Journal Cover Legal Medicine
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1344-6223
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Bone comparison identification method based on chest computed tomography
    • Authors: Yusuke Matsunobu; Junji Morishita; Yosuke Usumoto; Miki Okumura; Noriaki Ikeda
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 29
      Author(s): Yusuke Matsunobu, Junji Morishita, Yosuke Usumoto, Miki Okumura, Noriaki Ikeda
      The aim of this study is to examine the usefulness of bone structure extracted data from chest computed tomography (CT) images for personal identification. Eighteen autopsied cases (12 male and 6 female) that had ante- and post-mortem (AM and PM) CT images were used in this study. The two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) bone images were extracted from the chest CT images via thresholding technique. The similarity between two thoracic bone images (consisting of vertebrae, ribs, and sternum) acquired from AMCT and PMCT images was calculated in terms of the normalized cross-correlation value (NCCV) in both 2D and 3D matchings. An AM case with the highest NCCV corresponding to a given PM case among all of the AM cases studied was regarded as same person. The accuracy of identification of the same person using our method was 100% (18/18) in both 2D and 3D matchings. The NCCVs for the same person tended to be significantly higher than the average of NCCVs for different people in both 2D and 3D matchings. The computation times of image similarity between the two images were less than one second and approximately 10min in 2D and 3D matching, respectively. Therefore, 2D matching especially for thoracic bones seems more advantageous than 3D matching with regard to computation time. We conclude that our proposed personal identification method using bone structure would be useful in forensic cases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T19:05:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2017)
  • Postmortem diagnosis of sepsis: A preliminary immunohistochemical study
           with an anti-procalcitonin antibody
    • Authors: Aniello Maiese; Franca Del Nonno; Marco Dell'Aquila; Mario Moauro; Andrea Baiocchini; Antonio Mastracchio; Giorgio Bolino
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 28
      Author(s): Aniello Maiese, Franca Del Nonno, Marco Dell'Aquila, Mario Moauro, Andrea Baiocchini, Antonio Mastracchio, Giorgio Bolino

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Sudden perinatal death due to rupture of congenital cardiac diverticulum.
           Pathological findings and medico-legal investigations in malpractice
    • Authors: Matteo Marchesi; Michele Boracchi; Guendalina Gentile; Francesca Maghin; Riccardo Zoja
      Pages: 6 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 28
      Author(s): Matteo Marchesi, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maghin, Riccardo Zoja
      Congenital diverticula of the left ventricle, very rare malformations, are determined by an abnormal embryonic development of the ventricular wall and can be isolated or associated to other cardiac anomalies. In most of the cases, these pathologies are not symptomatic and in some patients can be associated to ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac rupture with tamponade and sudden death.
      Authors are presenting the case of a sudden death in an 8-weeks-old newborn due to rupture of a cardiac congenital diverticulum of the left ventricle, discovered only at the moment of the autopsic examination. The parents of the victim pressed charges against the medical staff that was appointed to the cares, blaming them with malpractice. The missed diagnosis of a cardiac congenital diverticulum of the left ventricle, a rare pathology, reflects the trickiness of the medical management that can lead to medico-legal controversies and, even though such rare conditions must be always taken into consideration when investigating possible dysfunction causing the death, diagnostic difficulties, in the case in exam, justify the missed diagnosis intra-vitam of cardiac ventricular diverticulum.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Four intracranial injury cases with peripapillary scleral
           hemorrhage—Reconsidering the mechanism of hemorrhage
    • Authors: Toru Oshima; Hiroshi Yoshikawa; Yoshiro Koda; Maki Ohtani; Shoko Tsukamoto; Sohtaro Mimasaka
      Pages: 5 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 27
      Author(s): Toru Oshima, Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Yoshiro Koda, Maki Ohtani, Shoko Tsukamoto, Sohtaro Mimasaka

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T05:17:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Sex determination based on a thoracic vertebra and ribs evaluation using
           clinical chest radiography
    • Authors: Shun Tsubaki; Junji Morishita; Yosuke Usumoto; Kyoko Sakaguchi; Yusuke Matsunobu; Yusuke Kawazoe; Miki Okumura; Noriaki Ikeda
      Pages: 19 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 27
      Author(s): Shun Tsubaki, Junji Morishita, Yosuke Usumoto, Kyoko Sakaguchi, Yusuke Matsunobu, Yusuke Kawazoe, Miki Okumura, Noriaki Ikeda
      Our aim was to investigate whether sex can be determined from a combination of geometric features obtained from the 10th thoracic vertebra, 6th rib, and 7th rib. Six hundred chest radiographs (300 males and 300 females) were randomly selected to include patients of six age groups (20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s). Each group included 100 images (50 males and 50 females). A total of 14 features, including 7 lengths, 5 indices for the vertebra, and 2 types of widths for ribs, were utilized and analyzed for sex determination. Dominant features contributing to sex determination were selected by stepwise discriminant analysis after checking the variance inflation factors for multicollinearity. The accuracy of sex determination using a combination of the vertebra and ribs was evaluated from the selected features by the stepwise discriminant analysis. The accuracies in each age group were also evaluated in this study. The accuracy of sex determination based on a combination of features of the vertebra and ribs was 88.8% (533/600). This performance was superior to that of the vertebra or ribs only. Moreover, sex determination of subjects in their 20s demonstrated the highest accuracy (96.0%, 96/100). The features selected in the stepwise discriminant analysis included some features in both the vertebra and ribs. These results indicate the usefulness of combined information obtained from the vertebra and ribs for sex determination. We conclude that a combination of geometric characteristics obtained from the vertebra and ribs could be useful for determining sex.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • A new challenge in forensic toxicology exemplified by a case of murder
           under the influence of a synthetic cannabinoid – AM-2201
    • Authors: Sebastian Rojek; Małgorzata Kłys; Martyna Maciów-Głąb; Karol Kula
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 27
      Author(s): Sebastian Rojek, Małgorzata Kłys, Martyna Maciów-Głąb, Karol Kula
      Among new psychoactive substances (NPS) available on the narcotic market, a significant number consists of synthetic cannabinoids commonly known as smokable herbal “spice” and “K2”, and which are legally treated as a legal alternative to marijuana. The dearth of information on the pharmacology of these intoxicants as they are introduced into the market has created the urgent need among healthcare providers for case studies on the substances belonging to this group, both in terms of the consequences of using such intoxicants, and in methods of detection. The subject of the present report is a multi-parameter analysis of a criminal case of an 18-year-old male who was charged with murder of his female relative and attempted murder of two other victims by stabbing. The defendant pleaded guilty, but he claimed that he had been acting without volition, because he was under the influence of the synthetic cannabinoid AM-2201, which had been purchased from a dealer as a 10g package labelled “Mr Green – No bad trip”. Analytical methods including gas chromatography – electron ionization – quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-EI-QIT/MS) and liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) were developed to determine the presence of AM-2201 in the Mr Green – No Bad Trip, and in the blood of the perpetrator, respectively. Toxicological findings are discussed in the context of psychoactive and adverse physical effects resulting from the presence of AM-2201 in the human body; the observations were also analyzed in conjunction with data from the literature.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Comparison of three-dimensional facial morphology between upright and
           supine positions employing three-dimensional scanner from live subjects
    • Authors: Ozgur Bulut; Ching-Yiu Jessica Liu; Fatih Koca; Caroline Wilkinson
      Pages: 32 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Ozgur Bulut, Ching-Yiu Jessica Liu, Fatih Koca, Caroline Wilkinson
      Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTT) measurements collected from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging techniques are most commonly taken in the supine position for forensic craniofacial reconstruction. FSTT have been shown to be different in comparison to the upright position due to gravity. The variation of facial morphology between the upright and supine position of laser-scanned images taken from 44 individuals was investigated using volumetric analysis with deviation maps. Between 82.4%−86.7% of the facial surface area were within the error range of ±2 mm between the supine and the upright position. This indicates that most anatomical landmarks taken from the MRI and CT data can be an accurate representative of the FSTT in the upright position. Seven landmarks located around the buccal region, masseteric region and the nasolabial region of the face showed the greatest FSTT deviation between the upright and supine position, thus these landmarks may affect the accuracy of facial reconstructions when using a CT or MRI database.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Micro-computed tomography of false starts produced on bone by different
    • Authors: Guido Pelletti; Guido Viel; Paolo Fais; Alessia Viero; Sindi Visentin; Diego Miotto; Massimo Montisci; Giovanni Cecchetto; Chiara Giraudo
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Guido Pelletti, Guido Viel, Paolo Fais, Alessia Viero, Sindi Visentin, Diego Miotto, Massimo Montisci, Giovanni Cecchetto, Chiara Giraudo
      The analysis of macro- and microscopic characteristics of saw marks on bones can provide useful information about the class of the tool utilized to produce the injury. The aim of the present study was to test micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for the analysis of false starts experimentally produced on 32 human bone sections using 4 different hand-saws in order to verify the potential utility of micro-CT for distinguishing false starts produced by different saws and to correlate the morphology of the tool with that of the bone mark. Each sample was analysed through stereomicroscopy and micro-CT. Stereomicroscopic analysis allowed the identification of the false starts and the detection of the number of tool marks left by each saw. Micro-CT scans, through the integration of 3D renders and multiplanar reconstructions (MPR), allowed the identification of the shape of each false start correlating it to the injuring tool. Our results suggest that micro-CT could be a useful technique for assessing false starts produced by different classes of saws, providing accurate morphological profiles of the bone marks with all the advantages of high resolution 3D imaging (e.g., high accuracy, non-destructive analysis, preservation and documentation of evidence). However, further studies are necessary to integrate qualitative data with quantitative metrical analysis in order to further characterize the false start and the related injuring tool.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-06T17:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Mitochondrial control region diversity in Sindhi ethnic group of Pakistan
    • Authors: Memona Yasmin; Allah Rakha; Saadia Noreen; Zeenat Salahuddin
      Pages: 11 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 February 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Memona Yasmin, Allah Rakha, Saadia Noreen, Zeenat Salahuddin
      The entire mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 16024 to nt 576) of 88 unrelated individuals of Sindhi ethnic group residing in different parts of Sindh province of Pakistan was sequenced. Out of 66 different observed haplotypes 50 were unique and 16 were shared by more than one individual. Results showed admixture of mtDNA pool constituting the haplogroups derived mainly from South Asia (47.6%) and West Eurasian (35.7%) whereas the contribution of the African haplogroup was very small (2.4%). High values of genetic diversity (0.992), power of discrimination (0.981) and low value of random match probability (0.018) indicates that mtDNA analysis for this population can effectively be used for forensic casework. The results are valuable contribution towards building mtDNA population variation database for this particular ethnic group from Pakistan.

      PubDate: 2017-02-11T17:31:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Study of autosomal STR loci with IBS method in full sibling identification
    • Authors: Li Yuan; Xu Xu; Dong Zhao; He Ren; Chaohui Hu; Wen Chen; Shicheng Hao; Di Lu; Lin Zhang
      Pages: 14 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Li Yuan, Xu Xu, Dong Zhao, He Ren, Chaohui Hu, Wen Chen, Shicheng Hao, Di Lu, Lin Zhang
      Objective We investigated the application of 51 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci with the identity by state (IBS) method and a discriminant function algorithm in full-sib identification. Methods A total of 342 pairs of full sibs (FSs) and 3900 pairs of unrelated individuals (UIs) were genotyped for 51 STR loci. Groups were formed in accordance with discrimination power (DP) values and the number of loci, and IBS scores of FSs and UIs were analyzed and compared. The discriminant functions of FS-UI were determined by using the Fisher discriminant with SPSS software. Results All IBS in FSs and UIs groups showed normal distributions and there were significant differences between FS-UI. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the detection efficiency of full-sib identification was affected by both the locus polymorphism and the number of loci detected. Comparing the rate of false positive and false negative of discriminant function between groups, a higher average DP value and larger number of loci detected were associated with a lower rate of miscarriage of justice and were more helpful for full-sib identification. Conclusion STRs with higher DP values should be selected when additional autosomal markers are required for FS identification. Discriminant analysis with the IBS method is highly applicable for the FS-UI test.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-06T17:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • A systemic review on ricochet gunshot injuries
    • Authors: Yuw-Er Yong
      Pages: 45 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Yuw-Er Yong
      Ricocheted bullets may still retain sufficient kinetic energy to cause gunshot injuries. Accordingly, this paper reviews the literature surrounding gunshot injuries caused by ricocheted bullets. In doing so, it discusses the characteristics of ricochet entrance wounds and wound tracks, noting several important considerations for assessment of a possible ricochet incident. The shapes of ricochet entrance wounds vary, ranging from round holes to elliptical, large and irregular shapes. Pseudo-stippling or pseudo-gunpowder tattooing, pseudo-soot blackening and tumbling abrasions seen on the skin surrounding the bullet hole are particularly associated with ricochet incidents. Ricocheted bullets have a reduced capability for tissue penetration. Most of the resulting wound tracks are short, of large diameter and irregular—all artefacts of the instability of a bullet that has ricocheted. A ricocheted hollow-point bullet, in particular, may overpenetrate the tissue when the bullet nose is deformed or fails to enter the body in a nose-forward orientation. Similarly, internal ricochet may occur when a bullet strikes hard tissue. Postmortem computed tomographic imaging is useful for localising a bullet and its fragments in the body and characterising the wound track. Ricochet cannot be ruled out in normal-appearing entrance wounds unless that finding is supported by other evidence, including the geometrical constraints of the shooting scene and the absence of ricochet marks and a ricocheted bullet.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T20:19:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Geometric morphometric and traditional methods for sex assessment using
           the posterior ilium
    • Authors: Rebeka Rmoutilová; Ján Dupej; Jana Velemínská; Jaroslav Brůžek
      Pages: 52 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 26
      Author(s): Rebeka Rmoutilová, Ján Dupej, Jana Velemínská, Jaroslav Brůžek
      The human hip bone is generally accepted as the most reliable bone for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological disciplines. However, it is seldom completely preserved. The best preserved region is typically around the sacroiliac joint and its auricular surface; it is therefore surprising that this surface has not been involved in standard sexing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the shape and size sexual dimorphism of the auricular surface in detail and to compare its sex estimation accuracy using the geometric morphometric (GM) and traditional methodological approach. Our sample consisted of 121 specimens from 3 European osteological collections. The GM part of the study was based on 2D sliding semilandmarks that covered the outline of the auricular surface. Furthermore, several linear measurements and visual features (e.g. auricular surface elevation, postauricular sulcus) were chosen to test sex estimation accuracy using support vector machines. Concerning the GM analysis, the most notable sexual differences in the auricular surface outline relate to size. The best accuracy was achieved using form variables reaching 81.0%. Comparable accuracy (80.2%) was achieved using the metric approach, but combined with visual features the accuracy was increased to 93.4%. The GM approach was not very efficient in sexing the auricular surface outline, but the combination of visual features from the posterior ilium and metric variables of the auricular surface could be useful in sex estimation. Therefore, we provide a further testable linear discriminant equation based on this combination of variables.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Forensic efficiency parameters of the Investigator Argus X-12 kit in women
           from two Mestizo and seven Amerindian populations from Mexico
    • Authors: I. Cortés-Trujillo; B. Ramos-González; O. Salas-Salas; F. Zuñiga-Chiquette; A. Zetina Hernández; G. Martínez-Cortés; M. Ruiz-Hernández; A. González-Martín; J.F. Ferragut; H. Rangel-Villalobos
      Pages: 62 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 26
      Author(s): I. Cortés-Trujillo, B. Ramos-González, O. Salas-Salas, F. Zuñiga-Chiquette, A. Zetina Hernández, G. Martínez-Cortés, M. Ruiz-Hernández, A. González-Martín, J.F. Ferragut, H. Rangel-Villalobos
      Allele frequency distribution and statistical parameters of forensic efficiency concerning the Investigator Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were determined in a total sample of 641 unrelated Mexican females, including two Mestizo–admixed– populations (n =309) and seven Amerindian groups (n =332) from the main regions of the country. Most of the 12 X-STRs were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all nine Mexican populations. The power of discrimination in females (PD) and Median exclusion chance for trios (MECT) and duos (MECD) of this genetic system based on X-STRs were >99.99%. Although Mexican populations showed significant pairwise differentiation, a closer relationship was evident between Amerindian groups and nearby Mestizos, in agreement with historical records, previous genetic studies, and X-linked inheritance pattern expectations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Age estimation by the Cameriere’s normalized measurements (CNM) of the
           single permanent mandibular tooth on a panoramic radiograph
    • Authors: Ivan Galić; Andrea Pacifici; Daniele Carbone; Luciano Pacifici; Ana Jerončić; Roberto Cameriere
      Pages: 65 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 26
      Author(s): Ivan Galić, Andrea Pacifici, Daniele Carbone, Luciano Pacifici, Ana Jerončić, Roberto Cameriere
      In this study Cameriere’s normalized measurements (CNM) of a single mandibular tooth were evaluated for age estimation on a sample of ortopantomographies (OPTs) of 2223 Italian children aged between 4 and 15years. Dental maturity was radiographically evaluated by CNM of the seven left permanent mandibular teeth (CNMi=Ai/Li, i=1,…,7); in monoradicular teeth, the distance (Ai, i=1,…,5) between the inner sides of the open apex was measured while in biradicular teeth (Ai, i=6, 7), the sum of the distances between the inner sides of the two open apices was calculated. Ai was normalized by the tooth length (Li, i=1,…,7). The intra- and inter-observer agreement of CNM measurements was almost perfect. Overall, analyzed mandibular teeth finished their development up to the age of 13, but the distribution of CNM varied among different locations. The final models included a tooth-specific CNM as the independent variable and explained from 76% (second molars) to 39% (first incisors) of the variance in chronological age. The bias and accuracy of these models, when applied to real-life data with no age limitation, were within acceptable range of differences in the forensic anthropology of children. Specifically, in all models mean of absolute differences between estimated and real age was within one year (0.67 for first incisors to 1.00 for canines). In conclusion this study showed that all mandibular teeth do not have equal applicability for age estimation suggesting that further evaluation on different samples is necessary to evaluate the usefulness of a single mandibular tooth for age estimation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in Han population from
           different areas of Sichuan Province, Southwest China
    • Authors: Guangyao Fan; Wei Li; Yi Ye; Xuebo Li; Wendong Ge; Yongqiang Yang; Bing Long
      Pages: 73 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 26
      Author(s): Guangyao Fan, Wei Li, Yi Ye, Xuebo Li, Wendong Ge, Yongqiang Yang, Bing Long
      The distribution of 17 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci, included in the AmpFlSTR®Yfiler™ amplification kit, were analyzed in six different samplings (N=878) from Sichuan, China. Haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity (DC) values were calculated. Pairwise Rst values were evaluated in AMOVA analysis and visualized through multidimensional scaling (MDS). A total of 547 unique haplotypes were detected. The observed haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were 0.9995 and 0.7745, respectively. The homogeneity of Sichuan Han population was detected when microareas were analyzed. This population exhibited no significant genetic difference to both of the minorities in reference databases, Mongolian and Manchu, which had been through mass ethnic amalgamation with Sichuan Han population in history.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • A report of novel psychoactive substances in forensic autopsy cases and a
           review of fatal cases in the literature
    • Authors: Shin-ichi Kubo; Brian Waters; Kenji Hara; Tatsushige Fukunaga; Kazuya Ikematsu
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 26
      Author(s): Shin-ichi Kubo, Brian Waters, Kenji Hara, Tatsushige Fukunaga, Kazuya Ikematsu

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Forensic applications of Y chromosomal properties
    • Authors: Khushbukhat Khan; Muhammad Hassan Siddiqi; Maryam Abbas; Maha Almas; Muhammad Idrees
      Pages: 86 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine, Volume 26
      Author(s): Khushbukhat Khan, Muhammad Hassan Siddiqi, Maryam Abbas, Maha Almas, Muhammad Idrees

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Planned and unplanned complex suicides: casuistry of the Institute of
           Legal Medicine of Parma (Italy)
    • Authors: Antonio Banchini; Maria Laura Schirripa; Luca Anzillotti; Rossana Cecchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Antonio Banchini, Maria Laura Schirripa, Luca Anzillotti, Rossana Cecchi
      Complex suicide is performed using more harmful methods, simultaneously or consecutively. In these cases, the distinction between suicide and homicide represents a challenge for forensic pathologists. In literature, complex suicide is divided in two subgroups: “planned complex suicide” or “unplanned complex suicide” depending from forensic features and often related to psychiatric variables. Aim of this study was to show the casuistry of complex suicide in Parma’s Forensic service analyzing, for each case, the forensic medical problems (type and site of lesions on the body), and the supplementary data [Police’s inspection report, toxicological analysis and psychiatric anamnesis (when available)], trying, through a multidisciplinary approach, to determine a possible correlation between the victim’s mood and suicide’s method chosen, whether planned or unplanned. Our results showed the importance of all the elements collected on the crime scene to distinguish suicide from homicide, and the correlation between bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia with unplanned complex suicide (because of the impulsiveness), and major depression disorder and anxiety disorder with planned complex suicide. Being able to understand the causes behind this extreme gesture may become important not only for forensic pathologists and judicial authority, but also, and above all, for the family as well.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T22:32:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.10.005
  • A Healed Incomplete Rupture of a Small Artery Jutting to the Lateral
           Ventricle: A Possible Cause of Primary Intraventricular Hemorrhage
    • Authors: Aya Takada; Kazuyuki Saito; Yoshie Hayashizaki; Naotaka Nozawa; Izumi Funakoshi; Shinjiro Mori
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Aya Takada, Kazuyuki Saito, Yoshie Hayashizaki, Naotaka Nozawa, Izumi Funakoshi, Shinjiro Mori

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T22:32:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.10.004
  • Accuracy, precision and inter-rater reliability of micro-CT analysis of
           false starts on bones. A preliminary validation study.
    • Authors: Guido Pelletti; Giovanni Cecchetto Alessia Viero Paolo Fais Michael Weber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Guido Pelletti, Giovanni Cecchetto, Alessia Viero, Paolo Fais, Michael Weber, Diego Miotto, Massimo Montisci, Guido Viel, Chiara Giraudo
      Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) has already been proposed as a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of false starts (FS) produced on human bones, although the reliability and the error rate of this technique have not been tested yet, neither for qualitative nor for quantitative assessments. The aim of the present study was to test the morphological agreement, accuracy, precision and inter-rater reliability of micro-CT analysis of FS on bones. The morphological agreement was assessed through the degree of concordance among the 3 independent blind raters in the identification of the shape of 24 FS manually produced on bones by 3 different saws (8 FS for each saw). The accuracy was calculated through the percentage of error in the automatic and manual measurement of the diameter of a reference object. The precision was calculated as CV% of multiple measurements performed by 3 independent blind raters on the reference object and one bone sample acquired 20 times. The inter-rater reliability was assessed as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) among measurements performed by 3 independent blind raters, assessing 24 FS produced using 3 different saws. The results demonstrated that both qualitative and quantitative analysis were reproducible and robust. Micro-CT analysis showed a 100% morphological agreement, a high level of accuracy (percentage error<0,5%), precision (CV%<5%) and inter-rater reliability (ICC>0.995), when FS were analyzed by forensic pathologists and/or radiologists with adequate expertise. Obviously, further validation studies are needed, including a higher number of samples produced by a wider variety of saws and multiple operators.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-07T21:37:46Z
  • Postmortem distribution of chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, and their
           metabolites in body fluids and organ tissues of an intoxication case
    • Authors: Tatsunori Takayasu; Hiroki Yamamoto Yuko Ishida Mizuho Nosaka Mariko Kawaguchi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Tatsunori Takayasu, Hiroki Yamamoto, Yuko Ishida, Mizuho Nosaka, Mariko Kawaguchi, Yumi Kuninaka, Akihiko Kimura, Toshikazu Kondo
      We herein report a fatal intoxication case caused by the ingestion of the insecticides chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM) and fenitrothion (MEP). A 70-year-old man was found dead in his house and a cup containing a small amount of agricultural chemicals was on the table near his body. External and internal examinations revealed no injuries. In a gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) screening test, CPFM, MEP, and their metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY) and 3-methyl- 4-nitrophenol (3MNP), respectively, were qualitatively detected in his stomach contents. The concentrations (µg/g) of CPFM, TCPY, MEP, and 3MNP in the extracts of each body fluid and organ tissue were assessed by GC-MS and were as follows: 27.8, 56.2, 17.2, and 2.82 (heart blood); 6.60, 42.9, 1.80, and 2.59 (peripheral blood); 0.0821, 45.9, 2,09, and 102 (urine); 21.4, 26.6, 76.2, and 3.83 (brain (frontal portion)); 16.1, 101, 9.67, and 1.26 (liver); 7.45, 101, 21.4, and 26.1 (right kidney); and 73,500, 9,750, 232,000, and 1,880 (stomach contents), respectively. Based on these results and autopsy findings, the cause of death was acute fatal intoxication by CPFM and MEP.

      PubDate: 2017-10-07T21:37:46Z
  • Detection of butane gas inhalation at 16 days after hypoxic
           encephalopathy: A case report
    • Authors: Takako Sato; Hiroshi Nishioka; Kento Tsuboi; Munehiro Katagi; Akihiro Miki; Takashi Saito; Shuntaro Abe; Masakatsu Nomura; Misa Kitagawa; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi; Koichi Suzuki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Takako Sato, Hiroshi Nishioka, Kento Tsuboi, Munehiro Katagi, Akihiro Miki, Takashi Saito, Shuntaro Abe, Masakatsu Nomura, Misa Kitagawa, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Koichi Suzuki
      In Japan, there are increasing reports of death by poisoning following butane abuse. To determine the specific cause of death in such cases, it is important to confirm the presence of fuel gas components in the body, although careful analysis is required because of their volatile properties. In most reported cases, the subject died suddenly during or immediately after butane aspiration. Thus, the butane concentration in the samples from the deceased should be relatively high. Herein, we present a case of an 18-year-old man found with cardiopulmonary arrest, who then exhibited hypoxic encephalopathy for 16 days in a hospital. At autopsy, we detected hypoxic encephalopathy, pneumonia, and ischemia-reperfusion injury of the myocardium, while the cause of cardiac arrest remained unclear. Toxicological analysis was then performed for fuel gas components in several specimens collected at autopsy. Results showed that n-butane and isobutane were detected in the adipose tissue at 16 days after inhalation, indicating a role of butane gas inhalation as the cause of death. These data suggest that adipose tissue may be the most appropriate analysis sample to be collected at postmortem in cases where involvement of volatile and fat-soluble gas inhalation is suspected.

      PubDate: 2017-10-07T21:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.09.005
  • Dose-dependent mortality involving convulsions due to subarachnoid
           Urografin® injection in rats
    • Authors: Ryo Shimada; Jiro Ezaki; Kazuhiko Kibayashi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Ryo Shimada, Jiro Ezaki, Kazuhiko Kibayashi
      An ionically hypertonic contrast medium Urografin® was inadvertently administered into the subarachnoid space of an individual and this resulted in convulsions and acute respiratory failure. We examined the effects of subarachnoid Urografin® injections on the rat central nervous system. The onset and frequency of the convulsions, as well as fatality, were dependent on the amount of Urografin® administered. No convulsions were observed in rats receiving injections of hypertonic NaCl solution or saline. The results confirmed that subarachnoid injections of Urografin® cause convulsions and death, as previously reported in human cases, and our study ascertained the causal relationship between the above malpractice and fatal outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-07T21:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.09.004
  • Death Due to Non-Traumatic Hemoperitoneum in Milan 2002-2016, With Focus
           on two Cases Of Abdominal Apoplexya (Idiopathic Spontaneous
           Hemoperitoneum) And Review of the Literature
    • Authors: Alessio Battistini; Matteo Marchesi; Alberto Amadasi; Alessandra Rancati; Guendalina Gentile; Riccardo Zoja
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Alessio Battistini, Matteo Marchesi, Alberto Amadasi, Alessandra Rancati, Guendalina Gentile, Riccardo Zoja
      Abdominal apoplexy, also known as idiopathic spontaneous hemoperitoneum, is a rare event related to sudden death, whose diagnosis and treatment is extremely challenging and whose pathologic mechanisms are still mainly unknown. It is frequently associated with vascular disorders (alterations in the vascular structures) and mainly linked to liver cirrhosis. However, the presence of hemoperitoneum may in such cases pose many challenges to forensic post-mortem examinations since the source of bleeding remains often unknown even after a careful and thorough dissection. The
      Authors present two cases of sudden death related to massive hemoperitoneum (4,650 ml in case 1 and 5,100 ml in case 2) occurred in two cirrhotic males aged 49 and 51: no traumatic injuries were detected and the source of bleeding was not identified although a careful dissection of organs and vascular structures was performed. Rare cases have been already described in the literature, only as case reports, and no systematic studies have been performed on this issue. Nevertheless, this event ought to be taken into account as a cause of sudden death in people with advanced liver disease. A general glimpse is provided among the different causal mechanisms and the challenges within forensic pathology.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T19:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.09.003
  • Post mortem CT of intrahepatic gas distribution in twenty-seven victims of
           a flood: patterns and timing.
    • Authors: Daniela Sapienza; Antonio Bottari; Patrizia Gualniera; Alessio Asmundo; Fabrizio Perri; Michele Gaeta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Daniela Sapienza, Antonio Bottari, Patrizia Gualniera, Alessio Asmundo, Fabrizio Perri, Michele Gaeta
      We reported the results of post mortem computed tomography of the liver in 27 subjects dead simultaneously during a flood. The aim of our work was to identify the different patterns of post mortem intrahepatic gas distribution and the timing of its appearance. Although post mortem CT is the method of choice for the evaluation of gas distribution, controversies exist about the first site of appearance of intrahepatic gas (portal veins versus hepatic veins) as well as the timing and steps of intrahepatic gas spreading. In each subject we performed thin slice CT scanner (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and post processing of native CT images with Minimum Intensity Projection technique. Our results show that the first site of appearance of intrahepatic gas is portal veins. Gas in hepatic veins was never seen without the presence of the gas in portal vein. Gaseous cysts in hepatic parenchyma represent a further and usually more tardive pattern of intrahepatic gas distribution. In addition, we demonstrated that differences in timing of gas spreading was statistically significative for exclusive presence of portal veins gas before 48 hours as well as for complete substitution of hepatic parenchyma by cysts 64 hours after death. In conclusion, our work shows that the CT study of postmortem intrahepatic gas distribution could be a useful complementary tool both in demonstrating the mechanism of intrahepatic gas spreading and in estimating post mortem interval.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T19:42:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.09.002
  • Genetic polymorphisms for 19 X-STR loci of Sichuan Han ethnicity and its
           comparison with Chinese populations
    • Authors: Guanglin He; Ye Li; Xing Zou; Mengge Wang; Pengyu Chen; Miao Liao; Jin Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Guanglin He, Ye Li, Xing Zou, Mengge Wang, Pengyu Chen, Miao Liao, Jin Wu
      X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) can be serviced as a complementary tool in forensic deficiency cases and other complicated kinship identification. To investigate the genetic variation of the western Chinese Han population, genetic polymorphisms of 19 X-STR loci (DXS8378, DXS7423, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS10134, DXS7424, DXS10164, DXS10162, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS6789, DXS101, DXS10103, DXS10101, HPRTB, DXS6809, DXS10075, DXS10074 and DXS10135) included in the AGCU X19 PCR amplification kit were obtained from 201 Chinese Han individuals (108 females and 93 males) residing in Sichuan province, western China. A total of 211 alleles were found from the 19 X-STR loci, and 4-22 alleles were found for each locus with the corresponding allele frequencies spanned from 0.0034 to 0.6395. The combined PDF and PDM were 0.9999999999999999999992 and 0.9999999999997, respectively. The combined MECKrüger, MECKishida, MECDesmarais as well as MECDesmarais Duo were 0.999999958110254, 0.999999999996533, 0.999999999996695 and 0.999999992428394, respectively. The number of haplotypes observed in the seven linkage groups varied from 27 to 97 for 108 male individuals with the corresponding haplotype diversities spanned from 0.9424 (DXS7424-DXS101) to 0.9979 (DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10075-DXS10074). The above-mentioned results indicated that the 19 X-STR loci and the seven linkage groups are highly polymorphic and informative in the Sichuan Han population. Results from population comparisons and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that genetic heterogeneity widely existed between the Sichuan Han population and Xinjiang minority ethnic groups (Uyghur and Kazakh) and genetic affinity was identified in populations which possessed the same ethno-origin or close geographic origin.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T19:14:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.09.001
  • Temperature estimations of heated bone: a questionnaire-based study of
           accuracy and precision of interpretation of bone colour by forensic and
           physical anthropologists
    • Authors: Tristan Krap; Frank van de Goot; Roelof-Jan Oostra; Wilma Duijst; Andrea Waters-Rist
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Tristan Krap, Frank van de Goot, Roelof-Jan Oostra, Wilma Duijst, Andrea Waters-Rist

      PubDate: 2017-08-15T18:49:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.08.001
  • Reducing of salivary α-amylase inhibition by using bovine serum albumin
           and calcium chloride for forensic saliva screening
    • Authors: Jun Ohta; Masako Ohmura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Jun Ohta, Masako Ohmura
      Inhibiting salivary α-amylase is a critical issue of forensic saliva identification using the catalytic method. This study aims to identify human α-amylase inhibitors in forensic saliva screening by using a blue starch amylase test and to measure the extent of enzyme inhibition. Thus, in order to demonstrate the presence of inhibitors, we prepared positively charged metal ion sources or chelators that were mixed into the saliva stains. The results of this study show that ferric chloride (FeCl3), magnesium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and citric acid significantly decrease the α-amylase activity of saliva stains. We also verified this approach using blood, a magnesium-containing liquid supplement, and two citric acid-containing soft drinks that were contaminated with saliva stains as forensic mock samples; these samples also showed a significant reduction in salivary α-amylase activity. To establish an inhibitor-resistant blue starch amylase test, we applied bovine serum albumin (BSA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the reaction system. The results show that salivary α-amylase inhibition of the forensic mock samples occurred under normal test conditions (i.e., 300 ng/µL BSA, 0 mM CaCl2), and that inhibition was significantly relieved under the BSA + CaCl2 conditions (i.e., 1,000 ng/µL BSA, 5 mM CaCl2). Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that both BSA and CaCl2 can be utilized as reaction stabilizers in forensic saliva screening.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T18:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.008
  • Modified method of dental age estimation of Malay juveniles
    • Authors: Safar Sumit Bunyarit; Jayakumar Jayaraman; Murali K. Naidu; Rozaida Poh Yuen Ying; Mahmoud Danaee; Phrabhakaran Nambiar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Safar Sumit Bunyarit, Jayakumar Jayaraman, Murali K. Naidu, Rozaida Poh Yuen Ying, Mahmoud Danaee, Phrabhakaran Nambiar

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T18:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.009
  • The importance of laboratory re-evaluation in cases of suspected child
           abuse – A case report
    • Authors: L. Woydt; C. König; M.K. Bernhard; P. Nickel; J. Dreßler; B. Ondruschka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): L. Woydt, C. König, M.K. Bernhard, P. Nickel, J. Dreßler, B. Ondruschka
      In order to accurately diagnose child abuse or neglect, a physician needs to be familiar with diseases and medical conditions that can simulate maltreatment. Unrecognized cases of abuse may lead to insufficient child protection, whereas, on the other hand, over-diagnosis could be the cause of various problems for the family and their potentially accused members. Regarding child abuse, numerous cases of false diagnoses with undetected causes of bleeding are described in the scientific literature, but, specifically concerning leukemia in childhood, only very few case reports exist. Here, for the first time, we report a case of a 2-year-old boy who got hospitalized twice because of suspicious injuries and psychosocial conspicuities, in a family situation known for repeated endangerment of the child’s well-being. After his first hospitalization with injuries typical for child abuse, but without paraclinical abnormalities, medical inspections were arranged periodically. The child was hospitalized with signs of repeated child abuse again five months later. During second admission, an acute lymphoblastic leukemia was revealed by intermittent laboratory examination, ordered due to new bruises with changes in morphology, identifiable as petechial hemorrhages. This case elucidates the discussion of known cases of leukemia in childhood associated with suspected child abuse in order to provide an overview of possible diseases mimicking maltreatment. To arrange necessary supportive examinations, a skillful interaction between pediatrician and forensic pathologist is crucial in the differentiation between accidental and non-accidental injury.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T18:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.007
  • Age assessment in canine and premolar by cervical axial sections of
           Cone-beam Computed Tomography
    • Authors: Hichem Nemsi; Nidhal Haj salem; Ines Bouanene; Sami Ben Jomaa; Meriem Belhadj; Abir Aissaoui; Faten Ben Amor; Ali Chadly
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Hichem Nemsi, Nidhal Haj salem, Ines Bouanene, Sami Ben Jomaa, Meriem Belhadj, Abir Aissaoui, Faten Ben Amor, Ali Chadly
      Age estimation in adults is a challenge in both anthropological and forensic situations compared to sub-adults age estimation. The present study explored, for the first time, the cervical zone of single rooted teeth. The deposition of secondary dentin is responsible for a decrease in the volume of the dental pulp cavity with aging, and therefore is often used as an age indicator. The current study aimed at estimating the chronological age among adults by measuring the pulp/dentin area ratio (physiological ratio) by axial sections at cervical region of maxillary canine and mandibular second premolar. The sample consisted of 120 cone beam CT images of 120 Tunisians whose age ranged from 22 to 67, from the database of a private clinic of radiology. The first axial section of chosen teeth without enamel was selected. Linear regression models were derived for canine, premolar and for all variables to predict the age. They indicated that dentin deposition on canine and premolar have almost the same correlation with age (r = -0.838 and -0.837 respectively). The residual standard errors (RSE), when these regression equations applied for the entire sample, were ranged between 8.27, 8.29 and 7.06 for canine, premolar and for all variables respectively. Tested for younger ages (from 22 to 44 years) the RSE decreased considerably and thus ranged between 4.32, 4.72 and 4.05. The outcomes of this study showthat the physiological ratio is a useful variable for assessing age with a satisfying accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T18:33:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.004
  • Association between an indel polymorphism in the 3'UTR of COL1A2 and the
           risk of sudden cardiac death in Chinese populations
    • Authors: Zhixia Yin; Yadong Guo; Jianhua Zhang; Qing Zhang; Lijuan Li; Shouyu Wang; Chaoqun Wang; Yan He; Shaohua Zhu; Chengtao Li; Suhua Zhang; Lagabaiyila Zha; Jifeng Cai; Bin Luo; Yuzhen Gao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Zhixia Yin, Yadong Guo, Jianhua Zhang, Qing Zhang, Lijuan Li, Shouyu Wang, Chaoqun Wang, Yan He, Shaohua Zhu, Chengtao Li, Suhua Zhang, Lagabaiyila Zha, Jifeng Cai, Bin Luo, Yuzhen Gao
      Sudden cardiac death (SCD) describes the unexpected natural death from a cardiac cause within a short time period. Compelling evidence suggests the involvement of host genetic factors in SCD etiology. Identification of genetic variations predisposed to SCD enables genetic testing that may contribute to SCD diagnosis and risk stratification. Previous studies have suggested that dysregulation of pro-alpha2 chain of type I collagen, encoded by collagen type I alpha 2 chain (COL1A2) gene, was involved in cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. By using a candidate-gene-based approach, we evaluated the association of a 7-base pair (7-bp) indel polymorphism (rs3917) in the 3'UTR of COL1A2 with the risk of SCD in a Chinese population (79 SCD cases and 328 controls). Logistic regression analysis showed that the deletion allele of rs3917 significantly increased the risk of SCD [odds ratio (OR) =1.82; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.08-3.06; P=0.0159]. Further genotype-phenotype association analysis revealed that the deletion allele was markedly correlated with lower expression of COL1A2 in human myocardium tissues. The luciferase activity analysis in an in vitro reporter gene system suggested that rs3917 could regulate COL1A2 expression through interrupting the binding of miR-296-3p with COL1A2 in an allele-dependent manner, which in turn confer SCD risk. Our data provided initial evidence that rs3917 was highly relevant to SCD susceptibility, and this indel may become a potential marker for molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling of SCD. The replication of our studies and further functional studies are needed to validate our findings.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.006
  • Early time-related course of image findings in postmortem MRI: Typical
           Findings and observer agreement in a porcine model
    • Authors: Frank Oliver Henes; Marc Regier; Peter Bannas; Marlen Henker; Axel Heinemann; Jan Sperhake; Philipp G.C. Begemann; Gerhard Adam; Michael Groth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Frank Oliver Henes, Marc Regier, Peter Bannas, Marlen Henker, Axel Heinemann, Jan Sperhake, Philipp G.C. Begemann, Gerhard Adam, Michael Groth
      Purpose To assess early time-related image findings in postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate observer agreement in a porcine model. Material and Methods Three pigs were examined by MRI at 15 different time points in the first 36 h after death. Two observers independently recorded the postmortem interval (PMI) to the appearance of fluid collection (pleural space, interlobar and interlobular pulmonary fissures and hepatic interlobar fissures), gas accumulation (intrahepatic and intracardial) and blood clotting (aorta and intrahepatic venous vessels). Cohen’s Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate intra- and interobserver agreement. Results Intrahepatic gas was evident after 12, 17 and 30h. Also, intracardiac gas was present in all animals. However, no chronological appearance has been observed. Blood clotting in the hepatic vein was observed within 3 minutes, aortic clotting with a delay of 2-12h after death. Interlobular pulmonary fluid (median PMI: 2h, range 2 to 2h), pleural effusion (median PMI: 10.5h, range 9 to 12h) and hepatic interlobar fissure fluid (median PMI: 11.5h, range 11 to 12h) displayed a chronological appearance pattern. Qualitative and quantitative detection of most postmortem findings showed excellent intra- and interobserver agreement with Kappa values > 0.8 or ICC > 0.75. Conclusion Pulmonary and hepatic fissural fluid collection as well as intravasal gas accumulation are early time-related image findings in postmortem MRI. The chronological appearance of these findings can be assessed with excellent observer agreement in a porcine model.

      PubDate: 2017-07-19T17:59:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.005
  • Corrigendum to “Age estimation by an analysis of spheno-occipital
           synchondrosis using cone-beam computed tomography” [Legal Med. (Tokyo)
           18 (2016) 13–19]
    • Authors: A. Sinanoglu; H. Demirturk Kocasarac; M. Noujeim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): A. Sinanoglu, H. Demirturk Kocasarac, M. Noujeim

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T15:39:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.05.003
  • A finding in genetic polymorphism analysis study: A case of non-mosaic 47,
           xxx without manifestations
    • Authors: Xingyi Yang; Zilan Ye; Xiaofang Zhang; Huijun Wang; Chao Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Xingyi Yang, Zilan Ye, Xiaofang Zhang, Huijun Wang, Chao Liu
      Trisomy X (47, XXX) is a sex chromosome aneuploidy condition in which females have an extra X chromosome, compared to the 46,XX karyotype in typical females. There is considerable variation in the phenotype, with some individuals very mildly affected and others with more significant physical and psychological features. However, the trisomy X in this case, without any of these phenotype, is rarely reported. Here, we report a case found during DNA sample collection in a study of genetic polymorphism analysis of loci in Chinese ethnic group, of a female with neither laboratory or clinical signs of Triple X syndrome. She was born at her mother’s 60 years old and her father’s 62 years old. Advanced maternal age was found acting as a significant risk factor of Triplo-X. Moreover, her child are also born without manifestations of 47, xxx syndrome. Pedigree study demonstrated the normal karyotype of the children. A diagnosis of47XXXwas made on the basis of a chromosomal study. Therefore, laboratory investigations (including PCR amplification, more than two kinds of X-STR genotyping, G-banding karyotyping analysis and Pedigree study) are applied to rule out the possibility of Mosaicism (45, X0/47, XXX) and ascertain her 47XXXkaryotype without mosaic. The objective of this study was to report a case of trisomy X, diagnostic investigation and management of the case, and to analysis the genetically possible reasons behind the case. To our knowledge, this case is a rare one, found in DNA sample colletion for the estimation of gene frequency in the process of genetic polymorphism study, of non-mosaic 47, XXX without signs of physical syndrome and born healthy children. In this study, it revealed that the proportion of trisomy X would be more than official statistics and risk of systemic disabilities is lower than estimated. Moreover, we found out that sample mixture and mosaicism act as the interference factors in forensic test. Therefore, we draw the conclusion that attentions and certain improved methods should be applied to the diagnosis of non-mosaic triple X, which is of great significance in decreasing the interruptions in the whole process of forensic and paternity identification.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.06.006
  • Influence of hypo- and hyperthermia on death time estimation – a
           simulation study
    • Authors: H. Muggenthaler; M. MHubig; S. Schenkl; G. Mall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): H. Muggenthaler, M. MHubig, S. Schenkl, G. Mall
      Numerous physiological and pathological mechanisms can cause elevated or lowered body core temperatures. Deviations from the physiological level of about 37°C can influence temperature based death time estimations. However, it has not been investigated by means of thermodynamics, to which extent hypo- and hyperthermia bias death time estimates. Using numerical simulation, the present study investigates the errors inherent in temperature based death time estimation in case of elevated or lowered body core temperatures before death. The most considerable errors with regard to the normothermic model occur in the first few hours post-mortem. With decreasing body core temperature and increasing post-mortem time the error diminishes and stagnates at a nearly constant level.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T03:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.06.005
  • Postmortem computed tomography evaluation of fatal gas embolismdue to
           connection of an intravenous cannula to an oxygen supply
    • Authors: Yoichiro Takahashi; Rie Sano Akiyuki Yasuda Eri Kuboya Keiko Takahashi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Yoichiro Takahashi, Rie Sano, Akiyuki Yasuda, Eri Kuboya, Keiko Takahashi, Rieko Kubo, Yoshihiko Kominato, Hiroyuki Takei, Susumu Kobayashi, Takehiro Shimada, Sachiko Awata, Hiroyuki Tokue, Satoshi Hirasawa
      An 84-year-old man who had suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accompanied by moderate pneumonia as well as gastric cancer with liver metastasis was found dead by a nurse, who noticed that the patient’s intravenous catheter in the left forearm had been erroneously connected to an oxygen supply in his hospital room, leading to infusion of oxygen into a vein. Postmortem CT scanning demonstrated multiple accumulations of gas in the pulmonary artery, the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the left subclavian and brachiocephalic veins, corresponding to the route that the infused gas would have taken to the heart and pulmonary artery. Conventional autopsy revealed the presence of gas in the right ventricle. These findings suggested that the immediate cause of death was a gas embolus due to oxygen that had entered the cardiopulmonary circulation via the intravenous catheter. This case highlights the usefulness of postmortem imaging as an aid to conventional autopsy for demonstrating gas embolism.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T04:58:35Z
  • DNA analysis of root canal-filled teeth
    • Authors: Hikaru Izawa; Hirofumi Tsutsumi; Sayaka Maruyama; Toshinobu Komuro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Hikaru Izawa, Hirofumi Tsutsumi, Sayaka Maruyama, Toshinobu Komuro
      Teeth are markedly useful as samples for DNA analysis; however, intact teeth are not always available. This study examined the possibility of identifying autosomal and Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) types in samples from 34 teeth (15 intact and 19 root canal filled) that had been preserved for 10–33 years after dental extraction. The aim was to explore the feasibility of individual identification by DNA analysis of samples obtained from highly decomposed and skeletonized corpses. Only one out of 24 autosomal STR loci was not identified in two of the 15 intact teeth, whereas all 23 loci of the Y chromosome STR were detected. One or two autosomal STR loci remained unidentified in eight of the 19 root-filled teeth, and four or five of the 23 Y STR loci were undetected in three cases. However, the types were identified in about 20 loci in all samples, and the composition of the root canal filling material did not appear to interfere with the PCR. This study demonstrates that the storage period of the teeth had no influence on our results indicating that root canal filled teeth can be used for DNA analysis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T03:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.05.001
  • Pharmacokinetic Analyses using Absorption Kinetics in Low-Alcohol Dose
           Cases of Drunken Driving
    • Authors: Ayako Himemiya-Hakucho; Tatsuya Fujimiya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Ayako Himemiya-Hakucho, Tatsuya Fujimiya
      In Japan, low-alcohol dose cases of drunken driving, where drivers drink just before getting behind the wheel, are increasing for expert witnesses since the penalties for drunken driving have become stricter. Widmark’s equation has generally been used for the pharmacokinetic analysis of blood alcohol concentration, which encompasses the one-compartment model with zero-order elimination kinetics but ignores absorption kinetics. We therefore propose that the formula might not be applicable to the analysis of low-alcohol dose cases of drunken driving because the issue is focused on the absorption phase. In this paper, we present two representative low-alcohol dose cases, which were analyzed using the one-compartment model with first-order absorption and zero-order elimination kinetics. This formula is thought to be more suitable and useful for medicolegal practice than Widmark’s formula.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T03:45:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.05.002
  • When a death apparently associated to sexual assault is instead a natural
           death due to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome: the importance of
           gamma-hydroxybutyric acid analysis in vitreous humor
    • Authors: Francesco Paolo Busardò; Francesca Portelli; Angelo Montana; Maria Concetta Rotolo; Simona Pichini; Emiliano Maresi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Francesco Paolo Busardò, Francesca Portelli, Angelo Montana, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Emiliano Maresi
      We here report a case involving a 21-year-old female, found dead in a central square of a city in the south of Italy. Initial evidences and circumstances were suggestive of a death associated with a sexual assault. Two peripheral blood and two vitreous humor samples were collected for the purpose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) testing from the dead body at two different post-mortem intervals (PMIs): approximately 2 (t0) and 36 (t1) hours. The obtained results showed that, between t0 and t1, there was an increase of GHB concentrations in peripheral blood and vitreous humor of 66.3% and 8.1%, respectively. This case was the first evidence of GHB post mortem production in a dead body and not in vitro, showing that vitreous humor is less affected than peripheral blood in GHB post-mortem production. The value detected at t1 in peripheral blood (53.4 µg/mL) exceeded the proposed cut-off and if interpreted alone would have led to erroneous conclusions. This was not the case of vitreous humor GHB, whose post-mortem increase was minimal and it allowed to exclude a GHB exposure. Only after a broad forensic investigation including a complete autopsy, serological, histological, toxicological and haematology analyses, a diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by persistent eosinophilia associated with damage to multiple organs, was made and the cause of death was due to a pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis responsible for an acute respiratory failure.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T03:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.04.001
  • Population genetic analysis of Xiamen Han population on 21 short tandem
           repeat loci
    • Authors: Lili Wu; Bin Pei; Peng Ran; Xiuyu Song
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Lili Wu, Bin Pei, Peng Ran, Xiuyu Song
      GlobalFiler™ Express amplification kit incorporates 21 commonly used autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and three gender determination loci.In this study,we analyzed GlobalFiler STR loci on 1006 unrelated individuals sampled of the Han population from Xiamen city,Fujian province,China.No deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The combined probability of exclusion (CPE)for all 21 STR loci were >0.99999999771.A comparison of the allele frequencies in the population under study has been performed with other published from East Asian population for the same loci.Multiple STR loci showed significant differences between Han population from Xiamen and Korea, as well as Japan.

      PubDate: 2017-03-09T20:17:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.002
  • Developmental and internal validation of a novel 13 loci STR multiplex
           method for Cannabis sativa DNA profiling
    • Authors: Rachel Houston; Matthew Birck; Sheree Hughes-Stamm; David Gangitano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Rachel Houston, Matthew Birck, Sheree Hughes-Stamm, David Gangitano
      Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant cultivated and trafficked worldwide as a source of fiber (hemp), medicine, and intoxicant. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats (STRs) could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. For this purpose, a 13 loci STR multiplex method was developed, optimized, and validated according to relevant ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C. sativa STR loci: ANUCS501, 9269, 4910, 5159, ANUCS305, 9043, B05, 1528, 3735, CS1, D02, C11, and H06. A sequenced allelic ladder consisting of 56 alleles was designed to accurately genotype 101 C. sativa samples from three seizures provided by a U.S. Customs and Border Protection crime lab. Using an optimal range of DNA (0.5 – 1.0 ng), validation studies revealed well-balanced electropherograms (inter-locus balance range: 0.500 – 1.296), relatively balanced heterozygous peaks (mean peak height ratio of 0.83 across all loci) with minimal artifacts and stutter (mean stutter of 0.021 across all loci). This multi-locus system is relatively sensitive (0.13 ng of template DNA) with a combined power of discrimination of 1 in 55 million. The 13 STR panel was found to be species specific for C. sativa; however, non-specific peaks were produced with Humulus lupulus. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness and applicability of this 13 loci STR system for forensic DNA profiling of marijuana samples.

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T19:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.03.001
  • Genetic Dissection of Five Ethnic Groups from Punjab, North-West India–A
           Study based on Autosomal Markers
    • Authors: Gagandeep Singh; Indu Talwar; Harkirat Singh Sandhu; Kawaljit Matharoo; A.J.S. Bhanwer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Gagandeep Singh, Indu Talwar, Harkirat Singh Sandhu, Kawaljit Matharoo, A.J.S. Bhanwer

      PubDate: 2017-03-03T19:50:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.02.003
  • Genetic polymorphisms of 12 X STR loci in Shaanxi Han population from
    • Authors: Mao Sun; YunTao Zhang; XiaoNan Zhang; ShanMin Fu; YuanMing Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2017
      Source:Legal Medicine
      Author(s): Mao Sun, YunTao Zhang, XiaoNan Zhang, ShanMin Fu, YuanMing Wu
      Allele frequencies for 12 X STR loci (DXS8378, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS981, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA165B12, GATA31E08 and DXS7423) were obtained from a sample of 518 unrelated individuals from Shaanxi, China. We observed a total of 108 alleles in the group with the allelic frequency values ranging from less than 0.0014 to 0.6768. Our statistic analysis indicates that the 12 X STR conform to the Hardy–Weinberg’s equilibrium. Heterozygosity among the studied 12 X STR loci showed a distribution of 42.33 - 86.20 %. This is first report on allele frequencies of DXS10162 from Han population. The results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies. The present findings indicate that the 12 X STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Han population of Shaanxi.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-24T14:31:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.01.007
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