Journal Cover International Journal on Digital Libraries
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1432-1300 - ISSN (Online) 1432-5012
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Extending, mapping, and focusing the CIDOC CRM
    • Authors: Franco Niccolucci
      Pages: 251 - 252
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0198-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • Harmonizing the CRMba and CRMarchaeo models
    • Authors: Paola Ronzino
      Pages: 253 - 261
      Abstract: Abstract This work presents the initial thoughts towards the harmonization of the CRMba and CRMarchaeo models, two extensions of the CIDOC CRM, the former developed to model the complexity of a built structure from the perspective of buildings archaeology, while the latter was developed to model the processes involved in the investigation of subsurface archaeological deposits. The paper describes the modelling principles of CRMba and CRMarchaeo, and identifies common concepts that will allow to merge the two ontological models.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0193-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • Scripta manent: a CIDOC CRM semiotic reading of ancient texts
    • Authors: Achille Felicetti; Francesca Murano
      Pages: 263 - 270
      Abstract: Abstract This paper tries to identify the most important concepts involved in the study of ancient texts and proposes the use of CIDOC CRM to encode them and to model the scientific process of investigation related to the study of ancient texts to foster integration with other cultural heritage research fields. After identifying the key concepts, assessing the available technologies and analysing the entities provided by CIDOC CRM and by its extensions, we introduce more specific classes to be used as the basis for creating a new extension, CRMtex, which is more responsive to the specific needs of the various disciplines involved (including papyrology, palaeography, codicology and epigraphy).
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0189-z
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • CRMgeo: A spatiotemporal extension of CIDOC-CRM
    • Authors: Gerald Hiebel; Martin Doerr; Øyvind Eide
      Pages: 271 - 279
      Abstract: Abstract CRMgeo is a formal ontology intended to be used as a global schema for integrating spatiotemporal properties of temporal entities and persistent items. Its primary purpose is to provide a schema consistent with the CIDOC CRM to integrate geoinformation using the conceptualizations, formal definitions, encoding standards and topological relations defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium in GeoSPARQL. To build the ontology, the same ontology engineering methodology was used as in the CIDOC CRM. CRMgeo first introduced the concept of Spacetime volume that was subsequently included in the CIDOC CRM and provides a differentiation between phenomenal and declarative Spacetime volume, Place and Time-Span. Phenomenal classes derive their identity from real world phenomena like events or things and declarative classes derive their identity from human declarations like dates or coordinates. This differentiation is an essential conceptual background to link CIDOC CRM to the classes, topological relations and encodings provided by Geo-SPARQL and thus allowing spatiotemporal analysis offered by geoinformation systems based on the semantic distinctions of the CIDOC CRM. CRMgeo introduces the classes and relations necessary to model the spatiotemporal properties of real world phenomena and their topological and semantic relations to spatiotemporal information about these phenomena that was derived from historic sources, maps, observations or measurements. It is able to model the full chain of approximating and finding again a phenomenal place, like the actual site of a ship wreck, by a declarative place, like a mark on a sea chart.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0192-4
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • Expressing reliability with CIDOC CRM
    • Authors: Franco Niccolucci; Sorin Hermon
      Pages: 281 - 287
      Abstract: Abstract The paper addresses the issue of documenting and communicating the reliability of evidence interpretation in archaeology and, in general, in heritage science. It is proposed to express reliability with fuzzy logic, and model it using an extension of CIDOC CRM classes and properties. This proposed extension is compared with other CRM extensions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0195-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • Process, concept or thing' Some initial considerations in the
           ontological modelling of architecture
    • Authors: Anais Guillem; George Bruseker; Paola Ronzino
      Pages: 289 - 299
      Abstract: Abstract Architectural knowledge, representing an understanding of our built environment and how it functions, is a domain of research of high interest as much to laypeople as to architects themselves, researchers in cultural heritage in general and formal ontologists. In this work, we aim to provide an initial approach to the question of how to model architectural data in a formal ontology structure and consider some of the problems involved. This question is challenging both for the inherent difficulties of the discourse to be modelled but also for the lack of available structured data sources that would distinctly represent the architectural perspective proper, as well as for the contentious nature of the definition of architecture itself. We, therefore, take the step of exploring in broad strokes the possible approaches to architecture, tracing the notion of architecture as idea, process or thing from the literature. On the basis of this enquiry, we propose a model of some top-level referents of architecture using FRBRoo, an extension of CIDOC CRM that can be used to model creative processes. We argue that with the addition of only four classes to this model, to capture certain architecturally specific concepts and activities, we are able to provide an adequate high-level first approach to this problem. Further, by connecting this work to the existing extension of CRMba, which models built work as a system of relations of filled and unfilled spaces, there is a sufficient high-level ontological structure to begin to test for its utility to explore the issues of the relation between architecture as idea, process and thing.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0188-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • X3ML mapping framework for information integration in cultural heritage
           and beyond
    • Authors: Yannis Marketakis; Nikos Minadakis; Haridimos Kondylakis; Konstantina Konsolaki; Georgios Samaritakis; Maria Theodoridou; Giorgos Flouris; Martin Doerr
      Pages: 301 - 319
      Abstract: Abstract The aggregation of heterogeneous data from different institutions in cultural heritage and e-science has the potential to create rich data resources useful for a range of different purposes, from research to education and public interests. In this paper, we present the X3ML framework, a framework for information integration that handles effectively and efficiently the steps involved in schema mapping, uniform resource identifier (URI) definition and generation, data transformation, provision and aggregation. The framework is based on the X3ML mapping definition language for describing both schema mappings and URI generation policies and has a lot of advantages when compared with other relevant frameworks. We describe the architecture of the framework as well as details on the various available components. Usability aspects are discussed and performance metrics are demonstrated. The high impact of our work is verified via the increasing number of international projects that adopt and use this framework.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0179-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • Off-the-shelf CRM with Drupal: a case study of documenting decorated
    • Authors: Athanasios Velios; Aurelie Martin
      Pages: 321 - 331
      Abstract: Abstract We present a method of setting up a website using the Drupal CMS to publish CRM data. Our setup requires basic technical expertise by researchers who are then able to publish their records in both a human accessible way through HTML and a machine friendly format through RDFa. We begin by examining previous work on Drupal and the CRM and identifying useful patterns. We present the Drupal modules that are required by our setup and we explain why these are sustainable. We continue by giving guidelines for setting up Drupal to serve CRM data easily and we describe a specific installation for our case study which is related to decorated papers alongside our CRM mapping. We finish with highlighting the benefits of our method (i.e. speed and user-friendliness) and we refer to a number of issues which require further work (i.e. automatic validation, UI improvements and the provision for SPARQL endpoints).
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0191-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • WW1LOD: an application of CIDOC-CRM to World War 1 linked data
    • Authors: Eetu Mäkelä; Juha Törnroos; Thea Lindquist; Eero Hyvönen
      Pages: 333 - 343
      Abstract: Abstract The CIDOC-CRM standard indicates that common events, actors, places and timeframes are important in linking together cultural material, and provides a framework for describing them. However, merely describing entities in this way in two datasets does not yet interlink them. To do that, the identities of instances still need to be either reconciled, or be based on a shared vocabulary. The WW1LOD dataset presented in this paper was created to facilitate both of these approaches for collections dealing with the First World War. For this purpose, the dataset includes events, places, agents, times, keywords, and themes related to the war, based on over ten different authoritative data sources from providers such as the Imperial War Museum. The content is harmonized into RDF, and published as a Linked Open Data service. While generally based on CIDOC-CRM, some modeling choices used also deviate from it where our experience dictated such. In the article, these deviations are discussed in the hope that they may serve as examples where CIDOC-CRM itself may warrant further examination. As a demonstration of use, the dataset and online service have been used to create a contextual reader application that is able to link together and pull in information related to WW1 from, e.g., 1914–1918 Online, Wikipedia, WW1 Discovery, Europeana and the Digital Public Library of America.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0186-2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2017)
  • Scholarly Ontology: modelling scholarly practices
    • Authors: Vayianos Pertsas; Panos Constantopoulos
      Pages: 173 - 190
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we present the Scholarly Ontology (SO), an ontology for modelling scholarly practices, inspired by business process modelling and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory. The SO is based on empirical research and earlier models and is designed so as to incorporate related works through a modular structure. The SO is an elaboration of the domain-independent core part of the NeDiMAH Methods Ontology addressing the scholarly ecosystem of Digital Humanities. It thus provides a basis for developing domain-specific scholarly work ontologies springing from a common root. We define the basic concepts of the model and their semantic relations through four complementary perspectives on scholarly work: activity, procedure, resource and agency. As a use case we present a modelling example and argue on the purpose of use of the model through the presentation of indicative SPRQL and SQWRL queries that highlight the benefits of its serialization in RDFS. The SO includes an explicit treatment of intentionality and its interplay with functionality, captured by different parts of the model. We discuss the role of types as the semantic bridge between those two parts and explore several patterns that can be exploited in designing reusable access structures and conformance rules. Related taxonomies and ontologies and their possible reuse within the framework of SO are reviewed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0169-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
  • The evolution of web archiving
    • Authors: Miguel Costa; Daniel Gomes; Mário J. Silva
      Pages: 191 - 205
      Abstract: Abstract Web archives preserve information published on the web or digitized from printed publications. Much of this information is unique and historically valuable. However, the lack of knowledge about the global status of web archiving initiatives hamper their improvement and collaboration. To overcome this problem, we conducted two surveys, in 2010 and 2014, which provide a comprehensive characterization on web archiving initiatives and their evolution. We identified several patterns and trends that highlight challenges and opportunities. We discuss these patterns and trends that enable to define strategies, estimate resources and provide guidelines for research and development of better technology. Our results show that during the last years there was a significant growth in initiatives and countries hosting these initiatives, volume of data and number of contents preserved. While this indicates that the web archiving community is dedicating a growing effort on preserving digital information, other results presented throughout the paper raise concerns such as the small amount of archived data in comparison with the amount of data that is being published online.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0171-9
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
  • Inheriting library cards to Babel and Alexandria: contemporary metaphors
           for the digital library
    • Authors: Paul Gooding; Melissa Terras
      Pages: 207 - 222
      Abstract: Abstract Librarians have been consciously adopting metaphors to describe library concepts since the nineteenth century, helping us to structure our understanding of new technologies. As a profession, we have drawn extensively on these figurative frameworks to explore issues surrounding the digital library, yet very little has been written to date which interrogates how these metaphors have developed over the years. Previous studies have explored library metaphors, using either textual analysis or ethnographic methods to investigate their usage. However, this is to our knowledge the first study to use bibliographic data, corpus analysis, qualitative sentiment weighting and close reading to study particular metaphors in detail. It draws on a corpus of over 450 articles to study the use of the metaphors of the Library of Alexandria and Babel, concluding that both have been extremely useful as framing metaphors for the digital library. However, their longstanding use has seen them become stretched as metaphors, meaning that the field’s figurative framework now fails to represent the changing technologies which underpin contemporary digital libraries.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0194-2
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
  • Documenting archaeological science with CIDOC CRM
    • Authors: Franco Niccolucci
      Pages: 223 - 231
      Abstract: Abstract The paper proposes to use CIDOC CRM and its extensions CRMsci and CRMdig to document the scientific experiments involved in archaeological investigations. The nature of such experiments is analysed and ways to document their important aspects are provided using existing classes and properties from the CRM or from the above-mentioned schemas, together with newly defined ones, forming an extension of the CRM called CRMas.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-016-0199-x
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
  • Tape music archives: from preservation to access
    • Authors: Carlo Fantozzi; Federica Bressan; Niccolò Pretto; Sergio Canazza
      Pages: 233 - 249
      Abstract: Abstract This article presents a methodology for the active preservation of, and the access to, magnetic tapes of audio archives. The methodology has been defined and implemented by a multidisciplinary team involving engineers as well as musicians, composers and archivists. The strong point of the methodology is the philological awareness that influenced the development of digital tools, which consider the critical questions in the historian and musicologist’s approach: the secondary information and the history of transmission of an audio document.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-017-0208-8
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 3 (2017)
  • Introduction to the special issue on bibliometric-enhanced information
           retrieval and natural language processing for digital libraries (BIRNDL)
    • Authors: Philipp Mayr; Ingo Frommholz; Guillaume Cabanac; Muthu Kumar Chandrasekaran; Kokil Jaidka; Min-Yen Kan; Dietmar Wolfram
      Abstract: Abstract The large scale of scholarly publications poses a challenge for scholars in information seeking and sensemaking. Bibliometric, information retrieval (IR), text mining, and natural language processing techniques can assist to address this challenge, but have yet to be widely used in digital libraries (DL). This special issue on bibliometric-enhanced information retrieval and natural language processing for digital libraries (BIRNDL) was compiled after the first joint BIRNDL workshop that was held at the joint conference on digital libraries (JCDL 2016) in Newark, New Jersey, USA. It brought together IR and DL researchers and professionals to elaborate on new approaches in natural language processing, information retrieval, scientometric, and recommendation techniques that can advance the state of the art in scholarly document understanding, analysis, and retrieval at scale. This special issue includes 14 papers: four extended papers originating from the first BIRNDL workshop 2016 and the BIR workshop at ECIR 2016, four extended system reports of the CL-SciSumm Shared Task 2016 and six original research papers submitted via the open call for papers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-017-0230-x
  • Encoding music performance data in Humdrum and MEI
    • Authors: Johanna Devaney; Hubert Léveillé Gauvin
      Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes extensions to two existing music encoding formats, Humdrum and Music Encoding Initiative (MEI), in order to facilitate linking music performance data with corresponding score information. We began by surveying music scholars about their needs for encoding timing, loudness, pitch, and timbral performance data. We used the results of this survey to design and implement new spines in Humdrum syntax to encode summary descriptors at note, beat, and measure levels and new attributes in the MEI format to encode both note-wise summaries and continuous data. These extensions allow for multiple performances of the same piece to be directly compared with one another, facilitating both humanistic and computational study of recorded musical performances.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-017-0229-3
  • Documenting a song culture: the Dutch Song Database as a resource for
           musicological research
    • Authors: Peter van Kranenburg; Martine de Bruin; Anja Volk
      Abstract: Abstract The Dutch Song Database is a digital repository documenting Dutch song culture in past and present. It contains more than 173 thousand references to song occurrences in the Dutch and Flemish language, from the Middle Ages up to the present, as well as over 18 thousand descriptions of song sources, such as song books, manuscripts and field recordings, all adhering to high quality standards. In this paper, we present the history and functionality of the database, and we demonstrate how the Dutch Song Database facilitates and enables musicological research by presenting its contents and search functionalities in a number of exemplary cases. We discuss difficulties and impediments that were encountered during the development of the database, and we sketch a future prospect for further development in the European context.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-017-0228-4
  • On providing semantic alignment and unified access to music library
    • Authors: David M. Weigl; David Lewis; Tim Crawford; Ian Knopke; Kevin R. Page
      Abstract: Abstract A variety of digital data sources—including institutional and formal digital libraries, crowd-sourced community resources, and data feeds provided by media organisations such as the BBC—expose information of musicological interest, describing works, composers, performers, and wider historical and cultural contexts. Aggregated access across such datasets is desirable as these sources provide complementary information on shared real-world entities. Where datasets do not share identifiers, an alignment process is required, but this process is fraught with ambiguity and difficult to automate, whereas manual alignment may be time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem through the application of a Linked Data model and framework to assist domain experts in this process. Candidate alignment suggestions are generated automatically based on textual and on contextual similarity. The latter is determined according to user-configurable weighted graph traversals. Match decisions confirming or disputing the candidate suggestions are obtained in conjunction with user insight and expertise. These decisions are integrated into the knowledge base, enabling further iterative alignment, and simplifying the creation of unified viewing interfaces. Provenance of the musicologist’s judgement is captured and published, supporting scholarly discourse and counter-proposals. We present our implementation and evaluation of this framework, conducting a user study with eight musicologists. We further demonstrate the value of our approach through a case study providing aligned access to catalogue metadata and digitised score images from the British Library and other sources, and broadcast data from the BBC Radio 3 Early Music Show.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-017-0223-9
  • Investigating exploratory search activities based on the stratagem level
           in digital libraries
    • Authors: Zeljko Carevic; Maria Lusky; Wilko van Hoek; Philipp Mayr
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we present the results of a user study on exploratory search activities in a social science digital library. We conducted a user study with 32 participants with a social sciences background—16 postdoctoral researchers and 16 students—who were asked to solve a task on searching related work to a given topic. The exploratory search task was performed in a 10-min time slot. The use of certain search activities is measured and compared to gaze data recorded with an eye tracking device. We use a novel tree graph representation to visualise the users’ search patterns and introduce a way to combine multiple search session trees. The tree graph representation is capable of creating one single tree for multiple users and identifying common search patterns. In addition, the information behaviour of students and postdoctoral researchers is being compared. The results show that search activities on the stratagem level are frequently utilised by both user groups. The most heavily used search activities were keyword search, followed by browsing through references and citations, and author searching. The eye tracking results showed an intense examination of documents metadata, especially on the level of citations and references. When comparing the group of students and postdoctoral researchers, we found significant differences regarding gaze data on the area of the journal name of the seed document. In general, we found a tendency of the postdoctoral researchers to examine the metadata records more intensively with regard to dwell time and the number of fixations. By creating combined session trees and deriving subtrees from those, we were able to identify common patterns like economic (explorative) and exhaustive (navigational) behaviour. Our results show that participants utilised multiple search strategies starting from the seed document, which means that they examined different paths to find related publications.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-017-0226-6
  • Extracting discourse elements and annotating scientific documents using
           the SciAnnotDoc model: a use case in gender documents
    • Authors: Hélène de Ribaupierre; Gilles Falquet
      Abstract: Abstract When scientists are searching for information, they generally have a precise objective in mind. Instead of looking for documents “about a topic T”, they try to answer specific questions such as finding the definition of a concept, finding results for a particular problem, checking whether an idea has already been tested, or comparing the scientific conclusions of two articles. Answering these precise or complex queries on a corpus of scientific documents requires precise modelling of the full content of the documents. In particular, each document element must be characterised by its discourse type (hypothesis, definition, result, method, etc.). In this paper, we present a scientific document model (SciAnnotDoc ontology), developed from an empirical study conducted with scientists, that models the discourse types. We developed an automated process that analyses documents effectively identifying the discourse types of each element. Using syntactic rules (patterns), we evaluated the process output in terms of precision and recall using a previously annotated corpus in Gender Studies. We chose to annotate documents in Humanities, as these documents are well known to be less formalised than those in “hard science”. The process output has been used to create a SciAnnotDoc representation of the corpus on top of which we built a faceted search interface. Experiments with users show that searches using with this interface clearly outperform standard keyword searches for precise or complex queries.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00799-017-0227-5
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