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Journal of Navigation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.493
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 214  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0373-4633 - ISSN (Online) 1469-7785
Published by Cambridge University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • NAV volume 71 issue 4 Cover and Front matter
    • PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000280
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • NAV volume 71 issue 4 Cover and Back matter
    • PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000292
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • Real-Time Precise Point Positioning Using Orbit and Clock Corrections as
           Quasi-Observations for Improved Detection of Faults
    • Authors: Ahmed El-Mowafy
      Pages: 769 - 787
      Abstract: Real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) relies on the use of accurate satellite orbit and clock corrections. If these corrections contain large errors or faults, either from the system or by meaconing, they will adversely affect positioning. Therefore, such faults have to be detected and excluded. In traditional PPP, measurements that have faulty corrections are typically excluded as they are merged together. In this contribution, a new PPP model that encompasses the orbit and clock corrections as quasi-observations is presented such that they undergo the fault detection and exclusion process separate from the observations. This enables the use of measurements that have faulty corrections along with predicted values of these corrections in place of the excluded ones. Moreover, the proposed approach allows for inclusion of the complete stochastic information of the corrections. To facilitate modelling of the orbit and clock corrections as quasi-observations, International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) real-time corrections were characterised over a six-month period. The proposed method is validated and its benefits are demonstrated at two sites using three days of data.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317001023
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • An Improved Method of Land Masking for Synthetic Aperture Radar-based Ship
    • Authors: Chan-Su Yang; Ju-Han Park, Ahmed Harun-Al Rashid
      Pages: 788 - 804
      Abstract: Land masking of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is generally accomplished by applying either archived shoreline databases or image segmentation. However, those methods cannot be solely applied to geographical areas complicated with many small islands and exposed rocks. Therefore, we have proposed a new procedure where Sobel edge extraction is applied to detect the edges of all objects from KOMPSAT-5 X-band SAR images, followed by a merging process with the edges from the land objects based on Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC) coastlines. Using the land mask data, geometrically corrected SAR images were masked before applying a ship detection algorithm. This land masking procedure was applied to several images covering different areas of the Korean Peninsula. The results show that land targets such as newly constructed and natural objects were also masked, and thus did not create false alarms during ship detection. Therefore, this method can be used to assist precise ship detection using SAR images in coastal waters.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S037346331800005X
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • GNSS IF Signal Simulation Considering Oscillator Phase Noise
    • Authors: Bing Xu; Lei Dou
      Pages: 805 - 820
      Abstract: Oscillator phase noise has a negative effect on the tracking performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. To provide GNSS software receivers with real test environments, this paper proposes a method to simulate the GNSS Intermediate Frequency (IF) signal, taking the oscillator phase noise effect into consideration. The oscillator parameters are first measured via a pseudolite transmitter and receiver system. According to the measured oscillator parameters, an oscillator-induced frequency fluctuation is then generated, and added to the digital IF signal. Further simulation experiments are conducted that attempt to measure the oscillator phase noise effect on a second-order Phase Lock Loop (PLL) performance. Results indicate that the IF signal simulator considering the oscillator phase noise is able to provide software receivers with real signal dynamics, helping to evaluate the performance of signal processing algorithms on a software platform.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000036
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • GNSS IF Signal Simulation Considering Oscillator Phase Noise –
    • Authors: Bing Xu; Lei Dou
      Pages: 821 - 821
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000097
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • Evaluation of Two-Ship Collision Severity using Ordered Probit Approaches
    • Authors: Jinxian Weng; Guorong Li, Tian Chai, Dong Yang
      Pages: 822 - 836
      Abstract: This study develops an ordered probit model to evaluate the factors influencing two-ship collision severity using ten years’ ship collision accident data from Fujian sea areas. The model results show that the involvement of big ships has the largest impact in increasing the probability of a serious or very serious accident, followed by the involvement of fishing vessels. There will be a bigger probability of a serious accident if both ships involved in the collision are cargo ships. We found that the season of spring, poor visibility and night time periods are more likely to be factors in high severity levels of ship collision. The results also reveal that lookout failure plays a decisive role in increasing serious accident risk compared with other types of human errors. The results of this study may be beneficial for policy-makers in proposing efficient strategies to reduce the likelihood of serious ship collisions.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317000996
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • A Simplified Simulation Model of Ship Navigation for Safety and Collision
           Avoidance in Heavy Traffic Areas
    • Authors: Ming-Chung Fang; Kun-Yuan Tsai, Chih-Chung Fang
      Pages: 837 - 860
      Abstract: Based on our previously developed ship collision avoidance steering system, this paper develops a more extensive collision avoidance decision-making system for non-uniformly moving ships. A real-time simulator based on the Six-Dimensional (6D) Manoeuvring Modelling Group (MMG) model is used to simulate the ship's motion. To validate the manoeuvring mathematical model, sea trial measurements of a container ship (C-3) have been selected. This study incorporates Nomoto's second-order model into a numerical model to calculate the turning characteristics of the ship. The manoeuvring indices of Nomoto's model are the knowledge base of the simplified ship simulation model. To verify the ship collision avoidance system with respect to different traffic factors, simple and complex collision avoidance cases have been designed in fast-time simulations with multi-ship encounter conditions. The simplified simulation model developed here can quickly determine the helm angle when the ship makes a collision avoidance manoeuvre, which is helpful for the safety of ship navigation in heavy traffic areas.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317000923
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • Direction/Distance/Velocity Measurements Deeply Integrated Navigation for
           Venus Capture Period
    • Authors: Jin Liu; Xiao-lin Ning, Xin Ma, Jian-cheng Fang, Gang Liu
      Pages: 861 - 877
      Abstract: In the Venus capture period, it is difficult for celestial autonomous navigation to satisfy the requirement of high precision. To improve autonomous navigation performance, a Direction, Distance and Velocity (DDV) measurements deeply integrated navigation method is proposed. The “deeply” integrated navigation reflects the fact that the direction and velocity measurements suppress the Doppler effects in the pulsar signals. In the pulsar observation period, the direction and velocity measurements are utilised to compensate for Doppler effects in the pulsar signals. By these means, the residual effects can be ignored. When the direction, distance or velocity measurements are obtained, they are fused to improve the navigation performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the DDV measurements deeply integrated navigation filter converges very well, and provides highly accurate position estimation without a high quality requirement on navigation sensors.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317000947
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • Course keeping Control Based on Integrated Nonlinear Feedback for a USV
           with Pod-like Propulsion
    • Authors: Yunsheng Fan; Dongdong Mu, Xianku Zhang, Guofeng Wang, Chen Guo
      Pages: 878 - 898
      Abstract: In this paper, a response model of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) with a pod-like propulsion device is established. To improve the robustness of motion control in heavy sea states, an integrated nonlinear feedback course-keeping controller is proposed. First, to establish a response model of a USV with pod-like propulsion, model parameters are obtained by the method of system identification, then an integrated nonlinear feedback control strategy is proposed. The essence of this method is to make the original error signal pass through a nonlinear function, and then the output of this function is used to replace the original error signal. Simulation results show that under ordinary sea states, nonlinear feedback can save up to 34.5% of energy used compared with standard feedback methods; under heavy sea states, this can rise to 40.8%. A set of field experiments were carried out with a USV with pod-like propulsion. Results show that under heavy sea states, the test USV can maintain the target course well, which proves the correctness of the model and the robustness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000024
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • Phase-aligned Dual-frequency Constant Envelope Multiplexing Technique for
           GNSS Signals
    • Authors: Zhihui Zhou; Zuping Tang, Jiaolong Wei, Xuan Xia, Tao Yan
      Pages: 899 - 918
      Abstract: In the new generation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), dual-frequency constant envelope multiplexing is widely desired and is becoming an important subject in signal design. Considerable work has been devoted to multiplexing for the Alternative Binary Offset Carrier (AltBOC)-like signal model, for which each sideband consists of two or fewer signal components. In this paper, a phase-aligned dual-frequency constant envelope multiplexing technique is proposed for a general dual-frequency signal model. This multiplexing technique can be used to combine two constant-envelope-modulated signals in two sidebands into a composite signal with a constant envelope, where the constant-envelope-modulated signal in each sideband consists of an arbitrary number of signal components with an arbitrary power ratio and phase relationship among the signal components. A Lookup Table (LUT)-based signal generation method is also proposed, for which the required driving clock rate of the signal generator can be flexibly adjusted to meet the requirements of the satellite payload. Applications for the AltBOC-like signal model and a general dual-frequency signal model in the Beidou B1 band validate the flexibility and high multiplexing efficiency of our method. Specifically, AltBOC is a special case of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317000959
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • A Practical Method for the Evaluation of Societal Risk in the Context of
           the International Maritime Organization's Safety Level Approach
    • Authors: Molin Sun; Zhongyi Zheng, Longhui Gang
      Pages: 919 - 932
      Abstract: The Safety Level Approach (SLA) is a structured application of risk-based methodologies for the International Maritime Organization's (IMO's) rule-making process. When the SLA is applied, safety goals have to be provided. In order to set appropriate levels for safety goals, it is necessary to measure the tolerance degree of the current safety level. Based on the consistency with individual risk criteria and the principle of continuous improvement, this paper proposes an approach to establish the societal risk criteria, which can be used for setting safety goals in the context of the IMO's SLA. Furthermore, by defining dynamic factors to express risk aversion, a method for tolerance measurement of the current societal risk is developed. Finally, a case study into the societal risk evaluation of cruise ships and Roll-On Roll-Off (RO-RO) passenger ships is conducted.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317000972
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • A Fast Acquisition Algorithm Based on Division of GNSS Signals
    • Authors: Qingxi Zeng; Wenqi Qiu, Pengna Zhang, Xuefen Zhu, Ling Pei
      Pages: 933 - 954
      Abstract: The acquisition of signals is a precondition for tracking and solution calculation in software-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. The Parallel Code phase Acquisition (PCA) algorithm can simultaneously obtain the correlation results at every sampling point. However, if the number of sampling points that needs processing is large, this method will lead to a heavy computational load. Thus, we improve the process of the PCA algorithm and propose a novel algorithm that divides the signals into K (K is a constant) parts to achieve correlation and obtains the correlation results with a fusion algorithm. This algorithm can simultaneously obtain the correlation results for sampling points at an interval of K points. If the K value is selected appropriately, the computational load can be decreased by about 50%. Also, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves show that under a certain probability of false alarm, the detection probability of the proposed algorithms is 5% lower than that of the PCA algorithm. Therefore, the proposed algorithm can speed up the acquisition process with a slight decrease in detection probability.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317000984
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • Fusion-based Satellite Clock Bias Prediction Considering Characteristics
           and Fitted Residue
    • Authors: Jicang Lu; Chao Zhang, Yong Zheng, Ruopu Wang
      Pages: 955 - 970
      Abstract: As Satellite Clock Bias (SCB) prediction may be affected by various factors such as periodic items, sampling length, and stochastic items, a fusion-based prediction method is proposed by considering characteristics of SCB and fitted residue. On this basis, an instance algorithm is presented by fusing four typical prediction models. First, we use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to pre-process and decompose the SCB series into multiple components with various characteristics. Then, we analyse the fitting performance of each model for different components and prediction length, namely short-, mid- and long-term prediction, and select models with the best performance. Next, we analyse fitted residue of the reconstructed SCB, and select the model with the best fitting results. Finally, we fuse the multiple selected models for SCB prediction. The method is tested using Global Positioning System (GPS) precise clock products provided by the International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS). Experimental results show that, compared with single prediction models and existing combination models, the proposed fusion-based prediction method improves accuracy and stability. In particular, the proposed method is more stable and has better performance for mid- and long-term prediction.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463317001035
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • A Constrained Total Extended Kalman Filter for Integrated Navigation
    • Authors: Vahid Mahboub; Dorsa Mohammadi
      Pages: 971 - 988
      Abstract: In this contribution, an improved Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), named the Total Extended Kalman Filter (TEKF) is proposed for integrated navigation. It can consider the neglected random observed quantities which may appear in a dynamic model. In particular, this paper will consider the case of vision-based navigation. This algorithm is equipped with quadratic constraints and makes use of condition equations. The paper will show that the refined data from different sensors including a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and remote sensors can be fused into a Constrained Total Extended Kalman Filter (CTEKF) algorithm. The CTEKF algorithm is applied to a case study in the Guilan province in the north of Iran. The results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000012
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • Application of Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm in Ship Weather Routing
    • Authors: Hong-Bo Wang; Xiao-Gang Li, Peng-Fei Li, Evgeny I. Veremey, Margarita V. Sotnikova
      Pages: 989 - 1010
      Abstract: Solving the problem of ship weather routing has been always a goal of nautical navigation research and has been investigated by many scientists. The operation schedule of an oceangoing ship can be influenced by wave or wind disturbances, which complicate route planning. In this paper, we present a real-coded genetic algorithm to determine the minimum voyage route time for point-to-point problems in a dynamic environment. A fitness assignment method based on an individual's position in the sorted population is presented, which greatly simplifies the calculation of fitness value. A hybrid mutation operator is proposed to enhance the search for the optimal solution and maintain population diversity. Multi-population techniques and an elite retention strategy are employed to increase population diversity and accelerate convergence rates. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by numerical simulation experiments.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000048
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
  • A Model for Combined GPS and BDS Real-Time Kinematic Positioning using one
           Common Reference Ambiguity
    • Authors: Rui Tu; Jinhai Liu, Rui Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, Xiaochun Lu
      Pages: 1011 - 1024
      Abstract: This paper proposes a model for combined Global Positioning System (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning. The approach uses only one common reference ambiguity, for example, that of GPS L1, and estimates the pseudo-range and carrier phase system and frequency biases. The validations show that these biases are stable during a continuous reference ambiguity period and can be easily estimated, and the other estimated double-differenced ambiguities, such as those of GPS L2, BDS L1, and BDS L2, are not affected. Therefore, our approach solves the problems of a frequently changing reference satellite. In addition, because all the carrier phase observations use the same reference ambiguity, a relationship is established between the different systems and frequencies, and the strength of the combined model is thus increased.
      PubDate: 2018-07-01T00:00:00.000Z
      DOI: 10.1017/S0373463318000061
      Issue No: Vol. 71, No. 4 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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