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Journal Cover American Journal of Epidemiology
  [SJR: 3.047]   [H-I: 201]   [172 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9262 - ISSN (Online) 1476-6256
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Pregnancy and Lifetime Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Infant
           Mortality in Massachusetts, 2001–2007
    • Authors: Son J; Lee H, Koutrakis P, et al.
      Abstract: Many studies have found associations between particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) and adult mortality. Comparatively few studies evaluated particles and infant mortality, although infants and children are particularly vulnerable to pollution. Moreover, existing studies mostly focused on short-term exposure to larger particles. We investigated PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and lifetime and postneonatal infant mortality. The study included 465,682 births with 385 deaths in Massachusetts (2001–2007). Exposures were estimated from PM2.5-prediction models based on satellite imagery. We applied extended Cox proportional hazards modeling with time-dependent covariates to total, respiratory, and sudden infant death syndrome mortality. Exposure was calculated from birth to death (or end of eligibility for outcome, at age 1 year) and pregnancy (gestation and each trimester). Models adjusted for sex, birth weight, gestational length, season of birth, temperature, relative humidity, and maternal characteristics. Hazard ratios for total, respiratory, and sudden infant death syndrome mortality per-interquartile-range increase (1.3 μg/m3) in lifetime PM2.5 exposure were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.11, 3.36), 3.14 (95% CI: 2.39, 4.13), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56, 4.00), respectively. We did not observe a statistically significant relationship between gestational exposure and mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence that lifetime exposure to PM2.5 increases risk of infant mortality.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 GMT
    • Authors: Kawada T.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
    • Authors: Milner A; Badland H, Kavanagh A, et al.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Infections in Early Life and Development of Celiac Disease
    • Authors: Beyerlein A; Donnachie E, Ziegler A.
      Abstract: It has been suggested that early infections are associated with increased risk for later celiac disease (CD). We analyzed prospective claims data of infants from Bavaria, Germany, born between 2005 and 2007 (n = 295,420), containing information on medically attended infectious diseases according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes in quarterly intervals. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for time to CD diagnosis by infection exposure, adjusting for sex, calendar month of birth, and number of previous healthcare visits. CD risk was higher among children who had had a gastrointestinal infection during the first year of life (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.55) and, to a lesser extent, among children who had had a respiratory infection during the first year of life (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.43). Repeated gastrointestinal infections during the first year of life were associated with particularly increased risk of CD in later life. These findings indicate that early gastrointestinal infections may be relevant for CD development.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Maternal Lifetime Stress and Prenatal Psychological Functioning and
           Decreased Placental Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in the PRISM Study
    • Authors: Brunst K; Sanchez Guerra M, Gennings C, et al.
      Abstract: Psychosocial stress contributes to placental oxidative stress. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress, which can lead to changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn). We examined associations of maternal lifetime stress, current negative life events, and depressive and posttraumatic-stress-disorder symptom scores with placental mtDNAcn in a racially/ethnically diverse sample (n = 147) from the Programming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms (PRISM) study (Massachusetts, March 2011 to August 2012). In linear regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, prenatal fine particulate matter exposure, prenatal smoking exposure, and the sex of the child, all measures of stress were associated with decreased placental mtDNAcn (all P values < 0.05). Weighted-quantile-sum (WQS) regression showed that higher lifetime stress and depressive symptoms accounted for most of the effect on mtDNAcn (WQS weights: 0.25 and 0.39, respectively). However, among white individuals, increased lifetime stress and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms explained the majority of the effect (WQS weights: 0.20 and 0.62, respectively) while among nonwhite individuals, lifetime stress and depressive symptoms accounted for most of the effect (WQS weights: 0.27 and 0.55, respectively). These analyses are first to link increased maternal psychosocial stress with reduced placental mtDNAcn and add to literature documenting racial/ethnic differences in the psychological sequelae of chronic stress that may contribute to maternal-fetal health.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Group-Based Trajectory of Body Shape From Ages 5 to 55 Years and
           Cardiometabolic Disease Risk in 2 US Cohorts
    • Authors: Zheng Y; Song M, Manson J, et al.
      Abstract: The association of adiposity across the life span with cardiometabolic risk is not completely delineated. We used a group-based modeling approach to identify distinct trajectories of body shape from ages 5 years to 55 years among 84,792 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1976–2010) and 37,706 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2010) and assessed the associations between these trajectories and incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) during a 17-year follow-up period. Compared with those who maintained leanness throughout the life span (“lean-stable” trajectory), participants who maintained a medium body shape (“medium-stable” trajectory) had somewhat increased risk. Those who started lean but had a moderate or marked increase in adiposity (“lean-moderate increase” and “lean-marked increase” trajectories) had even higher risk (e.g., for a “lean-marked increase” trajectory, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 8.11 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 7.10, 9.27) in women and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.04, 2.74) in men; for CVD, it was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.52) in women and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.41) in men). Participants who started heavy and became heavier (a “heavy-increase” trajectory) had substantially elevated risk (for diabetes, the hazard ratio was 7.34 (95% CI: 6.40, 8.42) in women and 2.80 (95% CI: 2.37, 3.31) in men; for CVD, it was 1.55 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.71) in women and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.53) in men). Our data showed that trajectories of body shape from ages 5 to 55 years were associated with subsequent risk of developing type 2 diabetes and CVD.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Work-Related Biomechanical Exposure and Job Strain as Separate and Joint
           Predictors of Musculoskeletal Diseases: A 28-Year Prospective Follow-up
    • Authors: Prakash K; Neupane S, Leino-Arjas P, et al.
      Abstract: We investigated how work-related biomechanical exposure and job strain in midlife separately and jointly predicted back and degenerative musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs). A total of 6,257 employees participated in the Finnish Longitudinal Study on Aging Municipal Employees (FLAME) in 1981 and were followed up for 28 years. Risk ratios and the relative excessive risk due to interaction and 95% confidence intervals were modeled for separate and joint prediction estimates, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, job strain predicted degenerative MSDs among women after 4 and 11 years of follow-up. After 11 years, both exposures predicted both types of MSDs among men. Joint exposure predicted both types of MSDs after 4 years among women (for back MSDs, risk ratio (RR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15, 2.18; for degenerative MSDs, RR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.07) and men (for back MSDs, RR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.15; for degenerative MSDs, RR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.22) and both types of MSDs after 11 years (for back MSDs, RR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.43; for degenerative MSDs, RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.46) among men only, but the relative excessive risk due to interaction was not significant throughout. However, after 28 years, the separate and joint exposures did not predict MSDs. Workplace interventions should be focused on reducing job strain along with biomechanical exposure for possible prevention of MSDs in working life and around the time of retirement, but there may be other pathways of onset of MSDs in old age.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Measuring the Impact of Disasters Using Publicly Available Data:
           Application to Hurricane Sandy (2012)
    • Authors: Mongin S; Baron S, Schwartz R, et al.
      Abstract: The unexpected nature of disasters leaves little time or resources for organized health surveillance of the affected population, and even less for those who are unaffected. An ideal epidemiologic study would monitor both groups equally well, but would typically be decided against as infeasible or costly. Exposure and health outcome data at the level of the individual can be difficult to obtain. Despite these challenges, the health effects of a disaster can be approximated. Approaches include 1) the use of publicly available exposure data in geographic detail, 2) health outcomes data—collected before, during, and after the event, and 3) statistical modeling designed to compare the observed frequency of health outcomes with the counterfactual frequency hidden by the disaster itself. We applied these strategies to Hurricane Sandy, which struck the northeastern United States in October 2012. Hospital admissions data from the state of New York with information on primary payer as well as patient demographic characteristics were analyzed. To illustrate the method, we present multivariate logistic regression results for the first 2 months after the hurricane. Inferential implications of admissions data on nearly the entire target population in the wake of a disaster are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Advanced Maternal Age and the Risk of Low Birth Weight and Preterm
           Delivery: a Within-Family Analysis Using Finnish Population Registers
    • Authors: Goisis A; Remes H, Barclay K, et al.
      Abstract: Advanced maternal age at birth is considered a major risk factor for birth outcomes. It is unclear to what extent this association is confounded by maternal characteristics. To test whether advanced maternal age at birth independently increases the risk of low birth weight (<2,500 g) and preterm birth (<37 weeks’ gestation), we compared between-family models (children born to different mothers at different ages) with within-family models (children born to the same mother at different ages). The latter procedure reduces confounding by unobserved parental characteristics that are shared by siblings. We used Finnish population registers, including 124,098 children born during 1987–2000. When compared with maternal ages 25–29 years in between-family models, maternal ages of 35–39 years and ≥40 years were associated with percentage increases of 1.1 points (95% confidence intervals: 0.8, 1.4) and 2.2 points (95% confidence intervals: 1.4, 2.9), respectively, in the probability of low birth weight. The associations are similar for the risk of preterm delivery. In within-family models, the relationship between advanced maternal age and low birth weight or preterm birth is statistically and substantively negligible. In Finland, advanced maternal age is not independently associated with the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery among mothers who have had at least 2 live births.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Neighborhood Physical Environment and Changes in Body Mass Index: Results
           From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
    • Authors: Barrientos-Gutierrez T; Moore K, Auchincloss A, et al.
      Abstract: Longitudinal associations between neighborhood characteristics and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) were assessed from 2000 to 2011 among 5,919 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The perceived availability of healthy food and walking environment were assessed via surveys, and 1-mile (1.6-km) densities of supermarkets, fruit-and-vegetable stores, and recreational facilities were obtained through a commercial database. Econometric fixed-effects models were used to estimate the association between within-person changes in neighborhood characteristics and within-person change in BMI. In fully adjusted models, a 1-standard-deviation increase in the healthy food environment index was associated with a 0.16-kg/m2 decrease in BMI (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.27, −0.06) among participants with obesity at baseline. A 1-standard-deviation increase in the physical activity environment index was associated with 0.13-kg/m2 (95% CI: −0.24, −0.02) and 0.14-kg/m2 (95% CI: −0.27, −0.01) decreases in BMI for participants who were overweight and obese at baseline, respectively. Paradoxically, increases in the physical activity index were associated with BMI increases in persons who were normal-weight at baseline. This study provides preliminary longitudinal evidence that favorable changes in neighborhood physical environments are related to BMI reductions in obese persons, who comprise a substantial proportion of the US population.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
  • Potential for Bias When Estimating Critical Windows for Air Pollution in
           Children’s Health
    • Authors: Wilson A; Chiu Y, Hsu H, et al.
      Abstract: Evidence supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and children’s health outcomes. Recent interest has focused on identifying critical windows of vulnerability. An analysis based on a distributed lag model (DLM) can yield estimates of a critical window that are different from those from an analysis that regresses the outcome on each of the 3 trimester-average exposures (TAEs). Using a simulation study, we assessed bias in estimates of critical windows obtained using 3 regression approaches: 1) 3 separate models to estimate the association with each of the 3 TAEs; 2) a single model to jointly estimate the association between the outcome and all 3 TAEs; and 3) a DLM. We used weekly fine-particulate-matter exposure data for 238 births in a birth cohort in and around Boston, Massachusetts, and a simulated outcome and time-varying exposure effect. Estimates using separate models for each TAE were biased and identified incorrect windows. This bias arose from seasonal trends in particulate matter that induced correlation between TAEs. Including all TAEs in a single model reduced bias. DLM produced unbiased estimates and added flexibility to identify windows. Analysis of body mass index z score and fat mass in the same cohort highlighted inconsistent estimates from the 3 methods.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 GMT
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