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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.826
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 154  
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ISSN (Print) 0278-7393 - ISSN (Online) 1939-1285
Published by APA Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Transfer appropriate fluency: Encoding and retrieval interactions in
           fluency-based memory illusions.
    • Abstract: Stimuli that are fluently processed are more likely to be called “old” on a recognition memory test compared with less fluently processed stimuli. The goal of the current study was to investigate how the perceived diagnostic value of fluency is affected by a match between encoding and test conditions. During the encoding phase, participants engaged in different tasks designed to reflect different phonological processing requirements. On a later recognition test, the phonological fluency of some of the items was enhanced. The results showed a relationship between the degree of phonological processing carried out during encoding and the degree to which phonological fluency affected recognition memory decisions. Moreover, when both encoding and fluency conditions were manipulated, there was an encoding by retrieval interaction. When the encoding phase involved attending to visual features, perceptual fluency had a larger effect on recognition responses than phonological fluency. Likewise, when encoding focused on phonological features, phonological fluency had a larger influence on recognition than perceptual fluency. Collectively, the results show that fluency-based illusions of recognition memory recognition biases are more likely when there is a match in the attributes emphasized during study and test. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
  • Two sources of information in reconstructing event sequence.
    • Abstract: Reconstructing memory for sequences is a complex process, likely involving multiple sources of information. In 3 experiments, we examined the source(s) of information that might underlie the ability to accurately place an event within a temporal context. The task was to estimate, after studying each list, the temporal position of a single test word within that list. In the first 2 experiments, we demonstrated that memory for temporal location was better following semantic encoding than silent reading of the list, which in turn was better than orthographic encoding of the list. Although other measures of sequence retention have revealed impaired memory for order with greater item-level encoding, these experiments demonstrated that item-level encoding improved memory for temporal-location. A 3rd experiment extended these findings by measuring interitem associations in addition to item memory, demonstrating that memory for temporal location within a list was more closely related to item information than to interitem relational information. It is now clear that reconstructing an event sequence can involve at least 2 distinct sources of information—both item and relational encoding can play important roles, depending on the nature of the test for order. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
  • Semantic and functional relationships among objects increase the capacity
           of visual working memory.
    • Abstract: Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity of approximately 3–4 visual objects. Current theories of VWM propose that a limited pool of resources can be flexibly allocated to objects, allowing them to be represented at varying levels of precision. Factors that influence the allocation of these resources, such as the complexity and perceptual grouping of objects, can thus affect the capacity of VWM. We sought to identify whether semantic and functional relationships between objects could influence the grouping of objects, thereby increasing the functional capacity of VWM. Observers viewed arrays of 8 to-be-remembered objects arranged into 4 pairs. We manipulated both the semantic association and functional interaction between the objects, then probed participants’ memory for the arrays. When objects were semantically related, participants’ memory for the arrays improved. Participants’ memory further improved when semantically related objects were positioned to interact with each other. However, when we increased the spacing between the objects in each pair, the benefits of functional but not semantic relatedness were eliminated. These findings suggest that action-relevant properties of objects can increase the functional capacity of VWM, but only when objects are positioned to directly interact with each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 04:00:00 GMT
  • Proceeding with care for successful prospective memory: Do we delay
           ongoing responding or actively monitor for cues'
    • Abstract: In prospective memory (PM) research, costs (slowed responding to the ongoing task when a PM task is present relative to when it is not) have typically been interpreted as implicating an attentionally demanding monitoring process. To inform this interpretation, Heathcote, Loft, and Remington (2015), using an accumulator model, found that PM-related costs were associated with changes in a decision threshold parameter. This pattern was interpreted as disfavoring a monitoring process and supporting a non-capacity-consuming delayed responding strategy. The present study combined both behavioral and modeling techniques, as well as embedded parameter validation, to better illuminate the underlying processes involved in PM. We encouraged participants to use either a delayed responding or a monitoring strategy and used these conditions as anchor points for comparing a standard PM condition (with no strategy instructions). The monitoring strategy benefited PM more than did a delayed responding strategy. Most importantly, behaviors and modeling parameters associated with the standard PM instructions more closely reflected footprints of monitoring. Further, we found no individual model parameter that directly implicates monitoring behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 04:00:00 GMT
  • The development of wrap-up processes in text reading: A study of
           children’s eye movements.
    • Abstract: Reading comprehension is the product of constructing a coherent mental model of a text. Although some of the processes that are necessary to construct such a mental model are executed incrementally, others are deferred to the end of the clause or sentence, where integration processing is wrapped up before the reader progresses further in the text. In this longitudinal study of 65 German-speaking children across Grades 2, 3, and 4, we investigated the development of wrap-up processes at clause and sentence boundaries by tracking the children’s eye movements while they read age-appropriate texts. Our central finding was that children in Grade 2 showed strong wrap-up effects that then slowly decreased across school grades. Children in Grades 3 and 4 also increasingly used clause and sentence boundaries to initiate regressions and rereading. Finally, children in Grade 2 were shown to be significantly disrupted in their reading at line breaks, which are inherent in continuous text. This disruption decreased as the children progressed to Grades 3 and 4. Overall, our results show that children exhibit an adultlike pattern of wrap-up effects by the time they reach Grade 4. We discuss this developmental trajectory in relation to models of text processing and mechanisms of eye-movement control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Individual differences in semantic processing: Insights from the Calgary
           semantic decision project.
    • Abstract: Most previous studies of semantic processing have examined group-level data. We investigated the possibility that there might be individual differences in semantic decision performance even among the standard undergraduate population and that such differences might provide insights into semantic processing. We analyzed the Calgary Semantic Decision Project dataset, which includes concrete/abstract semantic decision responses to thousands of words and also a vocabulary measure for each of 312 participants. Results of our analyses showed that semantic decision responses had good reliability, and that the speed of those responses was related to individual differences as assessed by vocabulary scores and also by diffusion model parameters. That is, semantic decisions were faster for participants with higher vocabulary scores and for participants with steeper drift rates. Further, in their semantic decision responses high vocabulary participants showed more sensitivity to some lexical/semantic predictors and less sensitivity to others. For responses to both concrete and abstract words, high vocabulary participants were more sensitive to word concreteness and less sensitive to word frequency and age of acquisition. For concrete words, high vocabulary participants were also more sensitive to semantic neighborhood similarity. The results suggest that high vocabulary participants are able to more readily access semantic information and are better able to emphasize task-relevant dimensions. In sum, the results are consistent with a dynamic, multidimensional account of semantic processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Perceptual boundaries cause mnemonic trade-offs between local boundary
           processing and across-trial associative binding.
    • Abstract: Episodic memories are not veridical records of our lives, but rather are better described as organized summaries of experience. Theories and empirical research suggest that shifts in perceptual, temporal, and semantic information lead to a chunking of our continuous experiences into segments, or “events.” However, the consequences of these contextual shifts on memory formation and organization remains unclear. In a series of 3 behavioral studies, we introduced context shifts (or “event boundaries”) between trains of stimuli and then examined the influence of the boundaries on several measures of associative memory. In Experiment 1, we found that perceptual event boundaries strengthened associative binding of item-context pairings present at event boundaries. In Experiment 2, we observed reduced temporal order memory for items encoded in distinct events relative to items encoded within the same event, and a trade-off between the speed of processing at boundaries, and temporal order memory for items that flanked those boundaries. Finally, in Experiment 3 we found that event organization imprinted structure on the order in which items were freely recalled. These results provide insight into how boundary- and event-related organizational processes during encoding shape subsequent representations of events in episodic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Differential emotional processing in concrete and abstract words.
    • Abstract: Emotion (positive and negative) words are typically recognized faster than neutral words. Recent research suggests that emotional valence, while often treated as a unitary semantic property, may be differentially represented in concrete and abstract words. Studies that have explicitly examined the interaction of emotion and concreteness, however, have demonstrated inconsistent patterns of results. Moreover, these findings may be limited as certain key lexical variables (e.g., familiarity, age of acquisition) were not taken into account. We investigated the emotion-concreteness interaction in a large-scale, highly controlled lexical decision experiment. A 3 (Emotion: negative, neutral, positive) × 2 (Concreteness: abstract, concrete) design was used, with 45 items per condition and 127 participants. We found a significant interaction between emotion and concreteness. Although positive and negative valenced words were recognized faster than neutral words, this emotion advantage was significantly larger in concrete than in abstract words. We explored potential contributions of participant alexithymia level and item imageability to this interactive pattern. We found that only word imageability significantly modulated the emotion-concreteness interaction. While both concrete and abstract emotion words are advantageously processed relative to comparable neutral words, the mechanisms of this facilitation are paradoxically more dependent on imageability in abstract words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • If John is taller than Jake, where is John' Spatial inference from
           magnitude comparison.
    • Abstract: We regularly compare magnitudes and describe these comparisons to other people. This article reports 9 experiments that examine how messages about the relative magnitude of two items affect inferences about the items’ spatial arrangement. Native English speakers were given sentences such as “One tree is taller than the other,” and their beliefs about the left–right arrangement of the objects were probed. Across a wide range of dimensions and tasks, the choice of comparative shaped spatial inference: “Smaller” comparatives (e.g., shorter, lighter, less) led to the belief that the small item was on the left, whereas “larger” comparatives (e.g., longer, heavier, more) led to the belief that the small item was on the right. These inferences match the tendency of message senders to choose comparatives based on spatial layout, such that purely ordinal magnitude comparisons communicate information about the spatial arrangement of the compared objects. There was also evidence for a canonical “small–large” inference, consistent with the tendency of English speakers to associate “small” with “left” and “large” with “right”; however, this effect was task-dependent, indicating a flexible, language-based mapping rather than an immutable bias. Finally, there was evidence that the choice of comparative influenced the salience of particular response options. These results help to elucidate the deep interconnections between language, space, and magnitude: Linguistic tokens and structures reflect physical reality and, in turn, shape mental representations of the physical world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 05:00:00 GMT
  • Retuning of lexical-semantic representations: Repetition and spacing
           effects in word-meaning priming.
    • Abstract: Current models of word-meaning access typically assume that lexical-semantic representations of ambiguous words (e.g., ‘bark of the dog/tree’) reach a relatively stable state in adulthood, with only the relative frequencies of meanings and immediate sentence context determining meaning preference. However, recent experience also affects interpretation: recently encountered word-meanings become more readily available (Rodd et al., 2016, 2013). Here, 3 experiments investigated how multiple encounters with word-meanings influence the subsequent interpretation of these ambiguous words. Participants heard ambiguous words contextually-disambiguated towards a particular meaning and, after a 20- to 30-min delay, interpretations of the words were tested in isolation. We replicate the finding that 1 encounter with an ambiguous word biased the later interpretation of this word towards the primed meaning for both subordinate (Experiments 1, 2, 3) and dominant meanings (Experiment 1). In addition, for the first time, we show cumulative effects of multiple repetitions of both the same and different meanings. The effect of a single subordinate exposure persisted after a subsequent encounter with the dominant meaning, compared to a dominant exposure alone (Experiment 1). Furthermore, 3 subordinate word-meaning repetitions provided an additional boost to priming compared to 1, although only when their presentation was spaced (Experiments 2, 3); massed repetitions provided no such boost (Experiments 1, 3). These findings indicate that comprehension is guided by the collective effect of multiple recently activated meanings and that the spacing of these activations is key to producing lasting updates to the lexical-semantic network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 05:00:00 GMT
  • Informed guessing in change detection.
    • Abstract: Provided stimuli are highly distinct, the detection of changes between two briefly separated arrays appears to be achieved by an all-or-none process where either the relevant information is in working memory or observers guess. This observation suggests that it is possible to estimate the average number of items an observer was able to retain across a series of trials, a potentially highly informative cognitive characteristic. For each version of the change detection paradigm, for this estimate to be accurate, it is important to specify how observers use the information available to them. For some instantiations of this task it is possible that observers use knowledge of the contents of working memory even when they are in a guessing state, rather than selecting between the response alternatives at random. Here we test the suggestion that observers may be able to use their knowledge of the number of items in memory to guide guessing in two versions of the change detection task. The four experiments reported here suggest that participants are, in fact, able to use the parameters of the task to update their base expectation of a change occurring to arrive at more informed guessing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 05:00:00 GMT
  • Environmental scaling influences the use of local but not global geometric
           cues during spatial reorientation.
    • Abstract: During spatial reorientation, the use of local geometric cues (e.g., corner angles) and global geometric cues (e.g., principal axis) is differentially influenced by enclosure size. Local geometric cues exert more influence in large enclosures compared to small enclosures, whereas the use of global geometric cues is not influenced by changes in enclosure size. Such effects are suggested to occur because of differences in training enclosures sizes or differences in testing enclosure sizes, but investigations of enclosure-size effects on spatial cue use have been confounded by environmental scaling between training and testing. We trained participants in a trapezoid-shaped enclosure to respond to a corner uniquely specified by both local and global geometric cues and tested participants in a rectangle (isolating the use of global geometric cues) and in a parallelogram (placing local and global geometric cues in conflict). Between groups, participants experienced different training environment sizes but identical testing environment sizes or identical training environment sizes but different testing environment sizes, and this allowed categorization with respect to the direction of environmental scaling. We found that environmental scaling between training and testing size (but not training size differences or testing size differences) influenced the relative use of local geometric cues. The use of global geometric cues was not influenced by enclosure size. Results challenge prior explanations of the influence of enclosure size on relative spatial cue use during spatial reorientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 05:00:00 GMT
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