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Journal Cover American Journal of Epidemiology
  [SJR: 3.047]   [H-I: 201]   [170 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0002-9262 - ISSN (Online) 1476-6256
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
    • Authors: Rücker G; Steinhauser S, Schumacher M.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
    • Authors: Levis B; Benedetti A, Thombs BD.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
           RATES DURING 2001–2013”
    • Authors: Cook PJ; Rivera-Aguirre AE, Cerdá M, et al.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
    • Authors: Kalesan B; Galea S, Fagan J.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
  • Editorial: Emergence of Gene-Environment Interaction Analysis in
           Epidemiologic Research
    • Authors: Khoury MJ.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Current Challenges and New Opportunities for Gene-Environment Interaction
           Studies of Complex Diseases
    • Authors: McAllister K; Mechanic LE, Amos C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractRecently, many new approaches, study designs, and statistical and analytical methods have emerged for studying gene-environment interactions (G×Es) in large-scale studies of human populations. There are opportunities in this field, particularly with respect to the incorporation of -omics and next-generation sequencing data and continual improvement in measures of environmental exposures implicated in complex disease outcomes. In a workshop called “Current Challenges and New Opportunities for Gene-Environment Interaction Studies of Complex Diseases,” held October 17–18, 2014, by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the National Cancer Institute in conjunction with the annual American Society of Human Genetics meeting, participants explored new approaches and tools that have been developed in recent years for G×E discovery. This paper highlights current and critical issues and themes in G×E research that need additional consideration, including the improved data analytical methods, environmental exposure assessment, and incorporation of functional data and annotations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Update on the State of the Science for Analytical Methods for
           Gene-Environment Interactions
    • Authors: Gauderman W; Mukherjee B, Aschard H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe analysis of gene-environment interaction (G×E) may hold the key for further understanding the etiology of many complex traits. The current availability of high-volume genetic data, the wide range in types of environmental data that can be measured, and the formation of consortiums of multiple studies provide new opportunities to identify G×E but also new analytical challenges. In this article, we summarize several statistical approaches that can be used to test for G×E in a genome-wide association study. These include traditional models of G×E in a case-control or quantitative trait study as well as alternative approaches that can provide substantially greater power. The latest methods for analyzing G×E with gene sets and with data in a consortium setting are summarized, as are issues that arise due to the complexity of environmental data. We provide some speculation on why detecting G×E in a genome-wide association study has thus far been difficult. We conclude with a description of software programs that can be used to implement most of the methods described in the paper.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Incorporation of Biological Knowledge Into the Study of Gene-Environment
    • Authors: Ritchie MD; Davis JR, Aschard H, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractA growing knowledge base of genetic and environmental information has greatly enabled the study of disease risk factors. However, the computational complexity and statistical burden of testing all variants by all environments has required novel study designs and hypothesis-driven approaches. We discuss how incorporating biological knowledge from model organisms, functional genomics, and integrative approaches can empower the discovery of novel gene-environment interactions and discuss specific methodological considerations with each approach. We consider specific examples where the application of these approaches has uncovered effects of gene-environment interactions relevant to drug response and immunity, and we highlight how such improvements enable a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and the realization of precision medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Lessons Learned From Past Gene-Environment Interaction Successes
    • Authors: Ritz BR; Chatterjee N, Garcia-Closas M, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractGenetic and environmental factors are both known to contribute to susceptibility to complex diseases. Therefore, the study of gene-environment interaction (G×E) has been a focus of research for several years. In this article, select examples of G×E from the literature are described to highlight different approaches and underlying principles related to the success of these studies. These examples can be broadly categorized as studies of single metabolism genes, genes in complex metabolism pathways, ranges of exposure levels, functional approaches and model systems, and pharmacogenomics. Some studies illustrated the success of studying exposure metabolism for which candidate genes can be identified. Moreover, some G×E successes depended on the availability of high-quality exposure assessment and longitudinal measures, study populations with a wide range of exposure levels, and the inclusion of ethnically and geographically diverse populations. In several examples, large population sizes were required to detect G×Es. Other examples illustrated the impact of accurately defining scale of the interactions (i.e., additive or multiplicative). Last, model systems and functional approaches provided insights into G×E in several examples. Future studies may benefit from these lessons learned.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
  • Residential Proximity to Major Roadways, Fine Particulate Matter, and
           Hepatic Steatosis The Framingham Heart Study
    • Authors: Li W; Dorans KS, Wilker EH, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractWe examined associations between ambient air pollution and hepatic steatosis among 2,513 participants from the Framingham (Massachusetts) Offspring Study and Third Generation Cohort who underwent a computed tomography scan (2002–2005), after excluding men who reported >21 drinks/week and women who reported >14 drinks/week. We calculated each participant's residential-based distance to a major roadway and used a spatiotemporal model to estimate the annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter. Liver attenuation was measured by computed tomography, and liver-to-phantom ratio (LPR) was calculated. Lower values of LPR represent more liver fat. We estimated differences in continuous LPR using linear regression models and prevalence ratios for presence of hepatic steatosis (LPR ≤ 0.33) using generalized linear models, adjusting for demographics, individual and area-level measures of socioeconomic position, and clinical and lifestyle factors. Participants who lived 58 m (25th percentile) from major roadways had lower LPR (β = −0.003, 95% confidence interval: −0.006, −0.001) and higher prevalence of hepatic steatosis (prevalence ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.28) than those who lived 416 m (75th percentile) away. The 2003 annual average fine particulate matter concentration was not associated with liver-fat measurements. Our findings suggest that living closer to major roadways was associated with more liver fat.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
  • Contribution of Socioeconomic Status at 3 Life-Course Periods to Late-Life
           Memory Function and Decline: Early and Late Predictors of Dementia Risk
    • Authors: Marden JR; Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kawachi I, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractBoth early life and adult socioeconomic status (SES) predict late-life level of memory; however, evidence is mixed on the relationship between SES and rate of memory decline. Further, the relative importance of different life-course periods for rate of late-life memory decline has not been evaluated. We examined associations between life-course SES and late-life memory function and decline. Health and Retirement Study participants (n = 10,781) were interviewed biennially from 1998–2012 (United States). SES measurements for childhood (composite score including parents’ educational attainment), early adulthood (high-school or college completion), and older adulthood (income, mean age 66 years) were all dichotomized. Word-list memory was modeled via inverse-probability weighted longitudinal models accounting for differential attrition, survival, and time-varying confounding, with nonrespondents retained via proxy assessments. Compared to low SES at all 3 points (referent), stable, high SES predicted the best memory function and slowest decline. High-school completion had the largest estimated effect on memory (β = 0.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.22), but high late-life income had the largest estimated benefit for slowing declines (for 10-year memory change, β = 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.46). Both early and late-life interventions are potentially relevant for reducing dementia risk by improving memory function or slowing decline.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
  • Meat, Dietary Heme Iron, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus The
           Singapore Chinese Health Study
    • Authors: Talaei M; Wang Y, Yuan J, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractWe evaluated the relationships of red meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish intakes, as well as heme iron intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort study that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45–74 years from 1993 to 1998. Usual diet was evaluated using a validated 165-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at recruitment. Physician-diagnosed T2D was self-reported during 2 follow-up interviews in 1999–2004 and 2006–2010. During a mean follow-up of 10.9 years, 5,207 incident cases of T2D were reported. When comparing persons in the highest intake quartiles with those in the lowest, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for T2D was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.33) for red meat intake (P for trend < 0.001), 1.15 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.24) for poultry intake (P for trend = 0.004), and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.16) for fish/shellfish intake (P for trend = 0.12). After additional adjustment for heme iron, only red meat intake remained significantly associated with T2D risk (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.25; P for trend = 0.02). Heme iron was associated with a higher risk of T2D even after additional adjustment for red meat intake (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28; P for trend = 0.03). In conclusion, red meat and poultry intakes were associated with a higher risk of T2D. These associations were mediated completely for poultry and partially for red meat by heme iron intake.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
  • Parental Age and Risk of Pediatric Cancer in the Offspring: A
           Population-Based Record-Linkage Study in California
    • Authors: Wang R; Metayer C, Morimoto L, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractLinking birth records and cancer registry data from California, we conducted a population-based study with 23,419 cases and 87,593 matched controls born during 1978–2009 to investigate the relationship of parental age to risk of pediatric cancer. Compared with children born to mothers aged 20–24 years, those born to mothers in older age groups had a 13%–36% higher risk of pediatric cancer; the odds ratio for each 5-year increase in maternal age was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.09). For cancer diagnosed in children in age groups 0–14 years and 15–19 years, the odds ratios for each 5-year increase in maternal age were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.07) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.19), respectively. Having an older father also conferred an increased risk, with an odds ratio for each 5-year increase of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) for cancer diagnosed at ages 0–19 years and 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) for cancer diagnosed at ages 0–14 years. While advancing maternal age increased risk of leukemia and central nervous system tumors, older paternal age was not associated with risk of either type. Both maternal and paternal older ages were associated with risk of lymphoma. In this large, population-based record-linkage study, advancing parental age, especially advancing maternal age, was associated with higher pediatric cancer risk, with variations across types of cancer.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
  • Probabilistic Multiple-Bias Modeling Applied to the Canadian Data From the
           Interphone Study of Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Glioma, Meningioma,
           Acoustic Neuroma, and Parotid Gland Tumors
    • Authors: Momoli FF; Siemiatycki JJ, McBride ML, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractWe undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the 13-country case-control Interphone Study (2001–2004), in which researchers evaluated the associations of mobile phone use with the risks of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. In the main publication of the multinational Interphone Study, investigators concluded that biases and errors prevented a causal interpretation. We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and nonparticipant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. In our modeling, we sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, when comparing those in the highest quartile of use (>558 lifetime hours) to those who were not regular users, the odds ratio was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). After adjustment for selection and recall biases, the odds ratio was 2.2 (95% limits: 1.3, 4.1). There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our results from Canadian data.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23
  • Social Network Clustering of Sexual Violence Experienced by Adolescent
    • Authors: Shakya HB; Fariss CJ, Ojeda C, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractWe used data on 3,139 female social network friendship dyads from 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (wave I: 1994–1995; wave II: 1996; and wave IV: 2007–2008) to assess whether friends’ reports of experiencing sexual violence (SV) and friends’ substance use risk scores predicted whether adolescents and young adults would experience SV themselves. We also used longitudinal analyses to test the associations of combined wave-I and -II risk factors with wave-IV reports of SV and of combined wave-I and -II SV with network connectivity at wave II. After adjustment for a participant's substance use risk score, each 1-point increase in a friend's substance use risk score increased a respondent's odds of experiencing SV by 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.36). Having a friend who reported SV increased a respondent's odds of reporting SV by 1.95 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 3.07), although not after we included school-level fixed effects. Having a friend who experienced SV in adolescence did however increase the respondent's odds of reporting SV as a young adult by 1.54 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.37). Respondents who reported SV by wave II had less network connectedness at wave II. Experiences of SV and substance use within adolescent girls’ friendship networks are linked to risk for SV into young adulthood, which suggests that network-focused SV prevention and intervention approaches may be warranted.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
  • Primary Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Predicted by Poor Working
           Conditions in the GAZEL Cohort
    • Authors: Meneton P; Lemogne C, Herquelot E, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractThe mechanisms by which work environment might influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are still a matter of debate. In particular, the involvement of the main behavioral and clinical risk factors and their relationships with working conditions are not always clear, despite an abundant body of literature. Most studies have investigated the impact of a limited number of characteristics of the work environment on the occurrence of 1 or a few risk factors. In contrast, in this study we used a global approach in which 30 objective and subjective indicators of working conditions were tested as predictors of 9 modifiable CVD risk factors in a well-characterized cohort of 20,625 middle-aged French workers who were followed from the 1990s until they retired or until December 31, 2013. The incidence of 3 CVD risk factors (obesity, sleep complaints, and depression) was predicted by a large number of indicators of working conditions in both age- and sex-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models, whatever the significance threshold retained. These results suggest the existence of close relationships between a poor work environment and a higher risk of developing obesity, sleep complaints, or depression. These risk factors may contribute to increased CVD risk not only when workers are exposed to poor working conditions but also after retirement, as predictors of the appearance of other risk factors.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
  • Geographic Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children of
           Participants in Nurses’ Health Study II
    • Authors: Hoffman K; Weisskopf MG, Roberts AL, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractData indicate that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be increasing and that it varies geographically. We investigated associations between residential location and ASD in the children of Nurses’ Health Study II (United States) participants in order to generate hypotheses about social and environmental factors related to etiology or diagnosis. Analyses included data on 13,507 children born during 1989–1999 (486 with ASD). We explored relationships between ASD and residential location both at birth and at age 6 years (i.e., closer to average age at diagnosis). Generalized additive models were used to predict ASD odds across the United States. Children born in New England were 50% more likely to be diagnosed with ASD compared with children born elsewhere in the United States. Patterns were not explained by geographic variation in maternal age, birth year, child's sex, community income, or prenatal exposure to hazardous air pollutants, indicating that spatial variation is not attributable to these factors. Using the residential address at age 6 years produced similar results; however, areas of significantly decreased ASD odds were observed in the Southeast, where children were half as likely to have ASD. These results may indicate that diagnostic factors are driving spatial patterns; however, we cannot rule out the possibility that other environmental factors are influencing distributions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
  • Association of Social Support and Cognitive Aging Modified by Sex and
           Relationship Type: A Prospective Investigation in the English Longitudinal
           Study of Ageing
    • Authors: Liao J; Scholes S.
      Abstract: AbstractWe examined whether between-persons differences and within-person changes in levels of social support were associated with age-related cognitive decline and whether these associations varied by sex and by relationship type. Executive function and memory scores over 8 years (2002–2010) were analyzed by mixture models among 10,241 adults aged ≥50 years in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Between-persons differences and within-person changes in positive social support and negative social support were independently associated with cognitive decline in different ways according to sex and relationship type. Among men, higher-than-average positive social support from a spouse/partner was associated with slower cognitive decline (for executive function, βperson-mean×time-in-study = 0.005, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.010; for memory, βperson-mean×time-in-study = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.000, 0.012); whereas high negative social support from all relationship types was associated with accelerated decline in executive function (for all relationships combined, βperson-mean×time-in-study = −0.005, 95% CI: −0.008, −0.002). For women, higher-than-average positive social support from children (β = 0.037, 95% CI: 0.010, 0.064) and friends (β = 0.115, 95% CI: 0.081, 0.150)—but not from a spouse/partner (β = −0.034, 95% CI: −0.059, −0.009) or extended family (β = −0.035, 95% CI: −0.064, −0.006)—was associated with higher executive function. Associations between social support and age-related cognitive decline vary across different relationship types for men and women.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
  • Follow-up of a Large Prospective Cohort in the United States Using Linkage
           With Multiple State Cancer Registries
    • Authors: Jacobs EJ; Briggs PJ, Deka A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractAll states in the United States now have a well-established cancer registry. Linkage with these registries may be a cost-effective method of follow-up for cancer incidence in multistate cohort studies. However, the sensitivity of linkage with the current network of state registries for detecting incident cancer diagnoses within cohort studies is not well-documented. We examined the sensitivity of registry linkage among 39,368 men and women from 23 states who enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study–3 cohort during 2006–2009 and had the opportunity to self-report cancer diagnoses on a questionnaire in 2011. All participants provided name and birthdate, and 94% provided a complete social security number. Of 378 cancer diagnoses between enrollment and 2010 identified through self-report and verified with medical records, 338 were also detected by linkage with the 23 state cancer registries (sensitivity of 89%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 86, 92). Sensitivity was lower for hematologic cancers (69%, 95% CI: 41, 89) and melanoma (70%, 95% CI: 57, 81). After excluding hematologic cancers and melanoma, sensitivity was 94% (95% CI: 91, 97). Our results indicate that linkage with multiple cancer registries can be a sensitive method for ascertaining incident cancers, other than hematologic cancers and melanoma, in multistate cohort studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
  • Acute Illness Among Surfers After Exposure to Seawater in Dry- and
           Wet-Weather Conditions
    • Authors: Arnold BF; Schiff KC, Ercumen A, et al.
      Abstract: AbstractRainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions). We measured daily surf activities and illness symptoms (gastrointestinal illness, sinus infections, ear infections, infected wounds). Compared with no exposure, exposure to seawater during dry weather increased incidence rates of all outcomes (e.g., for earache or infection, adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 2.71; for infected wounds, IRR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.98); exposure during wet weather further increased rates (e.g., for earache or infection, IRR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.95, 5.51; for infected wounds, IRR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29). Fecal indicator bacteria measured in seawater (Enterococcus species, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) were strongly associated with incident illness only during wet weather. Urban coastal seawater exposure increases the incidence rates of many acute illnesses among surfers, with higher incidence rates after rainstorms.
      PubDate: 2017-05-11
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