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Journal Cover Applied Psychology
  [SJR: 1.023]   [H-I: 64]   [166 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0269-994X - ISSN (Online) 1464-0597
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • On the Positive Side of Avoidance Motivation: An Increase in Avoidance
           Motivation Reduces Procrastination among Students
    • Authors: Michal M. Schödl; Aharon Raz, Avraham N. Kluger
      Abstract: People who procrastinate often pay a heavy price in terms of illness, stress, and poor performance. Because procrastination has harmful consequences, we predicted that avoidance motivation, a self-regulation system that protects people from harm, would also protect them against procrastination. We hypothesised that avoidance motivation reduces procrastination, despite the known destructive effects avoidance motivation has on thriving. In Study 1, students high in chronic-avoidance motivation had the lowest dropout rates from a bonus-granting longitudinal study. In Study 2, avoidance motivation was negatively related to delay in submitting a term paper, when controlling for chronic procrastination, self-efficacy, impulsiveness, and age. In Study 3, an experimental manipulation of avoidance motivation reduced procrastination three times, but only once significantly. In Study 4, manipulations of both avoidance motivation and approach motivation, relative to a control motivation, using a within-subjects design, indicated that the avoidance manipulation reduced procrastination in submitting subsequent reading reports, whereas the approach manipulation did not. We subjected all our results to a meta-analysis that indicated that avoidance motivation had a significant preventive effect on procrastination. We conclude that avoidance motivation can reduce procrastination, and suggest that our avoidance-manipulation techniques could be applied across a variety of organisational and educational settings.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08T23:40:35.226778-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12147
  • Transformational Leadership and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: A
           Moderated Mediation Model of Leader-Member-Exchange and Subordinates'
    • Authors: Rick D. Hackett; An-Chih Wang, Zhijun Chen, Bor-Shiuan Cheng, Jiing-Lih Farh
      Abstract: Transformational leadership (TL) enhances follower Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) as mediated by leader-member exchange (LMX). However, the strength of the positive associations among TL, LMX and OCB is subject to significant variability. Accordingly, we draw on several theories (self-identity, role congruency, self-concept, and social exchange) to propose that followers' gender moderates the relationships between all three of these variables. We argue differences in societal expectations and/or underlying motivation combine to make leadership of lesser importance to OCB among females than males. Using 202 supervisor-subordinate dyads from Taiwan, a moderated mediation model of TL-LMX-OCB, with subordinate gender as a moderator, was tested. As hypothesised, each of the positive associations among TL, LMX and OCB were weaker for females than for males, thus accounting for some of the variability in the strength of the associations typically observed. Relatedly, although LMX fully mediated the TL-OCB relationship in the entire sample, this effect was not observed among female subordinates. Further research is required to assess the degree to which these findings apply beyond the Confucian Asian societal cluster.
      PubDate: 2018-03-02T04:40:26.973881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12146
  • Another Test of Gender Differences in Assignments to Precarious Leadership
           Positions: Examining the Moderating Role of Ambivalent Sexism
    • Authors: F. Pinar Acar; H. Canan Sümer
      Abstract: Women face significant hurdles in the attainment of leadership positions. When they do attain them such positions tend to be riskier than those attained by men, a form of bias called glass cliff. This study investigates ambivalent sexism as an individual difference that influences the occurrence of glass cliff. Little research examines individual differences contributing to glass cliff. It is proposed that individuals with high hostile and benevolent sexism are more likely to perceive women to be suitable for leadership of a poorly-performing organization and men to be suitable for leadership of a well-performing organization. The sample of our experimental study consisted of 378 students who rated either a female or a male candidate under a poor or good performance condition. We tested our hypotheses using a moderated regression analysis. Both components of sexism impacted how individuals evaluated male and female leaders under different organizational performance conditions. Hostile sexism was the dimension that led to glass cliff. Benevolent sexism had an unexpected effect on leadership choice. The differences between the two types of sexism and the different role each type plays in preference for masculine and feminine leadership are discussed. Leader gender and perceiver's sexist attitudes influence evaluations for leadership positions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08T01:55:20.393963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12142
  • Bridging the Gap: How Supervisors’ Perceptions of Guanxi HRM Practices
           Influence Subordinates’ Work Engagement
    • Authors: Fu Yang; Jing Qian, Jun Liu, Xiaoyu Huang, Rebecca Chau, Ting Wang
      Abstract: This study aims to provide new insights into the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of guanxi human resource management (HRM) practices and their subordinates' work engagement. We used a three time-lagged sample from 45 work groups and 205 employees in a state-owned organisation (Study 1) and cross-sectional data from 101 work groups and 413 employees in 101 different organisations (Study 2) to test our hypotheses. The results revealed that supervisors' perceptions of guanxi HRM practices were positively related to subordinates' perceptions of guanxi HRM practices, which, in turn, negatively affected subordinates' work engagement. This indirect effect was stronger when group power distance was low or when individual power distance orientation was low.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07T04:47:11.982892-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12144
  • Tell Me What I Wanted to Hear: Confirmation Effect in Lay Evaluations of
           Financial Expert Authority
    • Authors: Tomasz Zaleskiewicz; Agata Gasiorowska
      Abstract: In real life, people engage in interactive decision processes by consulting with experts. However, before taking advice, they must recognise the authority of an expert to assess the quality of the advice. The main goal of this research was to investigate how the confirmation effect affects lay evaluations of the epistemic authority of financial experts. Experiment 1 showed that lay people tend to ascribe greater epistemic authority to those experts whose advice confirms people's opinions, both measured and manipulated. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants' own opinions are not salient, people tend to evaluate experts' authority as higher when their advice confirms social norms. In Experiment 3 we jointly investigated the effects of participants' own opinions and social norms on the evaluations of authority. When both sources of expertise were made salient, decision-makers favoured advice confirming their own beliefs and used it to evaluate experts' authority. Three interpretations of the role confirmation plays in the experts' authority evaluations are proposed: (1) self-defensive strategies; (2) processing fluency; and (3) psychological consequences of naïve realism. The paper discusses practical implications of the results. We propose that increasing consumers' knowledge about biases might protect their evaluations of financial advice from being susceptible to the confirmation effect.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07T04:40:31.532837-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12145
  • Your Attention Please! Toward a Better Understanding of Research
           Participant Carelessness
    • Authors: Nathan A. Bowling; Jason L. Huang
      PubDate: 2018-01-31T01:11:23.832561-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12143
  • The Role of Error Management Culture for Firm and Individual
    • Authors: Sebastian Fischer; Michael Frese, Jennifer Clarissa Mertins, Julia Verena Hardt-Gawron
      Abstract: To innovate at work is risky as every new endeavour is also error-prone. Therefore, the way errors are managed in organisations may be related to organisations' innovativeness. We studied error management culture as one important and often overlooked organisational culture factor hypothesised to be related to organisational and individual innovativeness. Error management culture implies that a firm accepts that people make errors and uses “organizational practices related to communicating about errors, to sharing error knowledge, to helping in error situations, and to quickly detecting and handling errors” to deal with errors (Van Dyck, Frese, Baer, & Sonnentag, , p. 1229). Our sample consists of 30 companies with N = 227 employees. To decrease the problem of common method variance, we split the samples within each company into two subsamples: one subsample was used for the measurement of error management culture and the other one for the measure of organisational innovativeness. A multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) analysis showed error management culture to be related to organisational and individual innovativeness. Organisational innovativeness was a mediator for the relationship between error management culture and individual innovativeness. A potential implication is that organisations wanting to increase their innovativeness may need to examine their error management culture.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T23:40:22.718891-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12129
  • Attributions and Appraisals of Workplace Incivility: Finding Light on the
           Dark Side'
    • Authors: Lisa A. Marchiondo; Lilia M. Cortina, Dana Kabat-Farr
      Abstract: Ample research demonstrates that workplace incivility has individual and organisational costs, but an important question remains unanswered: might it have benefits as well' We investigate this possibility by focusing on incivility appraisals—both negative and challenge appraisals (i.e. as an opportunity for learning, growth)—and their correlates. To explain this diversity of appraisals, we examine whether attributions (i.e. perceived intent to harm, perceived perpetrator control) predict perceptions. We conducted two multi-method (quantitative and qualitative) surveys, one of which was multi-source, of employees across a range of occupations. In Study 1, attributions that perpetrators acted with control and malicious intent fuelled negative appraisals of incivility, which undermined job satisfaction. Study 2 added to these findings by demonstrating that some targets formed challenge appraisals of uncivil encounters, especially when they attributed low malicious intent to perpetrators; challenge appraisal related to boosts in job satisfaction and thriving. These attitudinal outcomes then positively related to organisational citizenship behaviour, as reported by targets' coworkers. Showing paths to incivility harm (and potential benefit), our findings can inform interventions to alter the impact of workplace incivility.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05T02:30:23.426953-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12127
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 225 - 226
      PubDate: 2018-03-05T04:16:05.171584-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12113
  • Exploring Different Forms of Job (Dis)Satisfaction and Their Relationship
           with Well-Being, Motivation and Performance
    • Authors: Carrie Kovacs; Barbara Stiglbauer, Bernad Batinic, Timo Gnambs
      Abstract: Job satisfaction is often treated as a one-dimensional construct. In contrast, Bruggemann () postulated six distinct forms of (dis)satisfaction: four types of satisfaction (progressive, stabilised, resigned, pseudo) and two types of dissatisfaction (constructive, fixated). Despite her theory's practical relevance, few researchers have explored its assumptions or applications. The current study aimed to characterise a German-speaking employee sample (n = 892) according to Bruggemann's theory using mixture modelling. We investigated stability of the (dis)satisfaction forms over a five-month period, as well as their relationship with well-being, motivation and (self-reported) performance. We found latent clusters corresponding to most Bruggemann types, though no distinction between progressive and stabilised satisfaction was possible. While cluster membership varied over time, some clusters (e.g. resigned satisfaction) were more stable than others (e.g. constructive dissatisfaction). Overall satisfaction level explained 25–51 per cent variance in well-being and motivation, and 13–16 per cent variance in performance. Including forms of satisfaction improved cross-sectional prediction by 2–6 per cent explained variance. Results suggest that unfavourable consequences of job dissatisfaction may be limited to fixated—not constructive—dissatisfaction, though no consistent longitudinal effects emerged. We argue that exploring qualitative differences in job satisfaction promotes a more nuanced and potentially useful understanding of the relationship between satisfaction and work outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T20:40:30.456162-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12128
  • The Performance of Pre-Founding Entrepreneurial Teams: The Importance of
           Learning and Leadership
    • Authors: Kristin Knipfer; Emanuel Schreiner, Ellen Schmid, Claudia Peus
      Abstract: Entrepreneurial teams often struggle with simultaneous task and team challenges at an early stage of new venture creation. The way in which teams shape their teamwork is key in leveraging performance in the pre-founding phase. Learning should help the team in establishing good teamwork and in expanding its members’ entrepreneurial capabilities. Leadership is needed to facilitate and guide this learning. Accordingly, we investigated learning and leadership as facilitators of performance in the pre-founding phase. Specifically, we examined team reflexivity as a collective internal learning process and boundary spanning behaviour as an externally directed individual activity, operating at different levels in fostering team and individual performance. Charismatic team leadership was examined as a catalyst of learning, shaping team and individual performance ultimately. The multilevel mediation model was tested based on data from 196 members of 58 teams of a venture creation programme. Team reflexivity predicted team and individual performance. Boundary spanning behaviour was not related to performance. As hypothesised, charismatic team leadership predicted team and individual performance, both mediated by team reflexivity. This research highlights the relevance of team learning in pre-founding teams and emphasises leadership in shaping learning and moving new ventures forward.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T04:20:21.606504-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12126
  • Abusive Supervision from an Integrated Self-Control Perspective
    • Authors: Alexander Pundt; Katharina Schwarzbeck
      Abstract: We investigate the relationship between supervisors’ irritation and follower perceptions of abusive supervision. Based on the integrated self-control framework, we propose a positive relationship between supervisor irritation and abusive supervision. Moreover, we propose this relationship to be buffered by supervisors’ self-control capacities and by external monitoring of the supervisor by upper management. We tested our hypotheses in a two-source survey study with 96 supervisor-follower dyads. Our results show a positive relationship between supervisor irritation and abusive supervision and an interaction between supervisor irritation and supervisor self-control. The interaction pattern revealed a positive relationship between supervisor irritation and abusive supervision if supervisor self-control is low. We also found an interaction between supervisor irritation and external monitoring in predicting active but not passive forms of abusive supervision. Our findings underline the role of self-control processes in explaining abusive supervision.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T02:55:53.424705-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12125
  • Competent Enough to Be Heard' Technicians’ Expectations about Local
           Stakeholders in Participative Processes
    • Authors: Maria Luisa Lima; Sibila Marques, Carla Branco, Fernando Talayero, Cristina Camilo
      Abstract: The involvement of citizens in environmental decision processes is difficult to implement, and little is known about the psychological mediators for the technicians’ resistance. We tested the hypothesis that the subtle denial of human attributes of local stakeholders (dehumanisation) produces negative expectations regarding the engagement of communities in the decision process, which may ultimately legitimise their exclusion. Three studies were conducted testing this hypothesis, all involving professionals with experience in implementing local projects. In the first two correlational studies we showed that a deficit view regarding local communities, a dehumanised idea of those residents and an unfavourable attitude towards their participation were associated. Furthermore, an experimental study was conducted, manipulating the images of the residents in a 2 warmth (high vs low) × 2 competence (high vs low) between-subjects design. Results showed that participants that read a description of the local community as being incompetent developed expectations of more violent and less conventional forms of protest. Moreover, the expectation of conventional protest procedures was associated with stronger support for their engagement in the process. These studies show the importance of psychosocial mediators from the technicians’ perspective: an imagined competent public is easier to include in the decision process.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15T03:57:25.152852-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12123
  • Data Quality from Crowdsourced Surveys: A Mixed Method Inquiry into
           Perceptions of Amazon's Mechanical Turk Masters
    • Authors: Matt Lovett; Saleh Bajaba, Myra Lovett, Marcia J. Simmering
      Abstract: Researchers in the social sciences are increasingly turning to online data collection panels for research purposes. While there is evidence that crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk can produce data as reliable as more traditional survey collection methods, little is known about Amazon's Mechanical Turk's most experienced respondents, their perceptions of crowdsourced data, and the degree to which these affect data quality. The current study utilises both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate Amazon's Mechanical Turk Masters' perceptions and attitudes related to the data quality (e.g. inattention). Recommendations for researchers using crowdsourcing data are provided.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05T23:00:57.912445-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12124
  • The Differential Impacts of Two Forms of Insufficient Effort Responding
    • Authors: Justin A. DeSimone; Alice J. DeSimone, P. D. Harms, Dustin Wood
      Abstract: Recent years have seen a renewed interest in insufficient effort responding (IER). Previous research has demonstrated that IER can have detrimental effects on survey research ranging from introducing untrustworthy data to influencing psychometric and statistical results. The present simulations examine two forms of IER, straightlining (SL) and random responding (RR), in an attempt to determine whether the presence of these response patterns have differential impacts on data. In three studies, we explore the combined effects of extreme SL and RR, the effects of full and partial RR, and the effects of full and partial SL on scale characteristics such as inter-item correlations, alpha, and component structure. We also explore how various IER response distributions may influence these statistics. Empirical results demonstrate a tendency for SL to increase and RR to decrease the magnitude of inter-item correlations, alpha, and the first component eigenvalue. Results also indicate that the impact of SL may be more pronounced than the impact of RR in the organisational sciences. It is important for researchers to consider the type of IER in addition to the prevalence of IER in a sample prior to conducting statistical analyses.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T04:20:59.624811-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12117
  • Psychological Flexibility at Work and Employees' Proactive Work Behaviour:
           Cross-Level Moderating Role of Leader Need for Structure
    • Authors: Che-Chun Kuo; Yun-Ci Ye, Mei-Yen Chen, Lung Hung Chen
      Abstract: How to promote employees to be proactive behaviourally is a significant issue in the literature because it would benefit organisations in several ways. Drawing on the acceptance and commitment model, we proposed a new antecedent, psychological flexibility that might contribute to employees' proactive work behaviour. Furthermore, we investigated how the contextual role of supervisor need for structure exhibits a cross-level moderating effect on the relationship between employee psychological flexibility at work and proactive work behaviour based on interactionism. Data from 241 full-time employees and their corresponding 45 managers indicated that employee psychological flexibility was positively associated with proactive work behaviour. More importantly, the supervisor need for structure played a moderating role, suggesting that employees would demonstrate greater proactive work behaviour especially when the supervisors have a high need for structure. Implications for psychological flexibility, proactivity, and person-situation interactional research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T00:15:24.168565-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12111
  • Applying Social Psychology to Prevent Careless Responding during Online
    • Authors: M.K. Ward; Adam W. Meade
      Abstract: A major threat to data quality in online surveys is careless responding (CR; Meade & Craig, ) or insufficient effort responding (e.g. Bowling, Huang, Bragg, Khazon, Liu, & Blackmore, ). In three studies, we use social psychological theories to develop and test three prevention strategies (Ward & Pond III, ) related to increasing respondent motivation to respond carefully. Study 1 presented control, scripted, or video-recorded instructions designed to increase the social influence of survey administrators on survey participants. Participants in the control group were significantly more likely to admit to CR than the script and video groups. Compared with the control, scripted instructions decreased interest, and had no effect on objective indicators of CR. Study 2 found that instructions designed to induce cognitive dissonance increased logical consistency of responses and survey interest. Instructions to create a sense of hypocrisy increased accuracy on instructed-response items. Study 3 showed that leveraging social exchange theory in survey instructions generally had no effect on CR. Similar results were found for both continuous and dichotomous scoring of indicators of CR across the three studies. Results demonstrate that facets of CR can be influenced via survey design. Future studies are needed to develop a more thorough understanding of best practices in survey design with respect to preventing CR.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T00:05:24.454228-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12118
  • The Impact of Insufficient Effort Responding Detection Methods on
           Substantive Responses: Results from an Experiment Testing Parameter
    • Authors: Heiko Breitsohl; Corinna Steidelmüller
      Abstract: Researchers using survey methods can choose among a variety of methods aimed at detecting insufficient effort responding among the participants in their studies. Some of these methods entail modifying the survey questionnaire by adding bogus items, instructed-response items, or instructed manipulation checks. While these methods have been found effective in detecting insufficient effort responding, it remains unclear whether their presence in a questionnaire can affect responses to items of substantive research interest. We conducted an experiment investigating this potential impact in a sample (N = 1,092) of working adults. Adopting an invariance testing approach, we assessed whether employing bogus items, instructed-response items, or instructed manipulation checks, with or without warning study participants, respectively, would lead to non-invariant estimates of parameters for substantive variables. Results suggest that, while most parameter estimates were invariant to the use of insufficient effort responding detection methods, the reliability of measurements may be adversely impacted, posing a threat to construct validity and statistical conclusion validity. However, reliability might be maintained when participants are warned at the beginning of the questionnaire. Results also suggest that bogus items may have some advantages over other methods in terms of parameter invariance. We discuss the implications of our findings.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T23:45:23.425904-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12121
  • Are Attention Check Questions a Threat to Scale Validity'
    • Authors: Franki Y.H. Kung; Navio Kwok, Douglas J. Brown
      Abstract: Attention checks have become increasingly popular in survey research as a means to filter out careless respondents. Despite their widespread use, little research has empirically tested the impact of attention checks on scale validity. In fact, because attention checks can induce a more deliberative mindset in survey respondents, they may change the way respondents answer survey questions, posing a threat to scale validity. In two studies, we tested this hypothesis (N = 816). We examined whether common attention checks—instructed-response items (Study 1) and an instructional manipulation check (Study 2)—impact responses to a well-validated management scale. Results showed no evidence that they affect scale validity, both in reported scale means and tests of measurement invariance. These findings allow researchers to justify the use of attention checks without compromising scale validity and encourage future research to examine other survey characteristic-respondent dynamics to advance our use of survey methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T23:10:26.335362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/apps.12108
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