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International Journal of Epidemiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.969
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 218  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0300-5771 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3685
Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [396 journals]
  • What has the IJE been doing'
    • Authors: Leeder S.
      Pages: 681 - 682
      Abstract: What has the IJE been publishing over its 50 years’ existence' How do the contents relate to the burden of international diseases' In this issue, Grant et al.1 show how rapidly the IJE became a home for the publication of scientific articles and facilitated the penetration of epidemiology into the scientific literature.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy127
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Renin-angiotensin system blockers in early pregnancy among women with
           chronic hypertension: getting to the heart of the risk-benefit equation
    • Authors: Ahmed B; Zoega H, Havard A.
      Pages: 683 - 686
      Abstract: Renin-angiotensin system blockers (RAS), including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), are common first-line medications in the management of chronic hypertension (CHT),1 used in 0.1–0.5% of pregnancies,2–4 increasing in recent years.2 Given the rising prevalence of CHT in women of childbearing age, as well as delay in chilbearing to ages when CH is more common,5 and the fact that up to half of all pregnancies are unplanned, the use of RAS blockers in pregnancy is likely to increase. These medications, associated with severe neonatal harm including fetal hypotension, anuria, oligo-hydramnios, renal tubule dysplasia and hypocalvaria,6 are clearly contraindicated in the second and third trimesters.7
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy066
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Data Resource Profile: The Canadian Hospitalization and Taxation Database
           (C-HAT)
    • Authors: Sanmartin C; Reicker A, Dasylva A, et al.
      Pages: 687 - 687g
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy038
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Data resource profile: The Child LAnguage REpository (CLARE)
    • Authors: Reilly S; Cini E, Gold L, et al.
      Pages: 688 - 688j
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy034
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cohort Profile: Health and Ageing in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an
           INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI)
    • Authors: Gómez-Olivé F; Montana L, Wagner R, et al.
      Pages: 689 - 690j
      PubDate: Sat, 06 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx247
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health
           (SLOSH)
    • Authors: Magnusson Hanson L; Leineweber C, Persson V, et al.
      Pages: 691 - 692i
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx260
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The PROspective Québec (PROQ) Study on Work and
           Health
    • Authors: Trudel X; Gilbert-Ouimet M, Milot A, et al.
      Pages: 693 - 693i
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy026
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS)
    • Authors: He Y; Zhao Y, Yao Y, et al.
      Pages: 694 - 695h
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy017
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The Singapore Multi-Ethnic Cohort (MEC) study
    • Authors: Tan K; Tan L, Sim X, et al.
      Pages: 699 - 699j
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy014
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The Haematological Malignancy Research Network (HMRN): a
           UK population-based patient cohort
    • Authors: Smith A; Howell D, Crouch S, et al.
      Pages: 700 - 700g
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy044
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: an updated
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Wu Y; Ali G, Guerchet M, et al.
      Pages: 709 - 719
      Abstract: BackgroundThere are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset.MethodsTwenty prevalence studies identified from World Alzheimer Report 2015 (January 2011–March 2015) and an updated search (March 2015–February 2017) were added to the original dataset (N = 76). Meta-regression was used to investigate geographical variation and time trends, taking methodological factors and characteristics of study population into account, and to estimate prevalence and number of people with dementia by geographical area.ResultsCompared with northern China, the prevalence of dementia was lower in the central China [-1.0; 95% confidence interval (CI):−2.2, 0.3], south China (−1.7; 95% CI: −3.1, −0.3), Hong Kong and Taiwan (−3.0; 95% CI: −5.0, −1.0) but appeared to be higher in western China (2.8; 95% CI: 0.1, 5.5) after adjusting for methodological variation. The increasing trend from pre-1990 to post-2010 periods was considerably attenuated when taking into account methodological factors and geographical areas. The updated estimated number of people with dementia in all these areas is 9.5 million (5.3%; 95% CI: 4.3, 6.3) in the population aged 60 or above.ConclusionsGeographical variation in dementia prevalence is confirmed in this update, whereas evidence on increasing trends is still insufficient. Differing societal development across areas provides an opportunity to investigate risk factors at the population level operating across diverse life course experiences. Such research could advance global primary prevention of dementia.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy007
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Mortality reduction from quitting smoking in Hong Kong: population-wide
           proportional mortality study
    • Authors: Mai Z; Ho S, Lo C, et al.
      Pages: 752 - 759
      Abstract: BackgroundThe effects of smoking cessation might be different in different populations. Proportional mortality studies of all deaths, relating the certified cause to retrospectively determined smoking habits, have helped assess the hazards of smoking in Hong Kong, and further analyses can help assess the effects of prolonged cessation (although not of recent cessation, as life-threatening disease can itself cause cessation, particularly in old age).MethodsThe LIMOR study sought the certified causes of all deaths in 1998, and interviewed 81% of families at death registries to determine the decedent’s smoking history. Cases were deaths from pre-defined diseases of interest (N = 15 356); controls were deaths from pre-defined non-smoking-related diseases (N = 5023). Case vs control odds ratios for ex-smokers vs smokers were calculated by age-, sex- and education-standardized logistic regression. These are described as mortality rate ratios (RRs), with a group-specific confidence interval (CI).ResultsFor the aggregate of all deaths from any of the diseases of interest at ages 35-69 years, the RRs for current smoking, quitting 0-4, 5-9 or 10+ years ago and never-smoking were, respectively, RR = 1 (95% CI 0.86-1.17), 0.91 (0.73-1.14), 0.71 (0.49-1.02), 0.66 (0.50-0.87) and 0.43 (0.37-0.48). Younger age of quitting (25-44 or 45-64) appeared to be associated with greater protection: RR = 0.58 (0.38-0.88) and 0.71 (0.54-0.93), respectively. These patterns were less clear at older ages, particularly for death from emphysema.ConclusionsLonger durations of smoking cessation are associated with progressively lower mortality rates from the diseases of interest. For sustainable monitoring of tobacco-attributed mortality, approximate years since last smoked should be recorded during death registration.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx267
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Association of leisure-time physical activity with total and
           cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of nearly a half million
           adults in the Asia Cohort Consortium
    • Authors: Liu Y; Shu X, Wen W, et al.
      Pages: 771 - 779
      Abstract: BackgroundMost previous studies evaluating the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and risk of death were conducted among generally healthy individuals of European ancestry. We investigated the association of LTPA with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among East Asian populations, including healthy individuals and those with existing chronic diseases, which has been less well characterized.MethodsWe performed pooled analyses among 467 729 East Asian individuals recruited in nine prospective cohorts included in the Asia Cohort Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with LTPA after adjusting for age, sex, education and marital and smoking status.ResultsDuring a mean follow-up period of 13.6 years, 65 858 deaths were identified. Compared with those who reported no or less than 1 h of LTPA per week, an inverse association was observed between the amount of LTPA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality (P for trend < 0.001). The strength of the inverse association was stronger for death due to cardiovascular diseases and causes other than cancer deaths. An inverse association of LTPA with total mortality was observed among individuals with a severe and often life-threatening disease: cancer, stroke or coronary heart disease [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.73-0.89 for high vs low LTPA) and those with other chronic diseases such as diabetes or hypertension (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93 for high vs low LTPA). No clear modifying effects by sex, body mass index or smoking status were identified.ConclusionsRegular participation in LTPA is associated with reduced mortality in middle-aged and elder Asians regardless pre-existing health conditions.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy024
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Child maltreatment risk as a function of poverty and race/ethnicity in the
           USA
    • Authors: Kim H; Drake B.
      Pages: 780 - 787
      Abstract: BackgroundChild maltreatment is a pressing social problem in the USA and internationally. There are increasing calls for the use of a public health approach to child maltreatment, but the effective adoption of such an approach requires a sound foundation of epidemiological data. This study estimates for the first time, using national data, total and type-specific official maltreatment risks while simultaneously considering environmental poverty and race/ethnicity.MethodsNational official maltreatment data (2009–13) were linked to census data. We used additive mixed models to estimate race/ethnicity-specific rates of official maltreatment (total and subtypes) as a function of county-level child poverty rates. The additive model coupled with the multilevel design provided empirically sound estimates while handling both curvilinearity and the nested data structure.ResultsWith increasing county child poverty rates, total and type-specific official maltreatment rates increased in all race/ethnicity groups. At similar poverty levels, White maltreatment rates trended higher than Blacks and Hispanics showed lower rates, especially where the data were most sufficient. For example, at the 25% poverty level, total maltreatment report rates were 6.91% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.43%–7.40%] for Whites, 6.30% (5.50%–7.11%) for Blacks and 3.32% (2.88%–3.76%) for Hispanics.ConclusionsWe find strong positive associations between official child maltreatment and environmental poverty in all race/ethnicity groups. Our data suggest that Black/White disproportionality in official maltreatment is largely driven by Black/White differences in poverty. Our findings also support the presence of a ‘Hispanic paradox’ in official maltreatment, where Hispanics have lower risks compared with similarly economically situated Whites and Blacks.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx280
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes at multiple geographical
           levels to monitor health inequities in an era of growing spatial social
           polarization: Massachusetts, USA (2010–14)
    • Authors: Krieger N; Kim R, Feldman J, et al.
      Pages: 788 - 819
      Abstract: BackgroundMetrics that quantify economic and social spatial polarization at multiple geographical levels are not routinely used by health agencies, despite rising inequalities.MethodsWe employed the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), which quantifies how persons in a specified area are concentrated into the top vs bottom of a specified societal distribution, to examine associations with Massachusetts mortality data (2010–14). Our a priori hypotheses were that these associations would: be greater at the local [census tract (CT)] compared with city/town level; vary by race/ethnicity but not gender; and be greatest for our new ICE for racialized economic segregation. Mortality outcomes comprised: child (< 5 years); premature (< 65 years); and cause-specific (cancer; cardiovascular; diabetes; suicide; HIV/AIDS; accidental poisoning; smoking-attributable).ResultsAs illustrated by child mortality, in multilevel models jointly including CT and city/town metrics, the rate ratio comparing the worst to best-off ICE quintile for the total population ranged from 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6, 3.0] for the CT-level ICE for racialized economic segregation down to 1.1 (95% CI 0.8, 1.7) for the city/town-level ICE for racial segregation; similar patterns occurred by gender and for the non-Hispanic White population. Larger associations for the ICE for racialized economic segregation were at the CT-level for the Black non-Hispanic population (6.9; 95% CI 1.3, 36.9) and at the city/town level for the Hispanic population (6.4; 95% CI 1.2, 35.4).ConclusionsResults indicate that health agencies should employ measures of spatial social polarization at multiple levels to monitor health inequities.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy004
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Contribution of discretionary food and drink consumption to socio-economic
           inequalities in children’s weight: prospective study of Australian
           children
    • Authors: Chung A; Peeters A, Gearon E, et al.
      Pages: 820 - 828
      Abstract: BackgroundIn high-income countries, children with a lower socio-economic position (SEP) are more likely to gain excess weight compared with children with a higher SEP. The extent to which children’s consumption of discretionary food and drinks contributes to the development of these inequalities over childhood has not been examined.MethodsThe study sample comprised 3190 children from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Linear and logistic regression models were fitted in accordance with the product of coefficients mediation method to determine the contribution of cumulative consumption of sweet drinks, discretionary hot foods, savoury snacks and sweet snacks from the first year of life, over a period of 10 years, on the relationship between SEP and children’s body mass index (BMI) z-score at age 10–11 years.ResultsAt age 10–11, mean BMI z-score was 0.17 in the highest SEP tertile, 0.33 in the middle and 0.47 in the lowest tertile. Corresponding values for overweight and obesity prevalence were 16.6%, 25.7% and 32.7%, respectively. Eleven per cent [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.77%, 19.84%] of the observed difference in BMI z-score at age 10–11 years was mediated by socio-economic differences in consumption of sweet drinks and discretionary hot foods including pies and hot chips throughout childhood.ConclusionsFindings indicate that consumption of sweet drinks and discretionary hot food, from the first year of life, is likely to contribute to the development of inequalities in excess weight among children. Poor dietary intake is a key risk factor for excess weight gain among children and a reduction in discretionary food and drinks is likely to contribute to the dual goal of improving overall weight and reducing socio-economic inequalities in weight gain across childhood. To maximally reduce inequalities in weight gain across childhood, additional determinants must also be identified and targeted.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy020
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Do material, psychosocial and behavioural factors mediate the relationship
           between disability acquisition and mental health' A sequential causal
           mediation analysis
    • Authors: Aitken Z; Simpson J, Gurrin L, et al.
      Pages: 829 - 840
      Abstract: BackgroundThere is evidence of a causal relationship between disability acquisition and poor mental health; however, the mechanism by which disability affects mental health is poorly understood. This gap in understanding limits the development of effective interventions to improve the mental health of people with disabilities.MethodsWe used four waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (2011–14) to compare self-reported mental health between individuals who acquired any disability (n=387) and those who remained disability-free (n=7936). We tested three possible pathways from disability acquisition to mental health, examining the effect of material, psychosocial and behavioural mediators. The effect was partitioned into natural direct and indirect effects through the mediators using a sequential causal mediation analysis approach. Multiple imputation using chained equations was used to assess the impact of missing data.ResultsDisability acquisition was estimated to cause a five-point decline in mental health [estimated mean difference: –5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) –6.8, –3.7]. The indirect effect through material factors was estimated to be a 1.7-point difference (–1.7, 95% CI –2.8, –0.6), explaining 32% of the total effect, with a negligible proportion of the effect explained by the addition of psychosocial characteristics (material and psychosocial: –1.7, 95% CI –3.0, –0.5) and a further 5% by behavioural factors (material-psychosocial-behavioural: –2.0, 95% CI –3.4, –0.6).ConclusionsThe finding that the effect of disability acquisition on mental health operates predominantly through material rather than psychosocial and behavioural factors has important implications. The results highlight the need for better social protection, including income support, employment and education opportunities, and affordable housing for people who acquire a disability.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx277
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Valid and efficient subgroup analyses using nested case-control data
    • Authors: Delcoigne B; Støer N, Reilly M.
      Pages: 841 - 849
      Abstract: BackgroundIt is not uncommon for investigators to conduct further analyses of subgroups, using data collected in a nested case-control design. Since the sampling of the participants is related to the outcome of interest, the data at hand are not a representative sample of the population, and subgroup analyses need to be carefully considered for their validity and interpretation.MethodsWe performed simulation studies, generating cohorts within the proportional hazards model framework and with covariate coefficients chosen to mimic realistic data and more extreme situations. From the cohorts we sampled nested case-control data and analysed the effect of a binary exposure on a time-to-event outcome in subgroups defined by a covariate (an independent risk factor, a confounder or an effect modifier) and compared the estimates with the corresponding subcohort estimates. Cohort analyses were performed with Cox regression, and nested case-control samples or restricted subsamples were analysed with both conditional logistic regression and weighted Cox regression.ResultsFor all studied scenarios, the subgroup analyses provided unbiased estimates of the exposure coefficients, with conditional logistic regression being less efficient than the weighted Cox regression.ConclusionsFor the study of a subpopulation, analysis of the corresponding subgroup of individuals sampled in a nested case-control design provides an unbiased estimate of the effect of exposure, regardless of whether the variable used to define the subgroup is a confounder, effect modifier or independent risk factor. Weighted Cox regression provides more efficient estimates than conditional logistic regression.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx282
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Data maturity and follow-up in time-to-event analyses
    • Authors: Gebski V; Garès V, Gibbs E, et al.
      Pages: 850 - 859
      Abstract: We propose methods to determine the minimum number of subjects remaining at risk after which Kaplan-Meier survival plots for time-to-event outcomes should be curtailed, as, once the number remaining at risk drops below this minimum, the survival estimates are no longer meaningful in the context of the investigation. The size of the decrease of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate S(t) at time t if one extra event should occur is considered in two ways. In the first approach, the investigator sets a maximum acceptable absolute decrease in S(t) should one extra event occur. In the second, a minimum acceptable number of subjects still at risk is calculated by comparing the size of the decrease in S(t) if an extra event should occur with the variability of the survival estimate had all subjects been followed to that time (confidence interval approach). We recommend calculating both limits for the number still at risk and then making an informed choice in the context of the particular investigation. We explore further how the amount of information actually available can assist in considering issues of data maturity for studies whose outcome of interest is a survival percentage at a particular time point. We illustrate the approaches with a number of published studies having differing sample sizes and censoring issues. In particular, one study was the subject of some controversy regarding how far in time the Kaplan-Meier plot should be extended. The proposed methods allow for limits to be calculated simply using the output provided by most statistical packages.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy013
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Burden of hypertension in The Gambia: evidence from a national World
           Health Organization (WHO) STEP survey
    • Authors: Cham B; Scholes S, Ng Fat L, et al.
      Pages: 860 - 871
      Abstract: BackgroundNon-communicable diseases are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and are estimated to account for 32% of adult deaths in The Gambia. Worldwide, prevalence of hypertension is highest in the African region (46%) and a very high proportion is undiagnosed. This study examined diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension in The Gambian adult population.MethodsData were collected in 2010 from a nationally representative random sample of 4111 adults aged 25–64 years, using the World Health Organization STEPwise cross-sectional survey methods. Analyses were restricted to non-pregnant participants with three valid blood pressure measurements (n = 3573). We conducted gender-stratified univariate and multivariate regression analyses to identify the strongest sociodemographic, behavioural and biological risk factors associated with hypertension.ResultsAlmost one-third of adults were hypertensive; a high proportion were undiagnosed, particularly among men (86% of men vs 71% of women with hypertension, P < 0.001). Rural and semi-urban residents and overweight/obese persons had increased odds of hypertension. Compared with urban residents, participants from one of the most rural regions had higher odds of hypertension among both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.2; 95% CI: 1.6–6.4] and women (AOR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–4.6). Other factors strongly associated with hypertension in multivariate analyses were age, smoking, physical inactivity and ethnicity.ConclusionsRural and semi-urban residence were strongly associated with hypertension, contrary to what has been found in similar studies in sub-Saharan Africa. Intervention to reduce the burden of hypertension in The Gambia could be further targeted towards rural areas.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx279
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to
           worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled
           analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million
           participants
    • Pages: 872 - 883i
      Abstract: BackgroundChange in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure.MethodsWe pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20–29 years to 70–79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure.ResultsIn 2005–16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association.ConclusionsChange in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy016
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Blood pressures are going down worldwide—but why'
    • Authors: Critchley J; Cooper R.
      Pages: 884 - 886
      Abstract: Large epidemiological pooling studies, such as the Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC),1 have provided important findings on trends in health and disease, through their ongoing efforts at pooling population surveys and other health metrics. The key aim of the NCD-RisC study in this issue of the IJE2 is to tease out whether it is the mean population blood pressure (BP) that has declined (suggesting a population effect on blood pressure, e.g. through changes in diet, early life course experiences or other factors) or truncation of the ‘right tail’ of the blood pressure distribution (which would indicate an effect of antihypertensive treatment among those with significantly raised BP levels). Overall the global decline appears to be mostly due to a fall in mean BP, although there is an important contribution from antihypertensive treatment. On occasions there has been polarization in debates assessing the importance of population versus ‘high risk’ approaches in cardiovascular epidemiology,3 and we welcome an analysis that attempts to consider the impact of both simultaneously. This paper suggests that just over half of the decline in hypertension can be attributed to downward trends in entire BP distributions, and with a possibly greater contribution from treatment in high-income areas.2
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy123
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • How does the association of general and central adiposity with glycaemia
           and blood pressure differ by gender and area of residence in a Malawian
           population: a cross-sectional study
    • Authors: Mudie K; Lawlor D, Pearce N, et al.
      Pages: 887 - 898
      Abstract: BackgroundIn high-income settings, body mass index (BMI) and measures of central adiposity, such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic risk, but evidence from low-income settings, particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), is limited. We assessed whether there are differences between central and general adiposity in their associations with fasting glucose, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and hypertension, and whether these associations differ with gender or rural/urban setting in Malawi.MethodsWe used data from a population-based study of 27 880 Malawian adults aged  ≥18 years, from both rural and urban areas. We used age-standardized z-scores of the means of BMI and WHR to directly compare their associations with glycaemic and blood pressure outcomes.ResultsMean fasting glucose and blood pressure values and odds of hypertension increased linearly across fifths of BMI and WHR, with stronger associations with BMI. For both BMI and WHR, the associations with outcomes were stronger in urban versus rural residents. The association with diabetes was stronger in women than men, whereas for blood-pressure related outcomes a stronger association was seen in men.ConclusionsBMI is more strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk in SSA, and might be a more useful measure than WHR, in this population. The greater positive association of adiposity with cardiometabolic outcomes in urban residents (where rates of overweight/obesity are already high) highlights the particular importance of addressing obesity within urban SSA populations.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy047
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Apolipoprotein E DNA methylation and late-life disease
    • Authors: Karlsson I; Ploner A, Wang Y, et al.
      Pages: 899 - 907
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study aims to investigate if DNA methylation of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus affects the risks of dementia, Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD).MethodsDNA methylation across the APOE gene has previously been categorized into three distinct regions: a hypermethylated region in the promoter, a hypomethylated region in the first two introns and exons and a hypermethylated region in the 3′exon that also harbours the APOE ε2 and ε4 alleles. DNA methylation levels in leukocytes were measured using the Illumina 450K array in 447 Swedish twins (mean age 78.1 years). We used logistic regression to investigate whether methylation levels in those regions affect the odds of disease.ResultsWe found that methylation levels in the promoter region were associated with dementia and AD after adjusting for sex, age at blood draw, education, smoking and relatedness among twins [odds ratio (OR) 1.32 per standard deviation increase in methylation levels, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.62 for dementia; OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.07–1.78 for AD). We did not detect any difference in methylation levels between CVD cases and controls. Results were similar when comparing within discordant twin pairs, and did not differ as a function of APOE genotype.ConclusionsWe found that higher DNA methylation levels in the promoter region of APOE increase the odds of dementia and AD, but not CVD. The effect was independent of APOE genotype, indicating that allelic variation and methylation variation in APOE may act independently to increase the risk of dementia.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy025
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Genome-wide average DNA methylation is determined in utero
    • Authors: Li S; Wong E, Dugué P, et al.
      Pages: 908 - 916
      Abstract: BackgroundInvestigating the genetic and environmental causes of variation in genome-wide average DNA methylation (GWAM), a global methylation measure from the HumanMethylation450 array, might give a better understanding of genetic and environmental influences on methylation.MethodsWe measured GWAM for 2299 individuals aged 0 to 90 years from seven twin and/or family studies. We estimated familial correlations, modelled correlations with cohabitation history and fitted variance components models for GWAM.ResultsThe correlation in GWAM for twin pairs was ∼0.8 at birth, decreased with age during adolescence and was constant at ∼0.4 throughout adulthood, with no evidence that twin pair correlations differed by zygosity. Non-twin first-degree relatives were correlated, from 0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05–0.30] to 0.28 (95% CI: 0.08–0.48), except for middle-aged siblings (0.01, 95% CI: −0.10–0.12), and the correlation increased with time living together and decreased with time living apart. Spouse pairs were correlated in all studies, from 0.23 (95% CI: 0.3–0.43) to 0.31 (95% CI: 0.05–0.52), and the correlation increased with time living together. The variance explained by environmental factors shared by twins alone was 90% (95% CI: 74–95%) at birth, decreased in early life and plateaued at 28% (95% CI: 17–39%) in middle age and beyond. There was a cohabitation-related environmental component of variance.ConclusionsGWAM is determined in utero by prenatal environmental factors, the effects of which persist throughout life. The variation of GWAM is also influenced by environmental factors shared by family members, as well as by individual-specific environmental factors.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy028
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cell-type-specific disturbance of DNA methylation pattern: a chance to get
           more benefit from and to minimize cohorts for epigenome-wide association
           studies
    • Authors: Bauer M.
      Pages: 917 - 927
      Abstract: BackgroundBoth genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are aiming to discover molecular signs for diseases, which possibly can be helpful for future therapeutic intervention strategies. The most prominently used tissue in association studies on humans is venous blood. In contrast to the unchangeable genotype, epigenetic DNA methylation is more variable. Methylation is affected not only by a subject’s constitution such as age, gender, ethnicity, genotype, lifestyle and health status, but is also determined by tissue-specific cell types.MethodsPubMed, published before 2017, was researched, documenting the importance of epigenetic analyses on single cell types instead of whole blood in EWAS.ResultsInitial studies documented that stressor-induced, mostly marginal, DNA methylation changes in whole-blood samples (< 5% methylation difference) may rely not on uniform distribution of that methylation shift among each blood cell type, but on strongly altered methylation (> 20%) in single cell types. The effect size in single cell types enables the performance of epigenome-wide studies on replicated smaller cohorts, in contrast to the requirement of larger international consortium-based approaches.ConclusionsTherefore, the identification of a specific cell type that is responsible for association between DNA methylation in whole blood with the phenotype of interest, has to be a prioritized experimental approach in association studies. This is a key prerequisite for constructive interpretation of epigenetic signs in the context of diverse biological function of the tissue blood, for detection of causality link between methylation and phenotype and for establishment of valuable clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy029
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The long-term impact of folic acid in pregnancy on offspring DNA
           methylation: follow-up of the Aberdeen Folic Acid Supplementation Trial
           (AFAST)
    • Authors: Richmond R; Sharp G, Herbert G, et al.
      Pages: 928 - 937
      Abstract: BackgroundIt has been proposed that maternal folic-acid supplement use may alter the DNA-methylation patterns of the offspring during the in-utero period, which could influence development and later-life health outcomes. Evidence from human studies suggests a role for prenatal folate levels in influencing DNA methylation in early life, but this has not been extended to consider persistent effects into adulthood.MethodsTo better elucidate the long-term impact of maternal folic acid in pregnancy on DNA methylation in offspring, we carried out an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) nested within the Aberdeen Folic Acid Supplementation Trial (AFAST—a trial of two different doses: 0.2 and 5 mg, folic acid vs placebo). Offspring of the AFAST participants were recruited at a mean age of 47 years and saliva samples were profiled on the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 array. Both single-site and differentially methylated region analyses were performed.ResultsWe found an association at cg09112514 (p = 4.03×10–9), a CpG located in the 5’ untranslated region of PDGFRA, in the main analysis comparing the intervention arms [low- (0.2 mg) and high-dose (5 mg) folic acid combined (N = 43)] vs placebo (N = 43). Furthermore, a dose–response reduction in methylation at this site was identified in relation to the intervention. In the regional approach, we identified 46 regions of the genome that were differentially methylated in response to the intervention (Sidak p-value <0.05), including HLA-DPB2, HLA-DPB1, PAX8 and VTRNA2–1. Whereas cg09112514 did not replicate in an independent EWAS of maternal plasma folate, there was suggested replication of differential methylation in PAX8.ConclusionsThe results of this study suggest that maternal folic-acid supplement use is associated with changes in the DNA methylation of the offspring that persist for many years after exposure in utero. These methylation changes are located in genes implicated in embryonic development, immune response and cellular proliferation. Further work to investigate whether these epigenetic changes translate into detectable phenotypic differences is required.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy032
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Historical trends in publications in the International Journal of
           Epidemiology
    • Authors: Grant C; Williams B, Driscoll T.
      Pages: 938 - 941
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study aimed to provide a detailed insight into the nature of the content published in the International Journal of Epidemiology (IJE) over its history.MethodsThis study reviewed five complete volumes of the IJE at 10-year intervals (1976, 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2016). Information was extracted for 628 articles considered to be most representative of the content of the IJE, with detailed information analysed for 435 articles identified as original research articles.ResultsOver time, the number of articles published per issue and per year increased and the number of authors per article increased. Cohort studies were consistently the most common study type. The majority of first authors and two-thirds of the populations studied were from high-income countries, although there was a clear trend over time towards more studies investigating multiple countries. Within original research articles, neoplasms (17%), infectious and parasitic diseases (14%) and diseases of the circulatory system (12%) were the most common disease type studied in original research articles (but the study topics varied between low-income and high-income countries); and socioeconomic factors (17%), environmental factors (15%) and biological factors and behaviours (both 12%) were the most common study factors. The topics of articles generally had good correlation with the global burden of disease, both overall and within geographical regions studied, but mental health and musculoskeletal disorders were notable omissions.ConclusionsWorking to increase publications from low- and middle-income groups, and studies covering areas such as mental health and musculoskeletal disorders, should be considered.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy109
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Trajectories of alcohol consumption prior to the diagnosis of type 2
           diabetes: a longitudinal case–cohort study
    • Authors: Knott C; Britton A, Bell S.
      Pages: 953 - 965
      Abstract: BackgroundNon-linear associations have been reported between baseline measures of alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, given that drinking varies over the adult life course, we investigated whether differences existed in the longitudinal trajectory of alcohol consumption according to T2DM status.MethodsFor a case–cohort (916 incident cases; 7376 controls) of British civil servants nested within the Whitehall II cohort, the self-reported weekly volume of alcohol consumption was traced backwards from the date of diagnosis or censoring to the beginning of the study, covering a period of up to 28 years. Mean trajectories of alcohol intake were estimated separately by diagnosis status using random-effects models.ResultsDrinking increased linearly among male cases before diagnosis, but declined among male non-cases prior to censoring. At the time of diagnosis or censoring, consumption among those who developed T2DM was 33.4 g/week greater on average. These patterns were not apparent among women. Here, alcohol intake among female cases was consistently below that of non-cases, with the difference in consumption most pronounced around 15 years prior to diagnosis or censoring, at ∼28.0 g/week. Disparities by diagnosis status were attenuated following adjustment for potential confounders, including the frequency of consumption and metabolic factors. Drinking among male and female cases declined following diagnosis.ConclusionsDifferences in the weekly volume of alcohol consumption are reported in the years leading up to diagnosis or censoring. Although male and female cases predominantly consumed alcohol at volumes lower than or equal to those who were not diagnosed, these disparities appear to be largely explained by a range of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Where disparities are observed between cases and non-cases, adjusted absolute differences are small in magnitude. The decision to drink alcohol should not be motivated by a perceived benefit to T2DM risk.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyx274
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Incidence of gastric cancer in the USA during 1999 to 2013: a 50-state
           analysis
    • Authors: Wang Z; Graham D, Khan A, et al.
      Pages: 966 - 975
      Abstract: BackgroundThe incidence of gastric cancer, while declining in many places worldwide, is characterized by considerable geographical variability. The USA has large racial, ethnic and regional variation; we collected data from all 50 states to better characterize recent changes in gastric cancer incidence nationwide.MethodsAnnual gastric cancer incidence rates from 1999 to 2013 were extracted from the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) registry. Secular trends of gastric cancer incidence were examined overall and by sociodemographic factors and states. We used Joinpoint regression to compute annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). SEER 13 registries data were extracted to examine the secular trends by cardia and non-cardia gastric cancers.ResultsOverall gastric cancer incidence decreased until 2007 (APC = −1.55, 95% CI: −1.88, −1.21), and remained stable thereafter (APC = −0.32, 95% CI: −0.84, 0.20). However, rates increased among persons <50 years of age (AAPC = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.61, 1.16), especially among non-Hispanic white females and Hispanic females. Incidence of non-cardia gastric cancer increased among persons <50 years of age (AAPC = 0.69, 95% CI: −0.06, 1.44), whereas rates of gastric cardia cancer remained unchanged. States with rapid increases in high-risk population groups (e.g. Hispanic females aged <50), including California and Texas, had highest annual increases in gastric cancer incidence.ConclusionsDivergent trends for gastric cancer incidence were observed in the USA. Incidence rates, particularly for non-cardia gastric cancer, were stable or increasing among persons aged  <50 years.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy055
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A regional vision of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and physical
           education in adolescents from Latin America and the Caribbean: results
           from 26 countries
    • Authors: Aguilar-Farias N; Martino-Fuentealba P, Carcamo-Oyarzun J, et al.
      Pages: 976 - 986
      Abstract: BackgroundLatin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, have been historically under-represented due to the lack of surveillance of physical behaviours in young populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe and compare overall physical activity (PA), active transportation to and from school (i.e. walking or cycling), physical education (PE) participation, and sedentary behaviour (SB) in adolescents from 26 countries in LAC.MethodsData were collected in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2007–13). Prevalences for each physical behaviour were compared by sex across the region.ResultsIn total, 64 034 adolescents provided complete data (age range: 11 to 18 years; 47.7% male). Only about 15% of adolescents in LAC countries were physically active (at least 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA) with most countries showing sex disparities. Overall, 41.9% reported being active for transportation to and from school at least 3 days per week. In 12 countries, at least 50% of the adolescents reported sitting ≥3 h per day outside school, and a third of adolescents reported participation in PE classes on 3 days or more per week.ConclusionsThe study sets a challenge for the LAC region, as physical inactivity and SB are highly prevalent across all countries. Gender inequity was shown in most countries, with boys reporting more active behaviours. Regional and national actions for implementing policies to revert this situation are urgent.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy033
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Prospective evaluation of body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and
           BRCA2 mutation carriers
    • Authors: Kim S; Huzarski T, Gronwald J, et al.
      Pages: 987 - 997
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough evidence suggests that larger body size in early life confers lifelong protection from developing breast cancer, few studies have investigated the relationship between body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA mutation carriers. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of body size and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers.MethodsCurrent height and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 were determined from baseline questionnaires. Current BMI and weight change since age 18 were calculated from updated biennial follow-up questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).ResultsAmong 3734 BRCA mutation carriers, there were 338 incident breast cancers over a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. There was no association between height, current BMI or weight change and breast cancer risk. Women with BMI at age 18 ≥22.1 kg/m2 had a decreased risk of developing post-menopausal breast cancer compared with women with a BMI at age 18 between 18.8 and 20.3 kg/m2 (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.30–0.82; P = 0.006). BMI at age 18 was not associated with risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer.ConclusionsThere was no observed association between height, current BMI and weight change and risk of breast cancer. The inverse relationship between greater BMI at age 18 and post-menopausal breast cancer further supports a role of early rather than current or adulthood exposures for BRCA-associated breast cancer development. Future studies with longer follow-up and additional measures of adiposity are necessary to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy039
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • How to design and analyse cluster randomized trials with a small number of
           clusters' Comment on Leyrat et al.
    • Authors: van Breukelen G; Candel M.
      Pages: 998 - 1001
      Abstract: Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are popular in public health and primary care, among other arenas, and for good reasons. If individual randomization is impossible or leads to serious treatment contamination, a CRT is the next best option as it shares with individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the prevention of confounding.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy061
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Response to: How to design and analyse cluster randomized trials with a
           small number of clusters' Comment on Leyrat et al.
    • Authors: Leyrat C; Morgan K, Leurent B, et al.
      Pages: 1001 - 1002
      Abstract: We would like to thank Van Breukelen and Candel for their comments on our manuscript.1 Although we broadly agree with them, we would like to clarify several points.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy062
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Comments on: The tale wagged by the DAG
    • Authors: Pearl J.
      Pages: 1002 - 1004
      Abstract: I am grateful to the editors for the opportunity to comment on Nancy Krieger and George Davey Smith’s article, ‘The tale wagged by the DAG’, which appeared in the IJE’s special issue on causal analysis.1
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy068
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Reply to Pearl: Algorithm of the truth vs real-world science
    • Authors: Krieger N; Davey Smith G.
      Pages: 1004 - 1006
      Abstract: We thank Professor Pearl for his response1 to our papers on causal inference in epidemiology2,3 and appreciate his concern that, by failing to keeping up with ‘the dazzling speed with which epidemiology has modernized its tools’, we risk being left behind as epidemiology moves into an exclusively DAG-driven phase.1
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy071
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Pesticide exposure and Parkinson's disease in the AGRICAN study
    • Authors: Wendt A.
      Pages: 1006 - 1006
      Abstract: Pouchieu et al.1 recently published their analysis on the association between lifelong pesticide exposure and self-reported Parkinson’s disease (PD), using data from the baseline assessment of the AGRICAN cohort study. They reported odds ratios up to 1.86 for pesticide exposure in relation to specific animals and plants, and odds ratios up to 1.57 for exposure with specific active ingredients. Their dose-response analysis resulted in odds ratios up to 1.62 for the longest durations of use of specific active ingredients. Definition of exposure involved the time until recruitment into the cohort study, meaning that exposure experience after PD onset was part of the exposure measures. Due to this, the conducted analysis is of restricted use. Unless exposure information is confined to the time before PD diagnosis, results from the AGRICAN study on pesticides and PD cannot be used for any conclusions.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy035
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Response to: Pesticide exposure and Parkinson’s disease in the
           AGRICAN study
    • Authors: Pouchieu C; Piel C, Carles C, et al.
      Pages: 1007 - 1007
      Abstract: We agree with Wendt when she underlines that exposure assessment is a major challenge in analyses such as those we have conducted on pesticides and Parkinson’s disease (PD) within the AGRICAN cohort.1 This is why we used an innovative approach based on a crop exposure matrix regarding pesticide exposure, and conducted numerous sensitivity analyses to ensure the robustness of our results, especially regarding exposure assessment.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy036
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Enhancing the utility of International Journal of Epidemiology cohort
           profiles
    • Authors: Edwards N; Plotnikoff R, Hoogeveen K.
      Pages: 1008 - 1009
      Abstract: The cohort profiles published by International Journal of Epidemiology (IJE) are intended to support scientific collaboration and enhance the use of longitudinal cohort studies. This welcome addition to other types of IJE articles is very much in line with recent reports1–4 emphasizing the need to maximize substantial research investments already made in large cohort datasets.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy104
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • My memories of Walter Holland: leader in promoting epidemiology
           collaboration in Europe
    • Authors: Saracci R.
      Pages: 1009 - 1010
      Abstract: I first met Walter Holland, recently commemorated in the International Journal of Epidemiology,1 in 1965, when he was in the faculty of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and I was a trainee in epidemiology on the other side of Gower Street, in the MRC Statistical Research Unit. I was attending—as was a colleague who became a long-lasting friend, the late Dimitrios Trichopoulos—the “Short and Combined Courses in Medical Statistics and Epidemiology”. After attending Walter’s lectures, I visited his thriving Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Social Medicine at St. Thomas’ Hospital, where research was especially centered on respiratory disease epidemiology and on health services evaluation, with particular attention to screening.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy122
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Racial/ethnic differences in the epidemiology of ovarian cancer: a pooled
           analysis of 12 case-control studies
    • Authors: Peres L; Risch H, Terry K, et al.
      Pages: 1011 - 1011
      Abstract: First published online: 2 December 2017, [Epub ahead of print], Int J Epidemiol, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx252
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy054
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cluster randomized trials with a small number of clusters: which analyses
           should be used'
    • Authors: Leyrat C; Morgan K, Leurent B, et al.
      Pages: 1012 - 1012
      Abstract: First published online: 23 August 2017, Int J Epidemiol, 2018, 47(1), 321–331, doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx169
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Mar 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy057
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A dose-response meta-analysis of chronic arsenic exposure and incident
           cardiovascular disease
    • Authors: Moon K; Oberoi S, Barchowsky A, et al.
      Pages: 1013 - 1013
      Abstract: First published online: 23 September 2017, 46(6), 1924–1939, Int J Epidemiol, 2017, doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx202
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Apr 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy073
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Cohort Profile: The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health
           (SLOSH)
    • Authors: Magnusson Hanson L; Leineweber C, Persson V, et al.
      Pages: 1014 - 1014
      Abstract: First published online: 10 January 2018, Int J Epidemiol, 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyx260
      PubDate: Wed, 16 May 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy090
      Issue No: Vol. 47, No. 3 (2018)
       
 
 
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