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Journal Cover Applied Psychology
  [SJR: 1.023]   [H-I: 64]   [206 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0269-994X - ISSN (Online) 1464-0597
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Data Quality from Crowdsourced Surveys: A Mixed Method Inquiry into
           Perceptions of Amazon's Mechanical Turk Masters
    • Authors: Matt Lovett; Saleh Bajaba, Myra Lovett, Marcia J. Simmering
      Abstract: Researchers in the social sciences are increasingly turning to online data collection panels for research purposes. While there is evidence that crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk can produce data as reliable as more traditional survey collection methods, little is known about Amazon's Mechanical Turk's most experienced respondents, their perceptions of crowdsourced data, and the degree to which these affect data quality. The current study utilises both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate Amazon's Mechanical Turk Masters' perceptions and attitudes related to the data quality (e.g. inattention). Recommendations for researchers using crowdsourcing data are provided.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T23:00:57.912445-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12124
  • The Differential Impacts of Two Forms of Insufficient Effort Responding
    • Authors: Justin A. DeSimone; Alice J. DeSimone, P. D. Harms, Dustin Wood
      Abstract: Recent years have seen a renewed interest in insufficient effort responding (IER). Previous research has demonstrated that IER can have detrimental effects on survey research ranging from introducing untrustworthy data to influencing psychometric and statistical results. The present simulations examine two forms of IER, straightlining (SL) and random responding (RR), in an attempt to determine whether the presence of these response patterns have differential impacts on data. In three studies, we explore the combined effects of extreme SL and RR, the effects of full and partial RR, and the effects of full and partial SL on scale characteristics such as inter-item correlations, alpha, and component structure. We also explore how various IER response distributions may influence these statistics. Empirical results demonstrate a tendency for SL to increase and RR to decrease the magnitude of inter-item correlations, alpha, and the first component eigenvalue. Results also indicate that the impact of SL may be more pronounced than the impact of RR in the organisational sciences. It is important for researchers to consider the type of IER in addition to the prevalence of IER in a sample prior to conducting statistical analyses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:20:59.624811-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12117
  • Psychological Flexibility at Work and Employees' Proactive Work Behaviour:
           Cross-Level Moderating Role of Leader Need for Structure
    • Authors: Che-Chun Kuo; Yun-Ci Ye, Mei-Yen Chen, Lung Hung Chen
      Abstract: How to promote employees to be proactive behaviourally is a significant issue in the literature because it would benefit organisations in several ways. Drawing on the acceptance and commitment model, we proposed a new antecedent, psychological flexibility that might contribute to employees' proactive work behaviour. Furthermore, we investigated how the contextual role of supervisor need for structure exhibits a cross-level moderating effect on the relationship between employee psychological flexibility at work and proactive work behaviour based on interactionism. Data from 241 full-time employees and their corresponding 45 managers indicated that employee psychological flexibility was positively associated with proactive work behaviour. More importantly, the supervisor need for structure played a moderating role, suggesting that employees would demonstrate greater proactive work behaviour especially when the supervisors have a high need for structure. Implications for psychological flexibility, proactivity, and person-situation interactional research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T00:15:24.168565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12111
  • How Do Coworkers “Make the Place”' Examining Coworker Conflict and
           the Value of Harmony in China and the United States
    • Authors: Cong Liu; Margaret M. Nauta, Liu-Qin Yang, Paul E. Spector
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to test cross-cultural/cross-national differences in the association between coworker interpersonal justice and coworker conflict and the implications of such differences for employee effectiveness. Harmony is a central value in China but is less important in the United States, and the individual value of harmony may influence Chinese and US employees differently in their response to low levels of coworker interpersonal justice. We collected data from employees and their coworkers in China (214 dyads) and the US (301 dyads). There were three major findings. First, coworker interpersonal justice was negatively related to coworker conflict. Second, coworker conflict significantly mediated coworker interpersonal justice in relation to the employee effectiveness variables of task performance, organisational citizenship behaviours, and counterproductive work behaviours. Finally, in the Chinese sample, harmony significantly buffered the indirect effect of coworker interpersonal justice on employee effectiveness via coworker conflict, whereas in the US sample, harmony significantly intensified the indirect effect of coworker interpersonal justice on employee effectiveness via coworker conflict.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T04:12:19.306885-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12119
  • Applying Social Psychology to Prevent Careless Responding during Online
    • Authors: M.K. Ward; Adam W. Meade
      Abstract: A major threat to data quality in online surveys is careless responding (CR; Meade & Craig, ) or insufficient effort responding (e.g. Bowling, Huang, Bragg, Khazon, Liu, & Blackmore, ). In three studies, we use social psychological theories to develop and test three prevention strategies (Ward & Pond III, ) related to increasing respondent motivation to respond carefully. Study 1 presented control, scripted, or video-recorded instructions designed to increase the social influence of survey administrators on survey participants. Participants in the control group were significantly more likely to admit to CR than the script and video groups. Compared with the control, scripted instructions decreased interest, and had no effect on objective indicators of CR. Study 2 found that instructions designed to induce cognitive dissonance increased logical consistency of responses and survey interest. Instructions to create a sense of hypocrisy increased accuracy on instructed-response items. Study 3 showed that leveraging social exchange theory in survey instructions generally had no effect on CR. Similar results were found for both continuous and dichotomous scoring of indicators of CR across the three studies. Results demonstrate that facets of CR can be influenced via survey design. Future studies are needed to develop a more thorough understanding of best practices in survey design with respect to preventing CR.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T00:05:24.454228-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12118
  • The Impact of Insufficient Effort Responding Detection Methods on
           Substantive Responses: Results from an Experiment Testing Parameter
    • Authors: Heiko Breitsohl; Corinna Steidelmüller
      Abstract: Researchers using survey methods can choose among a variety of methods aimed at detecting insufficient effort responding among the participants in their studies. Some of these methods entail modifying the survey questionnaire by adding bogus items, instructed-response items, or instructed manipulation checks. While these methods have been found effective in detecting insufficient effort responding, it remains unclear whether their presence in a questionnaire can affect responses to items of substantive research interest. We conducted an experiment investigating this potential impact in a sample (N = 1,092) of working adults. Adopting an invariance testing approach, we assessed whether employing bogus items, instructed-response items, or instructed manipulation checks, with or without warning study participants, respectively, would lead to non-invariant estimates of parameters for substantive variables. Results suggest that, while most parameter estimates were invariant to the use of insufficient effort responding detection methods, the reliability of measurements may be adversely impacted, posing a threat to construct validity and statistical conclusion validity. However, reliability might be maintained when participants are warned at the beginning of the questionnaire. Results also suggest that bogus items may have some advantages over other methods in terms of parameter invariance. We discuss the implications of our findings.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T23:45:23.425904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12121
  • Dynamics between Member Replacement and Team Performance: The Role of
           Members’ Relative Attributes
    • Authors: Jia Li; Josette M.P. Gevers
      Abstract: Analysing the 367 member replacement acts in the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament, we uncover important dynamics between member replacement and team performance. We find that poor team performance leads to substitutions with more competence gains (or with less competence loss), that substituting and substituted members’ functional background dissimilarity improves subsequent content-related team performance (i.e. scoring more goals), and that their competence superiority is associated with the speed of team performance turnaround (i.e. scoring goals faster). Going beyond contrasts between teams with and without membership change, the paper highlights the importance of substituting and substituted members’ relative task-related attributes and provides a more nuanced understanding of the complex phenomenon of team membership change. Furthermore, the paper extends the methodological spectrum of dynamic team composition research from predominantly laboratory experiments with short-lived student groups performing cognitive tasks to field studies with real-life work teams performing action tasks.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T04:51:59.549932-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12116
  • How Colleagues Can Support Each Other's Needs and Motivation: An
           Intervention on Employee Work Motivation
    • Authors: Tomas Jungert; Anja Van den Broeck, Bert Schreurs, Ulla Osterman
      Abstract: Organisations have flattened and increasingly rely on teamwork. Therefore, colleagues play an increasingly important role in stimulating employee motivation. Adopting Self-Determination Theory as a guiding framework, the aim of this field experiment was to examine whether team members can be trained in supporting each other's basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness and, hence, increase each other's need satisfaction and autonomous motivation, while decreasing controlled motivation. We delivered training to 146 participants nested in 26 participating teams and assessed basic need satisfaction and autonomous and controlled motivation before and after the intervention. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that employees in the experimental (i.e. intervention) condition had a stronger increase in need satisfaction and autonomous motivation than employees did in the control condition, and that the increase in autonomous motivation was mediated by an increase in need satisfaction. This study provides added value for theory on need satisfaction and demonstrates that a relatively brief intervention among team members may be effective in creating employee need support and increasing autonomous motivation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T21:45:34.639177-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12110
  • Does a Tired Mind Help Avoid a Decision Bias' The Effect of Ego
           Depletion on Escalation of Commitment
    • Authors: Jong Seok Lee; Mark Keil, Kin Fai Ellick Wong
      Abstract: In this research, we investigated the effect of ego depletion on escalation of commitment. Specifically, we conducted two laboratory experiments and obtained evidence that ego depletion decreases escalation of commitment. In Study 1, we found that individuals were less susceptible to escalation of commitment after completing an ego depletion task. In Study 2, we confirmed the effect observed in Study 1 using a different manipulation of ego depletion and a different subject pool. Contrary to the fundamental assumption of bounded rationality that people have a tendency to make decision errors when mental resources are scarce, the findings of this research show that a tired mind can help reduce escalation bias.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T03:40:14.27484-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12109
  • An Investigation of Entrepreneurs' Venture Persistence Decision: The
           Contingency Effect of Psychological Ownership and Adversity
    • Authors: Fei Zhu; Dan Kai Hsu, Katrin Burmeister-Lamp, Shea X. Fan
      Abstract: We incorporate psychological ownership theory and adversity literature to examine the joint effect of psychological ownership and adversity on entrepreneurs' persistence decision. The results of two experiments and one survey show that both low adversity and high psychological ownership for the venture increase entrepreneurs' likelihood of persistence. We also identify the moderating effect of adversity. Psychological ownership is more relevant to the likelihood of persistence when adversity is high than when it is low. Our research contributes to psychological ownership theory and the entrepreneurial persistence literature and has practical implications for entrepreneurs.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T23:15:21.852999-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12106
  • Are Attention Check Questions a Threat to Scale Validity'
    • Authors: Franki Y.H. Kung; Navio Kwok, Douglas J. Brown
      Abstract: Attention checks have become increasingly popular in survey research as a means to filter out careless respondents. Despite their widespread use, little research has empirically tested the impact of attention checks on scale validity. In fact, because attention checks can induce a more deliberative mindset in survey respondents, they may change the way respondents answer survey questions, posing a threat to scale validity. In two studies, we tested this hypothesis (N = 816). We examined whether common attention checks—instructed-response items (Study 1) and an instructional manipulation check (Study 2)—impact responses to a well-validated management scale. Results showed no evidence that they affect scale validity, both in reported scale means and tests of measurement invariance. These findings allow researchers to justify the use of attention checks without compromising scale validity and encourage future research to examine other survey characteristic-respondent dynamics to advance our use of survey methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T23:10:26.335362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12108
  • The Influence of Feedback and Expert Status in Knowledge Sharing Dilemmas
    • Authors: Karin S. Moser
      Abstract: Groups and organisations set cooperative goals for their members, yet in reality some team members contribute more than others to these goals. Experts, in particular, face a social dilemma: from the group's perspective they should share their knowledge, whereas individually they are better off not sharing, because acquiring knowledge is costly and they would give up a competitive advantage. Two experiments (N1 = 96, N2 = 192) tested the hypothesis, derived from indirect reciprocity theory, that experts contribute more if their status is being recognised. Expert status was manipulated under different performance feedback conditions and the impact on people's contributions in two different knowledge sharing tasks was analysed. In both studies, experts contributed more when feedback was individualised and public, ensuring both individual status rewards and public recognition. In contrast, novices contributed more when performance feedback was collective, regardless of whether it was public or private feedback. Novices did not have to fear negative performance evaluations under group feedback and could gain in social status as members of a successful group. Social value orientation moderated expert contributions in Study 2, with proself-oriented experts being particularly susceptible to reputation gains. The studies contribute to the neglected aspect of motivation in knowledge sharing dilemmas where collective and individual interests are not necessarily aligned.
      PubDate: 2017-08-06T20:35:23.59208-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12105
  • When My Object Becomes Me: The Mere Ownership of an Object Elevates
           Domain-Specific Self-Efficacy
    • Authors: Victoria Wai-lan Yeung; Steve Loughnan, Yoshihisa Kashima, Vivian Miu-Chi Lun, Susanna Siu-sze Yeung
      Abstract: Past research on the mere ownership effect has shown that when people own an object, they perceive the owned objects more favorably than the comparable non-owned objects. The present research extends this idea, showing that when people own an object functional to the self, they perceive an increase in their self-efficacy. Three studies were conducted to demonstrate this new form of the mere ownership effect. In Study 1, participants reported an increase in their knowledge level by the mere ownership of reading materials (a reading package in Study 1a, and lecture notes in Study 1b). In Study 2, participants reported an increase in their resilience to sleepiness by merely owning a piece of chocolate that purportedly had a sleepiness-combating function. In Study 3, participants who merely owned a flower essence that is claimed to boost creativity reported having higher creativity efficacy. The findings provided insights on how associations with objects alter one's self-perception.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T23:00:41.423488-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12099
  • The Dark Side of Employee Referral Bonus Programs: Potential Applicants’
           Awareness of a Referral Bonus and Perceptions of Organisational
    • Authors: Sara Stockman; Greet Van Hoye, Marieke Carpentier
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of potential applicants’ awareness of employees being rewarded for referrals on organisational attractiveness, based on credibility theory and the multiple inference model. In a first study (N = 450), final-year students were less attracted to the organisation when they knew employee referrals were rewarded, which was partially explained by lower credibility perceptions. Moreover, varying the specific characteristics of the referral bonus program (i.e. timing, size, type, recipient) did not improve potential applicants’ perceptions of credibility and attractiveness. A second study (N = 127) replicated the negative effect of referral bonuses on organisational attractiveness and found that it could be explained by both potential applicants’ inferences about the referrer's other-oriented motive and lower referrer credibility. Whether employees explicitly stated that their referral reason was bonus-driven or not did not affect these results.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T00:00:21.892848-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12100
  • The Hazard of Teetering at the Top and Being Tied to the Bottom: The
           Interactive Relationship of Power, Stability, and Social Dominance
           Orientation with Work Stress
    • Authors: Sanne Feenstra; Jennifer Jordan, Frank Walter, Jin Yan, Janka I. Stoker
      Abstract: This study examines the roles of power, stability, and social dominance orientation (SDO) for work stress. Initial laboratory research has demonstrated that power and the stability of one's power position interact to influence stress. Using a sample of Chinese managers, we replicate and extend this finding in an organisational field setting, illustrating that the interactive role of power and stability hinges on individuals' SDO. Individuals higher (but not lower) in SDO experienced more work stress in unstable high-power and stable low-power positions, compared to their counterparts in stable high-power and unstable low-power positions. These results underscore the role of stability for understanding the power–stress relationship and emphasise individual differences in needs and motivations as an important boundary condition.
      PubDate: 2017-07-02T23:05:54.381589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12104
  • Workplace Family Support, Parental Satisfaction, and Work–Family
           Conflict: Individual and Crossover Effects among Dual-Earner Couples
    • Authors: Marisa Matias; Tiago Ferreira, Joana Vieira, Joana Cadima, Teresa Leal, Paula Mena Matos
      Abstract: Workplace family support has been regarded as a factor that helps reduce individuals' work to family conflict (WFC). How this support translates into families' functioning is still to be determined. In this study, we used a systems perspective to examine (a) how perceptions of workplace family support affect parental satisfaction and consequently reduce WFC and (b) how the perception of support affects partners' parental satisfaction and WFC in dual-earner couples. A two-wave dyadic data set of dual-earner couples with preschool-aged children (N = 90) was used, and the actor-partner interdependence mediation model (APIMeM) was applied. Results showed that controlling for WFC, working hours, number and age of children, mothers' perceptions of workplace family support (time 1) had indirect effects, through mothers' parental satisfaction (time 1), on their own levels of WFC (time 2) as well as on their partners' levels of WFC (time 2). Fathers' perceptions of workplace family support (time 1) had a direct effect on fathers' parental satisfaction (time 1) and on fathers' WFC (time 2). These results suggest that in addition to boosting parental well-being, perceptions of a supportive workplace may help reduce the level of WFC for both direct recipients of support and their partners, in particular when support is experienced by mothers, and when these mothers experience heightened parental satisfaction.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T03:17:34.096518-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12103
  • How Learning Goal Orientation Fosters Leadership Recognition in
           Self-Managed Teams: A Two-Stage Mediation Model
    • Authors: Yih-teen Lee; Minna Paunova
      Abstract: Defined as a mental framework for how individuals interpret and respond to achievement situations, learning goal orientation (LGO) has received increasing attention in organisational research. However, its effect on leadership, especially in contexts absent of formal leadership, remains understudied. Drawing on social exchange theory, we propose and test an individual-level two-stage process model of generalised exchange linking LGO and leadership recognition in self-managed teams. Specifically, we posit that learning-oriented individuals will tend to feel safer in self-managed teams, which will enable and sustain their engagement in contextual role behavior. Such behavior, in turn, will be reciprocated with recognition of these individuals as leaders. We use a multiphase, multi-informant approach (n = 287), and we find that felt safety mediates the effect of LGO on contextual role behavior, but that contextual role behavior alone does not mediate the effect of LGO on leadership recognition. LGO has an indirect effect on leadership recognition through the joint mediation of felt safety and contextual role behavior. Our results offer insight on the link between LGO and leadership, with practical implications for people working in self-managed teams.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27T03:12:38.040572-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12101
  • Leading to Stimulate Employees' Ideas: A Quantitative Review of
           Leader–Member Exchange, Employee Voice, Creativity, and Innovative
    • Authors: Joel B. Carnevale; Lei Huang, Marcus Crede, Peter Harms, Mary Uhl-Bien
      Abstract: Through social exchange, leaders can offer relational support or resources to facilitate employees' proactive attempts to bring positive change (voice) or novel ideas (creativity) and behaviors (innovative behavior) to their work. We consider these three outcomes under the same nomological network as they all represent employees' idea contribution to the organisation. The present paper thus meta-analytically reviews the findings of research relating leader–member exchange (LMX) to voice (37 samples), creativity (53 samples), and innovative behavior (29 samples). Results show that LMX positively predicts voice, creativity, and innovative behavior. Moreover, LMX is more strongly related with creativity than with voice or innovative behavior, a significant difference maintained even after controlling for study characteristics that may act as confounding variables. Implications of our findings and directions for future research are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23T01:30:33.450244-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12102
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 515 - 516
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T21:08:52.934516-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12086
  • Preventing School Bullying: Investigation of the Link between
           Anti-Bullying Strategies, Prevention Ownership, Prevention Climate, and
           Prevention Leadership
    • Authors: Yiqiong Li; Peter Y. Chen, Fu-Li Chen, Ying-Lin Chen
      Pages: 577 - 598
      Abstract: School bullying has been a major health and safety concern for teachers and students, which calls for effective strategies to address the issue. In this study, we explored individual and organisational factors that improve the effects of teachers’ use of anti-bullying strategies in reducing or preventing student bullying. Specifically, we examined the moderating role of teachers’ psychological ownership of their school's anti-bullying system in the relationship between teacher-reported use of anti-bullying strategies and student-reported bullying incidents. We also investigated how principals’ bullying prevention leadership, rated by a group of directors who are the immediate subordinates of these principals, inspires teachers’ psychological ownership of their school's anti-bullying system through building teachers’ shared perceptions of a bullying prevention climate. Results of multilevel analyses of multisource data from 2,123 teachers, 407 directors, and 15,967 students in 110 junior and senior high schools indicated that the impact of teacher-reported use of anti-bullying strategies on student-reported bullying incidents was strengthened when teachers have a high level of psychological ownership of their school's anti-bullying system. Further, principals’ bullying prevention leadership was significantly positively related to teachers’ psychological ownership of their school's anti-bullying system through teachers’ shared perceptions of a bullying prevention climate.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T21:08:54.091146-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12107
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