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Journal Cover Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1936-6469 - ISSN (Online) 0882-0783
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Assessing the Effectiveness of NICHD Protocol Training Focused on Episodic
           Memory Training and Rapport-Building: a Study of Korean Police Officers
    • Authors: Misun Yi; Eunkyung Jo; Michael E. Lamb
      Pages: 279 - 288
      Abstract: The present study examined the effectiveness of 2-day training programs utilizing the NICHD Protocol, with a particular focus on the episodic memory training and rapport-building phases. Ninety-seven police officers were allocated to one of four training conditions (protocol only, protocol and rapport-building, protocol and memory training, protocol and other interview issues), and mock interviews were conducted both before and after the training. The results showed that the proportions of invitations and directive questions asked significantly increased after training, whereas the proportions of option-posing and suggestive questions decreased. Although the different training programs changed interviewing behavior similarly, college students interviewed by police officers who had additional training in rapport-building and episodic memory training were more satisfied with their interviewers than those who were interviewed by police officers in the other conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9220-y
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Show Me Your Hands! Police and Public Perceptions of Violent Interpersonal
    • Authors: Richard R. Johnson
      Pages: 289 - 299
      Abstract: Psychology has recently begun to examine human interpersonal social predictors of violence. One area yet unexamined is potential differences between law enforcement officers and non-police in their perception of aggressive interpersonal social cues. Using a sample of 129 police officers and 178 non-police individuals, a direct comparison was made about perceptions of interpersonal social behaviors associated with imminent violence. It was revealed that both samples generally shared similar perceptions, with a few exceptions. Police officers were more sensitive than other individuals are to each of the behavioral cues. The police sample also perceived the behavior of placing one’s hands in one’s pockets as more threatening than did the non-police sample.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9221-x
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Lie Detection Accuracy—the Role of Age and the Use of Emotions as a
           Reliable Cue
    • Authors: Hannah Shaw; Minna Lyons
      Pages: 300 - 304
      Abstract: Literature surrounding the accuracy of deception detection has produced inconsistent findings, and the majority of investigations have been based upon low-stakes lies. Although recent research has suggested that high-stakes situations may produce reliable cues to deception, it remains unclear whether knowledge of these cues actually improves the detection of lies. In an online experiment, we assessed participant’s ability to detect lies in 22 public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives (N = 196). Participants were randomly allocated to either the cue condition (presented with previously identified cues to deception) or no cue condition (instructed to make judgement on instinct), before being presented with the video footage. Participants were asked to indicate whether the appealer is lying or telling the truth, how confident they are in their judgement and if they were familiar with the case. At the end of the experiment, participants wrote qualitative responses on the cues that they used during lie detection. Although cue knowledge and confidence did not significantly predict accuracy scores, there was a positive relationship between accuracy and age. Participants who used emotion-based cues were significantly better at detecting deception. The findings are discussed with reference to the existence of reliable cues.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9222-9
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Crimes Against Caring: Exploring the Risk of Secondary Traumatic Stress,
           Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Child Exploitation
    • Authors: Patrick Q. Brady
      Pages: 305 - 318
      Abstract: Secondary traumatic stress (STS) and burnout are debilitating occupational hazards that inhibit helping professional’s overall well-being. Much of the extant scholarship on this topic has focused on mental health and child welfare workers and not law enforcement officials who investigate Internet child exploitation. This study used data from 433 Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Force personnel to explore the impact of individual and work-related factors associated with the risk of STS, burnout, and compassion satisfaction. Findings indicated that nearly one in four ICAC personnel exhibited low compassion satisfaction and high levels of STS and burnout. Individual-level protective factors for increasing compassion satisfaction and mitigating symptoms of STS and burnout included having a strong social support system outside of work and the frequent use of positive coping mechanisms. Work-related risk factors such as frequent indirect exposure to disturbing materials, low organizational support, and frequently feeling overwhelmed at work were all associated with higher STS and burnout and lower levels of compassion satisfaction. Policy implications and future avenues of research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9223-8
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Observers’ Real-Time Sensitivity to Deception in Naturalistic
    • Authors: Drew A. Leins; Laura A. Zimmerman; Emily N. Polander
      Pages: 319 - 330
      Abstract: This study tested the ability of experienced interviewers and novice observers to detect deception while watching mock interviews featuring experimental or control questioning methods and different detainee languages. The protocol featured a complex, realistic critical event and naturalistic interviews in which mock detainees could report unconstrained. Experimenters recorded these interviews and presented them to observers who judged veracity in real time. In general, experienced interviewers were no more sensitive to deception than were novices and both groups set conservative response criteria. Observers were more sensitive to deception when viewing control versus experimental questioning methods. Observers were more sensitive to deception when viewing Arabic speakers interviewed through an interpreter. Results imply that not all trained interviewers exhibit a lie bias; additional research should examine how best to transition lab-tested interview methods into the field, and language and interpreter factors may impact the ability to assess veracity in multiple ways.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9224-2
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Hardiness as a Moderator and Motivation for Operational Duties as
           Mediator: the Relation Between Operational Self-Efficacy, Performance
           Satisfaction, and Perceived Strain in a Simulated Police Training Scenario
    • Authors: Bjørn Helge Johnsen; Roar Espevik; Evelyn-Rose Saus; Sverre Sanden; Olav Kjellevold Olsen; Sigurd W. Hystad
      Pages: 331 - 339
      Abstract: Training of police officers is important in order to maintain an effective law enforcement community. The present study investigates the mediating effect of motivation for operational duties on the relation between operational self-efficacy and performance satisfaction as well as perceived strain during a simulated operational scenario. Moderating effects of personality hardiness on the same relations were also investigated. Personality hardiness as a moderator was found only for the relation between operational self-efficacy and performance satisfaction. A positive effect was found for high hardy subjects, and a negative effect was found for low hardy subjects. The results also showed a mediating effect of motivation for operational duties on both performance satisfaction and perceived strain. This could have implication for selection and training in the police force.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9225-1
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • The Influence of Police Profanity on Public Perception of Excessive Force
    • Authors: Christina L. Patton; Michael Asken; William J. Fremouw; Robert Bemis
      Pages: 340 - 357
      Abstract: Previous research has examined elements of police performance impacting community policing and police-citizen relationships, but no study has considered the impact of police use of profanity during arrest on public rating of force. Police profanity may negatively bias police-citizen interactions, and this bias could shape later interactions with community members, impact the quality of police-community relations, or even result in public outcry over excessive use of force. The aim of this study was to determine whether officer use of profanity during arrest led to public perception of excessive force and to examine whether gender of the officer or subject affected this relation. Force was evaluated as more excessive when profanity was used, when the subject was a female, and when the officer was a female. Participants who rated force as excessive had significantly more negative attitudes about police and police use of force. These findings have direct implications for police training and suggest that if police avoid the use of profanity, this could result in more positive relationships with the public and fewer allegations of excessive force. Future researchers should further evaluate the nature and impact of gender biases against female police, as they may contribute to reduced opportunities, less frequent promotion, and reduced self-efficacy in female officers.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9226-0
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Predictors of Group Performance in a Police Criminal Investigation
           Department: the Role of Gender Homogeneity, Leadership and Team
    • Authors: Jaap Schaveling; Saskia Blaauw; Kees van Montfort
      Pages: 358 - 368
      Abstract: The Netherlands’ Ministry of Security and Justice has agreed on performance targets with the country’s police departments. Introducing the targets created a shift to controlling performance in team management focus. This empirical study of police teams in Utrecht in the Netherlands (N = 134) focuses on the influence of leadership style, gender and psychosocial team factors when teams are required to achieve agreed performance objectives. We address calls in the literature for more research into (objective) measures relating to effective police leadership and existing (police) management practices. Gender homogeneity, a combination of charismatic, empowering and transactional leadership styles, and team members’ awareness of team achievements were found to be relevant. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9227-z
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • The Effect of Post-ID Feedback on Retrospective Self-Reports in Showups
    • Authors: Kylie N. Key; Stacy A. Wetmore; Daniella K. Cash; Jeffrey S. Neuschatz; Scott D. Gronlund
      Pages: 369 - 377
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of post-identification feedback on witness retrospective self-reports in showups and lineups, and importantly, focused on guilty and innocent suspect identifications. After viewing a mock crime video, participants were asked to identify the suspect from either a target-present or target-absent photo lineup or showup. Participants were randomly assigned to receive confirming feedback (“Great job, you made the correct decision”) or no feedback about their identification, before self-reporting confidence, view, attention, willingness to testify, and trust of a witness with a similar view. We replicated the typical finding that confirming feedback inflated witness self-reports and resulted in a larger proportion of witnesses meeting the credibility threshold necessary to testify. Importantly, we also found that showups had significantly higher self-reports than lineups, despite the equal discriminability achieved in this study between these two procedures. These data provide yet another reason for the police to restrict use of showups.
      PubDate: 2017-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9228-y
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 4 (2017)
  • Factors Affecting Recognition of Senior Citizens in a Silver Alert
    • Authors: Vicki S. Gier; David S. Kreiner; James M. Lampinen
      Pages: 185 - 196
      Abstract: The current study investigated the recognition of faces of senior citizens in the context of a Silver Alert. Literature on face recognition and eyewitness identification has consistently found recognition failure due to factors such as Own-Age Bias, the Other-Race Effect, and Own-Gender Bias. Participants viewed a video of people in a naturalistic setting, a park. The target, an elderly woman, wore either typical clothing or atypical clothing (nightgown), was not present or was not present but replaced with a different senior. We measured accuracy, confidence, reaction time, and Prediction-of-Knowing in relation to type of clothing worn by the target as well as age, race, and gender of participants. We hypothesized that recognition of the target senior would be low but would be higher when the woman appeared in a nightgown (matching the stereotype of an individual with dementia) as compared to typical clothing. We did not find age, race, and gender effects on target recognition. We offer possible explanations for both significant and non-significant results as they apply to the unique population of missing elderly adults.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9210-0
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Consequences of Undercover Operations in Law Enforcement: a Review of
           Challenges and Best Practices
    • Authors: Devin Kowalczyk; Matthew J. Sharps
      Pages: 197 - 202
      Abstract: Undercover (UC) assignments are among the most stressful faced by law enforcement officers. Undercover work features isolation from colleagues and family, the necessity to adopt behaviors and false personal characteristics frequently opposite to the given officer’s beliefs and personality, and negative attention from members of the public and even from fellow officers while in the undercover role. Because of all of these factors, undercover work is frequently associated with problems in mental and physical health, and with difficulties in post-assignment social adjustment with family, community, and department. Undercover work is inherently difficult to research, but as the present review indicates, there is significant overlap between the symptomatology typical of undercover work and of that typical of non-UC police work, normally an area of greater research accessibility. These issues will be addressed below. In addition, this review identifies current best psychological practices in dealing with the undercover officer client; these include reliable, supportive, frequent contact with officer clients, psychoeducation in the areas of coping mechanisms, reframing of undercover work in terms of the overall corpus of the given officer’s career, and mechanisms of reintegration of the undercover officer into the realm of more typical, and frequently more mundane, regular police duties.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9211-z
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Using an Eye Tracking Device to Assess Vulnerabilities to Burglary
    • Authors: Thomas Zawisza; Ray Garza
      Pages: 203 - 213
      Abstract: This research examines the extent to which visual cues influence a person’s decision to burglarize. Participants in this study (n = 65) viewed ten houses through an eye tracking device and were asked whether or not they thought each house was vulnerable to burglary. The eye tracking device recorded where a person looked and for how long they looked (in milliseconds). Our findings showed that windows and doors were two of the most important visual stimuli. Results from our follow-up questionnaire revealed that stimuli such as fencing, beware of pet signs, cars in driveways, and alarm systems are also considered. There are a number of implications for future research and policy.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9213-x
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • The Mystery Man Can Increase the Reliability of Eyewitness Identifications
           for Older Adult Witnesses
    • Authors: Catriona Havard; Phyllis Laybourn; Barbara Klecha
      Pages: 214 - 224
      Abstract: Some groups of eyewitnesses, such as older adults and children, are less likely to correctly reject a target-absent (TA) line-up, as compared to younger adults. Previous research reports that using a silhouette in a video line-up called the ‘mystery man’ could increase correct rejections for TA lineups for child eyewitnesses, without reducing correct identifications for target-present (TP) line-ups (Havard and Memon in Appl Cogn Psychol 27:50–59, 2013). The current study, using older and younger adults, investigated whether using the mystery man would also increase the identification accuracy for older adults, without impairing younger adults’ identification accuracy. The results found that older adults in the ‘mystery man’ condition rejected TA line-ups significantly more often than those in the control condition (52 vs. 24 %), with no significant effect upon the TP line-ups. For the younger adults, the mystery man had no influence on identification responses for the TA or TP line-ups. Our findings suggest the mystery man technique may be beneficial for older adults, without detrimentally affecting the accuracy for younger adults, and thus could increase the reliability of eyewitness evidence, where video line-ups are employed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9214-9
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Coping with Work Stress in Police Employees
    • Authors: Abhay Pratap Singh
      Pages: 225 - 235
      Abstract: Present study endeavored to investigate the role of coping in work stress of police employees. A 3 × 2 factorial design with three levels of job hierarchy (officers, sub-inspectors, and constables) and two levels of job tenure [short job tenure (0–10 year) and long job tenure (above 10 year)] was used in present study. A total of 240 police personnel from Gorakhpur Zone (India) participated as respondents. Objective Work Stress Scale, Feeling of Work Stress Scale (Cooper 1983), and Coping Scale (Carver et al. 1989) were used to determine the level of work stress and coping of the police employees. ANOVA results revealed that the level of work stress varied across different groups of police personnel. More specifically, objective work stress was found greater in sub-inspectors than constables and officers while constables reported more feeling of work stress than sub-inspectors and officers, respectively. Furthermore, the different groups of police personnel differed on various forms of coping response, in which officers used more active- and adaptive-related coping strategies than sub-inspectors and constables, respectively. Contrary to this, constables used more maladaptive coping strategies than sub-inspectors and officers. Correlation results evinced that active- and adaptive-related coping responses have an inverse link with work stress, whereas maladaptive coping responses have a positive relationship with work stress. Findings have been discussed in the light of organizational and personal factors.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9215-8
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • M. C. Watt. Explorations in Forensic Psychology: Cases in Criminal and
           Abnormal Behaviour
    • Authors: Brittany Blaskovits
      Pages: 247 - 250
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9217-6
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Dealing with the Unthinkable: a Study of the Cognitive and Emotional
    • Authors: Jason Roach; Ashley Cartwright; Kathryn Sharratt
      Pages: 251 - 262
      Abstract: Although the death of a child is without doubt one of the most distressing events imaginable, when it occurs in suspicious circumstances, such as at the hand of a parent or close family member, its effects are often more acute and incomprehensible. This paper presents an exploratory study comparing the cognitive and emotional stressors experienced by police when investigating child and adult homicides. The results of an online survey questionnaire with 99 experienced UK police investigators are presented, with key differences found in the cognitive and emotional stress experienced depending on whether the victim is a child or an adult, key differences and similarities identified in the ways investigators deal and cope with adult and child homicide cases, with a tentative discussion of the implications for the well-being and training of police investigators provided.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9218-5
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Do Not Lie to Me, or Else: the Effect of a Turncoat Warning and Rapport
           Building on Perceptions of Police Interviewers
    • Authors: Sarah MacDonald; Zak Keeping; Brent Snook; Kirk Luther
      Pages: 263 - 277
      Abstract: The effects of warning witnesses about lying (i.e., turncoat warning) and rapport building on perceptions of police interviewers were examined across two experiments. In experiment 1, participants (N = 59) were asked to assume the role of a witness when reading four interview transcript excerpts and rate the police interviewer on an eight-item attitudinal scale. Interviewers who warned witnesses about lying were viewed less favorably than when no warning was administered. Interviewers who used rapport-building techniques were viewed more favorably than those who did not attempt to build rapport. There was also a moderating interaction, whereby the use of rapport-building techniques offset the lower attitudinal ratings associated with the administration of the warning. In experiment 2, participants (N = 46) were asked to assume the role of a third party observer when reading four interview transcript excerpts and rate the police interviewer on a ten-item attitudinal scale. Results of experiment 2 replicated the findings from experiment 1. The potential implications of starting an interview by warning a witness about lying are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-016-9219-4
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 3 (2017)
  • Serial Homicide Perpetrators’ Self-Reported Psychopathy and Criminal
    • Authors: Scott E. Culhane; Stephannie Walker; Meagen M. Hildebrand
      Abstract: The current research reports 61 male serial murderers’ responses to self-report questionnaires designed to assess levels of psychopathy and criminal thinking. Three separate measures of psychopathy were included. Contrary to our predictions, results indicated that our sample of serial murderers did not demonstrate strong evidence of psychopathy. Rather, the percentage of inmates who could be classified as having psychopathic tendencies is on par with the general population of prisoners. Only half of the participants had an interpretable criminal thinking style scale. Temperament and power issues were the two factors of greatest significance for understanding the serial homicide perpetrators’ criminal cognition. In line with expectations, multiple significant correlations were observed for the measures. Implications and limitations of the research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9245-x
  • Planning Ahead' An Exploratory Study of South Korean Investigators’
           Beliefs About Their Planning for Investigative Interviews of Suspects
    • Authors: Jihwan Kim; Dave Walsh; Ray Bull; Henriette Bergstrøm
      Abstract: Preparation and planning has been argued to be vitally important as to how effectively investigators undertake their interviews with suspects. Yet, it has also been found in previous research that investigators admit that they plan only occasionally, often attributing insufficient time as a reason for not undertaking the task. Employing a novel research paradigm that utilised theoretical foundations concerning planning, the present study explored empirically 95 South Korean financial crime investigators’ views, using a self-administered questionnaire. With the use of second-generation statistical modelling, an understanding was developed of the relative relationships between various concepts (which had themselves emerged from an established theoretical framework of planning that had been further extended to accommodate the context of the present study). The study found that perceived time pressures actually showed a very low association with interview planning. Rather, investigators’ self-belief as to their own capability alongside workplace culture was each found to have stronger associations with investigators’ intentions to plan for their interviews. As such, we argue that there should be more focus on improving occupational culture relating to interview planning, while developing training programs that identify, evaluate, and enhance investigators’ planning skills. Implications for practice are therefore discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9243-z
  • Informing Police Response to Intimate Partner Violence: Predictors of
           Perceived Usefulness of Risk Assessment Screening
    • Authors: Mary Ann Campbell; Carmen Gill; Dale Ballucci
      Abstract: Substantial research has demonstrated the value of using risk assessment tools for the prediction and management of violence risk, including for intimate partner violence (IPV) (Mills, Kroner, and Morgan 2011). Such tools have been advocated for use by police officers (Hilton, Grant, and Rice 2010), but little is known about police officers’ perceptions of using these tools to inform their decision-making. Using a sample of 159 Canadian police officers (73% male, M age = 41.8 years, SD = 8.9), the current study examined police officer’s experiences with IPV risk tools, their attitudes about using such tools, and identified predictors of these attitudes using an online survey. Most of this sample had previously used an IPV risk tool, which was most commonly the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (64.1%). Most police officers rated use of risk tools as at least somewhat to extremely helpful (73.5%), and 67.4% indicated that they would use a risk tool with sufficient training on it. Regression analyses indicated that police officers’ perceived IPV risk tool usefulness was significantly predicted by older respondent age and greater perceived need for guidance in responding to IPV calls. In conclusion, most police officers view IPV risk screening as valuable for informing their responses to such calls for service and are likely to embrace such decision-aids with sufficient training on their potential impact for enhancing safety.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11896-017-9244-y
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