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Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.35
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 412  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Job Stress, Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational
           Commitment and Their Associations with Job Burnout Among Indian Police
           Officers: a Research Note
    • Authors: Eric G. Lambert; Hanif Qureshi; James Frank; Charles Klahm; Brad Smith
      Pages: 85 - 99
      Abstract: Job burnout can negatively impact individual officers, the organization that employs the burned out officers, citizens with whom these officers directly interact, and the community more broadly. The vast majority of the empirical research on burnout has been based on Western police officers. The present study extends our understanding of the associations that job stress, job involvement, job satisfaction, affective commitment, and continuance commitment have with the three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of accomplishment) among Indian police officers. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis was used to examine survey data from 827 police officers in the Sonipat and Rohtak districts of the Indian state of Haryana using a systematic random sample. The findings indicate that job involvement and job satisfaction were associated with lower levels of all three dimensions of burnout. Job stress was associated with emotional and reduced accomplishment burnout. High affective commitment was associated with lower levels of a reduced sense of personal accomplishment, while continuance commitment was associated with higher levels of emotional and depersonalization burnout. The results suggest that job stress, job involvement, job satisfaction, affective commitment, and continuance commitment have effects on burnout among Indian officers, as has been found among Western officers. As such, police scholars and administrators should focus on reducing job stress and continuance commitment and increasing job involvement, job satisfaction, and affective commitment among officers.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9236-y
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Protective Vests in Law Enforcement: a Pilot Survey of Public Perceptions
    • Authors: J. O’Neill; S. A. Swenson; E. Stark; D. A. O’Neill; W. J. Lewinski
      Pages: 100 - 108
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to begin an examination of the relationship between public perception and the number of attachments on external protective vests worn by law enforcement. A secondary purpose was to examine perceptual differences between non-law enforcement majors and law enforcement majors. Images of six vests that systematically varied in the amount of external attachments were rated across eight attributes: (1) approachability, (2) militarized appearance, (3) intimidation, (4) professional appearance, (5) organization, (6) confidence instilled in an officer, (7) confidence instilled in the public, and (8) recognizable as law enforcement. Vests with more external attachments were rated as more militarized and intimidating. However, participants also rated militarized appearance and intimidation as the least important attributes when considering external protective vests. Confidence instilled (by the images of vests) in an officer and confidence instilled in the public were the highest-rated attributes. These findings suggest that a militarized and intimidating appearance might not detract from the public’s overall acceptance of external protective vests in law enforcement. In addition, law enforcement majors and non-law enforcement majors differed significantly in their ratings of all eight attributes. This suggests that exposure to law enforcement education might affect public perceptions of external protective vests. It is possible that education of the public on the function (e.g., load distribution) of external protective vest attachments might offset negative perceptions.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9237-x
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • A Sequence Analysis of Nonverbal Behaviour and Deception
    • Authors: A Marono; DD Clarke; J Navarro; DA Keatley
      Pages: 109 - 117
      Abstract: The ability to correctly interpret nonverbal communication (NVC) is an important ability in everyday interactions, which may use NVC techniques to identify the concealment of information. In the present study, a novel approach was used to understand NVC. Behaviour sequence analysis identified specific sequences of behaviours that indicate psychological distress caused by deception. The study involved the analysis of 55 videos of real criminals and high-power individuals that were filmed fabricating statements, which were later exposed as being untruthful at the time of being filmed. In addition, 53 clips of criminals making truthful statements were also analysed as a contrast group. Results indicated clear differences between honest and deceptive responses, such as furrowing of eyebrows in the deceptive sequences occurring more often than honest statements. In addition, sequences of behaviours were shown in the present data set, which could indicate a new method for analysing NVC and detecting psychological distress caused by deception. The possible implications and applications for police and forensic investigation are also outlined.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9238-9
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • The Impact of Mindfulness Meditation and Self-Compassion on Criminal
           Impulsivity in a Prisoner Sample
    • Authors: Richard H. Morley
      Pages: 118 - 122
      Abstract: Previous studies indicate a link between mindfulness practice and improvements in self-compassion Neff (Self and identity 2(2):85–101, 2003b), self-regulation Baer (Clinical psychology: Science and practice 10(2):125–143, 2003), and a reduction in criminality Rainforth (Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36(1–4):181–203, 2003). Similarly, self-compassion has been linked to greater self-control among criminals Morley (Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 1–15, 2016). The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of mindfulness meditation and self-compassion on criminal impulsivity. To accomplish this investigation, a survey was conducted examining self-compassion as a mediator for the practice of mindfulness-based meditation and criminal impulsivity among jail inmates interested in meditation. The analysis showed that self-compassion, criminal impulsivity, and length of practicing mindfulness meditation were correlated. The results also showed that the relationship between practicing mindfulness meditation and self-reported criminal impulsivity was mediated by self-compassion. The results and limitations of this study were discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9239-8
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • The Emotionally Intelligent Officer' Exploring Decision-Making Style
           and Emotional Intelligence in Hostage and Crisis Negotiators and
           Non-Negotiator-Trained Police Officers
    • Authors: Amy Rose Grubb; Sarah J. Brown; Peter Hall
      Pages: 123 - 136
      Abstract: The research described in this article explores decision-making styles and levels of emotional intelligence displayed by police hostage and crisis negotiators in the UK. One hundred and seventeen negotiators from 21 police forces took part in the research, and their data were compared with 118 non-negotiator-trained police officers and 203 university students. Participants completed the General Decision-Making Style Questionnaire (Scott and Bruce Educ Psychol Meas 55(5):818-831, 1995) and the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Gignac 2008), with data analysed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and t tests. When controlling for the effects of age and social desirability, significant differences were found between both police samples and the student sample. All police officers displayed significantly lower levels of avoidant decision-making and significantly higher levels of overall emotional intelligence than students and these findings were also reflected within certain facets of emotional intelligence, specifically. These findings provide support for the existence of a unique ‘police officer profile’, but fail to support the premise of a distinct ‘hostage and crisis negotiator profile’ within the UK police population. The findings are discussed with relevance to the practice of hostage and crisis negotiation and future research directions.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9240-2
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Sector Well-Being Differences Among UK Police Custody Staff
    • Authors: C. Robert M. Werner-de-Sondberg; Maria Karanika-Murray; Thomas Baguley; Nicholas Blagden
      Pages: 137 - 149
      Abstract: The research explores a new model of staff well-being across UK police custodial services (public and private). These services are unique for the fact that police sergeant custody officers are supported by detention officers who can be publicly or privately contracted, with the latter providing a heterogeneous mix never previously researched. The model informs a survey approach conducted across four English police forces. Drawing on a diverse literature which compares health and criminal justice professions, this study explores the possibility that private sector detention officers will report lower levels of emotional exhaustion and workplace stress and higher levels of personal accomplishment than their public sector counterparts. Multilevel analyses, supplemented by ANOVA and t tests, detected statistically significant differences for private sector detention officers regarding higher levels of emotional exhaustion and lower levels of personal accomplishment and workplace stress (with the stress result the only one in the predicted direction). However, results should be interpreted as sample specific linked to privately contracted detention officer disquiet with their then employer (since replaced). That said, the results provide a good exploration of the model’s utility together with important lessons for model and survey development in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9241-1
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: an Assessment of Offender
    • Authors: Alexis Carpinteri; Brandy Bang; Kristin Klimley; Ryan A. Black; Vincent B. Van Hasselt
      Pages: 150 - 157
      Abstract: The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), specifically child trafficking, producers or consumers of child sex trafficking (i.e., prostitution), sexual abuse images, and enticement, has become a growing area of concern. The increasing profitability of CSEC, combined with the clandestine nature of the offenses, calls for immediate attention from international law enforcement and the mental health community. Paramount to the resolution of this global crisis is the identification of the perpetrators of various CSEC crimes. The research pertaining to these offenders is most frequently aggregated and limited to basic demographic data, providing a larger, more generalized picture of CSEC. The purpose of this study is to determine characteristics, within a sample of known CSEC offenders, that differentiate among offenders who engage in sex trafficking as trafficker; engage in sex trafficking as a producer or consumer; produce, distribute, or possess child sexual abuse images; and travel or use enticements to engage in illicit sexual contact with a minor. This observational, survey design includes a record review of 98 offenders who were processed through the FBI Miami Field Office. Results showed that males are more likely to engage in CSEC offenses compared to females. Offenders who collect child sexual abuse images tended to be employed, had no history of prior arrests, and were older than other CSEC offenders. Additionally, engaging in befriending strategies in order to gain access to a victim was also predictive of involvement in child sexual abuse images. Unemployment was the only statistically significant predictor of engaging in child sex trafficking as either a sex buyer or a producer. Finally, perpetrators who engaged in the traveling/enticement of victims were found to be younger, unemployed, single, and without a known history of contact offending. Implications of the findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9242-0
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Planning Ahead' An Exploratory Study of South Korean Investigators’
           Beliefs About Their Planning for Investigative Interviews of Suspects
    • Authors: Jihwan Kim; Dave Walsh; Ray Bull; Henriette Bergstrøm
      Pages: 158 - 174
      Abstract: Preparation and planning has been argued to be vitally important as to how effectively investigators undertake their interviews with suspects. Yet, it has also been found in previous research that investigators admit that they plan only occasionally, often attributing insufficient time as a reason for not undertaking the task. Employing a novel research paradigm that utilised theoretical foundations concerning planning, the present study explored empirically 95 South Korean financial crime investigators’ views, using a self-administered questionnaire. With the use of second-generation statistical modelling, an understanding was developed of the relative relationships between various concepts (which had themselves emerged from an established theoretical framework of planning that had been further extended to accommodate the context of the present study). The study found that perceived time pressures actually showed a very low association with interview planning. Rather, investigators’ self-belief as to their own capability alongside workplace culture was each found to have stronger associations with investigators’ intentions to plan for their interviews. As such, we argue that there should be more focus on improving occupational culture relating to interview planning, while developing training programs that identify, evaluate, and enhance investigators’ planning skills. Implications for practice are therefore discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9243-z
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Informing Police Response to Intimate Partner Violence: Predictors of
           Perceived Usefulness of Risk Assessment Screening
    • Authors: Mary Ann Campbell; Carmen Gill; Dale Ballucci
      Pages: 175 - 187
      Abstract: Substantial research has demonstrated the value of using risk assessment tools for the prediction and management of violence risk, including for intimate partner violence (IPV) (Mills, Kroner, and Morgan 2011). Such tools have been advocated for use by police officers (Hilton, Grant, and Rice 2010), but little is known about police officers’ perceptions of using these tools to inform their decision-making. Using a sample of 159 Canadian police officers (73% male, M age = 41.8 years, SD = 8.9), the current study examined police officer’s experiences with IPV risk tools, their attitudes about using such tools, and identified predictors of these attitudes using an online survey. Most of this sample had previously used an IPV risk tool, which was most commonly the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (64.1%). Most police officers rated use of risk tools as at least somewhat to extremely helpful (73.5%), and 67.4% indicated that they would use a risk tool with sufficient training on it. Regression analyses indicated that police officers’ perceived IPV risk tool usefulness was significantly predicted by older respondent age and greater perceived need for guidance in responding to IPV calls. In conclusion, most police officers view IPV risk screening as valuable for informing their responses to such calls for service and are likely to embrace such decision-aids with sufficient training on their potential impact for enhancing safety.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9244-y
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2018)
  • Object–Color Stroop Task to Assess Selective Attention in “True” and
           “Legally Considered” Juvenile Delinquents
    • Authors: Tanusree Moitra; Diganta Mukherjee; Garga Chatterjee
      Abstract: The present study compared selective attention processing among juvenile delinquents of two different citizenships and matched control groups. The sample consisted of 70 “true” juvenile delinquents (Indian citizen—charged for theft, rape or murder), 54 “legally considered” delinquents (Bangladesh citizens—charged only with illegal immigration), and 70 matched control group of Indian citizens. They were tested on object–color Stroop task designed specifically with objects typically found in South Asia. Results show that participants had taken less time in typical condition (for example, red color of red apple) compared to atypical condition (blue color of red apple). This behavioral characteristic is more specifically present in Bangladeshi delinquents and non-delinquent controls, while Indian delinquents are different from both on this measure. Demographic variables also have an influence on performance. Differences in selective attention processing were found between “true” and “legally considered” juvenile delinquents. Furthermore, the age of participants also had an influence on performance. These findings together suggest establishment of separate observation homes for juvenile delinquents. Furthermore, this is the first study to test response modulation hypothesis among offenders with psychopathic traits in an Asian country.
      PubDate: 2018-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9286-9
  • Predictors of Mental Health Stigma among Police Officers: the Role of
           Trauma and PTSD
    • Authors: Sara Soomro; Philip T. Yanos
      Abstract: Police officers are both at risk of exposure to trauma and experiencing PTSD and are more likely to come into contact with people with mental illness than community members. As a result, the extent and predictors of mental health stigma is an issue of concern among police officers; however, little prior research on stigma has focused on police officers. The present study examined the predictors of mental health stigma among police officers, including the experience of trauma and PTSD symptoms. Active duty police officers (N = 296) were recruited through an online survey and completed measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and a number of dimensions of stigma (negative stereotypes, attributions, intended behavior, and attitudes toward seeking help). Findings supported that police officers experience high rates of trauma exposure and higher rates of current PTSD than the general population. Endorsement of negative stereotypes about people with mental illness was higher among police officers than the general population. Contrary to what was expected, officers meeting criteria for current PTSD endorsed more stigma about mental illness, even when controlling for common demographic predictors of stigma, including gender and knowing someone with a mental illness. Findings have important implications for the training of police officers regarding mental illness.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9285-x
  • Role Conflict and the Psychological Impacts of the Post-Ferguson Period on
           Law Enforcement Motivation, Cynicism, and Apprehensiveness
    • Authors: Jose Torres; Timothy Reling; James Hawdon
      Abstract: In the wake of high-profile deadly force cases in the post-Ferguson era, a number of negative psychological outcomes have been depicted by law enforcement officers. We examine if negative post-Ferguson outcomes predict current cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness. Further, we account for whether role orientations, specifically support for a law enforcement orientation or a community policing orientation, mediate the psychological effects of the post-Ferguson period. Since the law enforcement orientation, exercised through strict enforcement of the law, has been called out of favor in the post-Ferguson area, supporting this role may negatively impact officers via role conflict. The opposite may be observed for those supporting a community policing orientation. We test these arguments using results from an online survey of law enforcement officers in the USA, administered 6 months following highly publicized incidents in Dallas and Baton Rouge where police were targeted and killed. Results showed that post-Ferguson psychological impacts continued to affect current levels of cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness. Support for law enforcement or community policing orientation did not mediate the effects of post-Ferguson sentiments. Nonetheless, role orientations played a significant role in predicting current cynicism, motivation, and apprehensiveness and provided support for the theory of role conflict.
      PubDate: 2018-06-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9284-y
  • The Impact of Beliefs Concerning Deception on Perceptions of Nonverbal
           Behavior: Implications for Neuro-Linguistic Programming-Based Lie
    • Authors: Flavia Spiroiu
      Abstract: Regularly employed in a forensic context, the Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) model purports that the behavioral distinction between somebody who is remembering information and somebody who is constructing information lies in the direction of their eye movements. This strategy reflects numerous current approaches to lie detection, which presume that nonverbal behavior influences perceptions and judgments about deception. The present study emphasized a reverse order by investigating whether beliefs that an individual is deceptive influence perceptions of the respective individual’s nonverbal behavior as indicated by observed eye movement patterns. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to either a group informed that right eye movements indicate constructed and thus deceptive information or a group informed that left eye movements indicate constructed and thus deceptive information. Each participant viewed six investigative interviews depicting the eye movement patterns of mock suspects labeled as deceptive or truthful. The interviews were structured according to different right/left eye movement ratios. Results revealed that participants reportedly observed the deceptive suspects displaying significantly more eye movements in the direction allegedly indicative of deception than did the truthful suspects. This result occurred despite the fact that the actual eye movement ratios in both deceptive/truthful sets of interviews were identical and the eye movements were predominantly in the opposite direction of that allegedly indicative of deception. The results are discussed in the context of encoding-based cognitive-processing theories. Limitations on the generality of the results are emphasized and the applicability (or lack thereof) of NLP-based lie detection in forensic contexts is discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9278-9
  • Shoot/No-Shoot Decisions in the Context of IED-Detection Training and
           Eyewitness Memory for Persons
    • Authors: Matthew J. Sharps; Megan R. Herrera; David L. Hulett; Amanda Briley
      Abstract: Cognitive approaches to training for the detection of improvised explosive devices (IED’s) are of increasing importance. However, there is a question as to the degree to which such training might interfere with other important law enforcement (LE) functions in the field, and the degree to which such training might enhance other important cognitive/perceptual functions. A promising cognitive approach to IED training, the SMOKE system, was provided to respondents, who then responded to shoot/no-shoot decisions, important LE situations of increasing relevance. It was shown that SMOKE training did not interfere with shoot/no-shoot decisions. However, those with SMOKE training performed better than control respondents on eyewitness memory for the perpetrator of a given crime in field-valid scenes. This indicates that cognitively based training may enhance vigilance and resultant memory in field situations.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9283-z
  • Depressive Symptoms Among Police Officers: Associations with Personality
           and Psychosocial Factors
    • Authors: Emily N. Jenkins; Penelope Allison; Kim Innes; John M. Violanti; Michael E. Andrew
      Abstract: Protective psychosocial factors may reduce the risk of stress-related illnesses in policing. We assessed the association between protective factors and depressive symptoms among 242 police officers. Participants were from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Study (2004–2014). Coping, hardiness, personality traits, and social support were assessed at baseline. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and follow-up using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The relationship between protective factors and the rate of change in depressive symptoms was assessed using linear regression. Logistic regression evaluated associations between protective factors and new-onset depression. Of participants free of depression at baseline, 23 (10.7%) developed probable depression during the follow-up. Odds of new-onset depression increased with increasing neuroticism (adjusted odds ratio [ORADJ] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.35) and passive coping (ORADJ = 2.07, 95% CI, 1.06–4.03). Increasing agreeableness (ORADJ = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.78–0.96) and conscientiousness (ORADJ = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.84–0.98) were associated with decreased odds of new-onset depression. New-onset depression was not significantly associated with other coping subscales, hardiness, or social support. There were no significant associations between protective factors and change in depressive symptom scores. This study suggests certain personality characteristics and passive coping may be associated with increased odds of new-onset depression in police officers.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9281-1
  • 911 Calls in Homicide Cases: What Does the Verbal Behavior of the Caller
    • Authors: Jon D. Cromer; JoAnne Brewster; Kethera Fogler; Michael Stoloff
      Abstract: Each year, numerous 911 calls reporting a homicide are received by emergency communications centers; a small percentage of the calls are made by the perpetrator. These calls are recorded at times of great stress and are the first versions of what the callers purport to know. A linguistic analysis of the 911 call can lead to the development of hypotheses regarding a caller’s truthfulness, which can help to guide the initial investigative strategy. The present study examined 14 linguistic variables and an additional 4 mitigating variables in an effort to determine whether any of those variables, individually or in combination, were predictive of the guilt or innocence of the caller. A sample of 50 calls to 911 centers was examined. This study identified the presence of a variety of linguistic behaviors that were correlated with an ultimate finding of guilt or innocence.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9282-0
  • Exploring the Validity of Behavioral Cues Predictive of Physically
           Resisting Arrest
    • Authors: Richard R. Johnson
      Abstract: Police officers are sometimes trained that certain behavioral cues predict impending violent behavior. Additionally, surveys revealed many hold perceptions that these behavioral predictors of violence are valid, yet empirical evidence of validity is sparse and contradictory. The present study used frame-by-frame analysis of videotaped police arrest encounters to explore the validity of nine behavioral cues in predicting whether the arrestee violently resisted arrest. The results revealed that four of the nine behaviors were predictive of violence, yet notable variation occurred across racial groups. The validity of the remaining behavioral cues remains equivocal at this time.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9280-2
  • Secondary Traumatic Stress: Prevalence and Symptomology Amongst Detective
           Officers Investigating Child Protection Cases
    • Authors: Alison D. MacEachern; Ashley A. Dennis; Sharon Jackson; Divya Jindal-Snape
      Abstract: It has been increasingly recognised that individuals exposed to the trauma of others within their professional roles can be affected by secondary traumatic stress (STS). Despite this recognition, there is a dearth of literature examining the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress amongst police officers in the UK. This study aims to meet this gap. Sixty-three Detective Officers from Family Protection Units (FPU(s)), primarily engaged in child protection/abuse investigations, self-reported their experiences and symptoms associated with STS through a questionnaire. Findings indicate that over half of the respondents experienced STS symptoms with 11% reporting levels of symptoms that were in the high or severe range. This study is significant in that it provides empirical evidence of issues that have so far been little documented in the UK and considers the implications for policing policy and practice in terms of the health and well-being of serving police officers.
      PubDate: 2018-06-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9277-x
  • Associations Between Police Work Stressors and Posttraumatic Stress
           Disorder Symptoms: Examining the Moderating Effects of Coping
    • Authors: John M. Violanti; Claudia C. Ma; Anna Mnatsakanova; Desta Fekedulegn; Tara A. Hartley; Ja Kook Gu; Michael E. Andrew
      Abstract: The role of coping in the association between stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not clear. We investigated the effects of active and passive coping strategies on the associations between police stress (administrative and organization pressure, physical and psychological threats, and lack of support) and PTSD symptoms in 342 police officers. Linear regression model was used in the analyses. The association between physical and psychological stress and PTSD symptoms was stronger in officers who used lower active coping (B = 4.34, p < 0.001) compared to those who utilized higher active coping (p-interaction = 0.027) (B = 1.79, p ≤ 0.003). A similar result was found between lack of support and PTSD symptoms (p-interaction = 0.016) (lower active coping, B = 5.70, p < 0.001; higher active coping, B = 3.33, p < 0.001), but was not significantly different comparing the two groups regarding the association between administrative and organizational pressure and PTSD symptoms (p-interaction = 0.376). Associations of total stress, administrative and organizational pressure, and physical and psychological stressors with PTSD symptoms were significantly stronger in officers who utilized higher passive coping (p-interaction = 0.011, 0.030, and 0.023, respectively). In conclusion, low active or high passive coping methods may exacerbate the effect of work stress on PTSD symptoms.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9276-y
  • Police Evaluations of Intimate Partner Violence in Heterosexual and
           Same-Sex Relationships: Do Experience and Training Play a Role'
    • Authors: Brenda Russell; John A. Sturgeon
      Abstract: In recent years, law enforcement agencies have enhanced intimate partner violence (IPV) policies and increased the frequency of required training. Yet, there is limited research that addresses how experience and training are related to evaluations of heterosexual and same-sex disputants in an IPV incident. This research investigates how officers perceive heterosexual and same-sex disputants in IPV incidents and examines how officer experience, frequency, and recency of required IPV training affect evaluations. Law enforcement officers (n = 309) across 27 states responded to a hypothetical scenario of an IPV incident between a heterosexual or same-sex couple. Dependent variables included perpetrator and victim arrest, perceived fairness of non-arrest options, willingness to provide referrals for perpetrator and victim, and severity of victim injury. Officers believed that the use of some non-arrest options was fairer when the perpetrator was a gay male or heterosexual female and there were no significant effects for arrest options. Referrals to a domestic violence hotline and injury severity varied by perpetrator and victim gender and sexual orientation. While officer experience played a role in non-arrest options, frequency and recency of officer training were not related to dependent variables of interest. Officers embrace evaluations of IPV that demonstrate differential evaluations of the incident as a result of gender and sexual orientation. These evaluations may have implications for the legitimacy of claims and safety and justice for victims and officers.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-018-9279-8
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