for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
Journal Cover
Legal Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.678
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 349  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1344-6223
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • An experimental study on investigating the postmortem interval in
           dichlorvos poisoned rats by GC/MS-based metabolomics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Xinhua Dai, Fei Fan, Yi Ye, Xiang Lu, Fan Chen, Zhigui Wu, Linchuan Liao The estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is always a key issue in forensic science. Although many attempts based on metabolomics approaches have been proven to be feasible and accurate for PMI estimation, there have been no reports regarding the determination of the PMI in acute dichlorvos (DDVP) poisoning. In this study, all rats were killed by acute DDVP poisoning at a dose three fold the oral LD50 (240mg/kg). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was applied to investigate the metabolic profiling of blood samples at various times after death up to 72h. A total of 39 metabolites were found to be associated with PMI, and the combinations of various numbers of metabolites were used to establish support vector regression (SVR) models to investigate the PMI. The SVR model constructed by 23 metabolites had a minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 5.49h for the training set. Then, the SVR model was validated by prediction set with an MSE of 10.33h, suggesting good predictive ability of the model for investigating the PMI. The findings demonstrated the great potential of GC/MS-based metabolomics combined with the SVR model in determining the PMI of DDVP poisoned rats and provided an experimental basis for the application of this approach in investigating the PMI of other toxicants.
  • Autopsy case of right ventricular rhabdomyoma in tuberous sclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Takeshi Kondo, Yo Niida, Masashi Mizuguchi, Yasushi Nagasaki, Yasuhiro Ueno, Akiyoshi Nishimura Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by widespread hamartomas in several organs, including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, lung, and liver. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumor diagnosed in fetuses, neonates and infants, and is closely linked to TSC. Here we describe an autopsy case of right ventricular rhabdomyoma in TSC. The deceased was a 3-month-old male infant, and TSC with a cardiac tumor had been diagnosed before his death. Since the cardiac tumor had not been physically blocking the blood flow, he had not undergone surgical intervention. At autopsy, the patient’s height was 62 cm and his body weight was 6 kg. The heart weighed 37.3 g and the right ventricle was filled with the tumor. The tumor measured 2.1cm × 1.6cm, being a fusion of multiple tumors with several attachment sites to the myocardium. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a rhabdomyoma, and was positive for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The brain weighed 795.0 g, without hydrocephalus. The cut surface of the brain revealed multiple cortical tubers and subependymal nodules. Through screening for the TSC1 (hamartin) and TSC2 (tuberin) genes, a nonsense mutation, c.1108C>T:p.Gln370∗, was detected in the TSC2 gene. Immediate cause of death was determined to be ventricular obstruction by a cardiac rhabdomyoma with insidious growth. This case highlights the need for forensic pathologists to perform a complete autopsy to determine the cause of sudden death with cardiac tumor, including genetic examination.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Association of SNPs in transferrin and transferrin receptor genes with
           blood iron levels in human
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Junko Fujihara, Toshihiro Yasuda, Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Haruo Takeshita Iron is bound to mobile transferrin (TF) and ferritin in blood. TF receptors (TFRC and TFR2) regulate intracellular iron by delivering iron from TF into the cytoplasm. In this study, we examined the effects of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each of the genes for TF and TF receptors on blood iron concentrations in Japanese subjects. Blood iron levels were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and the SNPs were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Blood iron levels in males were significantly higher than those in females. Therefore, the analysis was performed only in males. Blood iron concentrations did not correlate with age and postmortem intervals in males. Among the 10 SNPs in TF, TFRC, and TFR2 genes, significant associations were observed between TF genotypes (rs12769) and male iron concentrations. Individuals with genotype GG in rs12769 had significantly higher blood iron concentrations than those with GA. Previous studies have shown the association between high tissue iron concentrations and disease, liver iron levels are higher in infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome and decreased blood iron concentrations were observed in critically ill children. Therefore, rs12769 in TF might be related to diseases and mortality risk.
  • The evaluation of Oryza sativa L (Black rice) extracts for detection of
           spermatozoa on the clothing and vaginal swab samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Korunya Saenguthai, Sirinart Chumean, Chollanot Kaset Investigation of sexual assault cases from the evidence involving vaginal swab, clothing and others is examined by a forensic scientist. The explanation of trace findings on spermatozoa on clothing is often problematic due to the use of different staining methods. Conventional staining method used either Papanicolaou (PAP) or Dip quick® stain as synthetic dyes which are expensive imported material and harmful to human health. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the ability of Oryza sativa L (black rice) extract as a natural dye to detect spermatozoa on the clothing and vaginal swab casework samples for routine forensic examination. Results revealed that black rice extract has a highly effective for detecting spermatozoa on cloth and vaginal swab casework samples. There was no significantly different in the detection of spermatozoa compared with rapid PAP stain and Dip quick® stain. Results also showed that the staining of vaginal swab casework with black rice extracted can be used for PCR amplification of centromeric alphoid repeat gene on chromosome Y for 60 days. Moreover, the DNA extracted from stained semen slide generates a full profile of 16 alleles of STR typing. The results indicate that a new natural staining dye which extracted from black rice can be used to detect spermatozoa and identify a person from the trace evidence. The application of natural dyes for routine staining of spermatozoa from forensic specimens will decrease the expense to be spent in purchasing the synthetic dye and reduce their side effects on human and environment.
  • Genetic polymorphisms of 20 STR loci in a Chaoshan group from Jieyang,
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Enping Huang, Tianshan Guan, Li Li, Pingping Xia, Zhiyong Peng, Chunlei Feng, Ling Chen We obtained allelic frequencies and forensic parameters of 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D3S1358, FGA, D5S818, D7S820, CSF1PO, D16S539, D19S433, vWA, D8S1179, D18S51, D13S317, TPOX, TH01, D2S1338, D12S391, D1S1656, D21S11, D6S1043, Penta D, Penta E) from 529 unrelated individuals in Jieyang Han population using PowerPlex® 21 (Promega, Madison, Wi, USA). The relationship between the Jieyang Han group and other Han populations was studied and the results showed that the Jieyang Han population had the closest genetic relationship with the Fujian Han population.
  • A quantitative morphological analysis of three-dimensional CT coxal bone
           images of contemporary Japanese using homologous models for sex and age
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Hitoshi Biwasaka, Yasuhiro Aoki, Yusuke Takahashi, Mamiko Fukuta, Akihito Usui, Yoshiyuki Hosokai, Haruo Saito, Masato Funayama, Sachiko Fujita, Masataka Takamiya, Koji Dewa Sexual dimorphisms and age-dependent morphological features of the human coxal bone were quantitatively analyzed using homologous models created from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography images of the pelvis (male: 514 samples, female: 388 samples, age 16 to 100). Bilateral average coxal images of each sex and age decade were generated separately through principle component analyses (PCA). By measuring average point-to-point distances of 8472 corresponding points (average corresponding point differences [ACPDs]) between each homologous coxal image and the average images, the sex of more than 93% of the samples was correctly assigned. Some principal components (PCs) detected in PCA of the homologous models of the samples correlated fairly well with age and are affected by features of the curvature of the iliac crest, the arcuate line and the greater sciatic notch. Moreover, separate PCA using the average images of each age decade successfully detected the first PCs, which were strongly correlated with age. However, neither multiple regression analysis using PCs related to age nor comparison of ACPDs with the average images of each age decade could produce accurate results for age decade assignment of unknown (blind) samples. Therefore, more detailed analysis of age-dependent morphological features would be necessary for actual age estimation. In addition, some laterality or left and right shape difference of the coxal bone images was also elucidated, and was more significant in females. Analysis of 3D structures using homologous models and PCA appears to be a potential technique to detect subsistent morphological changes of bones.
  • Traumatic axonal injury revealed by postmortem magnetic resonance imaging:
           a case report
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Yohsuke Makino, Nobutaka Arai, Yumi Hoshioka, Maiko Yoshida, Masatoshi Kojima, Takuro Horikoshi, Hiroki Mukai, Hirotaro Iwase In forensic investigations, it is important to detect traumatic axonal injuries (TAIs) to reveal head trauma that might otherwise remain occult. These lesions are subtle and frequently ambiguous on macroscopic evaluations. We present a case of TAI revealed by pre-autopsy postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR).A man in his sixties was rendered unconscious in a motor vehicle accident. CT scans revealed traumatic mild subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two weeks after the accident he regained consciousness, but displayed an altered mental state. Seven weeks after the accident, he suddenly died in hospital. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and PMMR were followed by a forensic autopsy.PMMR showed low-intensity lesions in parasagittal white matter, deep white matter, and corpus callosum on three-dimensional gradient-echo T1-weighted imaging (3D-GRE T1WI). In some of these lesions, T2∗-weighted imaging also showed low-intensity foci suggesting hemorrhagic axonal injury. The lesions were difficult to find on PMCT and macroscopic evaluation, but were visible on antemortem MRI and confirmed as TAIs on histopathology.From this case, it can be said that PMMR can detect subtle TAIs missed by PMCT and macroscopic evaluation. Hence, pre-autopsy PMMR scanning could be useful for identifying TAIs during forensic investigations.
  • Correspondence on: “Gas embolism as a potential cause of death by helium
           poisoning – Postmortem computed tomography changes in two cases of
           suicidal helium inhalation”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Vladimir Živković, Danica Cvetković, Slobodan Nikolić
  • An autopsy report of accidental burial in a beach sand hole
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Kyoka Kiryu, Toshiaki Takeichi, Osamu Kitamura We present a 23-year-old married couple who died by accidental burial in a beach sand hole. The victims fell into a hole that had been covered with a plastic sheet, and were buried suddenly by sand that had been piled on the top of the sheet. At autopsy, facial congestion; petechial hemorrhages in the conjunctivae and the oral mucosa; skin petechiae at the face, neck and upper chest; congestion and hemorrhages in the cervical lymph nodes; and some minor hemorrhages in the cervical muscles were found in both victims. Little sand was evident in the airway, while sand debris was found in the oral cavity. Prior reports suggest that aspiration of sand is a major contributing factor in asphyxia after accidental burials. However, neck and chest compression and face coverage by sand masses could induce lethal asphyxia without airway obstruction caused by sand aspiration. Asphyxia was deemed to be the cause of death in both individuals and was considered to result from chest compression by sand. In addition, compression of the neck may also have contributed to asphyxia. In this instance, the sand beach hole was excavated for recreational purposes. The potentially life-threatening implications of beach sand hole excavations should be recognized and highlighted to prevent lethal accidents such as those described in this report.
  • Comparison of postmortem butane distribution between two fatal butane
           poisoning cases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Hajime Tsuboi, Hiroaki Ichioka, Hiroshi Ikegaya Fatal accidents during butane abuse frequently occur in Japan and in many countries around the world. Although analytical data about butane concentration in postmortem samples is being accumulated, when using the data to determine the cause of death, careful interpretation is required because the gas is easily diffused. Two fatal butane poisoning cases were encountered, and butane quantification of autopsy samples obtained from left and right heart blood, femoral blood, kidney, liver, lung, brain and fatty tissues was performed. In both cases, butane concentration in the left heart blood was lower than in the right heart blood or the femoral blood, despite gas inhalation. These findings may indicate that the deceased individuals interrupted gas inhalation and inhaled room air immediately before their death, therefore ruling out asphyxia due to anoxia as the mechanism of death. Case 1, which was suspected to be a not acute death, showed a very high butane concentration ratio of fatty tissues to femoral blood of over 70. Case 2 was considered an acute death, and the butane concentration ratio of fatty tissues to femoral blood was 8.2. These results are consistent with previously reported findings showing that much higher ratios of fatty tissues to blood are compatible with long survival time. In conclusion, the comparison of butane concentration among different samples, including left heart blood versus right heart blood and fatty tissues versus blood, is useful when interpreting the result of postmortem butane analysis to examine the mechanism of death and survival time.
  • Environmental microbiology: perspectives for legal and occupational
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Saverio Giampaoli, Federica Alessandrini, Giovanni Vanni Frajese, Giovanni Guglielmi, Adriano Tagliabracci, Andrea Berti The analysis of microorganism population is crucial in several medical fields. This is especially true in legal and occupational medicine, where the specialist can be asked to perform an evaluation of several environmental matrices. In these two medical fields an accurate microbiological analysis is part of a wide process aimed to the definition of the interactions between human beings and environment.In legal medicine it is important to deserve attention to the identification of microbiological traces in order to better understand past events, while in occupational and preventive medicine the microbiological evaluation of environmental samples is crucial for an effective risk management and the definition of safety procedures. The achievement of these objectives requires the comprehension of microbial biodiversity and not only the identification of few biomarkers. In the present paper, the complexity of this process is highlighted through the presentation of typical scenarios where microorganism population analyses are relevant in legal medicine and occupational medicine.The similarities between the microbiological approach in legal and occupational medicine lead to the sharing of laboratory approaches. A description of technological evolution shows how new protocols and procedures are supporting a wider microbiological comprehension of specimens. The development of molecular tools has opened new opportunities, but it has underlined the need for the implementation of new standardized procedures dedicated to these medical fields, where science and medicine interact with the law. In addition, the rapid evolution of massive parallel sequencing technologies requires the implementation of new bioinformatic tools with a user-friendly interface.
  • Two loci concurrent mutations in non-exclusion parentage cases using 19
           STR profiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Qiu-Ling Liu, Ye-Fei Chen, Yu Zang, Kai-Yan Liu, Hu Zhao, De-Jian Lu Two loci concurrent mutations in non-exclusion paternity case were reported based on 19 STR loci available from Goldeneye™ DNA ID System 20A (Peoplespot, Beijing, China). When 9508 family trios with Paternity index (PI) threshold of>10,000 was analyzed, 14 families show mutations at two loci. The paternity was confirmed by using an additional 19 STR markers. When probability of occurrence of two mutations was compared with the expected probability deduced from binomial model, the observed mutational probability was significantly larger than the expectation. However, the characteristics of mutations agree with those reported previously. Our result indicates that larger samples is still need to estimate mutation rates accurately and reveal the relationship between mutations with multiple loci and the characterization of human mutation based on microsatellites.
  • Left cerebral hemisphere hydrophilic polymer embolism associated with
           endovascular WEB treatment of a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior cerebral
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Julius Tikka, Maria Gardberg, Riitta Rautio, Philippe Lunetta Hydrophilic polymer embolism (HPE) is a rare, likely under-recognized iatrogenic complication, caused by fragmentation of surface materials used on endovascular medical devices. The organs most often involved in HPE are the brain and lungs, resulting in both local and systemic reactions. We present the case of a cerebral HPE associated with WEB treatment of a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery, and involving diffusely the left cerebral hemisphere. The patient developed pneumonia and status epilepticus, and died 24 days after the endovascular procedure, most likely as a result of the sequelae of the aneurysm rupture. The precise role of HPE in the sequence of events leading to death can remain, as in this case, a matter for speculation. However, the potential role of HPE in the events leading to death following diagnostic and therapeutic procedures should be appropriately assessed, especially when recovery does not progress as expected.
  • DNA Analysis of Hairs in a Suspected Case of Child Abuse
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Hiroshi Ohira, Yoko Sakamoto, Isao Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Yamada Hairs are often used for DNA analysis in criminal investigations. DNA analysis of hairs with root sheaths is easy in many cases, but analyses using only the shaft or tip of the hair are often difficult. Here we describe a suspected case of child abuse in which we were commissioned to perform DNA analysis. Among 100 hairs, PCR amplification was succeeded in 99 samples, and as a result of direct sequencing, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the 99 hairs were classified into 6 types. The most common type was the 8-base substitution type of 16,168T-16,172C-16,183C-16,189C-16,217C-16,249C-16,325C-16,390A, which was observed in 86 hairs. This corresponded to the type of the victim. Total 736 STRs (75.5%) in 975 loci of 65 hairs could be typed, and only an amelogenin locus was typed in another hair. All 15 loci were typed in 10 hairs. STR types of 65 (98.5%) in 66 hairs were consistent with that of the victim. From 10 naturally-shed hair of a person, only 37 STRs (30.8%) in 120 loci of 8 hairs were typed, and all 15 loci could not be typed in these hairs. This difference in success rates of STR analysis suggested strongly that the hairs in this case were not shed naturally but forcibly, and the relevance to child abuse was suspected.
  • Sex estimation by size and shape of foramen magnum based on CT
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Diana Toneva, Silviya Nikolova, Stanislav Harizanov, Ivan Georgiev, Dora Zlatareva, Vassil Hadjidekov, Angel Dandov, Nikolai Lazarov Foramen magnum (FM) has a well-protected position, which makes it of particular interest in forensic research. The aim of the study is to assess the sex differences in size and shape of FM, develop discriminant functions and logistic regression models based on the FM measurements, compare the accuracy results of the measurements obtained through different measuring approaches, and establish the most reliable variables for sex estimation in Bulgarian adults. Head CT scans of 140 Bulgarian adults were used in the study. The segmentation of the skulls was performed in the software InVesalius. The length, breadth, circumference and area were measured based on the 3D coordinates of definite landmarks and semi-landmarks. The circumference and area were calculated regarding the foramen as a 2D and 3D structure. Two additional variables (λ2 and λ3) corresponding to the least square errors along the length and breadth directions at the fitting of the 3D coordinates to a plane were examined for their sex discriminating ability. The FM shape was classified based on the values of the FM index. The significance of the sex differences was assessed. Discriminate function analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted. Significant sex differences were established in the FM size and shape. The eigenvalue λ3 is the best discriminating parameter applying discriminant function analysis. The acceptance of FM as a 2D or 3D structure does not provide substantial information for its sex discrimination. The measurements of FM do not offer sufficiently high predicting rates for sex estimation in the Bulgarian population.
  • Trimethylamine in postmortem tissues as a predictor of postmortem interval
           estimation using the GC method
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Weichen Li, Leiming Han, Xiaochen Liu, Jifeng Cai, Lagabaiyla Zha, Yadong Guo, Yunfeng Chang, Yanjun Ding Trimethylamine (TMA), a simple amine in volatile compounds, indicating the spoilage degree of meat, related with the late postmortem interval (PMI) during the cadaver decomposition process. In this paper, a headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) method has been successfully built to analyze the content of TMA in postmortem rat tissues (liver, myocardial and skeletal muscle tissues), which is used for PMI estimation with the wide range of PMI (0-720 h postmortem) at 16°C±1°C. Correspondingly, three equations about the relationship between the PMI and TMA content were established, in which they showed that the TMA content in all three tissues increased from the firstly detected time to 192 h and gradually decreased after 384 h. Furthermore, the TMA measurement in five human samples was carried out and the results (
  • Sudden unexpected death with primary adrenal lymphoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Yukiko Hata, Shin Ishizawa, Naoki Nishida An 82-year-old man was found dead on the road near his home with unwitnessed interval of 3 hours from final witness. He had been diagnosed with hypertension and mild aortic stenosis (AS) 13 years before death, and was continuously followed up with medication. Although a recent medical check-up related to cardiac function was stable and consistent with moderate AS, he sometimes complained of general fatigue, anorexia associated with intermittent mild fever and rare vomiting in the weeks before death. At autopsy, no lethal injury or drug intoxication was found, but congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with central rache was found. Although calcification was found in a restricted area of one cusp, valvular structural deformity was clearly milder than in typical severe AS cases. Moderate left ventricular hypertrophy without coronary disease was found. A brownish-red, soft nodular lesion was found in both adrenal glands, but no other tumorous focus was evident in any other organs. Immunohistochemical examination showed that B-lymphocyte-derived markers (CD20, melanoma associated antigen (mutated) 1, and CD79a) were exclusively positive. Therefore, we diagnosed primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma phenotype. We concluded that the cause of sudden unexpected death (SUD) was adrenal insufficiency associated with PAL, with a background of moderate AS related to BAV.
  • Comprehensive evaluation of the greater sciatic notch for sexual
           estimation through three-dimensional metric analysis using computed
           tomography based models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Dong-Ho Kim, So-Hyun Lee, Sang-Seob Lee, Yi-Suk Kim, Dae-Kyoon Park, Seung-Ho Han, U-Young Lee The greater sciatic notch is an effective indicator for sexual estimation, which is the initial process to identify unknown skeleton. Visual assessment is the mainstream of analysis methods; however, the subjectivity of researchers is also questioned. Metric method using three-dimensional models reconstructed from radiographic images can ensure reproducible and stable measurement of the greater sciatic notch. In this study, the greater sciatic notch was analyzed in various manners, including distances, angles, and dimensions, with the aid of an automatic measurement program and a landmark verification system. Among 28 items, 15 measurements showed more than 85% accuracy. Measurements related to the posterior part of the greater sciatic notch near the posterior inferior iliac spine particularly showed higher accuracy (93.1%). To test this observation, “arithmetic posterior angle of the greater sciatic notch”, a generalized form of partial angle of the greater sciatic notch, was designed. It showed more than 90% accuracy. When the results of the three-dimensional measurements were applied to classify dry bones, it proved to be valid in contemporary Korean population. The method and results of this study can be referenced in wider use of the greater sciatic notch analysis.
  • Assessment of DNA degradation of buccal cells under humid conditions and
           DNA repair by DOP-PCR using locked nucleic acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Masaru Asari, Hiroaki Matsuura, Shotaro Isozaki, Chisato Hoshina, Katsuhiro Okuda, Hiroki Tanaka, Kie Horioka, Hiroshi Shiono, Keiko Shimizu We analyzed the degradation level of DNA from buccal cells under humid conditions using quantitative PCR analysis. Gauze samples with buccal cells were incubated for up to 12 months under three different conditions (25°C/dry, 25°C/humid, or 40°C/humid). The degradation was evaluated based on two degradation ratios (129:41 and 305:41 bp). DNA degraded slowly under the 25°C/humid conditions, and significant differences in the two degradation ratios were detected between 25°C/dry and 25°C/humid conditions after 12 months. Moreover, the degradation rapidly progressed under the 40°C/humid conditions, and the two degradation ratios in this conditions were much lower than those from 25°C/dry and 25°C/humid conditions after a short incubation period (3 months). To evaluate the effect of DNA repair on low-copy degraded DNA, degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR) was performed before short tandem repeats (STR) genotyping. As a standard DOP-PCR, we used a 22-base primer with 10 degenerate sequences (5’-CTCGAGNNNNNNNNNNATGTGG-3’), and additionally designed DOP-PCR primers with 2, 4, 6, or 8 locked nucleic acids (LNAs). When slightly degraded DNA (305:41-bp ratio=0.60) was used, DOP-PCR significantly increased the fluorescent intensity and success rate of genotyping using Identifiler and Globalfiler kits. In particular, the reaction with four LNAs produced the highest value. However, such benefits were not observed in the analysis of moderately degraded DNA (305:41-bp ratio=0.13). Although the recovery rates of STR profiles by DOP-PCR were dependent on the degradation level of low-copy DNA, the effectiveness of DOP-PCR highlights the potential of LNA for degenerate sequences.
  • Early postmortem interval estimation based on Cdc25b mRNA in rat cardiac
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Li Tao, Jianlong Ma, Liujun Han, Hongmei Xu, Yan Zeng, Lyu Yehui, Wencan Li, Kaijun Ma, Bi Xiao, Long Chen PurposeThe postmortem interval (PMI) is the amount of time that has elapsed since the time of death. Over the years, many approaches have been developed to assess PMI, but their time frame of applicability has been only days to weeks. Our present pilot study aimed to find the sensitive mRNA marker if the degradation of mRNA could be used to estimate the early postmortem interval (up to 24 h).MethordsIn our study, we use the microarray to screen 217 mRNAs markers of rat cardiac tissue.Then, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to validate of the candidate markers at 7 time points within 24 h and at temperatures of 25 °C and 35 °C. Another 27 rats were then used to verify the model.ResultsAmong all of the candidate markers, △Cq (cell division cycle 25 homolog B(Cdc25b)) had the best correlation coefficient with early postmortem interval and was used to build a new model using the R software. The results of verification testing demonstrated that the error rate was less than 15%, demonstrating the high predictive power of our mathematical model.ConclusionIn this study, Cdc25b was found to be the sensitive marker to estimate early postmortem interval, and Rpl27 was found to be suitable for use as the endogenous control. Our work provided new leads for molecular approaches to early postmortem interval estimation using the significant mRNA markers established here.
  • Fatal exertional rhabdomyolysis. Literature review and our experience in
           forensic thanatology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Mariano Paternoster, Emanuele Capasso, Pierpaolo Di Lorenzo, Gelsomina Mansueto
  • Tattoo image composed of radiopaque deposits demonstrated by postmortem
           computed tomography
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2018Source: Legal MedicineAuthor(s): Akira Hayakawa, Rie Sano, Hiroyuki Takei, Yoichiro Takahashi, Rieko Kubo, Hiroyuki Tokue, Satoshi Hirasawa, Takehiro Shimada, Sachiko Awata, Masahiro Yuasa, Shinji Uetake, Hisashi Akuzawa, Yoshihiko Kominato Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is becoming used more commonly in routine forensic investigation. CT is sensitive for detection of metal foreign bodies. Here we report a case of suicide due to self-ignition of kerosene that the victim had poured over herself. Prior to autopsy, PMCT detected tiny radiopaque particles arranged in a row in the surface of the back and either thigh, together with a series of similar particles under the skin lateral to the breasts or the bilateral inguinal region. At autopsy, external examination revealed third-degree burns involving charred tissues all over the body except for the head. Tattoos were visible on the back and on either thigh. The tattoos had colored designs, and the red portions corresponded to the radiopaque particles in the surface of the body. Internal examination demonstrated swelling of the axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, which corresponded to the radiopaque particles. A wave length-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed deposition of mercury and titanium in the inguinal lymph nodes. Thus, it was plausible that the ink could have contributed to the radiopaque particles found by PMCT in the surface of the back and thighs, as well in the lymph nodes. The present case was able to provide clues for interpretation of radiopaque particles revealed by PMCT in the surface of the body.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-