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International Migration Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.641
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 181  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 0197-9183 - ISSN (Online) 1747-7379
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1090 journals]
  • Book Review: The Braided River: Migration and the Personal Essay
    • Authors: Azadeh Ghanizadeh
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T09:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320941783
       
  • Legal Histories as Determinants of Incorporation: Previous Undocumented
           Experience and Naturalization Propensities Among Immigrants in the United
           States
    • Authors: Amanda R. Cheong
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines how different histories of illegality may influence immigrants’ orientations toward acquiring citizenship in the United States. Findings from the New Immigrant Survey show that having crossed the border without authorization—compared to having no history of illegality—is associated with a higher propensity to naturalize, indicated by an expressed intention to naturalize upon eligibility and, notably, an early undertaking of the naturalization process. In contrast, there is weaker evidence that immigrants who overstayed their visas or worked without authorization differ with regards to naturalization from immigrants with no history of illegality. Results suggest that immigrants who have experienced the greatest degrees of legal insecurity in the past may be among those most likely to seek out full political membership. Thus, this article bears optimistic implications for the integration potential of previously undocumented immigrants, and highlights the importance of making available legal pathways “out of the shadows” and into the political communities of receiving states.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T09:27:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320934714
       
  • Times of Work and Social Life: Bangladeshi Migrants in Northeast Italy and
           London
    • Authors: Russell King, Francesco Della Puppa
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Taking inspiration from renewed scholarly interest in the role of time in migration, we compare the temporalities of work and social life among male Bangladeshi-origin migrants in northeast Italy and London. We draw conceptually on time geography and rhythmanalysis, and empirically on interviews with 40 Bangladeshi migrant men, to demonstrate the stark contrasts in migrants’ daily lives in the two settings and the impacts of moving from northeast Italy to London. More broadly, this article contributes to debates on the temporalities and rhythms of migrants’ everyday lives via comparative analysis. While in both settings capitalism inexorably shaped class dynamics through its command over flexible labor, there were also marked differences in the routinization of migrants’ work and social and family life. In northeast Italy’s small industrial towns, stable shift-based working rhythms created regular free time for family and associative life. In London, where participants’ employment was limited to low-skill jobs with unsocial hours, family and social life was disrupted, with consequential effects on social integration. The findings presented here highlight the under-appreciated role of onward migration in global migration dynamics and underscore the importance of time, in particular the way in which the diverse temporalities of migrants’ daily lives are shaped by the mode of regulation of the labor market and the spatial setting where migrants’ working and social lives unfold.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-07-03T09:59:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320927012
       
  • Migration, Family Formation and Fertility in the Americas
    • Authors: David P. Lindstrom, Anairis Hernandez-Jabalera, Silvia Giorguli Saucedo
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      In many low- and medium-income countries that are the traditional sources of international migrants, total fertility rates have dropped to levels at or near replacement. In this context of low fertility, we expect migration’s effects on fertility to operate primarily through marital timing and marital stability. We examine the effects of international migration on age at first marriage, union dissolution, timing of first birth, and completed fertility, using retrospective life-history data collected in Mexico and eight other Latin American countries by the Mexican Migration Project (MMP) and the Latin American Migration Project (LAMP). Using discrete-time hazards and Poisson regression models, we find clear evidence that early migration experience results in delayed marriage, delayed first birth, and a higher rate of marital dissolution. We also find evidence among women that cumulative international migration experience is associated with fewer births and that the estimated effects of migration experience are attenuated after taking into account age at union formation and husbands’ prior union experiences. As fertility levels in migrant origin and destination countries continue on their path toward convergence, migrant fertility below native fertility may become more common due to migration’s disruptive effects on marital timing and marital stability and the selection of divorced or separated adults into migration.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-24T09:14:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320923353
       
  • Ascriptive Organizational Stigma and the Constraining of Pakistani
           Immigrant Organizations
    • Authors: Ali R. Chaudhary
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research on the incorporation of immigrants generally celebrates immigrant organizations (IOs) as essential conduits for political mobilization, civic integration, and transnational engagement. Less attention, however, has been given to the external contexts or conditions that can constrain IOs. In this article, I introduce the concept of ascriptive organizational stigma (AOS) and examine how domestic and geopolitical contexts contribute to the stigmatization and constraining of Pakistani immigrant organizational capacities. Data come from 59 in-depth interviews conducted with leaders and members of Pakistani IOs in New York City and London. Findings suggest Pakistani IOs in both cities experienced AOS, and that external pressures to prioritize stigma management over core missions, impeded efforts to serve domestic and homeland constituents. Findings also indicate the stigmatization of ascriptive status markers can contribute to the conflation of immigrants’ group and organizational identities. This article contributes to existing scholarship by revealing how external contexts can lead to the constraining of immigrants’ domestic and homeland-oriented organizational capacities.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-15T08:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320920563
       
  • When Does Social Capital Matter for Migration' A Study of Networks,
           Brokers, and Migrants in Nepal
    • Authors: Nathalie E. Williams, Christina Hughes, Prem Bhandari, Arland Thornton, Linda Young-DeMarco, Cathy Sun, Jeffrey Swindle
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      The study of social capital has been one of the strongest areas of recent advance in migration research, but there are still many questions about how it works and why it has varying effects in studies of different places. In this article, we address the contextual variation in social capital’s effects on migration by considering migration brokers. We argue that destinations for which migration is logistically difficult to arrange give rise to brokerage industries and hypothesize that brokers, in turn, substitute for the informational capital typically provided by social networks. Our empirical tests in Nepal support this narrative, showing that social networks matter for migration to destinations where brokers are not available and have little discernible effect on migration to brokered destinations. Our results suggest that migration research should consider the growing role of brokerage agencies, that theorizations of social capital more broadly must contend with how it is delimited by brokers, and that social scientists might also consider other consequences that can arise from these migration brokers that are increasingly common in many countries and provide a marketized replacement for social capital in some cases.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-08T11:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319882634
       
  • Book Review: Citizenship 2.0: Dual Nationality as a Global Asset
    • Authors: Peter J. Spiro
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-08T10:52:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320931089
       
  • Book Review: Banned: Immigration Enforcement in the Time of Trump
    • Authors: Jennifer Breen
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-08T10:51:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320931088
       
  • Disrupted Geographic Arbitrage and Differential Capacities of Coping in
           Later-Life: Anglo-Western Teacher Expatriates in Brunei
    • Authors: Sin Yee Koh
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      North-South migration by relatively privileged skilled or lifestyle/retirement migrants has been analyzed, using the concept of geographic arbitrage (i.e., the use of North-South migration as a cross-border social maintenance or advancement strategy). However, little research has examined what happens when such projects are prematurely disrupted in later life. This article addresses this gap by drawing on interviews with 25 Anglo-Western teacher expatriates in Brunei. While these “middling” expatriates have been able to capitalize on their positions as desirable native English-speaking teachers to kickstart or continue their expatriation, recent shifts in Brunei’s political economy, coupled with its exclusionary citizenship and immigration policies, have posed unforeseen disruptions to their original geographic arbitrage projects. By examining individuals’ differential capacities to cope with this unexpected situation in later life, this article urges migration scholars to be attentive to individual circumstances (e.g., age, marital and familial situations, migration history) that produce in-group mobility inequalities. This focus adds nuance and texture to the geographic arbitrage thesis.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-08T10:20:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320926910
       
  • Is an Ounce of Remittance Worth a Pound of Health' The Case of
           Tajikistan
    • Authors: Sophia Kan
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the impact of international remittances on health outcomes. While the existing literature finds that remittances increase healthcare expenditure, expenditure alone is an incomplete proxy for health outcomes. Consequently, this article explores the impact of remittances on proxies for health outcomes beyond expenditure and for all household members (adults and children). It uses an instrumental variable approach to control for the endogeneity of remittances and finds a mostly positive relationship between remittances and health outcomes. This article also explores several possible transmission channels for how remittances affect health, finding that remittances have a positive and significant effect on household members’ likelihood of seeking direct medical care. It confirms remittances’ positive role in improving the welfare of the receivers and emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between remittances and other income sources in terms of their effects on development.JEL Classification:I15, F22, R23
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-06-01T10:16:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320926891
       
  • Refugee Admissions and Public Safety: Are Refugee Settlement Areas More
           Prone to Crime'
    • Authors: Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes, Cynthia Bansak, Susan Pozo
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the number of refugees worldwide rose to 25.9 million in 2018. Despite the increased need for refugee resettlements, resistance to the welcoming of refugees appears to have grown. The perception that refugees may engage in criminal behavior has served as fuel for closing the door to refugees in the United States and Europe. Is there any basis for this fear' We exploit variation in the geographic and temporal distribution of refugee resettlements across counties to ascertain if their presence can be linked to greater local violence in the case of the United States. We fail to find any statistically significant evidence of refugee resettlements raising local arrest or offense rates. Institutions that help refugees assimilate into the US labor market may contribute to these favorable outcomes. Overall, these findings widen our understanding of refugee resettlement in the United States and suggest that the adoption of humanitarian efforts to support these international flows need not be discouraged.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-05-28T10:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320920192
       
  • Legal Exclusion, Civic Exclusion: How Legal Status Stratifies Latino
           Immigrants’ Civic Engagement
    • Authors: Tianjian Lai
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Unlike many other sociopolitical activities in the United States, civic engagement is not restricted by legal status and is often the initial and primary form of political action available to immigrants. Few studies, however, have disaggregated the impact of legal status on immigrants’ civic participation, despite civic engagement’s significance for immigrant incorporation and despite growing evidence of the stratifying effects of legal categories. Using Wave 1 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, I nuance theories of legal status stratification by showing where legal status matters for Latino immigrants’ civic engagement and where it does not. Undocumented immigrants, I show, are significantly less likely to participate in general civic organizations, such as community and ethnic organizations, relative to documented immigrants. Likewise, undocumented mothers with undocumented children are less likely to volunteer in schools or participate in parent-teacher associations, compared to both documented mothers and undocumented mothers with documented children. By contrast, legal status does not stratify membership in religious institutions. Moreover, I theorize that undocumented immigrants’ lower levels of general civic engagement are partially mediated by access to US education, a significant site for immigrants’ civic development. This article informs understandings of legal status stratification and immigrant social incorporation.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-05-26T11:25:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320923274
       
  • “Yes, But Somebody Has to Help Them, Somehow:” Looking at the Italian
           Detention Field through the Eyes of Professional Nonstate Actors
    • Authors: Francesca Esposito, José Ornelas, Silvia Scirocchi, Manuela Tomai, Immacolata Di Napoli, Caterina Arcidiacono
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Although migration-related detention has proliferated around the world, little is known about life inside these sites of confinement for illegalized non-citizens. Building on 34 months of fieldwork, this article examines the lived experiences of center staff and external civil-society actors engaged within Rome’s detention center. We discuss the emotional, ethical, and political challenges faced by these professional actors in their everyday work and their relationship with detainees. Our aim is to shed light on psychosocial life in detention and the intersections between humanitarian and security logics in this setting. In doing so, we problematize the idea that “humanizing detention” can be a solution for change.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-05-22T09:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320921134
       
  • Book Review: At Europe’s Edge: Migration and Crisis in the
           Mediterranean
    • Authors: Antoine Pécoud
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-05-08T10:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320922148
       
  • Book Review: The Fixer: Visa Lottery Chronicles
    • Authors: Faranak Miraftab
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-05-07T10:13:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320907328
       
  • Book Review: Voting Together: Intergenerational Politics and Civic
           Engagement among Hmong Americans
    • Authors: Victor Jew
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-05-05T11:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320915683
       
  • Ethnic Enclaves, Self-employment, and the Economic Performance of
           Refugees: Evidence from a Swedish Dispersal Policy
    • Authors: Henrik Andersson
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article estimates the causal effect of residential concentration of co-ethnics (ethnic enclaves) on the probability to start a business among refugees in Sweden. Results indicate that the share of self-employed co-ethnics in the port of entry municipality increases refugees’ probability of entry into self-employment, while the actual share of local co-ethnics has no effect or, in some cases, a negative effect. The results support the conclusion that skills and resources within the local ethnic enclave, particularly skills relevant for self-employment, are crucial for generating new entry into self-employment for refugees, while simply more co-ethnics, plausibly increasing an ethnic market’s size, are of less importance. Moreover, the results suggest that being placed with a larger share of self-employed co-ethnics is negatively related to refugees’ long-term disposable income; however, assuming there is no or little selection of high-ability refugees into self-employment, this negative relationship can be counteracted by the choice of self-employment. The study adds new knowledge on the arguably crucial topic of socio-economic integration of an important group of international migrants — namely, refugees.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-05-05T10:48:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320912195
       
  • Book Review: Fighting for Dignity: Migrant Lives at Israel’s Margins
    • Authors: Haim Yacobi
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T05:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320917057
       
  • Book Review: Adventure Capital: Migration and the Making of an African Hub
           in Paris
    • Authors: Joaquín Villanueva
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T05:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320918199
       
  • The Many Forms of Multiple Migrations: Evidence from a Sequence Analysis
           in Switzerland, 1998 to 2008
    • Authors: Jonathan Zufferey, Ilka Steiner, Didier Ruedin
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article provides estimates of different kinds of contemporary migration trajectories, highlighting multiple or repeated migrations. Using sequence analysis on linked longitudinal register data, we identify different migration trajectories for three cohorts (1998, 2003, and 2008) of 315,000 immigrants in Switzerland. Multinomial regression analysis reveals the demographic characteristics associated with specific migration trajectories. We demonstrate high heterogeneity in migration practices, showing that direct and definitive settlement in the destination country remains a common trajectory and that highly mobile immigrants are less common. We conclude that accounts of a fundamental “mobility turn” have been overstated.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T05:05:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320914239
       
  • When Politics Trumps Economics: Contrasting High-Skilled Immigration
           Policymaking in Germany and Austria
    • Authors: Melanie Kolbe
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      High-skilled immigration (HSI) policy has become of increasing interest among immigrant destination countries, but success in establishing liberal policies has varied considerably across countries. Focusing on two reluctant immigration states, Germany and Austria, this article explains why HSI policy reforms in these two countries have led to starkly diverging outcomes. Whereas previous studies have concentrated on the politics of organized labor market actors and the market-institutional context in which they are embedded, this article contends that variation in HSI policy liberalization also reflects increasing politicization through issue linkage to adjacent immigration domains, in this case, immigrant integration policy. The findings challenge the predominant interest-group–centric work on HSI and show how arguments for and against liberalization can traverse immigration policy domains.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-16T05:00:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320914867
       
  • Book Review: Transnational Lives in Global Cities: A Multi-Sited Study of
           Chinese Singaporean Migrants
    • Authors: Yeo Si Jie Ivin
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T09:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320915694
       
  • Book Review: Legal Passing: Navigating Undocumented Life and Local
           Immigration Law
    • Authors: Austin Kocher
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T09:44:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320915693
       
  • Book Review: The Migrant Passage: Clandestine Journeys from Central
           America
    • Authors: Margath A. Walker
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T09:42:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320915684
       
  • Book Review: Immigration and the Remaking of Black America
    • Authors: Maruice Mangum
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-08T09:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320915197
       
  • Book Review: Sri Lanka’s Remittance Economy: A Multiscalar Analysis of
           Migration-Underdevelopment
    • Authors: Sokchea Lim
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-04-07T10:13:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320912392
       
  • High Selection, Low Success: The Heterogeneous Effect of Migrants’
           Access to Employment on Their Remigration
    • Authors: Louise Caron, Mathieu Ichou
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article reconciles contrasting findings on the effect of access to employment on remigration by showing that this effect is actually heterogeneous and depends on migrants’ initial educational selection from the origin country. Combining longitudinal data from England and Wales (1971–2011) with data on educational attainment distributions in migrants’ origin countries, we find that the impact of being out of a job (unemployed or inactive) on the probability to remigrate is larger among migrants who were initially more positively selected in terms of educational attainment. This interaction effect appears stronger for male and recent migrants. Thus, in addition to migrants’ access to employment in the host country, the mismatch between migrants’ initial selection — that partly captures their premigration expectations — and their employment status at destination helps explain remigration behaviors.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-03-06T09:16:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320904925
       
  • The Gendered Effects of Local Immigration Enforcement: Latinas’ Social
           Isolation in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and Phoenix
    • Authors: William Paul Simmons, Cecilia Menjívar, Elizabeth Salerno Valdez
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      The 2017 revitalization of the controversial Security Communities program, which requires local law enforcement to cooperate with federal immigration officials in the United States, has made it urgent to better understand such enforcement programs’ effects on the well-being of Latinas/os, especially the foreign-born. Social isolation from increased immigration enforcement can have significant impacts on economic, social, and health outcomes among Latina/o immigrants and non-immigrants. This article analyzes the gendered impacts of different levels of increased local involvement in immigration enforcement on social isolation, using a survey of over 2000 Latinas/os in four large US cities, all considered to be traditional destinations. Unsurprisingly, respondents reported increased social isolation resulting from local law enforcement’s involvement in immigration enforcement. In contrast to results from previous research, our analysis found that women and men were equally likely to feel socially isolated and that having children led to more social isolation for both women and men. Personal and vicarious experiences with immigration enforcement, as well as living in Phoenix and Houston — two urban areas with the strictest enforcement regimes — were strongly related to social isolation. Our results indicate that local authorities’ increased involvement in immigration enforcement can lead to more social isolation for Latina immigrants, particularly those who have children, aligning their experiences with men’s and, thus, undermining Latinas’ previously recognized role as bridges between their families and social institutions and as community builders.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-03-05T11:19:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320905504
       
  • Unsettling Events: Understanding Migrants’ Responses to Geopolitical
           Transformative Episodes through a Life-Course Lens

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Authors: Majella Kilkey, Louise Ryan
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Migration under the European Union’s (EU) Freedom of Movement is constructed as temporary and circular, implying that migrants respond to changing circumstances by returning home or moving elsewhere. This construction underpins predictions of an exodus of EU migrants from the United Kingdom (UK) in the context of Brexit. While migration data indicate an increase in outflows since the vote to leave the EU, the scale does not constitute a “Brexodus.” Moreover, EU migrants’ applications for UK citizenship have been increasing. The data, though, are not sufficiently detailed to reveal who is responding to Brexit in which way. This article aims to offer a deeper understanding of how migrants experience and respond to changing geopolitical episodes such as Brexit. Introducing the term “unsettling events,” we analyze data collected longitudinally, in the context of three moments of significant change: 2004 EU enlargement, 2008–09 economic recession, and Brexit. Examining our data, mainly on Polish migrants, through a life-course lens, our findings highlight the need to account for the situatedness of migrant experiences as lived in particular times (both personal and historical), places, and relationships. In so doing, we reveal various factors informing migrants’ experiences of and reactions to unsettling events and the ways in which their experiences and reactions potentially impact migration projects.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-03-03T09:29:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320905507
       
  • Book Review: Incarcerated Stories: Indigenous Women Migrants and Violence
           in the Settler-Capitalist State
    • Authors: Kate Coddington
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-25T10:01:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320907330
       
  • Book Review: Bound for Work: Labor, Mobility, and Colonial Rule in Central
           Mozambique, 1940–1965
    • Authors: Alicia Hayashi Lazzarini
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-25T09:53:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320907329
       
  • Book Review: Offshore Citizens. Permanent Temporary Status in the Gulf
    • Authors: James Sater
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-24T09:44:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320907331
       
  • Who Signs Up for E-Verify' Insights from DHS Enrollment Records
    • Authors: Pia M. Orrenius, Madeline Zavodny, Sarah Greer
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      E-Verify is a federal electronic verification system that allows employers to check whether their newly hired workers are authorized to work in the United States. To use E-Verify, firms first must enroll with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Participation is voluntary for most private-sector employers in the United States, but eight states currently require all or most employers to use E-Verify. This article uses confidential data from DHS to examine patterns of employer enrollment in E-Verify. The results indicate that employers are much more likely to sign up in mandatory E-Verify states than in states without such mandates, but enrollment is still below 50 percent in states that require its use. Large employers are far more likely to sign up than small employers. In addition, employers are more likely to newly enroll in E-Verify when a state’s unemployment rate or the state’s population share of likely unauthorized immigrants rises. However, enrollment rates are lower in industries with higher shares of unauthorized workers. Taken as a whole, the results suggest that enrolling in the program is costly for employers in terms of both compliance and difficulty in hiring workers. A strictly enforced nationwide mandate that all employers use an employment eligibility program like E-Verify would be incompatible with the current reliance on a large unauthorized workforce. Allowing more workers to enter legally or legalizing existing workers might be necessary before implementing E-Verify nationally.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-17T11:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320901461
       
  • Book Review: Human Geopolitics: States, Emigrants and Diaspora
           Institutions
    • Authors: Rilke Mahieu
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-13T11:05:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320905500
       
  • Copying Europe' Integration as a Citizenship Requirement in Australia
    • Authors: Heli Askola
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Recent decades have seen a significant expansion of so-called “integration requirements” for citizenship applicants in many countries. Though led by European states, the trend now seems to be reaching traditional settler states such as Australia. This article examines the integration requirement proposed for citizenship applicants in Australia in 2017. According to the proposal, applicants for citizenship by conferral would have been required to show that they had “integrated into the Australian community,” for instance, through employment, involvement in community organizations, and the absence of conduct inconsistent with Australian values. Although the proposal failed, it is noteworthy because of its far-reaching nature and novelty in a traditional country of immigration. This article analyzes the implications of the proposed legislation with reference to the diverse groups of permanent immigrants entering Australia, demonstrating its discriminatory potential in terms of gender, nationality, and visa category. It argues that the proposal failed because despite its significant implications, the government did not put forward a convincing case for its introduction and may even have initiated it as a symbolic gesture. The article contributes to understanding why integration requirements that are popular in some states and regions may fail to gain favor in others. It suggests that, given the rapid spread of restrictive immigration policies, scholars should pay more attention to the specific local conditions under which immigration and citizenship policy transfers succeed or fail.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-07T11:49:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918320902042
       
  • Mexican Consular Protection Services across the United States: How Local
           Social, Economic, and Political Conditions Structure the Sociolegal
           Support of Emigrants
    • Authors: Ricardo D. Martínez-Schuldt
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have increasingly examined the policies that states adopt to forge relationships with, deliver services to, and protect the rights of emigrants living abroad. Much of this research has focused on explaining the emergence and scope of emigrant policies. This article contributes to existing research by analyzing variation in the outcome of one particular emigrant policy: the Mexican state’s delivery of sociolegal consultations and support through its consular network in the United States. Specifically, I assess how the Mexican state’s provision of consular protection services diverges in frequency and form over time and within local contexts of reception. To address my research questions, I conducted a longitudinal analysis of data representing all 50 Mexican consulate districts in the United States (2010 through 2015). My dataset merges information from a variety of sources, such as the American Community Survey, with an administrative database that documents the Mexican state’s provision of sociolegal services in matters related to human rights, penal, migratory, labor, civil, or administrative issues. I find that the frequency of services across these issues varies in conjunction with the social, political, and economic characteristics of the administrative districts within which Mexican consulates operate. Furthermore, I argue that local contexts of reception can structure the frequency of sociolegal consultations between Mexican migrants living in the United States and the Mexican government through three pathways related to migrant incorporation experiences and vulnerabilities in receiving societies. Overall, my findings reveal how local receiving-society contexts can shape the support sending states provide to emigrants.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-02-06T01:58:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319901264
       
  • Immigration System, Labor Market Structures, and Overeducation of
           High-Skilled Immigrants in the United States and Canada
    • Authors: Yao Lu, Feng Hou
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Why do high-skilled Canadian immigrants lag behind their US counterparts in labor-market outcomes, despite Canada’s merit-based immigration selection system and more integrative context' This article investigates a mismatch between immigrants’ education and occupations, operationalized by overeducation, as an explanation. Using comparable data and three measures of overeducation, we find that university-educated immigrant workers in Canada are consistently much more likely to be overeducated than their US peers and that the immigrant–native gap in the overeducation rate is remarkably higher in Canada than in the United States. This article further examines how the cross-national differences are related to labor-market structures and selection mechanisms for immigrants. Whereas labor-market demand reduces the likelihood of immigrant overeducation in both countries, the role of supply-side factors varies: a higher supply of university-educated immigrants is positively associated with the likelihood of overeducation in Canada, but not in the United States, pointing to an oversupply of high-skilled immigrants relative to Canada’s smaller economy. Also, in Canada the overeducation rate is significantly lower for immigrants who came through employer selection (i.e., those who worked in Canada before obtaining permanent residence) than for those admitted directly from abroad through the point system. Overall, the findings suggest that a merit-based immigration system likely works better when it takes into consideration domestic labor-market demand and the role of employer selection.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-30T09:32:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319901263
       
  • Book Review: From Righteousness to Far Right: An Anthropological
           Rethinking of Critical Security Studies
    • Authors: Ulrika Wernesjö
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-27T08:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319901259
       
  • Book Review: Migration in Performance: Crossing the Colonial Present
    • Authors: Emine Fişek
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T09:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319901258
       
  • Translating People and Policy: The Role of Maid Agents in Brokering
           between Employers and Migrant Domestic Workers in Singapore’s Migration
           Industry
    • Authors: Kellynn Wee, Charmian Goh, Brenda S.A. Yeoh
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      There has been a surge of recent interest in the migration industries that facilitate the movement of migrants, particularly that of low-waged laborers engaged in temporary contracts abroad. This article extends this research to include migration brokers working in destination contexts, thus drawing analytical attention to the arrival infrastructures that incorporate migrants into host societies. Based on ethnographic research involving the employment agents who recruit women migrating from Indonesia to work as migrant domestic workers in Singapore, we use the concept of “translation” as a broad theoretical metaphor to understand how brokers actively fashion knowledge between various actors, scales, interfaces, and entities. First, we argue that through the interpretation of language, brokers continually modulate meaning in the encounters between potential employers and employees at the agency shopfront, reproducing particular dynamics of power between employers and workers while coperforming the hirability of the migrant worker. Second, we show how brokers operate within the discretionary space between multiple sets of regulations in order to selectively inscribe the text of policy into migrant workers’ lives. By interrogating the process of translation and clarifying the latitude migration brokers have in shaping the working and living conditions of international labor migrants, the article contributes to the growing conceptual literature on how labor-market intermediaries contour migration markets.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-24T09:42:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319897570
       
  • Book Review: Immigration and the Politics of Welfare Exclusion. Selective
           Solidarity in Western Democracies
    • Authors: Ester Serra Mingot
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-23T10:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319900769
       
  • What Is the Size and Legal Composition of the US Foreign-Born
           Population'
    • Authors: Guillermina Jasso, Mark R. Rosenzweig
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      We assess government estimates of the size and legal composition of the US foreign-born population from 2007 to 2015. We examine annual Census Bureau estimates of the total number of foreign born (by citizenship) and annual Office of Immigration Statistics (OIS) estimates of the counts of the three noncitizen categories — legal permanent residents, legal temporary residents, and the unauthorized. Comparison of the annual Census estimates of the number of noncitizens with the estimates implied by the OIS estimates reveals that the OIS estimates are larger than the Census estimates by 3.4–4.7 million over the period. Besides documenting these discrepancies, we describe the data and methods used to produce the estimates, identify the possible sources of discrepancies, propose and implement an approach for reconciling the estimates, and contrast the reconciled estimates with the original estimates. Finally, we provide a foundation for improving estimates of the size of the four major categories of the foreign born, for example, by suggesting new methods to measure citizenship and to estimate such groups as legal permanent residents who become unauthorized. Because in most countries the four foreign-born subpopulations are constrained by distinctive rules, they each have different impacts on their host countries. Estimates of their size are critical for assessments of immigration policy, as differing constraints on employment and entitlement eligibility across these categories means that having accurate counts of their numbers is essential for assessing their economic and fiscal impacts in any country that hosts immigrants.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-21T10:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319893287
       
  • The Role of Local Voting Rights for Non-Naturalized Immigrants: A Catalyst
           for Integration'
    • Authors: Mattias Engdahl, Karl-Oskar Lindgren, Olof Rosenqvist
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      Recent decades have seen a strong trend among democratic countries to extend voting rights at subnational levels to non-naturalized immigrants, creating substantial variation across countries in terms of voting eligibility rules for non-naturalized immigrants. Our knowledge of the consequences of these different systems for immigrant political integration is, however, limited. This article seeks to shed new light on this important issue by using Swedish data to study whether immigrants who face shorter residency requirements for voting eligibility in local elections are more likely to integrate politically. We find little compelling evidence that such is the case. The results suggest that immigrants who became eligible to vote after six to seven years were as likely to naturalize and vote in future elections in both the short and long run as those who received the right to vote after only three years of residency. Thus, although expanded franchise can be of symbolic, as well as practical, value, it is unlikely to be a panacea for immigrant political inclusion. The argument that early voting rights for non-naturalized immigrants is desirable since it helps speed up immigrant political integration should, therefore, be used with some care by those advocating for such reforms.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-14T01:24:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319890256
       
  • Migration Diplomacy and Policy Liberalization in Morocco and Turkey
    • Authors: Kelsey P. Norman
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the 2013 migration policy liberalizations in Morocco and Turkey in order to understand whether predominantly “human rights-centric” or “diplomatic” factors influenced domestic decisions to reform migration policies. It uses original interview data collected in 2015, as well as policy documents, to examine the two reform processes and their initial consequences for migrants and refugees residing in each host state. While the academic literature on migration has focused on human rights-centric factors to understand historic migration policy reforms, Turkey and Morocco’s geopolitical and geographic positions between powerful neighbors to the north and important sending countries to the south mean that diplomatic factors are also key to understanding the incentives behind reform. This article’s findings have important implications for scholars of international migration, demonstrating that while countries like Morocco and Turkey may implement liberal and inclusive policies if there are diplomatic and economic gains to be had from doing so, such policies may have little impact on the everyday lives of individual migrants and refugees residing in these states and may be subject to reversals if such states’ geopolitical calculations change.
      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-06T09:16:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319895271
       
  • Book Review: Precarious Hope: Migration and the Limits of Belonging in
           Turkey
    • Authors: Juliette Tolay
      Abstract: International Migration Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: International Migration Review
      PubDate: 2020-01-03T10:00:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0197918319897041
       
 
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