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Journal Cover Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
  [SJR: 0.405]   [H-I: 14]   [386 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Factors Affecting Recognition of Senior Citizens in a Silver Alert
    • Authors: Vicki S. Gier; David S. Kreiner; James M. Lampinen
      Pages: 185 - 196
      Abstract: Abstract The current study investigated the recognition of faces of senior citizens in the context of a Silver Alert. Literature on face recognition and eyewitness identification has consistently found recognition failure due to factors such as Own-Age Bias, the Other-Race Effect, and Own-Gender Bias. Participants viewed a video of people in a naturalistic setting, a park. The target, an elderly woman, wore either typical clothing or atypical clothing (nightgown), was not present or was not present but replaced with a different senior. We measured accuracy, confidence, reaction time, and Prediction-of-Knowing in relation to type of clothing worn by the target as well as age, race, and gender of participants. We hypothesized that recognition of the target senior would be low but would be higher when the woman appeared in a nightgown (matching the stereotype of an individual with dementia) as compared to typical clothing. We did not find age, race, and gender effects on target recognition. We offer possible explanations for both significant and non-significant results as they apply to the unique population of missing elderly adults.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9210-0
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Consequences of Undercover Operations in Law Enforcement: a Review of
           Challenges and Best Practices
    • Authors: Devin Kowalczyk; Matthew J. Sharps
      Pages: 197 - 202
      Abstract: Abstract Undercover (UC) assignments are among the most stressful faced by law enforcement officers. Undercover work features isolation from colleagues and family, the necessity to adopt behaviors and false personal characteristics frequently opposite to the given officer’s beliefs and personality, and negative attention from members of the public and even from fellow officers while in the undercover role. Because of all of these factors, undercover work is frequently associated with problems in mental and physical health, and with difficulties in post-assignment social adjustment with family, community, and department. Undercover work is inherently difficult to research, but as the present review indicates, there is significant overlap between the symptomatology typical of undercover work and of that typical of non-UC police work, normally an area of greater research accessibility. These issues will be addressed below. In addition, this review identifies current best psychological practices in dealing with the undercover officer client; these include reliable, supportive, frequent contact with officer clients, psychoeducation in the areas of coping mechanisms, reframing of undercover work in terms of the overall corpus of the given officer’s career, and mechanisms of reintegration of the undercover officer into the realm of more typical, and frequently more mundane, regular police duties.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9211-z
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Using an Eye Tracking Device to Assess Vulnerabilities to Burglary
    • Authors: Thomas Zawisza; Ray Garza
      Pages: 203 - 213
      Abstract: Abstract This research examines the extent to which visual cues influence a person’s decision to burglarize. Participants in this study (n = 65) viewed ten houses through an eye tracking device and were asked whether or not they thought each house was vulnerable to burglary. The eye tracking device recorded where a person looked and for how long they looked (in milliseconds). Our findings showed that windows and doors were two of the most important visual stimuli. Results from our follow-up questionnaire revealed that stimuli such as fencing, beware of pet signs, cars in driveways, and alarm systems are also considered. There are a number of implications for future research and policy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9213-x
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Mystery Man Can Increase the Reliability of Eyewitness Identifications
           for Older Adult Witnesses
    • Authors: Catriona Havard; Phyllis Laybourn; Barbara Klecha
      Pages: 214 - 224
      Abstract: Abstract Some groups of eyewitnesses, such as older adults and children, are less likely to correctly reject a target-absent (TA) line-up, as compared to younger adults. Previous research reports that using a silhouette in a video line-up called the ‘mystery man’ could increase correct rejections for TA lineups for child eyewitnesses, without reducing correct identifications for target-present (TP) line-ups (Havard and Memon in Appl Cogn Psychol 27:50–59, 2013). The current study, using older and younger adults, investigated whether using the mystery man would also increase the identification accuracy for older adults, without impairing younger adults’ identification accuracy. The results found that older adults in the ‘mystery man’ condition rejected TA line-ups significantly more often than those in the control condition (52 vs. 24 %), with no significant effect upon the TP line-ups. For the younger adults, the mystery man had no influence on identification responses for the TA or TP line-ups. Our findings suggest the mystery man technique may be beneficial for older adults, without detrimentally affecting the accuracy for younger adults, and thus could increase the reliability of eyewitness evidence, where video line-ups are employed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9214-9
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Coping with Work Stress in Police Employees
    • Authors: Abhay Pratap Singh
      Pages: 225 - 235
      Abstract: Abstract Present study endeavored to investigate the role of coping in work stress of police employees. A 3 × 2 factorial design with three levels of job hierarchy (officers, sub-inspectors, and constables) and two levels of job tenure [short job tenure (0–10 year) and long job tenure (above 10 year)] was used in present study. A total of 240 police personnel from Gorakhpur Zone (India) participated as respondents. Objective Work Stress Scale, Feeling of Work Stress Scale (Cooper 1983), and Coping Scale (Carver et al. 1989) were used to determine the level of work stress and coping of the police employees. ANOVA results revealed that the level of work stress varied across different groups of police personnel. More specifically, objective work stress was found greater in sub-inspectors than constables and officers while constables reported more feeling of work stress than sub-inspectors and officers, respectively. Furthermore, the different groups of police personnel differed on various forms of coping response, in which officers used more active- and adaptive-related coping strategies than sub-inspectors and constables, respectively. Contrary to this, constables used more maladaptive coping strategies than sub-inspectors and officers. Correlation results evinced that active- and adaptive-related coping responses have an inverse link with work stress, whereas maladaptive coping responses have a positive relationship with work stress. Findings have been discussed in the light of organizational and personal factors.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9215-8
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Effects of Pre-admonition Suggestions on Eyewitnesses’ Choosing
           Rates and Retrospective Identification Judgments
    • Authors: Deah S. Quinlivan; Gary L. Wells; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz; Katherine M. Luecht; Daniella K. Cash; Kylie N. Key
      Pages: 236 - 246
      Abstract: Abstract Pre-admonition suggestion is an identification-relevant comment made to an eyewitness by a lineup administrator before the lineup admonition. Quinlivan et al. (2012) found that their suggestion inflated mistaken identification rates and retrospective identification. However, the suggestion used was a compound statement, making it unclear which component influenced choosing rates. The current experiment was conducted to parse out the effects. Participants (N = 211) viewed a crime video and received either one component of the compound suggestion (a suggestion to pick or that the witness had paid substantial attention), both components, or no suggestion. All participants received an admonition, made an identification choice, and answered questions about their witnessing experience. The results demonstrated that the pick suggestion increased mistaken identifications from a perpetrator-absent lineup whereas the effects of the attention suggestion were restricted to the retrospective judgments. These results show support for the role of secondary (non-memorial) processes in eyewitness identification.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9216-7
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • M. C. Watt. Explorations in Forensic Psychology: Cases in Criminal and
           Abnormal Behaviour
    • Authors: Brittany Blaskovits
      Pages: 247 - 250
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9217-6
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dealing with the Unthinkable: a Study of the Cognitive and Emotional
    • Authors: Jason Roach; Ashley Cartwright; Kathryn Sharratt
      Pages: 251 - 262
      Abstract: Abstract Although the death of a child is without doubt one of the most distressing events imaginable, when it occurs in suspicious circumstances, such as at the hand of a parent or close family member, its effects are often more acute and incomprehensible. This paper presents an exploratory study comparing the cognitive and emotional stressors experienced by police when investigating child and adult homicides. The results of an online survey questionnaire with 99 experienced UK police investigators are presented, with key differences found in the cognitive and emotional stress experienced depending on whether the victim is a child or an adult, key differences and similarities identified in the ways investigators deal and cope with adult and child homicide cases, with a tentative discussion of the implications for the well-being and training of police investigators provided.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9218-5
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Do Not Lie to Me, or Else: the Effect of a Turncoat Warning and Rapport
           Building on Perceptions of Police Interviewers
    • Authors: Sarah MacDonald; Zak Keeping; Brent Snook; Kirk Luther
      Pages: 263 - 277
      Abstract: Abstract The effects of warning witnesses about lying (i.e., turncoat warning) and rapport building on perceptions of police interviewers were examined across two experiments. In experiment 1, participants (N = 59) were asked to assume the role of a witness when reading four interview transcript excerpts and rate the police interviewer on an eight-item attitudinal scale. Interviewers who warned witnesses about lying were viewed less favorably than when no warning was administered. Interviewers who used rapport-building techniques were viewed more favorably than those who did not attempt to build rapport. There was also a moderating interaction, whereby the use of rapport-building techniques offset the lower attitudinal ratings associated with the administration of the warning. In experiment 2, participants (N = 46) were asked to assume the role of a third party observer when reading four interview transcript excerpts and rate the police interviewer on a ten-item attitudinal scale. Results of experiment 2 replicated the findings from experiment 1. The potential implications of starting an interview by warning a witness about lying are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9219-4
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Children’s Reports of Disclosure Recipient Reactions in Forensic
           Interviews: Comparing the NICHD and MoGP Protocols
    • Authors: Elizabeth C. Ahern; Michael E. Lamb
      Pages: 85 - 93
      Abstract: Abstract Reactions from confidantes who receive children’s abuse disclosures can affect children’s well-being and the likelihood that they will recant. Disclosure recipient (DR) reactions were coded in 95 forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old alleged sexual abuse victims. Half of the interviews were conducted using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol (which includes a disclosure phase focused on the child’s initial abuse report) and the other half using the Memorandum of Good Practice (MoGP), a predecessor of the Achieving Best Evidence (ABE) guidelines used in the UK today (which recommends asking about children’s initial disclosures but has no designated disclosure phase). Children reported a variety of DR reactions, including supportive and unsupportive responses, and noted that many DRs questioned them about the allegations. NICHD interviews contained more references to DR reactions than MoGP interviews. NICHD interviews elicited more DR reaction information using invitations rather than more focused prompts and by asking children explicitly about their disclosures rather than relying on children to provide the information spontaneously. Findings indicated that children may be willing and able to provide disclosure information but may require prompting.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9205-x
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2017)
  • A Pilot Study to Develop the Police Transformational Leadership Scale
           (PTLS) and Examine Its Associations with Psychosocial Well-Being of
    • Authors: S. Hakan Can; Helen M. Hendy; M. Berkay Ege Can
      Pages: 105 - 113
      Abstract: Abstract In these times of increased tensions between police officers and their communities, the need for effective police leadership is more important than ever. Past research suggests that a transformational style of leadership is preferred by most officers, with supervisors who are good communicators, trustworthy, effective at training officers for changing times, and able to create a shared cooperative vision. The present study developed a new Transformational Police Leadership Scale (TPLS) that police departments might eventually use to assess supervisor leadership characteristics. Participants included 152 US police officers who completed anonymous surveys to report demographics, to rate leadership behaviors of immediate supervisors, and to report their psychosocial well-being (self-esteem, perceived police social support, romantic partner conflict). Exploratory factor analysis produced a 20-item TPLS with three dimensions showing acceptable internal reliability and test-retest reliability: Clear Communication, Training and Cooperation, and Fairness and Honesty. The three TPLS dimensions were not associated with demographics (age, gender, marital status, college education, patrol officer rank, years of service), suggesting their relevance to a variety of officers. The TPLS dimensions significantly explained variance in psychosocial well-being of police officers including better self-esteem (R 2 = .11), more perceived police social support (R 2 = .30), and less romantic partner conflict (R 2 = .12). Future research could expand evaluation of TPLS psychometric characteristics such as confirmatory factor analysis with larger and more diverse sample, inter-rater reliability, and convergent validity with other non-police measures of transformative leadership.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9204-y
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2017)
  • Swedish Police Officers’ Job Strain, Work-Related Social Support and
           General Mental Health
    • Authors: Jonas Hansson; Anna-Karin Hurtig; Lars-Erik Lauritz; Mojgan Padyab
      Pages: 128 - 137
      Abstract: Abstract This study investigated the association between psychosocial job characteristics and general mental health among police officers and the extent to which social support at work plays a role in this association. The findings are based on a cross-sectional survey. A written questionnaire was assessed by 714 police officers volunteered to participate in the study. The participants completed a series of validated instruments assessing job demand, control and social support at work (JDCS); general mental health (GHQ); and sociodemographic characteristics. High job strain was associated with low levels of work-related social support. Moreover, poor mental health was associated with low levels of work-related social support, active work and high job strain. The joint effect of high job strain and low levels of work-related social support had a significant effect on poor mental health. Work-related social support buffered job strain to some extent. Workforce health promotion policies should attempt to reduce job strain and emphasise the importance of work-related social support. Knowledge about police officers’ general mental health and policymakers’ support for police officers may have positive effects on the performance of the police force.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9202-0
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2017)
  • Police Strategies and Suspect Responses in Real-Life Serious Crime
    • Authors: Samantha Leahy-Harland; Ray Bull
      Pages: 138 - 151
      Abstract: Abstract This research focuses exclusively on real-life taped interviews with serious crime suspects and examines the strategies used and types of questions asked by police, and suspects’ responses to these. The information source was audio-tape-recorded interviews with 56 suspects. These recordings were obtained from 11 police services across England and Wales and were analysed using a specially designed coding frame. It was found that interviewers employed a range of strategies with presentation of evidence and challenge the most frequently observed. Closed questions were by far the most frequently used, and open questions, although less frequent, were found to occur more during the opening phases of the interviews. The frequency of ineffective question types (e.g. negative, repetitive, multiple) was low. A number of significant associations were observed between interviewer strategies and suspect responses. Rapport/empathy and open-type questions were associated with an increased likelihood of suspects admitting the offence whilst describing trauma, and negative questions were associated with a decreased likelihood.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9207-8
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2017)
  • Training Police Investigators to Interview to Detect False Intentions
    • Authors: Tuule Sooniste; Pär Anders Granhag; Leif A. Strömwall
      Pages: 152 - 162
      Abstract: Abstract This study is the first to investigate police investigators’ adherence to, and the effectiveness of, a training program for detecting true and false intentions. Experienced police investigators (N = 53) were either trained or not trained in how to interview to discriminate between true and false intentions. All investigators interviewed mock suspects (N = 53), of which half lied and half told truth about their intentions. Both subjective and objective measures showed that the trained investigators interviewed in line with the training received. That is, a large proportion asked about the planning of the stated intentions. Noteworthy, none of untrained investigators reported to have posed such questions for strategic purposes. The trained investigators reached a higher detection accuracy level (65 %) than their untrained colleagues (55 %), however not significantly. Given that the investigators adhered to the training, this training package is a viable starting point for developing more effective training programs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9206-9
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2017)
  • Accountability and Police Violence: a Research on Accounts to Cope with
           Excessive Use of Force in Italy
    • Authors: Adriano Zamperini; Valentina Siracusa; Marialuisa Menegatto
      Pages: 172 - 183
      Abstract: Abstract Accountability is a vital element of policing. Over time, the public has demanded more control over police activities, while policing has attracted a good deal of controversy, such as the discriminatory and violent manner in which police officers treat individuals. In this paper, we explore Italian police accountability when faced with violent actions following the articulation at two levels: a micro-level—the communication strategies adopted by the police unions to account for their actions—and a macro-level—the understanding of the political and social system in which the police act, namely the Italian system. The results of the thematic analysis highlighted the recourse to excuses, justifications, and apologies. In terms of the effects on the audience, the unions divide into two groups: the first made exclusive use of defensive accountability strategies (excuses and justifications) and the second used reconciling accountability strategies (apologies). We discuss these findings regarding the interaction between the police and the public in Italy.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9208-7
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 2 (2017)
  • Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: an Assessment of Offender
    • Authors: Alexis Carpinteri; Brandy Bang; Kristin Klimley; Ryan A. Black; Vincent B. Van Hasselt
      Abstract: Abstract The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), specifically child trafficking, producers or consumers of child sex trafficking (i.e., prostitution), sexual abuse images, and enticement, has become a growing area of concern. The increasing profitability of CSEC, combined with the clandestine nature of the offenses, calls for immediate attention from international law enforcement and the mental health community. Paramount to the resolution of this global crisis is the identification of the perpetrators of various CSEC crimes. The research pertaining to these offenders is most frequently aggregated and limited to basic demographic data, providing a larger, more generalized picture of CSEC. The purpose of this study is to determine characteristics, within a sample of known CSEC offenders, that differentiate among offenders who engage in sex trafficking as trafficker; engage in sex trafficking as a producer or consumer; produce, distribute, or possess child sexual abuse images; and travel or use enticements to engage in illicit sexual contact with a minor. This observational, survey design includes a record review of 98 offenders who were processed through the FBI Miami Field Office. Results showed that males are more likely to engage in CSEC offenses compared to females. Offenders who collect child sexual abuse images tended to be employed, had no history of prior arrests, and were older than other CSEC offenders. Additionally, engaging in befriending strategies in order to gain access to a victim was also predictive of involvement in child sexual abuse images. Unemployment was the only statistically significant predictor of engaging in child sex trafficking as either a sex buyer or a producer. Finally, perpetrators who engaged in the traveling/enticement of victims were found to be younger, unemployed, single, and without a known history of contact offending. Implications of the findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9242-0
  • The Emotionally Intelligent Officer' Exploring Decision-Making Style
           and Emotional Intelligence in Hostage and Crisis Negotiators and
           Non-Negotiator-Trained Police Officers
    • Authors: Amy Rose Grubb; Sarah J. Brown; Peter Hall
      Abstract: Abstract The research described in this article explores decision-making styles and levels of emotional intelligence displayed by police hostage and crisis negotiators in the UK. One hundred and seventeen negotiators from 21 police forces took part in the research, and their data were compared with 118 non-negotiator-trained police officers and 203 university students. Participants completed the General Decision-Making Style Questionnaire (Scott and Bruce Educ Psychol Meas 55(5):818-831, 1995) and the Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Gignac 2008), with data analysed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and t tests. When controlling for the effects of age and social desirability, significant differences were found between both police samples and the student sample. All police officers displayed significantly lower levels of avoidant decision-making and significantly higher levels of overall emotional intelligence than students and these findings were also reflected within certain facets of emotional intelligence, specifically. These findings provide support for the existence of a unique ‘police officer profile’, but fail to support the premise of a distinct ‘hostage and crisis negotiator profile’ within the UK police population. The findings are discussed with relevance to the practice of hostage and crisis negotiation and future research directions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9240-2
  • Sector Well-Being Differences Among UK Police Custody Staff
    • Authors: C. Robert M. Werner-de-Sondberg; Maria Karanika-Murray; Thomas Baguley; Nicholas Blagden
      Abstract: Abstract The research explores a new model of staff well-being across UK police custodial services (public and private). These services are unique for the fact that police sergeant custody officers are supported by detention officers who can be publicly or privately contracted, with the latter providing a heterogeneous mix never previously researched. The model informs a survey approach conducted across four English police forces. Drawing on a diverse literature which compares health and criminal justice professions, this study explores the possibility that private sector detention officers will report lower levels of emotional exhaustion and workplace stress and higher levels of personal accomplishment than their public sector counterparts. Multilevel analyses, supplemented by ANOVA and t tests, detected statistically significant differences for private sector detention officers regarding higher levels of emotional exhaustion and lower levels of personal accomplishment and workplace stress (with the stress result the only one in the predicted direction). However, results should be interpreted as sample specific linked to privately contracted detention officer disquiet with their then employer (since replaced). That said, the results provide a good exploration of the model’s utility together with important lessons for model and survey development in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9241-1
  • A Sequence Analysis of Nonverbal Behaviour and Deception
    • Authors: A Marono; DD Clarke; J Navarro; DA Keatley
      Abstract: Abstract The ability to correctly interpret nonverbal communication (NVC) is an important ability in everyday interactions, which may use NVC techniques to identify the concealment of information. In the present study, a novel approach was used to understand NVC. Behaviour sequence analysis identified specific sequences of behaviours that indicate psychological distress caused by deception. The study involved the analysis of 55 videos of real criminals and high-power individuals that were filmed fabricating statements, which were later exposed as being untruthful at the time of being filmed. In addition, 53 clips of criminals making truthful statements were also analysed as a contrast group. Results indicated clear differences between honest and deceptive responses, such as furrowing of eyebrows in the deceptive sequences occurring more often than honest statements. In addition, sequences of behaviours were shown in the present data set, which could indicate a new method for analysing NVC and detecting psychological distress caused by deception. The possible implications and applications for police and forensic investigation are also outlined.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9238-9
  • The Impact of Mindfulness Meditation and Self-Compassion on Criminal
           Impulsivity in a Prisoner Sample
    • Authors: Richard H. Morley
      Abstract: Abstract Previous studies indicate a link between mindfulness practice and improvements in self-compassion Neff (Self and identity 2(2):85–101, 2003b), self-regulation Baer (Clinical psychology: Science and practice 10(2):125–143, 2003), and a reduction in criminality Rainforth (Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36(1–4):181–203, 2003). Similarly, self-compassion has been linked to greater self-control among criminals Morley (Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 1–15, 2016). The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of mindfulness meditation and self-compassion on criminal impulsivity. To accomplish this investigation, a survey was conducted examining self-compassion as a mediator for the practice of mindfulness-based meditation and criminal impulsivity among jail inmates interested in meditation. The analysis showed that self-compassion, criminal impulsivity, and length of practicing mindfulness meditation were correlated. The results also showed that the relationship between practicing mindfulness meditation and self-reported criminal impulsivity was mediated by self-compassion. The results and limitations of this study were discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9239-8
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