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Journal Cover IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine
  [SJR: 0.463]   [H-I: 43]   [151 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0885-8985
   Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • This Month's Covers....
    • Abstract: Discusses the specific of the the cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • AESS meetings & conferences: Mark E. Davis, VP Conferences
    • Abstract: Presents the AESS calendar of events.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Back cover
    • Abstract: Presents the back cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • In this issue - Technically
    • Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Provides an overview of the technical articles and features presented in this issue.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • From the Editor-in-Chief SEPTEMBER 2017
    • Authors: Maria Greco;
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Presents the Editor-in-Chief message for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Design for graceful degradation and recovery from GNSS interruptions
    • Authors: Trevor Layh;Demoz Gebre-Egziabher;
      Pages: 4 - 17
      Abstract: In guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), estimates of the vehicle's kinematic states are generated by an integrated navigation system. In current applications, the system of choice is an inertial navigation system (INS) aided by measurements from a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver. One of the shortcomings of these integrated GNSS/INSs is the problem of temporary or prolonged GNSS outages. These outages can occur because of temporary signal loss due to obstructions, a prolonged outage due to interference or jamming, or deliberate action by the GN&C system to isolate a failed receiver or reject an anomalous signal in space. In these instances, the position, velocity, and attitude solutions generated by processing the inertial measurement unit (IMU) outputs alone in INSs quickly drift. To mitigate this drift, alternate aiding signals such as cameras, radars , light detection and ranging (LIDAR), or other signals of opportunity have been used. When the only kinematic state of interest is attitude (e.g., UAV stabilization), IMUs aided by magnetometers and airspeed sensors have been used to mechanize attitude heading reference systems (AHRSs). A system architecture that uses an AHRS and airspeed measurements to mechanize a dead-reckoning (DR) navigator aided by the relative range measurement between cooperating vehicles is discussed in the works of Mohtarzadeh (2014) and Gebre-Egziabher et. al (2004). The purpose of this article is to present a decentralized filtering approach to design an integrated navigation system for small UAVs that seamlessly switches between GNSS-available and GNSS-denied modes of operation. When GNSS services are denied, it gracefully degrades to a less optimal operational mode while maintaining sufficient accuracy to allow continued guidance and control of a small UAV. When GNSS services are restored, it smoothly transitions back to a high-accuracy operational mode. The decentralize- filter presented in this article is based on the idea of fusing the output from a set of parallel filters. Each parallel filter can be a stand-alone system that provides an estimate of all or a subset of the vehicle states needed for UAV GN&C. As shown and discussed, this approach can easily be implemented on most existing UAV FCSs. This is because it does not require additional sensors beyond those already found on most FCSs on the market today. The filter addresses the second and third challenges noted in the preceding paragraph, namely, the ability to unwind the effect of a failed sensor and provide smooth transitions to and from GNSS-denied operations. Finally, the performance of the proposed filtering approach is validated using data from flight tests of a small UAV.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Study on a new power by wire thrust vector control system with high
    • Authors: Kangwu Zhu;Junyong Fu;Cheng Fang;Baoliang Ji;
      Pages: 18 - 27
      Abstract: The thrust vector control (TVC) system is used to control the attitude and direction of a launch vehicle by regulating the swinging angle of the rocket engine. At present, the electro-hydraulic (EH) TVC systems are most widely used due to their excellent dynamic and steady-state control performances. The launch vehicles that use EH TVC systems include the Space Shuttle, Saturn V, Atlas V, Long March series, Soyuz, Arian V, et al. When output power is larger than 5 kW, the energy of the EH TVC system usually comes from the rocket engine, gas generator, or compressed nitrogen. The EH TVC systems that are powered by battery are usually used in the third stage or upper stage of launch vehicles, where the output power of the system is smaller than 5 kW. In this article, the characteristics of a typical PBW system will be analyzed first, and then the concept of an ideal PBW system will be presented. Based on this, a new PBW TVC system will be proposed and studied. At last, a quad redundant PBW system with high reliability is designed to meet the requirement of mancarrying launch vehicles in the future.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • RCS measurements and ISAR images of small UAVs
    • Authors: Massimiliano Pieraccini;Lapo Miccinesi;Neda Rojhani;
      Pages: 28 - 32
      Abstract: Currently small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) pose a serious threat for the safety of flights. The Aviation Authorities are dealing with this issue worldwide. Recently (October 2015), the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration gave permission to test antidrone technology that would counter rogue drones flying within a fivemile radius of selected airports . Airport safety is only one of the problems that the increasing number of UAVs can pose. A critical issue is to prevent UAVs being used for terrorist attacks, espionage, or other malicious activities against sites with critical infrastructure. Last but not least, UAVs flying in private area pose privacy concerns.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • AESS Professional Networking and Mentoring Program
    • Pages: 33 - 33
      Abstract: Advertisement.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Evaluating performance of MEMS barometric sensors in differential
           altimetry systems
    • Authors: Dimosthenis E. Bolanakis;
      Pages: 34 - 39
      Abstract: Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) barometric sensors are extensively employed in positioning systems for the acquisition of altitude data. Confidence in their general approval on position location applications is due to the following reasons: A. the relatively high accuracy of vertical position measurements, which is constantly improved in the most recent commercial sensor devices; B. the inability of the allied-and dominant in outdoor environment - GPS and GNSS products to operate within buildings. Indicative examples of barometric altitude readings in consumer, medical, and aerospace applications are as follows; detecting floor and mode of transition (i.e., elevators, escalators or stairs); inside large buildings can be addressed for indoor navigation; Identifying human physical activities (e.g. sit-to-stand);and falls is able to provide telehealth solutions. Fusing information from barometric altimeters with GPS may improve performance of GPS-based landing systems, while the employment of two barometers in a system can be used for measuring the airplane position angles (e.g. pitch and roll).This article presents a prototype testbed which is addressed to evaluate performance of MEMS barometric pressure sensors in differential altimetry systems. Performance analysis applies to up-to-date commercial sensor devices. That is, bme280 and lps25hb sensor devices, of the leading and prevalent Bosch Sensortec and STMicroelectronics MEMS suppliers, respectively. The proposed technique is ideal for the arrangement of low-cost experimental observation of the system performance, over the conventional and exceptionally expensive apparatus required for conducting accurate experiments. Measurement analysis illustrates that sensors of comparatively equal accuracy may produce significant disagreements in the system performance.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Expert system CFAR: algorithm development, experimental demonstration, and
           transition to airborne radar systems
    • Authors: Michael C. Wicks;William J. Baldygo;
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: The genesis of the Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) processing arose in 1984 from insight gained during earlier experiments performed at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Rome Research Site, then known as Rome Air Development Center (RADC). Measured data analysis from the low altitude detection (LAD) experiments conducted in RADC's Surveillance Laboratory was instrumental in gaining insight into detecting weak signals (airborne target returns) embedded in strong nonhomogeneous clutter. This challenging problem, investigated by Signal Processing Chief, Mr. Clarence Silfer in the late 1970s, was studied to improve cruise missile detection by unattended short-range ground-based radars. The LAD experiments were performed in support of the Enhanced Defense Early Warning (EDEW) project. Dr. Russell Brown and Mr. David Mokry conducted measurements in the summer of 1981, and Mr. Paul van Etten performed analysis. The first author assisted in these early endeavors, focusing on data analysis.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Focus-before-detection radar signal processing: part i—challenges
           and methods
    • Authors: Jia Xu;Ying-Ning Peng;Xiang-Gen Xia;Alfonso Farina;
      Pages: 48 - 59
      Abstract: During the World War II (WWII), radar was invented as an all-day, all-weather, long-range sensor. Over the past 75 years or so, radar has acted as the clairvoyance and clairaudience of humans and has had wide applications in both defense and civilian fields, e.g., surveillance, reconnaissance, fire control, border monitoring, collision avoidance, and traffic control. Along with radar development, radar signal processing (RSP) always plays an important role. In 1943, North pointed out that the matched filter should be the foundation of radar to detect targets from echoes generated by the known transmitting waveform. In 1950, Woodward and Davies introduced the Bayesian statistics theory into the RSP field and proposed the constant false alarm ratio (CFAR) rule for target detection. Based on matched filtering and the CFAR rule, the embryonic framework of classic RSP has been formed and used thus far. In 1953, Woodward further proposed an ambiguity function as a useful tool to evaluate the range and Doppler discrimination abilities of a transmitting waveform, which paves the foundation for radar waveform design. Furthermore, to deal with the tradeoff between large transmitting energy and high range resolution, the early unmodulated rectangular waveform has been replaced by more waveforms with a large time-bandwidth product (TBP), such as linear frequency modulation (LFM) and phase-coded waveforms. These waveforms with large TBP have been widely used to realize the range compression via matched filter.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • AESS Resource Center
    • Pages: 60 - 60
      Abstract: Advertisement.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Call for nominations: The 2017 Harry Rowe Mimno Award
    • Pages: 61 - 61
      Abstract: Presents the guidelines for the IEEE AESS Oustanding Author Award.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • AESS Video Tutorials
    • Pages: 62 - 62
      Abstract: Advertisement.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Call for papers: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace & Electronic Systems
    • Pages: 63 - 63
      Abstract: The radio frequency (RF)spectrum is finite, yet the demand for its use is growing, largely driven by the needs of commercial cellular, albeit with equally important requirements for enhanced performance by other spectral users, most notably radar and navigation. In total, the "RF triad" of radar, communications, and navigation represents a myriad of different ways in which the EF spectrum is accessed and utilized. As such, sharing of spectrum between these fundamentally different modes realizes a vast systems engineering problem space that is currently being investigated. At a high level, examples of topics being explored include coexistence between radar/aeronautical/satellite links and terrestrial systems such as cellular and WiFi, cognitive systems for spectral avoidance and adaptive interference mitigation, and the co-design of simultaneous multi-function systems.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
  • Call for Proposals [2021 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf21)
    • Authors: Shannon Blunt;
      Pages: 64 - 64
      Abstract: The Radar Systems Panel (RSP) of the IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems Society welcomes proposals from prospective organizers to host the 2021 IEEE Radar Conference. This conference series, originally initiated in 1984 at the US National Radar Conference, has grown to have an internationally diverse attendance and a reputation for the highest quality. The RadarConf series is the premier forum for the technological advancement of the field of radar including theoretical and experimental results for a diverse array of civil, scientific, and defense applications.
      PubDate: September 2017
      Issue No: Vol. 32, No. 9 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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