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Journal Cover Higher Education Quarterly
  [SJR: 1.081]   [H-I: 15]   [130 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0951-5224 - ISSN (Online) 1468-2273
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1580 journals]
  • Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir ± ribavirin is safe and
           effective in HCV infected patients in a real-life cohort from Latin
    • Authors: M. Mendizabal; L. Haddad, PE. Gallardo, A. Ferrada, A Soza, R. Adrover, E. Aravena, JP. Roblero, J. Prieto, C. Vujacich, G. Romero, A. Muñoz, MM. Anders, N. Hernández, D. Coccozella, F. Gruz, V. Reggiardo, AE. Ruf, A. Varón, M. Cartier, R. Pérez Ravier, E. Ridruejo, M. Peralta, D. Poncino, J. Vorobioff, G. Aballay Soteras, MO. y Silva
      Abstract: Information about the use of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r/DSV ± RBV) in real-clinical practice in Latin America is scarce. We aimed to confirm safety and effectiveness of OBV/PTV/r/DSV ± RBV therapy in real-world setting. We analyzed a cohort of patients with genotype 1 infection treated with OBV/PTV/r/DSV ± RBV. Data on demographics, clinical features, safety and virological response were retrospectively collected from 21 centers in Latin America. A total of 96 patients received OBV/PTV/r/DSV, associated with RBV in 68% of the cases. Most were genotype 1b (80%), 56 (58%) had cirrhosis and 45 (47%) failed prior HCV treatment. Adverse events occurred in 62% of patients. The most common adverse events were pruritus (21%), hyperbilirubinemia (17%) and asthenia (17%). Five patients discontinued therapy prematurely due to hepatic decompensation, three of them were Child-Pugh B at baseline and one patient died due to multi-organ failure. Follow up HCV-RNA 12 weeks after completion of therapy was evaluated in all the patients and sustained virologic response rate was 97%. No virologic breakthrough was detected. Our study confirms that OBV/PTV/r/DSV treatment is highly effective in patients with chronic HCV without cirrhosis or with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis in non-European populations. Adverse events were often mild and rarely led to treatment discontinuation except for patients with Child-Pugh B cirrhosis or with previous history of hepatic decompensation. These results can support the development of public strategies to expand the access of OBV/PTV/r + DSV and other DAAs combinations in order to reduce the burden of HCV infection in our region. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:36:07.413729-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24816
  • Molecular analysis of norovirus in specimens from children enrolled in a
    • Authors: Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira; Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
      Abstract: Fecal specimens were collected during a longitudinal, community-based study in the city of Belém, North Brazil, that was conducted over 3 years (October 1982 to March 1986), in which 20 children were included from birth to 3 years of age. A total of 229 fecal samples were screened by real time RT-PCR targeting the junction region (ORF 1/2) of the norovirus (NoV) genome. NoV-positive samples were subjected to PCR and sequencing of the viral polymerase (ORF1) and viral protein 1 (VP1) genes (ORF2). The junction region was also sequenced to assess for recombination when ORF1 and ORF2 genotyping results were dissimilar. Samples classified as GII.P4/GII.4 were further characterized by sequencing the P2 subdomain of the viral capsid to determine possible alterations. An overall positivity of 16.1% (37/229) was observed, including GI (16.2%-6/37) and GII (83.8%-31/37) genogroups. Cases of NoV reinfection in at least two-month intervals were observed, and 12 children developed at least one case of asymptomatic NoV infection. In total, 48.6% (18/37) NoV-positive samples were subjected to nucleotide sequencing analysis targeting the following polymerase genes: GI.P3 (n = 1), GII.Pa (n = 1), GII.Pc (n = 1), GII.P4 (n = 5), GII.P6 (n = 5), GII.P7 (n = 3), GII.P12 (n = 1) and GII.P22 (n = 1). For the VP1 gene, characterization was performed in 14 (77.8%) samples: GI.3 (n = 1), GII.2 (n = 1), GII.4 (n = 4), GII.6 (n = 4), GII.7 (n = 1), GII.12 (n = 1), GII.14 (n = 1), and GII.23 (n = 1). Recombination events were confirmed in three cases (GII.P12/GII.2, GII.P7/GII.14, and GII.Pa/GII.12), and four samples genotyped as GII.P4/GII.4 were analyzed to identify variants. None had contemporary counterparts. Three children developed consecutive NoV infections by different genotypes. The present report documents the importance of NoV as a cause of childhood infection during a longitudinal study conducted more than 30 years ago. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:32:22.839397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24817
  • Enterovirus D68 detection in respiratory specimens: Association with
           severe disease
    • Authors: Ilka Engelmann; Marie Fatoux, Mouna Lazrek, Enagnon K. Alidjinou, Audrey Mirand, Cécile Henquell, Anny Dewilde, Didier Hober
      Abstract: Molecular techniques increased the number of documented respiratory infections. In a substantial number of cases the causative agent remains undetected. Since August 2014, an increase in Enterovirus(EV)-D68 infections was reported. We aimed to investigate epidemiology and clinical relevance of EV-D68. From June to December 2014 and from September to December 2015, 803 and 847 respiratory specimens, respectively, were tested for respiratory viruses with a multiplex RT-PCR. This multiplex RT-PCR does not detect EV-D68. Therefore, 457 (2014) and 343 (2015) specimens with negative results were submitted to an EV-specific-RT-PCR. EV-positive specimens were tested with an EV-D68-specific-RT-PCR and genotyped. Eleven specimens of 2014 tested positive in the EV-specific-RT-PCR and of these seven were positive in the EV-D68-specific-RT-PCR. Typing confirmed these as EV-D68. Median age of EV-D68-positive patients was 3 years (1 month-91 years). Common symptoms included fever (n = 6, 86%), respiratory distress (n = 5, 71%), and cough (n = 4, 57%). All EV-D68-positive patients were admitted to hospital, 4 (57%) were admitted to intensive care units and 6 (86%) received oxygen. One patient suffered from acute flaccid paralysis. Seven specimens of 2015 were positive in the EV-specific-RT-PCR but negative in the EV-D68-specific-RT-PCR. In conclusion, use of an EV-specific-RT-PCR allowed us to detect EV-D68 circulation in autumn 2014 that was not detected by the multiplex RT-PCR and was associated with severe disease.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T13:45:37.641078-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24772
  • Phylogenetic characteristics of HIV-1 among travelers entering China from
           Myanmar: A retrospective study
    • Authors: Li Zhang; Binhui Wang, Yaobo Liang, Yue Feng, Shuwei Dong, Yajuan Wang, Yaping Li, A-Mei Zhang, Li Liu, Weihong Qin, Xueshan Xia
      Abstract: Due to the open policy of the Chinese government, a large number of Burmese individuals enter China at land ports in Yunnan province for travel or business. However, the situation of HIV-1 infection and its phylogenetic characteristics among these travelers remains unclear, which is a potential threat to public health. From January 2003 to December 2012, a total of 1,961 travelers were detected to be positive for HIV-1 infection at land ports between Myanmar and Yunnan province, China. From 1153 (58.8%) Burmese of them, we randomly collected 489 serum samples for HIV-1 subtype/recombinant analysis. Based on successfully obtained 223 gag-RT sequences, 187 of them were genotyped as 2 subtypes and 3 CRFs. CRF01_AE was showed to be the most prevalent genotype (54.3%), followed by subtypes C (13.5%) and B (10.8%). Notably, CRF07_BC (1.3%) and CRF08_BC (4.0%) were mainly distributed in travelers from Shan state and Kachin (91.7%, 11/12), but was not found in travelers from the capital city of Yangon (0/16). Additionally, there were 36 samples (16.1%) were preliminary determined as unique recombinant forms (URFs). The higher HIV-1 infection among entering travelers from Myanmar and its diverse and complex genotypes distribution suggest this bridge population may facilitate the transmission of HIV-1. It is necessary to have the strict monitoring on this population for prevention of HIV-1 cross-border transmission.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T13:45:30.357883-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24786
  • A novel preservative-free seasonal influenza vaccine safety and immune
           response studying in the frame of preclinical research
    • Authors: Gulbanu Sarsenbayeva; Yevgeniy Volgin, Markhabat Kassenov, Timur Issagulov, Nikolay Bogdanov, Ainur Nurpeisova, Altynay Sagymbay, Ruslan Abitay, Marina Stukova, Abylay Sansyzbay, Berik Khairullin
      Abstract: The paper describes the results of preclinical testing of the preparation “Vaccine allantoic split-virus inactivated against seasonal influenza.” Acute toxicity and local irritating effect, anaphylactic reactions to different antigens (vaccine and ovalbumin), delayed-type hypersensitivity to ram erythrocytes, humoral immune response in hemaggtination reaction, immunogenic activity was studied in laboratory animals of various species (mice, rats, guinea pigs). Comparative analysis of the results from testing immunogenic activity of the preparation under study and the commercial influenza vaccines was performed. The preclinical testing has demonstrated safety and immune response of the seasonal split influenza vaccine, so it may be recommended for clinical study on limited contingent of volunteers.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T13:40:35.618881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24771
  • Retinoid derivative Tp80 exhibits anti-hepatitis C virus activity through
           restoration of GI-GPx expression
    • Authors: Bao Ngoc Nguyen; Yukiko Okuno, Masahiko Ajiro, Kei Iida, Masatsugu Denawa, Makoto Yamamoto, Naoya Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Masatoshi Hagiwara
      Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with an estimated infection in ∼180 million people worldwide, and its chronic infection leads to development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although recent development of direct acting antiviral (DAA) compounds improved anti-HCV regimens, alternative therapeutic compounds are still demanded due to an expected emergence of escape mutants for those DAAs. In order to identify novel anti-HCV agents, we conducted chemical library screening for 2086 compounds using HCV Rep-Feo reporter replicon in Huh7 hepatoma cells. Our screening identified retinoid derivative Tp80, which inhibits replication of HCV Rep-Feo (genotype 1b) and JFH1 HCV (genotype 2a) with 0.62 μM and 1.0 μM, respectively, of 50% effective concentration (EC50), at which cytotoxicity is not evident for host hepatocytes. Subsequent transcriptome profiling revealed Tp80 exhibits anti-HCV activity through restoration of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GI-GPx), suppression of which is responsible for HCV-induced oxidative stress to facilitate HCV replication. Furthermore, comparison of Tp80 with other retinoid derivatives revealed Tp80 shows best potency in both GI-GPx restoration and anti-HCV activity among compounds we examined. In conclusion, our current study provides Tp80 as a promising candidate of anti-HCV compound, suppressing host cellular oxidative stress through a restoration of GI-GPx.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T13:40:34.169285-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24739
  • Paper-based point-of-care testing for cost-effective diagnosis of acute
           flavivirus infections
    • Authors: Frederic Bedin; Laurent Boulet, Elodie Voilin, Gerald Theillet, Agnes Rubens, Christine Rozand
      Abstract: Flavivirus infections are a serious healthcare concern in tropical and subtropical countries. Although well-established laboratory tests can provide early diagnosis of acute dengue or Zika infections, access to these tests is limited in developing countries, presenting an urgent need to develop simple, rapid, and robust diagnostic tools. Microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Devices (μPAD), are typically rapid, cost-effective, user-friendly, and they can be used as diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of these infections at Point of Care settings. Early and prompt diagnosis is crucial to improve patient management and reduce the risk of complications. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a wax-printed paper-based device for the detection of the dengue and Zika non-structural NS1 viral protein in blood and plasma. Experiments have been carried out to increase specificity, while maintaining the required sensitivity. As a consequence, the quality of the raw materials and the washing steps were proved to be crucial. The μPAD was able to detect specifically in 6–8 min 10 ng/mL of protein in various sample types. A prototype for the differential detection of dengue and/or Zika NS1 protein was developed. The reading of the results was simplified by using a dedicated application on a smartphone.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T13:40:30.204356-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24806
  • Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus infection among Chilean women from 2012
           to 2016
    • Authors: Nicolás Vergara; Gloria Espinoza, Monserrat Balanda, Andrea Quiero, Wilma Hidalgo, Héctor San Martín, Alejandro Ramírez, Eugenio Ramírez
      Abstract: Here, we evaluated the prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in two groups of Chilean women. The first group consisted of 3235 women aged 18-64 years attended in six primary care centers of Santiago. The second group consisted of 456 women 18-85 aged who consulted the Gynaecology Department of the Reference Hospital of Santiago. Samples were collected from October 2012 to February 2016. Cervical swabs were analyzed both HPV genotyping by PCR and Reverse Line Blot, and cervical cytology by Pap testing. Results showed a prevalence of 12.0% HPV positive, 10.3% high-risk (HR) HPV types positive, 3.9% low-risk (LR) HPV types positive, and 1.0% Pap positive in group 1. The most frequent types were 16, 66, and 59, with a prevalence of 3.0%, 1.6%, and 1.5%, respectively. The prevalence were 71.9% HPV positive, 67.3% HR-HPV types positive, 13.6% LR-HPV types positive, and 62.5% Pap positive in group 2. The most frequent types were 16, 31, and 58, with prevalence of 33.6%, 10.5%, and 7.0%, respectively. Among infected women with HPV: 7.6% were infected with HPV16 or HPV18, 3.0% with HPV31, HPV33 or HPV45, and 6.7% with any other HR-HPV. These findings show great difference in HPV prevalence and types between primary care and reference center, and provide useful epidemiological information to assess the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T13:40:25.816862-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24805
  • DNMT1 modulation in chronic hepatitis B patients and hypothetic influence
           on mitochondrial DNA methylation status during long-term nucleo(t)side
           analogs therapy
    • Authors: Giordano Madeddu; Silvia Ortu, Giovanni Garrucciu, Ivana Maida, Michela Melis, Alberto Augusto Muredda, Maria Stella Mura, Sergio Babudieri
      Abstract: Inhibition of viral replication is the most important goal in patients with Hepatitis B virus chronic infection (CHB). Currently, five oral nucleo(t)side analogs (NAs), including Lamivudine, Adefovir, Telbivudine, Entecavir, and Tenofovir, have been approved for treatment. The widespread use of NAs has also been linked with a progressive growth of unlikely anomaly attributable to mitochondrial dysfunctions, not previously recognized. Here, we explore the hypothesis that NAs may cause persistent epigenetic changes during prolonged NAs therapy in CHB patients. We obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood samples of consecutive patients with chronic HBV infection, 18 receiving NAs and 20 untreated patients. All patients were Caucasian and Italians. Epigenetic analysis was performed by Bisulphite sequencing PCR to search the existence of methylated cytosine residues in the Light (L)-strands of mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop). Gene expression analysis of DNA methyltransferases 1 was performed by a quantitative relative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). DNMT1 expression was significantly (P 
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T13:40:23.030189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24742
  • A molecular epidemiology study investigating familial clustering of
           hepatitis B virus infection in families with unfavorable prognoses in
           Northwest China
    • Authors: Yuan Yanag; Dan Du, Li Jin, Zhen Tian, Qian Li, Ruitian Yi, Ting Qiu, Daokun Yang, Yingli He, Jinfeng Liu, Tianyan Chen, Yingren Zhao
      Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and adverse outcome have been demonstrated to show characteristics of familial clustering. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different HBV genotypes, HBV sub-genotypes, and Pre-S mutations associated with familial HBV infection clusters with unfavorable prognoses. Families presenting with clustered HBV infections and unfavorable prognoses were enrolled in this study. Non-clustered HBV-infected individuals were used as the control group. DNA extracted from patient serum samples was used to facilitate characterization of the HBV genotypes, HBV sub-genotypes, and Pre-S mutations by phylogenetic analysis. The Pre-S/S gene was successfully amplified in 83 patients from the clustering group and 105 patients from the sporadic group. The prevalence of genotype C in the clustering group (71/83, 85.54%) was significantly higher than in the sporadic group (77/105, 73.33%) (P = 0.042). The prevalence of sub-genotype C2 in the clustering group (33/83, 39.76%) was also higher than in the sporadic group (21/105, 20%) (P = 0.003). Analyses of functional mapping of pre-S sequences showed that the prevalence of the mutation in the S promoter site (nt 3045-3189 of pre-S1 domain) was significantly increased in the clustering group compared with the sporadic group (15.7% vs. 3.8%) (P = 0.009). This study suggests that genotype C, especially sub-genotype C2, may be associated with the progression of HBV infection in familial clustering infection cohorts with unfavorable prognoses. We also observed that the natural occurrence of S promoter mutations in the clustering group was significantly prevalent.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T11:10:25.132311-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24783
  • Identification of novel variants in HLA class II region related to HLA
           DPB1 expression and disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis
    • Authors: Katsushi Hiramatsu; Hidetaka Matsuda, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Takuto Nosaka, Yasushi Saito, Tatsushi Naito, Kazuto Takahashi, Kazuya Ofuji, Masahiro Ohtani, Hiroyuki Suto, Toshihiro Yasuda, Yukio Hida, Hideki Kimura, Yoshihiro Soya, Yasunari Nakamoto
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDRecent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that HLA class II gene may play an important role in viral hepatitis. We studied genetic polymorphism and RNA expression of HLA class II genes in HCV-related liver diseases.METHODSThe study was performed in groups consisting of 24 patients with HCV-related liver disease (12 of persistent normal ALT: PNALT group and 12 of advanced liver disease: ALD group) and 26 patients without HCV infection (control group). In PBMC samples, RNA expression of HLA class II genes (HLA-DPA1, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1) was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, twenty two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA class II gene and two SNPs in IL28B gene were genotyped by genetic analyzer (GENECUBE®).RESULTSIn expression analysis, only DPB1 level was significantly different. Mean expression level of DPB1gene in control group was 160.0, PNALT group 233.8 and ALD group 465.0 (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T22:26:05.478008-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24814
  • Emerging arboviral human diseases in Southern Europe
    • Authors: Anna Papa
      Abstract: Southern Europe is characterized by unique landscape and climate which attract tourists, but also arthropod vectors, some of them carrying pathogens. Among several arboviral diseases that emerged in the region during the last decade, West Nile fever accounted for high number of human cases and fatalities, while Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever expanded its geographic distribution, and is considered as a real threat for Europe. Viruses evolve rapidly and acquire mutations making themselves stronger and naive populations more vulnerable. In an effort to tackle efficiently the emerging arboviral diseases, preparedness and strategic surveillance are needed for the early detection of the pathogen and containment and mitigation of probable outbreaks. In this review, the main human arboviral diseases that emerged in Southern Europe are described.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T12:55:39.649549-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24803
  • The clinical and phylogenetic investigation for a nosocomial outbreak of
           respiratory syncytial virus infection in an adult hemato-oncology unit
    • Authors: Daijiro Nabeya; Takeshi Kinjo, Gretchen Lynn Parrott, Ayako Uehara, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Saifun Nahar, Sawako Nakachi, Masashi Nakamatsu, Sakuko Maeshiro, Shusaku Haranaga, Masao Tateyama, Takeaki Tomoyose, Hiroaki Masuzaki, Toshihiro Horii, Jiro Fujita
      Abstract: Although many reports have already shown RSV outbreaks among hemato-oncology patients, genomic studies detecting similar RSV strains prior to an outbreak in the hospital are rare. In 2014, the University of the Ryukyus hospital hemato-oncology unit experienced, and successfully managed, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nosocomial outbreak. During the outbreak investigation, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis was used to identify a potential source for the outbreak. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for RSV using three tests: (1) rapid antigen test (RAT); (2) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR); or (3) quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR); a positive PCR reaction was considered a confirmed case of RSV. Phylogenetic analysis of the G protein was performed for outbreak and reference samples from non-outbreak periods of the same year. In total, 12 confirmed cases were identified, including 8 hemato-oncology patients. Patient samples were collected weekly, until all confirmed RSV cases returned RSV negative test results. Median time of suspected viral shedding was 16 days (n = 5, range: 8-37 days). Sensitivity and specificity of the RAT compared with RT-qPCR were 30% and 91% (n = 42). Phylogenetic analysis revealed nine genetically identical strains; eight occurring during the outbreak time period and one strain was detected 1 month prior. A genetically similar RSV detected 1 month before is considered one potential source of this outbreak. As such, healthcare providers should always enforce standard precautions, especially in the hemato-oncology unit.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T12:55:37.041385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24800
  • Analysing the Literature on University Social Responsibility: a Review of
           Selected Higher Education Journals
    • Authors: Manuel Larrán Jorge; Francisco Javier Andrades Peña
      Abstract: In the last 30 years, different economic, political and social changes have taken place in the university sector and this has led to an extensive reform to meet the new societal challenges that these institutions are facing today. This emphasises the social dimension of universities and their important role in society as educators of future leaders and policy makers. This reveals the need to integrate social responsibility principles into the mainstream functions of universities. In view of these comments, this paper offers a review of the literature about university social responsibility during the period from 2000 to 2015. The objectives of the review are to: explore patterns in publication outlets; collect, scrutinise and critically analyse the current literature on this field; to identify gaps in the literature and make recommendations for further research in this field. To accomplish this task, data were collected from 15 specialist academic journals that focus on higher education.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T05:57:17.385871-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12122
  • Declining antibody levels after hepatitis B vaccination in Down syndrome:
           a need for booster vaccination?
    • Authors: N.B. Eijsvoogel; M.I. Hollegien, L.A. Bok, A Derksen–Lubsen, F. Dikken, A.C.A.P. Leenders, A. Pijning, E. Post, M. Wojciechowski, M. Hilbink, E. de Vries
      Abstract: We determined the anti-HBs titer in 227 children of all ages with Down syndrome (DS). Only 48.1% (95% CI: 35.1-61.3) of the DS children aged 7-10 years and 31.9% (95% CI: 22.1-43.6) of the DS children aged >10 years had a protective anti-HBs titer (≥10 IU/l). The geometric mean anti-HBs titer was significantly lower in the DS children; this suggests booster vaccination for HBV may be needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T07:27:33.520545-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24813
  • Molecular analysis of norovirus in specimens from children enrolled in a
    • Authors: Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira; Edivaldo Costa Sousa Júnior, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
      Abstract: Fecal specimens were collected during a longitudinal, community-based study in the city of Belém, North Brazil, that was conducted over 3 years (October 1982 to March 1986), in which 20 children were included from birth to 3 years of age. A total of 229 fecal samples were screened by real time RT-PCR targeting the junction region (ORF 1/2) of the norovirus (NoV) genome. NoV-positive samples were subjected to PCR and sequencing of the viral polymerase (ORF1) and viral protein 1 (VP1) genes (ORF2). The junction region was also sequenced to assess for recombination when ORF1 and ORF2 genotyping results were dissimilar. Samples classified as GII.P4/GII.4 were further characterized by sequencing the P2 subdomain of the viral capsid to determine possible alterations. An overall positivity of 16.1% (37/229) was observed, including GI (16.2%-6/37) and GII (83.8%-31/37) genogroups. Cases of NoV reinfection in at least two-month intervals were observed, and 12 children developed at least one case of asymptomatic NoV infection. In total, 48.6% (18/37) NoV-positive samples were subjected to nucleotide sequencing analysis targeting the following polymerase genes: GI.P3 (n = 1), GII.Pa (n = 1), GII.Pc (n = 1), GII.P4 (n = 5), GII.P6 (n = 5), GII.P7 (n = 3), GII.P12 (n = 1) and GII.P22 (n = 1). For the VP1 gene, characterization was performed in 14 (77.8%) samples: GI.3 (n = 1), GII.2 (n = 1), GII.4 (n = 4), GII.6 (n = 4), GII.7 (n = 1), GII.12 (n = 1), GII.14 (n = 1), and GII.23 (n = 1). Recombination events were confirmed in three cases (GII.P12/GII.2, GII.P7/GII.14, and GII.Pa/GII.12), and four samples genotyped as GII.P4/GII.4 were analyzed to identify variants. None had contemporary counterparts. Three children developed consecutive NoV infections by different genotypes. The present report documents the importance of NoV as a cause of childhood infection during a longitudinal study conducted more than 30 years ago. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T23:19:08.460366-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24812
  • Seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgG antibodies and WNV-RNA in Egyptian blood
    • Authors: Soha R. Youssef; Doaa G. Eissa, Rania A. Abo-Shady, Nermeen Tayseer Aly Fouad, Dina K. Kattab, Hanaa Fathey, Abeer Ahmed Abdullaha Elewa, Doaa M. Reda
      Abstract: Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) from asymptomatic donors has been reported during blood transfusions and organ transplants in humans. In this work, we aimed to investigate the presence of WNV antibody and WNV RNA in blood donors to evaluate the sero-prevalence of WNV and risk for WNV transmission. One hundred and sixty blood donors were tested for the presence of anti-WNV IgG by ELISA and for WNVs 1 and 2 RNA by RT-PCR. About 55% of blood donors were seropositive for WNV IgG antibodies, with significantly higher percentage of positive donors coming from rural areas and Nile Delta region compared to other donors. Using RT-PCR all donors were negative for viral RNA of both WNV lineages 1 and 2. High sero-prevelance of WNV antibodies in asymptomatic blood donors denotes endemicity of the WNV in Egypt and points to the importance of routine screening of blood donors for WNV RNA. On the other hand the absence of WNV RNA by RT-PCR indicates apparent low risk of the blood products as regards WNV transmission. Further studies into significance of WNV seronegativity among Rh negative donors and into the use of WNV seropositive blood in prophylaxis or treatment of WNV neuroinvasive disease are recommended. J. Med. Virol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T15:56:23.038344-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24682
  • Happiness in Higher Education
    • Authors: Alex Elwick; Sara Cannizzaro
      Abstract: This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were tantamount to the other, such conflation being due to the move towards consumerism within higher education and the marketisation of the sector. What literature there exists that actually deals with the profound happiness of students in higher education, generally argues that in the United Kingdom institutions do not currently do enough to promote happiness in higher education. These findings imply that flourishing, contentment and well-being should be regarded as legitimate goals of higher education, alongside satisfaction and related economic outcomes that are currently promoted across academic and policy literature, university rankings and the National Student Survey.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T20:35:35.31661-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12121
  • Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infections in HIV negative men from a
           multi-ethnic area of Northern Italy at high prevalence of cervical
    • Authors: Manola Comar; Silva Seraceni, Claudia Colli, Viviana Luska, Sara Morassut, Libera Clemente, Marina Drabeni, Gianmichele Moise, Francesco Fontana, Lorenzo Monasta, Barbara Suligoi
      Abstract: Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV coinfections in the male population are often a disregarded issue. We performed a study to evaluate the prevalence of such infections in heterosexual HIV negative men from a Northern Italy multi-ethnic area at high prevalence for cervical malignancies.Urethral swabs (US) or first-voided urine were evaluated retrospectively from 1317 patients attending Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) clinic and from 3388 outpatients attending private clinics. Informations about participants' demographic characteristics and attributes of Chlamydia trachomatis, including chronic infection, and HPV genotypes testing, were collected. Exact Fisher test, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were carried out.The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was 1.7% in the outpatients and 16.9% in the STI group (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-18T05:55:27.918835-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24811
  • Understanding Higher Education Institutions’ Publicness: Do Public
           Universities Produce More Public Outcomes than Private Universities'
    • Authors: Young-joo Lee
      Abstract: Higher education institutions produce a broad array of public outcomes. However, little is known about the varying levels of their contribution to the public good and what explains the variation among institutions. This study uses the theory of organisational publicness and examines how these institutions’ ownership status and resource publicness explain their outcome publicness, focusing on the expenditure for teaching, research and public service activities. The analysis of four-year public and private universities in the 2012 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System shows that universities’ reliance on federal funding is positively associated with the percentages of the expenditure on all three activities and their reliance on state funding is positively associated with the percentages of teaching and public service expenses. The findings reveal that the proportion of tuition and fees revenue is negatively associated with the percentage of public service expenditure. The results suggest that declining state funding and increasing reliance on tuition and fees weaken these institutions’ public service function, especially in the area of community engagement.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T05:25:48.691089-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12120
  • Trend of measles, mumps, and rubella incidence following the
           measles-rubella catch up vaccination in the Republic of Korea, 2001
    • Authors: Young June Choe; Hye-Eun Eom, Sung-Il Cho
      Abstract: Following the introduction of measles-rubella (MR) catch-up vaccination in 2001 and two dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR2) keep-up program in 2002, the incidence of measles, mumps and rubella was not evaluated systematically. To describe the recent changes in epidemiology, a population based incidence study from 2001 to 2015 using national notifiable disease surveillance data was conducted. Between 2001 and 2015, there was decrease in the incidence of measles and rubella, whereas a steady increase in mump incidence was noted. The age distribution of mumps cases has shifted to the older age group, whereas rubella became more frequent in younger age group. The incidence of mumps showed an increase in every birth cohorts, except for the decrease in incidence for catch-up vaccination cohort from 131 cases in 2007-2011 to 64 cases per 100,000 in 2012-2015. Continuing in monitoring of mumps and strengthening of the high two-dose MMR vaccination coverage should be taken place in Korea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:35:39.828878-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24808
  • SB 9200, a novel agonist of innate immunity, shows potent antiviral
           activity against resistant HCV variants
    • Authors: Meleri Jones; Morven E. Cunningham, Peter Wing, Sampath DeSilva, Rupa Challa, Anjaneyulu Sheri, Seetharamaiyer Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan P. Iyer, Brent E. Korba, Nezam Afdhal, Graham R. Foster
      Abstract: SB 9200 is a novel, first-in-class oral modulator of innate immunity that is believed to act via the activation of the RIG-I and NOD2 pathways. SB 9200 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza and has demonstrated activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and in vivo. In phase I clinical trials in chronically infected HCV patients, SB 9200 has been shown to reduce HCV RNA by up to 1.9 log10. Here, we demonstrate the antiviral activity of SB 9200 against a HCV replicon system and patient derived virus. Using the HCV capture-fusion assay, we show that SB 9200 is active against diverse HCV genotypes and is also effective against HCV derived from patients who relapse following direct-acting antiviral treatment, including viruses containing known NS5A resistance-associated sequences. These data confirm the broad antiviral activity of SB 9200 and indicate that it may have clinical utility in HCV patients who have failed to respond to current antiviral regimens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:35:38.96677-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24809
  • Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Gulf War Illness
           patients exhibit increased humoral responses to the Herpesviruses-encoded
           dUTPase: Implications in disease pathophysiology
    • Authors: Peter Halpin; Marshall Vance Williams, Nancy G. Klimas, Mary Ann Fletcher, Zachary Barnes, Maria Eugenia Ariza
      Abstract: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and Gulf War Illness (GWI) are debilitating diseases with overlapping symptomology and there are currently no validated tests for definitive diagnosis of either syndrome. While there is evidence supporting the premise that some herpesviruses may act as possible triggers of ME/CFS, the involvement of herpesviruses in the pathophysiology of GWI has not been studied in spite of a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in these patients. We have previously demonstrated that the deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolases (dUTPase) encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) possess novel functions in innate and adaptive immunity. The results of this study demonstrate that a significant percentage of patients with ME/CFS (30.91-52.7%) and GWI (29.34%) are simultaneously producing antibodies against multiple human herpesviruses-encoded dUTPases and/or the human dUTPase when compared to controls (17.21%). GWI patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibodies to the HHV-6 and human dUTPases than controls (p = 0.0053 and p = 0.0036, respectively), while the ME/CFS cohort had higher anti-EBV-dUTPase antibodies than in both GWI patients (p = 0.0008) and controls (p 
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T00:34:42.339368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24810
  • Interpatient mutational spectrum of human coronavirus-OC43 revealed by
           illumina sequencing
    • Authors: Geoffrey J. Gorse; Gira B. Patel, Xiaofeng Fan
      Abstract: Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are RNA viruses that cause respiratory tract infections with viral replication of limited duration. The host and viral population heterogeneity could influence clinical phenotypes. Employing long RT-PCR with Illumina sequencing, we quantified the gene mutation load at 0.5% mutation frequency for the 4529 bp-domain spanning the Spike gene (4086 bp) of HCoV-OC43 in four upper respiratory clinical specimens obtained during acute illness. There were a total of 121 mutations for all four HCoV samples with the average number of mutations at 30.3 ± 10.2, which is significantly higher than that expected from the Illumina sequencing error rate. There were two mutation peaks, one at the 5′ end and the other near position 1 550 in the S1 subunit. Two coronavirus samples were genotype B and two were genotype D, clustering with HCoV-OC43 strain AY391777 in neighbor-joining tree phylogenetic analysis. Nonsynonymous mutations were 76.1 ± 14% of mutation load. Although lower than other RNA viruses such as hepatitis C virus, HCoV-OC43 did exhibit quasi-species. The rate of nonsynonymous mutations was higher in the HCoV-OC43 isolates than in hepatitis C (HCV) virus genotype 1a isolates analyzed for comparison in this study. These characteristics of HCoV-OC43 may affect viral replication dynamics, receptor binding, antigenicity, evolution, transmission, and clinical illness.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T15:40:47.252755-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24780
  • Molecular characterization and clinical epidemiology of human respiratory
           syncytial virus (HRSV) A and B in hospitalized children, Southern Brazil
    • Authors: Francielli B. Moreira; Cristine S. Rosario, Jucelia S. Santos, Valéria M. Avanzi, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Luine R. Vidal, Sonia Mara Raboni
      Abstract: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major etiologic agent of pediatric respiratory infections. Genetic variability of its glycoprotein G enables HRSV to evade the immune response and determines its seasonal dissemination. This study reports genetic variability and clinical profiles of HRSV-infected patients from Southern Brazil. Seventy positive samples, 78% type A and 22% type B, were analyzed. Of the patients (median age, 6 months; interquartile range, 2-11 years), 16% had co-morbidities and 17% developed severe disease. The ON1 HRSV genotype first appeared in 2012, and patients infected with this genotype showed an increased tendency to develop severe disease.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T15:40:43.386788-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24795
  • Lab-in-a-tube: Real-time molecular point-of-care diagnostics for influenza
           A and B using the cobas® Liat® system
    • Authors: Willem J.G. Melchers; Judith Kuijpers, Joanna Jackson Sickler, Janette Rahamat-Langendoen
      Abstract: Rapid diagnosis of influenza A and B is important for direct treatment decisions in patient care and for the reduction of in-hospital transmissions. The new real-time PCR based molecular point-of-care (POC) assay, the cobas® Influenza A/B test on the cobas® Liat® System (cobas® Liat® Influenza A/B assay), generated a PCR result in less than 20 min, was evaluated for the detection of influenza A and B. One hundred twenty-one retrospectively collected respiratory specimens, previously analyzed with a routine influenza A/B test (Diagenode) were tested using the cobas® Liat® Influenza A/B assay. The cobas® Liat® Influenza A/B assay allows influenza A and B testing by RT-PCR within 20 min. This assay detected influenza A in 51 of 56 samples positive by the Diagenode test. The five discrepant results were retested with the Cepheid Influenza A/B test, confirming two positive cases. All 30 influenza B Diagenode positive samples were found positive by the cobas® Liat® Influenza A/B assay. Control samples (viral negative and non-influenza pathogens) were all negative by the cobas® Liat® Influenza A/B assay. The cobas® Liat® Influenza A/B assay showed a sensitivity for influenza A/B of 96% and 100%, respectively, and 100% specificity for both targets. The cobas® Liat® Influenza A/B assay is a useful tool for accurate, rapid, and sensitive detection of influenza A and B, offering timely and personalized patient management and infection control when implemented at the point-of-care.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T15:40:41.00968-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24796
  • Analysis of HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) and antibody detected with various
           kinds of tests in Japanese blood donors to understand the relationship
           between PVL and antibody level and to gain insights toward better antibody
    • Authors: Chieko Matsumoto; Yasuko Sagara, Rieko Sobata, Yukiko Inoue, Maiko Morita, Shigeharu Uchida, Hiroyuki Kiyokawa, Masahiro Satake, Kenji Tadokoro
      Abstract: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) occurs in approximately 5% of individuals infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). A high proviral load (PVL; more than four copies per 100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or 1.6 copies per 100 blood leukocytes
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T15:40:39.068171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24802
  • Localization of VZV in saliva of zoster patients
    • Authors: Satish K. Mehta; Mayra Nelman-Gonzalez, Stephen K. Tyring, Yun Tong, Andrew Beitman, Brian E. Crucian, Ashlie N. Renner, Duane L. Pierson
      Abstract: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) in saliva from 6 herpes zoster patients and 1 chickenpox patient was found to be exclusively associated with epithelial cells by confocal microscopy. VZV localization with antibody specific to the VZV glycoprotein E was detected primarily on the membrane but was also inside the cell. Epithelial cells with VZV were still present in saliva in 1 out of two tested zoster patients after 10 months of recovery. Saliva from healthy controls (non-shingles patients, n = 5) did not show any sign of VZV by polymerase chain reaction or by confocal microscopy. No VZV was found in the liquid fraction of saliva. Further work is required to understand the movement of VZV in the saliva cells of infected patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T06:45:32.637581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24807
  • An Exploratory Study of Chinese University Undergraduates’ Global
           Competence: Effects of Internationalisation at Home and Motivation
    • Authors: Qian Meng; Chang Zhu, Chun Cao
      Abstract: Global competence is categorised into three dimensions: knowledge, skills/experience and attitudes. This study aims to investigate the global competence discrepancies of Chinese undergraduates in universities and regions of different development levels, as well as the effects of internationalisation efforts at home and students’ motivation on global competence. To this end, 2,695 students within nine universities (three 985 project universities, three 211 project universities and three provincial universities) in three Chinese cities (Beijing, Nanjing and Changchun) participated in this survey. The findings revealed that Chinese undergraduates have positive global attitudes, but they seem to lack sufficient global knowledge. Students from 985 project universities reported gaining higher global competence than students from 211 project and provincial universities, and students from Beijing reported higher global competence than students from Nanjing and Changchun. Competence discrepancies concerning fields of study were also found. The results of hierarchical regression analysis suggest that gender, 985 and 211 project universities, Beijing city, social sciences and humanities, experience of contact with foreigners on campus activities, enrolment in courses related to internationalisation and students’ motivation were predictive of Chinese students’ global competence.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T21:43:24.803424-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12119
  • Should Gender Differences be Considered When Assessing Student
           Satisfaction in the Online Learning Environment for Millennials'
    • Authors: Heather Lea Harvey; Sanjai Parahoo, Mohammad Santally
      Abstract: The majority of today's students in online higher education are millennials and have grown up using technology. Therefore, there is a need to determine if their expectations from online learning are different from previous contextual studies and whether or not these vary across gender. This study used a mixed method approach, using focus groups, followed by online surveys of 834 undergraduate students from the University of Mauritius enrolled in an online course. Using factor analysis and structural equation modelling, the study found no significant differences based on gender for millennials, but identified three significant antecedents of student satisfaction for both males and females: university reputation; physical facilities; and instructor empathy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T21:30:25.014161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12116
  • Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus among
           HIV-infected Uygurs in Xinjiang, China
    • Authors: Zhenqiu Liu; Qiwen Fang, Sujuan Zhou, Veenu Minhas, Charles Wood, Na He, Tiejun Zhang
      Abstract: Kaposi‘s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which primarily affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with advanced immunodeficiency. Xinjiang province in China is an endemic area for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), however, currently, only limited prevalence data for KSHV infection in HIV-infected individuals living in this endemic area is available. A cross-sectional study of 86 HIV positive participants was conducted in Xinjiang, China from 2014 through 2015. Plasma samples were collected and screened for KSHV and HIV infection. HIV pol gene and KSHV ORF-K1 gene were amplified and sequenced, genotypes were determined by phylogenetic analysis. Over all, prevalence was 48.9% (42/86; 95%CI 38.4%-59.3%) for KSHV. Only CRF07_BC subtype has been identified among all these HIV positive individuals, while the subtype A and C of KSHV were detected in the participants. Meanwhile, we found that those with high CD4 counts (> 500) showed a lower anti-KSHV titer, compare with other groups. Our study indicated a high prevalence of KSHV among HIV positive individuals in Xinjiang, China. Thus, management of HIV/AIDS patients should include KSHV screen and should consider the risk of KSHV associated malignancies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T06:30:29.177439-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24804
  • First description of HTLV-1/2 seroprevalence in HIV-infected inmates in
    • Authors: Ângelo Augusto; Orvalho Augusto, Atija Taquimo, Carina Nhachigule, Narcisa Siyawadya, Nelson Tembe, Nilesh Bhatt, Francisco Mbofana, Eduardo Samo Gudo
      Abstract: No study has yet been conducted to estimate the burden of co-infection of HIV and HTLV-1/2 in inmates in sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate prevalence of co-infection in inmates in Mozambique, a total of 2140 inmates were screened for HIV, of which 515 were HIV seropositive. All HIV seropositive inmates were further screened for HTLV infection, and 8 (1.55%) were co-infected. Co-infection was higher in females [3.45% (2/58; CI: 0.42-11.91)] as compared to males [1.35% (6/445; CI: 0.55-3.06)]. Early screening of HTLV in prisons is urgently needed in Mozambique in order to improve the care provided to incarcerated individuals, including initiation of ART. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T05:35:23.258228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24801
  • Bringing Organisations and Systems Back Together: Extending Clark's
           Entrepreneurial University
    • Authors: Gary Rhoades; Bjørn Stensaker
      Abstract: Burton R. Clark's 1998 book, Creating Entrepreneurial Universities, has had a major impact on the field of higher education, especially internationally. In this paper, key aspects of Clark's conceptualisation of organisational pathways of transformation are identified, speaking to its theoretical and empirical contributions to higher education studies, policy and practice. In addition, the larger corpus of Clark's work is built on to offer avenues by which considerations of systems analysis and organisational studies can be brought back together to address the strategic challenges and opportunities for individual universities and state as well as national systems of higher education.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T19:50:24.758987-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12118
  • Philip G. Altbach (2016) Global Perspectives on Higher Education.
           Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 332 pp. ISBN
           978-4214-1926-8; £22.99.
    • Authors: Brendan Cantwell; Nathan Johnson
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T19:40:27.372589-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12117
  • Prevalence and clinical profile of human bocavirus in children with acute
           gastroenteritis in Chengdu, West China, 2012–2013
    • Authors: Tao Zhou; Yuhang Chen, Jiayi Chen, Pengwei Hu, Tianli Zheng, Xin Xu, Xiaofang Pei
      Abstract: Viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of mortality in childhood and leads to hospitalization in developing countries. Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly described virus associated with gastroenteritis. However, little is known about the clinical and epidemiological profile of human bocavirus (HBoV) in pediatric population in Chengdu, China. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 346 fecal samples from children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis were tested for the presence of HBoV as well as other gastroenteritis viruses. Additionally, laboratory test results, clinical features and epidemiological characters were also collected to assess the correlation between HBoV and acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients in Chengdu, China. Of the 346 tested fecal samples, 60 (17.34%) were positive for HBoV. The rate of co-detection of HBoV with other gastroenteritis viruses was 43.33% (26/60). HBoV was most detected in the summer/early fall months. Sequence analysis of the VP1/VP2 gene showed that both HBoV1 and HBoV2 circulated in Chengdu, China. No obvious difference was found between the clinical features of the HBoV1 mono-detected patients and HBoV2 mono-detected patients. Besides, in diarrheic children, positive correlation was found between detection of HBoV and diagnose of respiratory disease. Furthermore, blood cells were detected more frequently in fecal samples of patients with HBoV mono-detected. Though HBoV was detected frequently in Children with diarrhea in Chengdu, no statistical association was found between HBoV and disease severity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T06:35:49.32374-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24787
  • A new real-time RT-PCR targeting VP4-VP2 to detect and quantify
           enterovirus D68 in respiratory samples
    • Authors: Léna Royston; Johan Geiser, Laurence Josset, Isabelle Schuffenecker, Caroline Tapparel
      Abstract: Causing an international outbreak of respiratory disease, Enterovirus D68 quickly entered the closed circle of emerging viral pathogens of public health significance. As rapid and accurate detection of EV-D68 is essential for an efficient clinical management, we designed and validated a new highly efficient one-step quantitative rRT-PCR specific to EV-D68 VP4-VP2 region. With 100% specificity and 95.6% sensitivity to all EV-D68 strains, this new assay can be reliably used to detect and quantify EV-D68 in respiratory samples and represents an interesting additional tool for diagnosis as it targets an original region of the genome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T06:35:31.640554-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24778
  • Predictors of treatment efficacy and ALT non-normalization with
           sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy for patients with hepatitis C virus genotype
    • Authors: Takao Watanabe; Yoshio Tokumoto, Kouji Joko, Kojiro Michitaka, Norio Horiike, Yoshinori Tanaka, Fujimasa Tada, Yoshiyasu Kisaka, Seiji Nakanishi, Takashi Nonaka, Kazuhiko Yamauchi, Masashi Hirooka, Masanori Abe, Yoichi Hiasa
      Abstract: AimThe tolerability and efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 were investigated under actual clinical conditions.MethodsA total of 208 patients with chronic HCV genotype 2 infection were treated with sofosbuvir 400 mg and ribavirin (weight-based dosing) for 12 weeks. Treatment discontinuation and sustained virological response 12 (SVR12) were evaluated. Moreover, factors associated with SVR12, hemoglobin decreasing to less than 10 g/dL during treatment, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) non-normalization after treatment were evaluated.ResultsIn all patients, SVR12 responses were 96.1% (200/208). Six of 8 patients (3.8%) who did not achieve SVR12 were re-treatment patients, and eight patients who did not achieve SVR all had liver cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis also identified body mass index (OR = 0.79; p
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T05:56:00.005866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24776
  • Re-emerging of rabies in Shaanxi Province, China, 2009 to 2015
    • Authors: Chaofeng Ma; Xiaoyun Hao, Huiling Deng, Rui Wu, Jifeng Liu, Yang Yang, Shen Li, Yifei Han, Mingmin Wei, Junjun Zhang, Jingjun Wang, Hengxin Li, Huaiyu Tian, Bing Xu, Pengbo Yu, Xiaokang Wu
      Abstract: ObjectivesTo explore the epidemiological, phylogeographic and migration characteristics of human rabies in Shaanxi Province, China from 2009 to 2015.MethodsThe collected data were described and the sequenced glycoprotein (G) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were implemented to estimate the evolutionary rates and phylogeographic patterns using BEAST v.1.8.2.Results269 rabies cases were reported and 70.26% of the cases were male and 61.71% were between the ages of 19 to 59. The majority of the cases were farmers (83.27%). The estimated evolutionary rate of the N genes was 2.4 × 10−4substitutions/site/year and the G genes was 3.4 × 10−4. The time of the most recent common ancestor(TMRCA) was estimated around 1990. We detected viral migration paths from Sichuan, Guizhou and Hunan to Hanzhong prefecture of Shaanxi and then spreaded to Xi'an and other prefectures.ConclusionsThe main population affected by rabies virus was male adult farmers. The evolution rate of rabies viruses in Shaanxi was similar with the prior results reported by others and the ancestor virus should be circulating in neighboring province Sichuan around 1990 and then transmitted to Shaanxi. Promptly standard wound treatment and timely post-exposure prophylaxis should be compulsory for the dog-bitten victims. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:43.412733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24769
  • Seroepidemiological and phylogenetic characterisation of neurotropic
           enteroviruses in Ireland, 2005–2014
    • Authors: Jorge Abboud Guerra; Allison Waters, Alison Kelly, Ursula Morley, Paul O'Reilly, Edwin O'Kelly, Jonathan Dean, Robert Cunney, Piaras O'Lorcain, Suzanne Cotter, Jeff Connell, Joanne O'Gorman, William W Hall, Michael Carr, Cillian F De Gascun
      Abstract: Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, including aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis and acute flaccid myelitis. Epidemics occur sporadically and are associated with increased cases of AM in children. The present study describes the seroepidemiological analysis of circulating EVs in Ireland from 2005-2014 and phylogenetic characterisation of echovirus 30 (E-30), enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). EV VP1 genotyping was applied to viral isolates and clinical samples, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and those isolates that remained untypeable by neutralising anti-sera. An increase in AM cases from 2010-2014 was associated with an E-30 genogroup variant VII and sequences clustered phylogenetically with those detected in AM outbreaks in France and Italy. EV-D68 viral RNA was not detected in CSF samples and no neurological involvement was reported. Three EVA71 positive CSF samples were identified in patients presenting with aseptic meningitis. A phylogenetic analysis of respiratory-associated EV-D68 and EV-A71 cases in circulation was performed to determine baseline epidemiological data. EV-D68 segregated with clades B and B(1) and EV-A71 clustered as subgenogroup C2. The EV VP1 genotyping method was more sensitive than neutralising anti-sera methods by virus culture and importantly demonstrated concordance between EV genotypes in faecal and CSF samples which should facilitate EV screening by less invasive sampling approaches in AM presentations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:25:35.449242-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24765
  • Issue Information - TOC
    • Pages: 125 - 125
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T20:10:41.25872-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12123
  • Systems, Organizations and Students
    • Authors: Tatiana Fumasoli
      Pages: 127 - 128
      PubDate: 2017-04-02T20:10:42.825886-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/hequ.12124
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