of non-Newtonian liquids and provide the monitoring of structural changes in time. The observation of the movement of the dispersed phase particles and the evaluation of the microstructure change in the solutions based on the results of the correlation function MSD (Mean Square Displacement) in time, complex viscosity, complex modulus and the research of the G 'and G” modulus in wide frequency range provides a comprehensive microstructure characteristic of the tested systems at the microscopic level.
      KeywordsLubricating grease, Tribological properties, Friction factor, Limiting load of wear, Rheological properties, Mean Square Displacement, Storage modulus G’, Loss modulus G’’

      DOI :10.24874/ti.941.08.20.11
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Influence of Humid Air Temperature on Friction Behavior in Pneumatic

    • Abstract: AuthorT.-D. Nguyen, V.-H. Pham
      In the air, water vapor always exists and impacts directly on the friction surface between the piston rod and the rod seal. Water vapor in the air forms moisture film on the surface of the piston rod. In some cases, it plays a role as a lubricant. In general, to evaluate the amount of water vapor in the air, we use two measuring quantities that are relative humidity and absolute humidity. Although the relative humidity is equal at different temperatures, the amount of water vapor in the air is not the same and can be determined by absolute humidity. The paper presents the results of research on the effect of humid air temperature on the frictional behavior of the piston rod and a rod seal, under constant relative humidity conditions. The studies were conducted at a temperature of 150C, 320C, and 490C, with velocities of 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 mm/s, respectively. The results show that the friction between the piston rod and rod seal (including a maximum force of static friction - FS and dynamic friction-FD) changes according to the ambient temperature of the humid air. When the temperature increases from 150C to 490C, the friction force decreases approximately 10 - 18%. The change in maximum force static friction is 1.2 times greater than dynamic friction force.
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Tribological Behavior of Calcium Complex Palm-Biogrease with Green

    • Abstract: AuthorI.H.A. Razak, M.A. Ahmad
      Vegetable oils have been acknowledged to have significant potential as a substitute base fluid in grease formulation. The so-called biogreases are demanded especially in open applications where the greases are in contact with soil and water and lost to the environment. In this paper, formulation of a biogrease derived from palm-based ester as the base fluid and calcium complex soap as the thickener is discussed, with the main purpose to explore the potential of palm oil as an effective biodegradable fluid, and to investigate the possibility to improve the tribological properties by mixing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and hydroxyapatite (HA) as green additives. The wear and friction properties as well as the load carrying capacity of the formulated bio-grease were extensively studied through the four-ball wear tester. The experimental results show that the average coefficient of friction of the palm based biogrease was improved by about 6.5% when 5% of CaCO3 and 3% of HA were added comparing to base grease. Besides, the load carrying capacity was also enhanced significantly by the addition of the additives. This demonstrated the good potential of palm ester as base fluid for grease and the CaCO3 and HA as lubricant additives, exhibited the good anti-friction and load carrying abilities.
      KeywordsPalm-based ester, Biogrease, Calcium complex grease, CaCO3, Hydroxyapatite

      DOI :10.24874/ti.1002.11.20.02
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Nano Identification and Tribo Testing of Explosive Welding Copper/Brass

    • Abstract:
      Authors B. Nedić, M.S. Lazarević, D. Džunić, J. Bogdanov, S. Đurić
      Bimetallic materials are construction materials that are increasingly used in many industries: in the graphic industry, tobacco processing industry for various cutting knives, in the chemical industry for various plants and vessels, food industry, military industry, etc. In the production of ships, their use becomes dominant, primarily as a combination of cheap construction materials highly resistant to corrosion, at a price closer to construction materials. The appearance of plating with the help of explosion energy has significantly increased the range and quality of available multilayer metals. Although stainless steels and aluminum are the most commonly used material for bimetallic and clad materials, materials such as titanium, zirconium or tantalum are increasingly used.The paper analyzes the process of explosion welding and the results of exploration of the explosion of a welded joint of copper and brass. The microhardness of the material in the welded joint, tribological characteristics and scratch test joint were analyzed.
      KeywordsExplosive welding, Copper/brass joint, Nano identer, Scratch test, Microhardness

      DOI :10.24874/ti.1068.12.20.02
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
  • Algorithm for Tribokinetic Modeling Tests of Triboconjuction Materials for
           Industrial Products

    • Abstract:
      Authors O.I. Bogdanovych, T.M.A. Al-Quraan, V.V. Tokaruk, J.S. Haddad
      An experimental-calculation procedure for determining the kinetic and energy activation criteria for assessing the wear resistance and compatibility of triboconjunction materials using the kinetic three-stage triboreaction is presented. The developed method for tribo-kinetic tests to determine the kinetic characteristics (order and rate constants) and activation energies for all three stages of the triboreaction was tried experimentally for steels ShKh-15 and 45, aviation fuel RT, aviation hydraulic oil AOH-10 and aviation oil MK-8 added with oleic acid. The conducted tribo-kinetic tests established kinetic and activation energy criteria for assessing the wear resistance of ShKh-15 steel and antiwear properties of RT and AOH-10 lubricants, as well as kinetic criteria for assessing the wear resistance of steel 45 and antiwear properties of MK-8 with oleic acid. Also, using the developed method for tribokinetic tests, the kinetic and activation energies of ShKh-15 in long-term storage aviation fuels “TS-1” and “TS-1*”, kinetic criteria and activation energy for the second stage of the triboreaction, chemical modification ShKh-15 in the medium of "TS-1", as well as the established kinetic and activation energy of the triboreaction, that is, surface destruction, in fact, wear of steel 45 during reciprocating motion.
      KeywordsFriction, Wear resistance, Tribokinetic tests, Kinetic characteristics, Activation energies

      DOI :10.24874/ti.977.10.20.02
      PubDate: 15 March 2021 12:00:00 +0100
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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