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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.302
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 263  
 
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ISSN (Print) 0022-3514 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1315
Published by APA Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Why I don’t always know what I’m feeling: The role of stress in
           within-person fluctuations in emotion differentiation.
    • Abstract: Emotion differentiation, the ability to make fine-grained distinctions between emotional states, has mainly been studied as a trait. In this research, we examine within-person fluctuations in emotion differentiation and hypothesize that stress is a central factor in predicting these fluctuations. We predict that experiencing stress will result in lower levels of emotion differentiation. Using data from a 3-wave longitudinal experience sampling study, we examined the within-person fluctuations in the level of emotion differentiation across days and months and tested if these fluctuations related to changes in stress levels. On the day-level, we found that differentiation of negative emotions varied significantly within individuals, that high stress levels were associated with lower levels of emotion differentiation, and that stress on 1 day negatively predicted the level of differentiation of negative emotions on a next day (but not vice versa). On the wave-level, we found a concurrent, but not a prospective relationship between stress and emotion differentiation. These results are the first to directly demonstrate the role of stress in predicting fluctuations in emotion differentiation and have implications for our theoretical understanding of emotion differentiation, as well as for interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Beautiful mess effect: Self–other differences in evaluation of
           showing vulnerability.
    • Abstract: Confessing romantic feelings, asking for help, or taking responsibility for a mistake constitute just a few examples of situations that require showing one’s vulnerability. Out of fear, many individuals decide against it. To explore whether these fears are reflected in the evaluation of others, we investigate self–other differences in evaluation of showing vulnerability. Drawing on construal level theory, we hypothesize that the mental representations of individuals who find themselves in a vulnerable situation are rather concrete, shifting the focus on the negative aspects of making oneself vulnerable and resulting in a relatively negative evaluation of showing vulnerability. By contrast, when depicting others in a vulnerable situation, individuals are expected to represent it more abstractly, focus more on the positive aspects of showing vulnerability, and, therefore, evaluate it more positively. A total of seven studies demonstrate the predicted self–other differences in the evaluation of showing vulnerability in various situations, such as confessing love, revealing imperfections of one’s body, or asking for help, including evidence on the generalizability of the effect in a real-life situation. Moreover, we report empirical evidence on the crucial role of level of construal in the emergence of the observed self-other differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Social decoys: Leveraging choice architecture to alter social preferences.
    • Abstract: Many of society’s most significant social decisions are made over sets of individuals: for example, evaluating a collection of job candidates when making a hiring decision. Rational theories of choice dictate that decision makers’ preferences between any two options should remain the same irrespective of the number or quality of other options. Yet people’s preferences for each option in a choice set shift in predictable ways as function of the available alternatives. These violations are well documented in consumer behavior contexts: for example, the decoy effect, in which introducing a third inferior product changes consumers’ preferences for two original products. The current experiments test the efficacy of social decoys and harness insights from computational models of decision-making to examine whether choice set construction can be used to change preferences in a hiring context. Across seven experiments (N = 6312) we find that participants have systematically different preferences for the exact same candidate as a function of the other candidates in the choice set (Experiments 1a–1d, 2) and the salience of the candidate attributes under consideration (Experiments 2, 3a, 3b). Specifically, compromise and (often) asymmetric-dominance decoys increased relative preference for their yoked candidates when candidates were counterstereotypical (e.g., high warmth/low competence male candidate). More importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that we can mimic the effect of a decoy in the absence of a third candidate by manipulating participants’ exposure to candidates’ attributes: balanced exposure to candidates’ warmth and competence information significantly reduced bias between the two candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Proactive control of implicit bias: A theoretical model and implications
           for behavior change.
    • Abstract: Four experiments examined the effect of proactive control on expressions of implicit racial bias. Whereas reactive control is engaged in response to a biasing influence (e.g., a stereotype, temptation, or distraction), proactive control is engaged in advance of such biases, functioning to strengthen task focus and, by consequence, limiting the affordance for a bias to be expressed in behavior. Using manipulations of response interference to modulate proactive control, proactive control was found to eliminate expressions of weapons bias, prejudice, and stereotyping on commonly used implicit assessments. Process dissociation analysis indicated that this pattern reflected changes in controlled processing but not automatic associations, as theorized, and assessments of neural activity, using event-related potentials, revealed that proactive control reduces early attention to task-irrelevant racial cues while increasing focus on task-relevant responses. Together, these results provide initial evidence for proactive control in social cognition and demonstrate its effectiveness at reducing expressions of implicit racial bias. Based on these findings and past research, we present a model of proactive and reactive control that offers a novel and generative perspective on self-regulation and prejudice reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Procedural Frames in Negotiations: How Offering My Resources Versus
           Requesting Yours Impacts Perception, Behavior, and Outcomes: Correction to
           Trötschel et al. (2015).
    • Abstract: Reports an error in "Procedural frames in negotiations: How offering my resources versus requesting yours impacts perception, behavior, and outcomes" by Roman Trötschel, David D. Loschelder, Benjamin P. Höhne and Johann M. Majer (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015[Mar], Vol 108[3], 417-435). In the article “Procedural Frames in Negotiations: How Offering My Resources Versus Requesting Yours Impacts Perception, Behavior, and Outcomes” by Roman Trötschel, David D. Loschelder, Benjamin P. Höhne, and Johann M. Majer (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015, Vol. 108, No. 3, pp. 417–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000009), rounding errors in p values occur in the Results under the Concession rate section of Experiment 4a and in the Outcome profits section of Experiment 5. The second sentence of the Discussion section of Experiment 4a should read as follows: Averaged across roles (i.e., buyers and sellers) parties made lower concessions and achieved higher individual outcomes when offering rather requesting resources. The last sentence of the Concession rates section of Experiment 5 should read as follows: This pattern was reversed when animals from zoo Y were addressed first, although this contrast effect did not reach significance. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-09924-002.) Although abundant negotiation research has examined outcome frames, little is known about the procedural framing of negotiation proposals (i.e., offering my vs. requesting your resources). In a series of 8 experiments, we tested the prediction that negotiators would show a stronger concession aversion and attain better individual outcomes when their own resource, rather than the counterpart’s, is the accentuated reference resource in a transaction. First, senders of proposals revealed a stronger concession aversion when they offered their own rather than requested the counterpart’s resources—both in buyer-seller (Experiment 1a) and in classic transaction negotiations (Experiment 2a). Expectedly, this effect reversed for recipients: When receiving requests rather than offers, recipients experienced a stronger concession aversion in buyer-seller (Experiment 1b) and transaction negotiations (Experiment 2b). Experiments 3−5 investigated procedural frames in the interactive process of negotiations—with elementary schoolchildren (Experiment 3), in a buyer-seller context (Experiments 4a and 4b), and in a computer-mediated transaction negotiation void of buyer and seller roles (Experiment 5). In summary, 8 experiments showed that negotiators are more concession averse and claim more individual value when negotiation proposals are framed to highlight their own rather than the counterpart’s resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000009) rounding errors in p values occur in the Results under the Concess
       
  • The art of influence: When and why deviant artists gain impact.
    • Abstract: Some artists rise to fame, while others sink into oblivion. What determines whether artists make an impact' Considering deviance in its sociohistorical context, we propose that artists whose work deviates from their own previous style (intrapersonal deviance) and other artists’ styles (interpersonal deviance) gain greater impact than nondeviant artists, as long as deviance is directed toward a progressive style. A preliminary study showed that in western cultures nonrealistic styles are considered more progressive than realistic styles (Study 1). Five more studies provide evidence for the effects of the two types of artistic deviance on several aspects of impact (i.e., perceived influence of the artist, valuation of the artwork, and visual attention to the artwork). First, individuals considered artists who deviated from their previous style more impactful than artists who consistently followed a single style (Study 2), effects that were stronger when artists transitioned from a retrogressive style to a progressive one (Study 3). Second, artists who deviated from their contemporaries’ style were considered more impactful than artists who followed the predominant style, effects that were stronger when artists strayed from a predominant retrogressive style by using progressive means of expression (Studies 4 and 5). When the historical context prevented observers from inferring the progressiveness of the deviant artists’ expressive means, artistic deviance enhanced perceived impact regardless of the means by which the artists deviated (Study 6). Supporting our theoretical model, the effects of intrapersonal and interpersonal deviance on impact were mediated by perceived will-power (Studies 3, 5, and 6). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Stereotypes of age differences in personality traits: Universal and
           accurate: Correction to Chan et al. (2012).
    • Abstract: Reports an error in "Stereotypes of age differences in personality traits: Universal and accurate" by Wayne Chan, Robert R. Mccrae, Filip De Fruyt, Lee Jussim, Corinna E. Löckenhoff, Marleen De Bolle, Paul T. Costa, Angelina R. Sutin, Anu Realo, Jüri Allik, Katsuharu Nakazato, Yoshiko Shimonaka, Martina Hřebíčková, Sylvie Graf, Michelle Yik, Marina Brunner-sciarra, Nora Leibovich De Figueroa, Vanina Schmidt, Chang-kyu Ahn, Hyun-nie Ahn, Maria E. Aguilar-vafaie, Jerzy Siuta, Barbara Szmigielska, Thomas R. Cain, Jarret T. Crawford, Khairul Anwar Mastor, Jean-pierre Rolland, Florence Nansubuga, Daniel R. Miramontez, Verónica Benet-martínez, Jérôme Rossier, Denis Bratko, Iris Marušić, Jamin Halberstadt, Mami Yamaguchi, Goran Knežević, Thomas A. Martin, Mirona Gheorghiu, Peter B. Smith, Claudio Barbaranelli, Lei Wang, Jane Shakespeare-finch, Margarida P. Lima, Waldemar Klinkosz, Andrzej Sekowski, Lidia Alcalay, Franco Simonetti, Tatyana V. Avdeyeva, V. S. Pramila and Antonio Terracciano (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012[Dec], Vol 103[6], 1050-1066). In the article “Stereotypes of Age Differences in Personality Traits: Universal and Accurate'” by Wayne Chan, Robert R. McCrae, Filip De Fruyt, Lee Jussim, Corinna E. Löckenhoff, Marleen De Bolle, Paul T. Costa Jr., Angelina R. Sutin, Anu Realo, Jüri Allik, Katsuharu Nakazato, Yoshiko Shimonaka, Martina Hřebíková, Sylvie Graf, Michelle Yik, Marina Brunner-Sciarra, Nora Leibovich de Figueroa, Vanina Schmidt, Chang-kyu Ahn, Hyun-nie Ahn, Maria E. Aguilar-Vafaie, Jerzy Siuta, Barbara Szmigielska, Thomas R. Cain, Jarret T. Crawford, Khairul Anwar Mastor, Jean-Pierre Rolland, Florence Nansubuga, Daniel R. Miramontez, Veronica Benet-Martínez, Jérôme Rossier, Denis Bratko, Iris Marušić, Jamin Halberstadt, Mami Yamaguchi, Goran Knežević, Thomas A. Martin, Mirona Gheorghiu, Peter B. Smith, Claudio Barbaranelli, Lei Wang, Jane Shakespeare-Finch, Margarida P. Lima, Waldemar Klinkosz, Andrzej Sekowski, Lidia Alcalay, Franco Simonetti, Tatyana V. Avdeyeva, V. S. Pramila, and Antonio Terracciano (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2012, Vol. 103, No. 6, pp. 1050–1066. http://dx.doi.org/10 .1037/a0029712), the 17th author’s name was misspelled in the byline and author note. The correct spelling is Nora Leibovich de Figueroa. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-28195-001.) Age trajectories for personality traits are known to be similar across cultures. To address whether stereotypes of age groups reflect these age-related changes in personality, we asked participants in 26 countries (N = 3,323) to rate typical adolescents, adults, and old persons in their own country. Raters across nations tended to share similar beliefs about different age groups; adolescents were seen as impulsive, rebellious, undisciplined, preferring excitement and novelty, whereas old people were consistently considered lower on impulsivity, activity, antagonism, and Openness. These consensual age group stereotypes correlated strongly with published age differences on the five major dimensions of personality and most of 30 specific traits, using as criteria of accuracy both self-reports and observer ratings, different survey methodologies, and data from up to 50 nations. However, personal stereotypes were considerably less accurate, and consensual stereotypes tended to exaggerate differences across age groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Personality development and adjustment in college: A multifaceted,
           cross-national view.
    • Abstract: The current study is among the first to examine rank-order stability and mean-level change across college in both broad Big Five personality trait domains (e.g., Neuroticism) and the narrower facets underlying these domains (i.e., self-reproach, anxiety, and depression). In addition, the current study tests longitudinal associations between Big Five domains and facets and 3 aspects of adjustment: self-esteem, academic adjustment, and social adjustment in college. Specifically, the study examines codevelopment (correlated change), personality effects on later changes in adjustment, and adjustment effects on later changes in personality. Two large longitudinal samples from different countries were employed. Results suggested that rank-order stabilities of facets were generally large (i.e.,>.50) across samples, and comparable with those observed for trait domains. Mean-level findings were largely in line with the maturity principle: levels of neuroticism and (most of) its facets decreased, whereas levels of the other domains and facets were either stable or increased. However, patterns sometimes slightly differed between facets of the same trait domain. All 3 types of longitudinal associations between personality and adjustment were found, but unlike mean-level change often varied by facet. The Extraversion facet of positive affect and the Conscientiousness facets of goal-striving and dependability were positively associated with all 3 adjustment indicators in both samples, whereas the Neuroticism facets of depression and self-reproach were consistently negatively associated with adjustment. In sum, our findings demonstrate that considering Big Five trait facets may be useful to reveal the nuanced ways in which personality develops in tandem with adjustment in college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Interpersonal emotion regulation: Implications for affiliation, perceived
           support, relationships, and well-being.
    • Abstract: People often recruit social resources to manage their emotions, a phenomenon known as interpersonal emotion regulation (IER). Despite its importance, IER’s psychological structure remains poorly understood. We propose that two key dimensions describe IER: (a) individuals’ tendency to pursue IER in response to emotional events, and (b) the efficacy with which they perceive IER improves their emotional lives. To probe these dimensions, we developed the Interpersonal Regulation Questionnaire (IRQ), a valid and reliable measure of individual differences in IER. Factor analyses of participants’ responses confirmed tendency and efficacy as independent dimensions of IER (Study 1; N = 285), and demonstrated independence between how individuals engage with IER in response to negative, versus positive, emotion. In Study 2 (N = 347), we found that individuals high in IER tendency and efficacy are more emotionally expressive, empathetic, and socially connected. Two subsequent studies highlighted behavioral consequences of IER dimensions: people high in IER tendency sought out others more often following experimentally induced emotion (Study 3; N = 400), and individuals high in IER efficacy benefitted more from social support after real-world emotional events (Study 4; N = 787). Finally, a field study of social networks in freshman dormitories revealed that individuals high in IER tendency and efficacy developed more supportive relationships during the first year of college (Study 5; N = 193). These data (a) identify distinct dimensions underlying IER, (b) demonstrate that these dimensions can be stably measured and separated from related constructs, and (c) reveal their implications for relationships and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • The incremental validity of average state self-reports over global
           self-reports of personality.
    • Abstract: Personality traits are most often assessed using global self-reports of one’s general patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior. However, recent theories have challenged the idea that global self-reports are the best way to assess traits. Whole Trait Theory postulates that repeated measures of a person’s self-reported personality states (i.e., the average of many state self-reports) can be an alternative and potentially superior way of measuring a person’s trait level (Fleeson & Jayawickreme, 2015). Our goal is to examine the validity of average state self-reports of personality for measuring between-person differences in what people are typically like. In order to validate average states as a measure of personality, we examine whether they are incrementally valid in predicting informant reports above and beyond global self-reports. In 2 samples, we find that average state self-reports tend to correlate with informant reports, although this relationship is weaker than the relationship between global self-reports and informant reports. Further, using structural equation modeling, we find that average state self-reports do not significantly predict informant reports independently of global self-reports. Our results suggest that average state self-reports may not contain information about between-person differences in personality traits beyond what is captured by global self-reports, and that average state self-reports may contain more self-bias than is commonly believed. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on daily manifestations of personality and the accuracy of self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2017 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • In your eyes only' Discrepancies and agreement between self- and
           other-reports of personality from age 14 to 29.
    • Abstract: Do others perceive the personality changes that take place between the ages of 14 and 29 in a similar fashion as the aging person him- or herself' This cross-sectional study analyzed age trajectories in self- versus other-reported Big Five personality traits and in self–other agreement in a sample of more than 10,000 individuals from the myPersonality Project. Results for self-reported personality showed maturation effects (increases in extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability), and this pattern was generally also reflected in other-reports, albeit with discrepancies regarding timing and magnitude. Age differences found for extraversion were similar between the self- and other-reports, but the increase found in self-reported conscientiousness was delayed in other-reports, and the curvilinear increase found in self-reported openness was slightly steeper in other-reports. Only emotional stability showed a distinct mismatch with an increase in self-reports, but no significant age effect in other-reports. Both the self- and other-reports of agreeableness showed no significant age trends. The trait correlations between the self- and other-reports increased with age for emotional stability, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; by contrast, agreement regarding extraversion remained stable. The profile correlations confirmed increases in self–other agreement with age. We suggest that these gains in agreement are a further manifestation of maturation. Taken together, our analyses generally show commonalities but also some divergences in age-associated mean level changes between self- and other-reports of the Big Five, as well as an age trend toward increasing self–other agreement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 05:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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