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Zoonotic Diseases
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2813-0227
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 85-92: Stocking Density and Homogeneity,
           Considerations on Pandemic Potential

    • Authors: Max J. Moreno-Madriñan, Eric Kontowicz
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Zoonotic pathogens, an increasing threat to human health, typically originate in the wild but spill over to humans from domestic animals because of the high contact with them. Industrial farming involves an increased number of animals of a single species per given area. Such high stocking density facilitates pathogen transmission. This speeds evolution and also offsets the natural tendency of pathogens to trend toward mildness. On the other hand, close contact reduces transmission dependence on host mobility and thus could favor virulence. Forestalling this problem requires understanding opportunities for spillovers and evolution created by animal farming technologies and human-animal-ecosystem interactions. This manuscript considers two important risk factors of intensive animal farming, stoking density and homogeneity, to inform practices that could stop the next pandemic at its source.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 93-103: RNase P Ribozyme Effectively
           Inhibits Human CC-Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression and Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection

    • Authors: Bin Yan, Yujun Liu, Yuan-Chuan Chen, Isadora Zhang, Fenyong Liu
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Developing novel antiviral agents and approaches is essential for the treatment against human and zoonotic viruses. We had previously produced RNase P-based ribozyme variants capable of efficiently cleaving mRNA in vitro. Here, engineered ribozymes were constructed from an RNase P ribozyme variant to target the mRNA encoding human CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), an HIV co-receptor. The constructed ribozyme efficiently cleaved the CCR5 mRNA in vitro. In cells expressing the engineered ribozyme, CCR5 expression diminished by more than 90% and the infection of HIV (R5 strain Ba-L) decreased by 200-fold. The ribozyme-expressing cells resistant to R5 strain Ba-L still supported the infection of HIV X4 strain IIIB due to its use of CXCR4 instead of CCR5 as the co-receptor. Thus, the ribozyme is specific against CCR5 but not CXCR4. This indicates that RNase P ribozyme is effective and specific against CCR5 to diminish HIV infection, and also displays the viability of developing engineered RNase P ribozymes against human and zoonotic viruses.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 104-119: Construction and Immunogenicity
           Evaluation of Recombinant Adenovirus-Expressing Capsid Protein of
           Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Types O and A

    • Authors: Cancan Wang, Liping Zhang, Ruiming Yu, Peng Zhou, Zhongwang Zhang, Xin Miao, Mingxia Li, Jianliang Lv, Li Pan, Yonglu Wang, Xinsheng Liu
      First page: 104
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to construct a recombinant adenovirus expressing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein of types O and A for future FMDV vaccines to be used in the livestock industry for the reduction in losses caused by FMD outbreaks. Three recombinant adenoviruses, rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93, rAdv-P12A3B3C-OA58, and rAdv-P12A3C-AF72, were packaged, characterized, and amplified using the AdMaxTM adenovirus packaging system, and the humoral and cellular immunity levels were further evaluated in guinea pigs with monovalent or bivalent forms. The results showed that the three recombinant adenoviruses could elicit high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses against FMDV types O and A when immunizing monovalent or bivalent forms, and the immune effect changes with the change in the proportion of recombinant adenovirus types O and A, laying an important foundation for the future development of a new FMD live-carrier vaccine. These results implied that the recombinant adenovirus expressing the FMDV capsid protein of types O and A could be used to prevent FMDV in livestock.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 120-133: Identifying Pig- and
           Pork-Associated Zoonotic and Foodborne Hazards in Eastern and Southern
           Africa: A Systematised Review

    • Authors: Taishi Kayano, Justin Pulford, Lian F. Thomas
      First page: 120
      Abstract: Zoonotic and foodborne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Pork is a potential source of zoonotic and foodborne diseases, and pork consumption is rapidly increasing in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA). Here, studies conducted in ESA describing pig- and pork-associated zoonotic and foodborne hazards were identified to clarify the distribution and prevalence of these hazards and identify research gaps in this region. A systematised literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and Web of Science to identify relevant articles according to pre-determined inclusion/exclusion criteria. In total, 140 articles from 14 countries were identified for review. A total of 42 hazards were identified, categorised as bacterial, viral, parasitic, arthropodal, or other, including drug residues. Among all identified hazards, Taenia spp. (n=40) was the most often studied, followed by Salmonella spp. (21), Escherichia coli (17), and Staphylococcus spp. (9). Further research is required to determine baseline data on the epidemiology and health and economic burden associated with pig- and pork-borne hazards and appropriate strategies are needed to mitigate the risk these hazards pose to communities.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 134-161: Review of Emerging and
           Re-Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens of Dogs in Nigeria: Missing Link in One
           Health Approach

    • Authors: Dorcas A. Gado, David O. Ehizibolo, Clement A. Meseko, Neil E. Anderson, Peter W. W. Lurz
      First page: 134
      Abstract: Dogs live in close contact with humans as pets, for hunting, for security, and as a source of income. In addition, the meat is also consumed by some tribes in Nigeria. Dogs could therefore serve as reservoirs, carriers, and transmitters of zoonotic diseases. This review evaluates the literature from 2000 to 2020 for the prevalence and incidence of zoonotic pathogens associated with dogs in Nigeria. The results obtained show that overall, parasites constituted a majority (64%) of the zoonotic pathogens (or species) identified in dog hosts. A good number of studies have examined the role of ticks in the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Further, bacteria make up 22% of the zoonotic pathogens. From this study, it appears that rabies is the major pathogen in dogs for which there is reliable evidence linking contact between humans and dogs. Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria and Plateau State in north-central Nigeria were the most frequently studied states, while prevalence/disease surveillance studies constituted 80% of the overall papers assessed. Interdisciplinary collaborations as well as research and diagnosis policy amendments are missing links to fully appreciate the role of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic diseases in Nigeria. Policies should integrate a one health approach in the Nigerian health system, whereby diagnostic screening of humans and animals by physicians and veterinarians includes zoonotic pathogens for more accurate diagnosis and control.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 162-175: Incidental Finding of
           Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) Microfilariae in the Bone
           Marrow of a Dog with Mixed Leishmania infantum-Dirofilaria immitis

    • Authors: Ilaria Lensi, George Lubas, Roberto Amerigo Papini
      First page: 162
      Abstract: We report a rare and interesting case of mixed infection with Leishmania infantum and Dirofilaria immitis associated with the incidental finding of microfilariae in the bone marrow of a 9-year-old, intact, male Bullmastiff which was seropositive to L. infantum. Clinical signs showed progressive weakness, pale mucosae membranes, and a very low body condition score. Laboratory abnormalities included moderate, normocytic, normochromic, non-regenerative anemia; mild leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, and eosinopenia; low platelet count; elevated C reactive protein; mild hyperkalemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperbeta-2-globulinemia; and a low A/G ratio. Hypoadrenocorticism, euthyroid sick syndrome, and alteration in the fibrinolytic phase of hemostasis were also detected. Microfilariae were incidentally found in bone marrow cytology aspirate in the absence of clinical features indicative of co-infection with D. immitis. PCR confirmed the identification of the Dirofilaria species. It is assumed that the microfilariae may have left the microcirculation and migrated to bone marrow tissues by crossing the vessel wall. To the best of our knowledge, only one such case has been previously reported in dogs.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 176-178: Bridging the Gap: Exploring the
           Connection between Animal and Human Health

    • Authors: Aditya Kumar Sharma, Neha Dhasmana, Gunjan Arora
      First page: 176
      Abstract: Zoonotic diseases, also referred to as zoonoses, are diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans [...]
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 1-5: Recurrent Penicillin-Resistant
           Tonsillitis Due to Lactococcus garvieae, a New Zoonosis from Aquaculture

    • Authors: Miguel Mayo-Yáñez, Lucía González-Torres
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Zoonotic diseases are a group of infectious diseases that are transmitted naturally from animals to humans. L. garvieae is a Gram-positive bacterium which is present in the aquaculture of freshwater and marine fish. Some isolated cases of infection have been described, considering it an opportunistic agent in immunosuppressed patients. The most recent appearance of severe infections in immunocompetent patients or colonizing cardiac prostheses has set off the alarms. This manuscript presents the first two patients with recurrent tonsillitis due to L. garvieae. A 15-year-old male and an 8-year-old male had recurrent tonsillitis with more than three episodes per year. A culture of tonsillar exudate in both cases showed growth of L. garvieae with an antibiogram showing multi-resistance to antibiotics. Given the parents’ wish not to carry out surgery, an autovaccine regimen with lysed bacteria was proposed with good evolution and remission of tonsillitis episodes in both cases. The oral autovaccine produces an immunomodulatory effect and could be a therapeutic weapon in the prevention of this zoonosis. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of foodborne transmission in human L. garvieae infections and to find suitable treatments for this wide range of infections.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 6-17: Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) as
           Potential Reservoirs and Sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii in Northern Canada

    • Authors: Émilie Bouchard, Rajnish Sharma, Adrián Hernández-Ortiz, Thomas S. Jung, N. Jane Harms, Caitlin N. Willier, Rudy Boonstra, Yasmine N. Majchrzak, Michael J. L. Peers, Géraldine-G. Gouin, Batol Al-Adhami, Audrey Simon, Patrick Leighton, Emily J. Jenkins
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite globally infecting a wide range of species, including humans. Felids are the only known hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts into ecosystems. In boreal regions, Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) are sought by hunters primarily for their fur, and they are occasionally eaten. We examined carcasses salvaged from trappers from boreal regions of eastern (n = 97) and western (n = 357) Canada. We detected T. gondii antibodies in fluid from thawed heart tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA in brain and heart via magnetic capture and real-time PCR assay, and presence of DNA in feces using a real-time PCR with melt curve analysis. We detected antibodies against T. gondii and DNA in tissues in 24% and 19% of lynx, respectively. One lynx was positive for DNA of T. gondii in feces, which could indicate intestinal infection and potential for shedding oocysts. Our results indicate that lynx may be a useful sentinel species for monitoring environmental circulation of T. gondii in northern boreal regions and may pose a risk for transmission to other wildlife and to people handling or consuming lynx.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 18-19: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           Zoonotic Diseases in 2022

    • Authors: Zoonotic Diseases Editorial Office Zoonotic Diseases Editorial Office
      First page: 18
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 20-37: Ecology and Epidemiology of Lyme
           Disease in Western North America

    • Authors: Carl Dizon, Tim J. Lysyk, Isabelle Couloigner, Susan C. Cork
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States and Canada. The causative agent of Lyme disease in North America is the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. In western North America, the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi is the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. Surveillance and modelling efforts indicate that I. pacificus is primarily found in coastal California, Oregon, Washington and the southern coastal regions of British Columbia However, infection rates with B. burgdorferi among I. pacificus ticks remain low, ranging from 0.6% to 9.9%. Lyme disease case numbers in western North America are also relatively low compared to eastern North America. Enzootic maintenance of B. burgdorferi by hosts in natural environments and climatic factors may influence Lyme disease risk. The borreliacidal western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, may contribute to the low infection rates observed in I. pacificus ticks, while the migratory nature of avian hosts can allow for long-distance tick dispersal. Moderately warm and moist environments and protection from sunlight define the suitable habitats of I. pacificus ticks. In this review, we discuss the ecology and epidemiology of Lyme disease in relation to I. pacificus, as well as the need for more studies in western North America.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 38-51: Seroprevalence of Coxiella
           burnetii in Occupational Settings: A Meta-Analysis of Italian Studies

    • Authors: Matteo Riccò, Antonio Baldassarre, Silvia Corrado, Federico Marchesi
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) can cause a serious human disease known as Q Fever (QF). Our study summarized seroprevalence data from occupational settings in Italy, a country characterized by low notification rates of QF (17 cases between 2015 and 2021). Through systematic research on 3 databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MedRxiv), all studies including seroprevalence rates of C. burnetii in Italy were retrieved, and their results summarized and compared. We identified a total of 7 articles for a total of 1178 workers, mostly from agricultural settings. A pooled seroprevalence of 44.0% (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] 27.6 to 61.8) was calculated. Subgroup estimates ranged from 2.8% (95%CI 0.9–6.3) in forestry rangers to 49.2% (95%CI 26.8–72.0) in livestock farmers, and peaked at 73.7% (95%CI 56.9–86.6) and 75.9% (95%CI 13.4–98.5) in abattoir workers and veterinary professionals, respectively. Seroprevalence rates for C. burnetii largely exceeded the official notification rates, suggesting its substantial underreporting in Italy.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 52-67: Livestock Reservoir Hosts: An
           Obscured Threat to Control of Human Schistosomiasis in Nigeria

    • Authors: Hammed Oladeji Mogaji, Olaitan Olamide Omitola, Adedotun Ayodeji Bayegun, Uwem Friday Ekpo, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Schistosomiasis is one of the leading neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Recorded case numbers of this chronic and debilitating helminth disease indicate Nigeria to be the most endemic country within this region. National control efforts have focused intensively on restricting human contact with freshwater sources of intermediate host snails. However, limited attention has been paid to the role of livestock as reservoir hosts and the prevalence of transmission of schistosomes to humans via farmed animals. The West African nations of Mali, Senegal, and the neighbouring Niger, Benin, and Cameroon have all reported the hybridization of the closely related species of Schistosoma haematobium, which infects humans, and S. bovis, which infects cattle. As these countries share the Niger and Benue rivers, with their tributaries, there is a distinct possibility of aquatic snails infected with hybrid schistosomes migrating to become established in the Nigerian river system. Here, we report on the current state of research in Nigeria that aims to elucidate key aspects of zoonotic schistosomiasis epidemiology. Factors promoting the hybridization of Schistosoma species are highlighted, and how available control measures can be optimized to address the emergence of schistosome hybrids is discussed.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 3, Pages 68-84: Extrahepatic Replication Sites of
           Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)

    • Authors: Kush Kumar Yadav, Scott P. Kenney
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging viral disease known to cause acute viral hepatitis globally. Various genotypes of HEV have been identified that produce genotype specific lesions depending on the HEV targeted population. Pregnant or immunosuppressed individuals develop significantly more severe hepatitis E in comparison to the general population. In the last 40 years, we discovered that the tropism of HEV is not restricted to the liver, and virus replication was demonstrated in multiple organs. Out of the 10 body systems described in humans, HEV produces lesions causing a broad range of extrahepatic clinical manifestations in each of them. Affected body systems include nervous and musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, integumentary, renal, respiratory, immune, and reproductive systems producing systemic lesions. All extrahepatic signs are caused by either direct HEV replication in these tissues, or indirectly by various immune mediated mechanisms. Extrahepatic replication features of HEV allowed it to cross the placental barrier, blood–brain barrier (BBB), and blood–testis barrier (BTB) that do not typically grant entry to viruses in general. Thus, in this review, we summarized the extrahepatic replication sites of HEV, listed the body systems where HEV invaded, and described multiple animal models including immunocompetent and immunosuppressed that were used to study the extrahepatic replication sites of HEV.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2023-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 172-182: Preventing Laboratory-Acquired
           Brucellosis in the Era of MALDI-TOF Technology and Molecular Tests: A
           Narrative Review

    • Authors: Pablo Yagupsky
      First page: 172
      Abstract: Brucellosis is one of the most common etiologies of laboratory-acquired infections worldwide, and handling of living brucellae should be performed in a Class II biological safety cabinet. The low infecting dose, multiple portals of entry to the body, the wide variety of potentially contaminated specimens, and the unspecific clinical manifestations of human infections facilitate the unintentional transmission of brucellae to laboratory personnel. Work accidents such as spillage of culture media cause only a small minority of exposures, whereas >80% of events result from unfamiliarity with the phenotypic features of the genus, misidentification of isolates, and unsafe laboratory practices such as working on an open bench without protective goggles or gloves or the aerosolization of bacteria. The bacteriological diagnosis of brucellae by traditional methods is simple and straightforward but requires extensive manipulation of the isolates, and, nowadays, many laboratory technicians are not familiar with the genotypic features of the genus, resulting in inadvertent exposure and contagion. Detection of brucellar infections by culture-independent molecular methods is safe, but the identification of the organism using MALDI-TOF technology is not hazard-free, requiring an initial bacterial inactivation step to avoid transmission. Unfortunately, these novel and safer methods are costly and frequently unavailable in resource-limited endemic countries.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040016
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 183-227: Revenge of the Tick: Tick-Borne
           Diseases and the Eye in the Age of Climate Change and Globalisation

    • Authors: Xin Le Ng, Berdjette Y. Y. Lau, Cassandra X. C. Chan, Dawn K. A. Lim, Blanche X. H. Lim, Chris H. L. Lim
      First page: 183
      Abstract: Climate change has contributed to changes in disease transmission. In particular, zoonoses such as tick-borne diseases are occurring in areas previously unsuitable for tick survival, with spread to non-endemic areas rising. Ophthalmic manifestations of tick-borne diseases are rare. Often overlooked, diagnosis requires awareness and a high level of suspicion, which may delay treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of ocular disease associated with ticks so that management protocols for patients can be designed and implemented. A narrative literature review was conducted. The current literature includes case series, case reports, and literature reviews. Ocular manifestations of tick-borne diseases include adnexal manifestations, conjunctivitis, keratitis, cranial nerve palsies, optic nerve disease, uveitis, exudative retinal detachment, and panophthalmitis, which may occur in isolation or as part of a systemic process. As there is no one constellation of ocular symptoms and signs diagnostic of tick-borne eye diseases, a systematic approach is recommended with particular attention to significant travel and exposure history. In this review, we identify significant risk factors and propose management strategies for afflicted patients to improve treatment outcomes while maintaining cost-effectiveness. Ophthalmologists and generalists will benefit from increased awareness of ocular manifestations of tick-borne diseases in the age of modern travel and climate change.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040017
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 228-233: Lack of Evidence of Hepatitis E
           Virus Infections in a Cohort of Boars and Deer Species in a Game Reserve
           in Northern Germany

    • Authors: Tim Westphal, Michel Delling, Maria Mader, Christin Ackermann, Thomas Horvatits, Marc Lütgehetmann, Julian Schulze zur Wiesch, Sven Pischke, Claudia Beisel
      First page: 228
      Abstract: The risk of acquiring hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections by wild animals living in the European wild nature has previously been reported and high anti-HEV antibody detection rates were detected in several animal species. However, data on the HEV seroprevalence of wild boars and deer held in game reserves are rare. In the present study, we investigated anti-HEV seroprevalence and HEV RNA in 38 deer and 15 wild boars living in a game reserve in Northern Germany. Surprisingly, none of the animals tested positive for HEV RNA in blood, liver, or muscle (diaphragm), and all animals (n = 53, 100%) were anti-HEV negative. In conclusion, HEV infections in enclosed areas, such as game reserves, in Germany are rare, and the risk of HEV transmission through meat from these animals to humans seems to be low.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040018
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 234-246: Monkeypox: Re-Emerging Zoonotic

    • Authors: Rajeev Ranjan, Jitendra Kumar Biswal
      First page: 234
      Abstract: Monkeypox (MPX) is a relatively unknown and minor resurgent viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV). The disease can spread from person to person or from animal to person. The disease is most prevalent in the tropical rainforests of West and Central Africa. The first MPXV outbreak was recorded in a monkey during 1958 as a small pox-like disease causing flu-like symptoms, such as chills and fever, as well as a rash, and the first MPXV case in a human was in a 9-month-old child in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on 1 September 1970. There were 16,016 laboratory confirmed cases of MPXV infection and five deaths reported in 75 countries/territories/areas across all six WHO Regions as of 22 July 2022. MPXV has a wide host range, including humans, squirrels, mice, rabbits, hamsters, porcupines, non-human primates (orangutans, chimps, sooty mangabeys, cynomolgus monkeys), black-tailed prairie dogs, African brush-tailed porcupines, rats, and shrews. MPXV replicates at the site of inoculation, the respiratory or oropharyngeal mucosa, and spreads to other organs, such as the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, where clinical signs and symptoms of the disease manifest. Before the rash appears, most patients have prominent lymphadenopathy, which distinguishes human MPX from small pox. This is followed by macules, papules, vesicles, pustules, umbilication, scabbing, and desquamation. Laboratory tools, such as virus isolation, PCR-based assays, haemagglutination inhibition assays, electron microscopy, ELISA, Western blotting, or immunohistochemistry, have been used to confirm diagnoses. Following a confirmatory diagnosis, tecovirimat, an FDA-approved antiviral drug, is currently available to treat severe cases of MPXV infection, along with symptomatic and supportive therapies. Physical and close contact activities, such as sleeping in the same room or on the same bed as the infected person, intimate contact with an infected partner, living in the same house as infected people, and sharing the same cups and plates, must be avoided to prevent the spread of the disease. Vaccination with vaccinia virus against monkeypox is approximately 85% effective and may protect against MPXV infection if administered within 4 days and up to 14 days (without showing any symptoms) after initial contact with a confirmed monkeypox case.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040019
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 247-257: Rickettsial Agents Associated
           with Ectoparasites in Attica, Greece

    • Authors: Maria Liodaki, Emmanouil Angelakis, Gregory Spanakos, Ioanna Papadogiannaki, Michael Samarkos, George L. Daikos, Barbara Christopoulou, Evangelia-Theophano Piperaki
      First page: 247
      Abstract: The bacteria of the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae, harbored by arthropod vectors, may cause disease in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to screen ectoparasites collected from cats and dogs in Attica, Greece for the bacteria of the Rickettsiales group, by molecular methods. The ectoparasites examined were Ctenocephalides felis fleas and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., Rhipicephalus sp., and Ixodes sp. ticks. Rickettsia felis was detected in 4.8% of C. felis fleas, and Rickettsia conorii was detected in 7.3% of R. sanguineus s.l. ticks. Ehrlichia canis was found in one R. sanguineus s.l. tick, and Wolbachia pipientis was detected in the majority of fleas. Another endosymbiont, Cancidatus Midichloria mitochondrii (Cancidatus Midichloriaceae), was detected in one Ixodes sp.. This is the first report of R. conorii and E. canis in R. sanguineus s.l. ticks in this study area. Given the fact that Greece is considered endemic for spotted fever group rickettsioses, further investigation of these rickettsial pathogens’ distribution in their vectors and hosts could enhance our knowledge of their epidemiology, in order to assess their potential implications for public health in this metropolitan area.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040020
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 258-266: Detection of Trematodes from the
           Host Exotic Aquatic Snail Melanoides tuberculata in an Urban Stormwater

    • Authors: Jason M. Post, Rachael J. Reasch, Emily S. Bailey
      First page: 258
      Abstract: The red-rimmed melania or Malaysian Trumpet Snail, Melanoides tuberculata, is a common exotic freshwater snail that has been invading an increasing number of water bodies in North America. As a well-known host for trematodes causing human and animal diseases, the pattern of invasion and parasitic infection for this species is of great concern. Snail specimens were collected from an urban stream in Los Angeles that drains into a fragile, protected wetland ecosystem. Molecular analysis identified four trematode species: Haplorchis pumilio, Fasciola jacksoni, Parorchis sp. TH-2019, and an unclassified trematode species, Trematoda distomecercaria WN-2016. H. pumilio is responsible for haplorchiasis infections, previously considered endemic to Asia. F. jacksoni infection is a significant cause of mortality in Asian elephants. This study represents the first occurrence of F. jacksoni in North America and a novel occurrence of that trematode in association with M. tuberculata. This study also represents new occurrences of Parorchis sp. TH-2019 and an unclassified trematode species, Trematoda distomecercaria WN-2016, within California and North America. Parorchis sp. TH-2019 has previously only been documented in a marine whelk. This identification of these trematodes in association with M. tuberculata further exemplifies the need for ongoing monitoring and detection, especially considering the significance of H. pumilio and haplorchiasis to public health.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 267-290: A New Methodology to Comprehend
           the Effect of El Niño and La Niña Oscillation in Early
           Warning of Anthrax Epidemic Among Livestock

    • Authors: Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa Suresh, Sushma Bylaiah, Sharanagouda Patil, Mohan Kumar, Uma Bharathi Indrabalan, Bhavya Anenahalli Panduranga, Palya Thimmaiah Srinivas, Chandan Shivamallu, Shiva Prasad Kollur, Charley A. Cull, Raghavendra G. Amachawadi
      First page: 267
      Abstract: Anthrax is a highly fatal zoonotic disease that affects all species of livestock. The study aims to develop an early warning of epidemiological anthrax using machine learning (ML) models and to study the effect of El Niño and La Niña oscillation, as well as the climate–disease relationship concerning the spatial occurrence and outbreaks in Karnataka. The disease incidence data are divided based on El Niño and La Niña events from 2004–2019 and subjected to climate-disease modeling to understand the disease pattern over the years. Machine learning models were implemented using R statistical software version 3.1.3 with Livestock density, soil profile, and meteorological and remote sensing variables as risk factors associated with anthrax incidence. Model evaluation is performed using statistical indices, viz., Cohen’s kappa, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, true skill statistics (TSS), etc. Models with good predictive power were combined to develop an average prediction model. The predicted results were mapped onto the Risk maps, and the Basic reproduction numbers (R0) for the districts that are significantly clustered were calculated. Early warning or risk prediction developed with a layer of R0 superimposed on a risk map helps in the preparedness for the disease occurrence, and precautionary measures before the spread of the disease.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 291-300: Viral Zoonotic Diseases of
           Public Health Importance and Their Effect on Male Reproduction

    • Authors: Olabisi Lateef Okeleji, Lydia Oluwatoyin Ajayi, Aduragbemi Noah Odeyemi, Victor Amos, Hezekiah Oluwatobi Ajayi, Amos Olalekan Akinyemi, Chibueze Samuel Nzekwe, Johnson Wale Adeyemi, Ayodeji Folorunsho Ajayi
      First page: 291
      Abstract: Zoonotic diseases occur as a result of human interactions with animals with the inadvertent transmission of pathogens from one to another. Zoonoses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human populations, as they have been a source of pandemics in human history. Viral zoonoses account for a significant percentage of pathogens of zoonotic sources, posing a huge risk to men’s general health and fertility. This review identifies the existing knowledge on the effects of viral zoonotic diseases on male fertility. Evidence from reviewed articles showed that viral zoonotic diseases elicit an immune reaction that induces inflammatory mediators and impairs testicular functions such as spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, leading to abnormal semen parameters that lead to subfertility/infertility. Although most zoonotic viruses linger in semen long after recovery, their presence in semen does not directly translate to sexual transmission. There is a need to further delineate the possible risk of the sexual transmission of these diseases. While a few of the viral zoonotic diseases discussed have been well-studied, there is a need to place attention on others so as to fully understand their effects on male reproduction and therefore take the right steps towards preserving male fertility.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2040023
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 82-94: Genetic Diversity, Antimicrobial
           Resistance and Survival upon Manure Storage of Campylobacter jejuni
           Isolated from Dairy Cattle Farms in the Cantabric Coast of Spain

    • Authors: Athanasia Varsaki, Sagrario Ortiz, Patricia Santorum, Pilar López, Victoria López-Alonso, Joaquín V. Martínez-Suárez
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The aim of this study was the examination of the genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of C. jejuni isolates obtained from dairy farms situated in Cantabria. The presence of Campylobacter jejuni was scrutinized in dairy farms situated in the Cantabria region (Atlantic coast, North of Spain). A total of 520 samples were collected from 12 dairy farms and 62 C. jejuni isolates were achieved. Sixty-one (61) of the isolates proceeded from fresh feces and only one from the stable (soil). Characterization of the isolates was conducted by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by standardized disk diffusion test. The PFGE analysis showed a high genetic diversity. From the 62 C. jejuni isolates, 27 different PFGE types were obtained with 70% similarity. The results of the antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that 21 out of 27 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin (78%), and 15 of them were also resistant to tetracycline (55%), whereas none of the 27 strains analyzed were resistant to erythromycin. C. jejuni was capable of surviving in livestock waste for at least 20–25 days, whereas the maximum detectable survival time on crops was of six days. This study reveals the high genetic diversity and ciprofloxacin resistance of C. jejuni in dairy cattle farms in Northern Spain, a fact that highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of this foodborne pathogen.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2030009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 95-110: Bone Lesions in a Young Dog and a
           NEEM (Azadirachta indica) Spray as the Only Preventive Measure against
           Leishmaniasis: A Case Report

    • Authors: Giulia De Feo, George Lubas, Simonetta Citi, Caterina Puccinelli, Roberto Amerigo Papini
      First page: 95
      Abstract: As the spread of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is increasing throughout the world, the need for effective agents to prevent its transmission has intensified. In this case report, an intact 1.5-year-old male French bulldog was presented for treatment of severe, sudden, and constant lameness on his right hindlimb, which had started approximately four months previously and was unresponsive to routine nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A Neem oil-based product was sprayed three times a week on the dog’s coat for about fourteen months as the only prophylactic measure against CanL. The orthopedic examination revealed grade 3–4 lameness and marked atrophy of the thigh muscles with swollen and painful right stifle joint. The radiological investigation showed polyostotic periosteal proliferation at both hindlimbs. The diagnosis of CanL was established by examination of fine-needle aspiration of lymph nodes (left prescapular, right and left popliteal) and immunofluorescence antibody testing. A leishmanicidal therapeutic protocol was prescribed. Within ten days of starting the therapy, the dog was significantly less lame, and eight months later radiographic examination revealed complete regression of the bone lesions. Some owners resort to a naturalistic approach for CanL prevention, also using products that have not been clinically evaluated. Neem oil is thought to prevent sandfly bites in dogs. Some laboratory and field studies have identified Neem oil as a possible alternative herbal drug that is repellent to sandflies. However, the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings clearly show that the Neem oil spray formulation used in this case report was not an effective means of CanL prevention. There is no clinical evidence in support of Neem oil-based products for the protection of dogs against CanL transmission. As Neem oil has previously been shown to be somewhat volatile, this case report suggests that even though it is a very effective repellent against sandflies, in practice, its effect on the dogs’ coat was only short-lived.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2030010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 111-116: Tick-Borne Disease Risk and
           Exposure among Vulnerable Populations in Perceived Non-Endemic Regions

    • Authors: Kevin Thomas, Chris Brooks, Connie L. McNeely, Sarah P. Maxwell
      First page: 111
      Abstract: Migrant and seasonal workers in the United States, among others in rural agricultural communities, may be at an elevated risk for tick-borne diseases (TBDs). This research included a survey of over 250 such workers, both women and men, in 13 locations across five eco-systems in Texas, which is generally perceived as a non-endemic state. Employing a modified Horowitz Multiple Systemic Infectious Disease Syndrome Questionnaire, a range of data was collected regarding living conditions, such as sleeping outside, along with queries about tick exposure, tick bite encounters, illnesses, and prior TBD diagnoses. Findings revealed that 67% of the respondents who scored highest on symptom severity suggestive of a TBD reported sleeping outdoors (compared to 29% of the lowest scoring), with 78% of the likely-to-highly-likely group also recalling tick-bite encounters (compared to 20% of the lowest scoring). Approximately 28% of those who reported severe symptoms also indicated previous Lyme disease diagnoses. This research serves as an initial investigation into the living conditions associated with increased risk of TBDs among vulnerable populations. It underscores the need for further assessments of TBD risk relative to vulnerable populations even in perceived non-endemic regions and highlights the paucity of actionable data as a critical public health issue.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2030011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 117-125: Host–Virus Interactions in
           Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    • Authors: Urmi Roy
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that causes severe brain inflammation. The JE virus envelope protein domain III (JEV-ED3) plays a critical role in activating receptor binding and membrane fusion. This communication briefly describes, in a computational approach, how structural changes within the JEV-ED3 mutant epitopes suppress their antibody neutralization function. The simulated results demonstrate that mutant Ser40Lys acts as an antibody neutralization escape while Asp41Arg may play the role of an escape mutant. Additionally, an examination of the double mutants on JEV-ED3 suggests that these mutants may qualify as stronger neutralizing escape agents than their single variants. The structural analysis of this work helps to identify the proper antiviral target sequences and specific monoclonal antibodies for the JEV-ED3 escape mutants.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2030012
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 126-146: Changing Geographic Ranges of
           Human Biting Ticks and Implications for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in North

    • Authors: Stephen K. Wikel
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens are increasing public health threats due to emergence of novel pathogens, expanding geographic ranges of tick vectors, changing ecology of tick communities, as well as abiotic and biotic influences on tick–host–pathogen interactions. This review examines the major human-biting ixodid tick species and transmitted pathogens of North America. Topics addressed include current and projected tick geographic ranges, potential risks for introduction of tick transmitted microbes into those regions, and drivers for these events. Health care providers, public health authorities, and the general public need to be aware of existing, resurging, and emerging tick and tick-borne disease threats. Knowing which ticks and tick-borne pathogens are present is foundational to understanding and responding to these threats. Dominant tick species and pathogens remain major foci of research, while limited attention has been directed to other human-biting ticks for decades, resulting in questions about current distributions, population sizes, and diversity of infectious agents they are capable of transmitting. Significant threats due to invasive ticks are considered. Recommendations are made for establishment of a sustained North America network for surveillance of ticks, characterization of their microbiomes and viromes, and for support of tick and tick-borne disease ecology research.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2030013
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 147-162: Tracking Co-Occurrence of N501Y,
           P681R, and Other Key Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 Spike for Surveillance

    • Authors: Carol Lee, Shruthi Mangalaganesh, Laurence O. W. Wilson, Michael J. Kuiper, Trevor W. Drew, Seshadri S. Vasan
      First page: 147
      Abstract: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produced five variants of concern (VOC) to date. The important spike mutation ‘N501Y’ is common to Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Omicron VOC, while the ‘P681R’ is key to Delta’s spread. We have analysed circa 10 million SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from the world’s largest repository, ‘Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID)’, and demonstrated that these two mutations have co-occurred on the spike ‘D614G’ mutation background at least 5767 times from 12 May 2020 to 28 April 2022. In contrast, the Y501-H681 combination, which is common to Alpha and Omicron VOC, is present in circa 1.1 million entries. Over half of the 5767 co-occurrences were in France, Turkey, or US (East Coast), and the rest across 88 other countries; 36.1%, 3.9%, and 4.1% of the co-occurrences were Alpha’s Q.4, Gamma’s P.1.8, and Omicron’s BA.1.1 sub-lineages acquiring the P681R; 4.6% and 3.0% were Delta’s AY.5.7 sub-lineage and B.1.617.2 lineage acquiring the N501Y; the remaining 8.2% were in other variants. Despite the selective advantages individually conferred by N501Y and P681R, the Y501-R681 combination counterintuitively did not outcompete other variants in every instance we have examined. While this is a relief to worldwide public health efforts, in vitro and in vivo studies are urgently required in the absence of a strong in silico explanation for this phenomenon. This study demonstrates a pipeline to analyse combinations of key mutations from public domain information in a systematic manner and provide early warnings of spread. The study here demonstrates the usage of the pipeline using the key mutations N501Y, P681R, and D614G of SARS-CoV-2.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2030014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 163-171: Exposure to Brucella spp. in
           Goats and Sheep in Karenga District, Uganda Diagnosed by Modified Rose
           Bengal Method

    • Authors: Claire Julie Akwongo, Steven Kakooza
      First page: 163
      Abstract: A retrospective study was conducted in 2022 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors among goat and sheep herds in the Karenga district, Karamoja region, Uganda. Sera from 332 goats and 81 sheep from 20 kraals in all seven administrative units of the district were tested using the modified Rose Bengal test (mRBT). It was determined that brucellosis was present in 20% of the small ruminant herds in the Karenga district, with an overall animal level seropositivity of 3.39% (CI: 1.87–5.62%; n = 14/413). Higher seropositivity was recorded in goats (3.92%, CI: 2.1–6.6%) than sheep (1.23%, CI: 0.03–6.69%). Similarly, seropositivity was higher in females (3.95%, CI: 2.12–6.66%) than males (1.19%, CI: 0.03–6.456), and also higher in goats and sheep more than two years old (4.15%, CI: 2.09–7.31%) than those one to two years old (1.98%, CI: 0.24–6.97%) or those less than one year old (2.13%, CI: 0.05–11.29%). Only herd size was statistically significant (p < 0.05) as a risk factor for exposure to brucellosis in the Karenga district. Although the prevalence of brucellosis among goats and sheep in the Karenga district is low, there still exists a risk to the pastoralists who closely interact with the animals and also practice risky behaviours such as consumption of uncooked or unpasteurised goat milk. There is need to expand herd health messaging in Karenga to include risk communication on brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2030015
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 44-58: Simulation of the Progression of
           the COVID-19 Outbreak in Northwest Syria Using a Basic and Adjusted SIR

    • Authors: Orwa Al-Abdulla, Agneta Kallström, Camilo Valderrama, Jussi Kauhanen
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Syria has experienced armed conflict since 2011, and the provision of health care has been severely compromised due to the hostilities. At the time of writing, Northwest Syria (NWS) was outside governmental control and faced the challenges of the COVID-19 outbreak. Since the emergence of this disease, several studies have looked at the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission, predicted its progression, and determined the impact of different preventive measures. While most of these studies’ settings were in stable contexts, this study investigated the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic in Northwest Syria, a conflict-affected region, for nine months (from July 2020 to March 2021) using the Suspected-Infected-Removed (SIR) model. We adjusted the SIR model to study the impact of wearing facial masks on the outbreak dynamics and progression. Based on available data and using the basic and adjusted SIR models, we estimated the value of the basic reproduction number (R0), which provides an initial prediction of disease progression. Using the basic SIR model, the estimated R0 for the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 in Northwest Syria was 2.38. The resulting figures were overestimated in comparison with the reported numbers and data on the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the results were significantly reasonable when we adjusted the model for a preventive measure (in this case, wearing face masks). Face masks, the most available preventive measure to be applied in emergency and conflict settings, remarkably affect the outbreak dynamics and may play a key role in controlling and limiting the spread of COVID-19. The novelty of the study is provided by simulating the progress of the COVID-19 outbreak in conflict settings, as it is the first study to predict the dynamics of COVID-19 disease in NWS by adjusting for face-mask-wearing as a preventive measure to explore its impact on outbreak dynamics.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2020006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 59-72: Isolation and Characterization of
           Lytic Bacteriophages Specific for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter

    • Authors: Abdul-Raouf Al-Mohammadi, Gamal El-Didamony, Mohamed S. Abd El Moneem, Ibrahim M. Elshorbagy, Ahmed Askora, Gamal Enan
      First page: 59
      Abstract: In this study, two lytic bacteriophages designated as vB_CjP and vB_CcM were isolated and evaluated for their ability to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, respectively. A morphological analysis of these phages by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the vB-CjP bacteriophage had a mean head dimension of 66.6 ± 2.1 nm and a short non-contractile tail and belongs to the Podoviridae family, whereas vB_CcM had a mean head dimension of 80 ± 3.2 nm, a contractile tail, and a length calculated to be 60 ± 2.5 nm and belongs to the Myoviridae family. The results of the host range assay showed that vB_CjP could infect 5 of 10 C. jejuni isolates, whereas vB_CcM could infect 4 of 10 C. coli isolates. Both phages were thermostable and did not lose their infectivity and ability to lyse their host following exposure to 60 °C for 10 min; furthermore, phage particles were relatively stable within a pH range of 6–8. A one-step growth curve indicated that the phages produced estimated burst sizes of 110 and 120 PFU per infected cell with latent periods of 10 and 15 min, for vB-CjP and vB-CcM, respectively. The lytic activity of these phages against planktonic Campylobacter showed that these phages were able to control the growth of Campylobacter in vitro. These results suggest that these phages have a high potential for phage applications and can reduce significantly the counts of Campylobacter spp. The lytic activity of vB-CjP and vB-CcM phages at different (MOIs) against multidrug resistance Campylobacter strains was evaluated. The bacterial growth was slightly delayed by both phages, and the highest efficiency of both phages was observed when MOI = 1 was applied.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2020007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 73-81: A Variety of Leptospira Serovar
           Distribution in Bullfighting Cattle in Southern of Thailand

    • Authors: Ruttayaporn Ngasaman, Baramee Chanchayanon, Domechai Kaewnoi, Ketsarin Kamyingkird
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Bullfighting cattle are selected from domestic cattle (Bos indicus) that demonstrate good performance in Thai bullfighting without a matador [...]
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2020008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 1-8: Use of a Direct, Rapid
           Immunohistochemical Test for Diagnosis of Rabies Virus in Bats

    • Authors: Charles E. Rupprecht, Lolita I. Van Pelt, April D. Davis, Richard B. Chipman, David L. Bergman
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Rabies, a zoonotic encephalitis due to transmission of a lyssavirus, such as rabies virus (RABV), has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. A global program for the elimination of human rabies caused by dogs is proposed for realization by 2030. Sensitive, specific, and inexpensive diagnostic tests are necessary for enhanced surveillance to detect infection, inform public health and veterinary professionals during risk assessments of exposure, and support overall programmatic goals. Multiple laboratory techniques are used to confirm a suspect case of rabies. One method for the detection of lyssavirus antigens within the brain is the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), using light microscopy, and suitable for use under field conditions. Besides dogs, other major RABV reservoirs reside among mammalian mesocarnivores and bats. To date, use of the dRIT has been applied primarily for the diagnosis of RABV in suspect mesocarnivores. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the dRIT to the diagnosis of rabies in bats, compared to the gold-standard, the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT). Brains of 264 suspect bats, consisting of 21 species from Arizona and Texas, were used in the evaluation of the dRIT. The overall sensitivity of the dRIT was 100% (0.969–1.0, 95% CI) and the specificity was 94.6% (0.896–0.976, 95% CI), comparable to the DFAT. This preliminary study demonstrated the utility of the dRIT in the confirmation of RABV infection in bats. Future studies should include additional geographic, lyssavirus, and mammalian species representations for broader application during enhanced rabies surveillance, with incorporation of any potential adjustments to standard protocols, as needed.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 9-18: Detection of Hepatitis E Virus
           Infections in Wild Boars in Southwest Germany Using a Stepwise Laboratory
           Diagnostic Approach

    • Authors: Birgitta Polley, Matthias Contzen, Sandra Wiedmann, Lisa Schneider-Bühl, Reinhard Sting
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis in humans worldwide. Among HEV, genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic agents associated with domestic pigs and wild boars, showing an increasing trend in Europe. The aim of this study is to contribute data on the prevalence of HEV in wild boars in Southwest Germany and to present a time and cost-effective two-step laboratory diagnostic approach for serological monitoring of blood samples. This method uses enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by testing for HEV RNA by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). A total of 2295 blood samples were collected in 234 municipalities in 12 counties in the period from 2016 to 2020. There was an overall seroprevalence of 10.8%, ranging from 3.6% to 17.5% per county and 7.5% to 14% per year. Retesting of these blood samples for HEV RNA revealed 15.7% viremic wild boars originating from 30 municipalities in 11 counties. Viremic wild boars were found in seven regional clusters, including 84% of the animals that tested positive for HEV. Seropositive animals <1 year of age were significantly more likely to be viremic than those >1 year. Further characterization of HEV RNA resulted in the identification of genotype 3. Altogether, serological monitoring of the blood samples, complemented by successive and targeted investigations into the presence of HEV RNA based on blood samples, provide reliable information on the seroprevalence and virus load in wild boars, which proved to be a relevant and persistent sylvatic reservoir for HEV.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2010002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 19-31: Molecular Identification and
           Ecology of Portuguese Wild-Caught Phlebotomine Sandfly Specimens

    • Authors: Líbia Zé-Zé, Fátima Amaro, Hugo Costa Osório, Marta Giovanetti, José Lourenço, Maria João Alves
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Phlebotomine sandflies are important vectors of Leishmania spp. and phleboviruses causing disease in animals and humans. Morphological identification of phlebotomine sandflies to the species level is challenging, requiring microscopical examination of the genitalia, which is demanding and time consuming. Molecular sandfly species identification can be a practical solution to save resources since it enables further molecular studies capable of generating data, such as biting preferences by blood meal analysis. In this study, resorting to a sandfly dataset collected between 2014 and 2018 across Portuguese territory under active mosquito surveillance and sandfly specific surveys, we used molecular methods to explore the genetic diversity and spatial distribution, further exploring ecological co-variants of four sandfly species—Phlebotomus ariasi, P. perniciosus, P. sergenti, and Sergentomyia minuta—all of which are of public health importance. Sandflies were collected from Spring to Autumn (May–November) following local temperature patterns. P. perniciosus was the most widespread detected species, with a nationwide distribution. All studied species clustered together with known samples from the Iberian Peninsula. Further monitoring studies of sandfly species diversity, distribution, and seasonality are essential for surveillance and control of sandfly-borne pathogens both nationally and globally.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2010003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 32-36: A Lethal Case of Natural Infection
           with the H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus of Clade in
           a Mandarin Duck

    • Authors: Ahmed Magdy Khalil, Hitoshi Hatai, Yoshikazu Fujimoto, Isshu Kojima, Misuzu Okajima, Mana Esaki, Kyonha Kinoshita, Makoto Ozawa
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Recent global outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the H5N8 subtype in poultry and wild birds have raised concerns about animal and human health, particularly after its first evidence of zoonotic transmission from birds to humans. Here, we report a lethal infection with the H5N8 HPAIV in a mandarin duck that had previously demonstrated resistance to the H5N8 HPAIV infection. In addition, we revealed that the isolated virus was a genetic reassortant between the existing H5N8 HPAIV and LPAIV(s). Although further studies are warranted to assess the impact of the genetic reassortment on virus pathogenicity, the potential role of mandarin ducks in HPAIV dissemination should be re-evaluated.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2010004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
  • Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 2, Pages 37-43: Autoantibodies against Proinsulin,
           Human Endogenous Retrovirus W (HERV-W) and Mycobacterium avium Subspecies
           Paratuberculosis (MAP) Slowly Decrease Years after T1DM Diagnosis

    • Authors: Marta Noli, Gianfranco Meloni, Elena Rita Simula, Maria Antonietta Manca, Seyedesomaye Jasemi, Stefano Ruberto, Davide Cossu, Mario Palermo, Leonardo A. Sechi
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Previous studies have highlighted the potential role of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and human endogenous retrovirus W (HERV-W) in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) among Sardinian subjects. To better understand how antibody responses evolve during disease progression, a serological evaluation of IgG antibodies was performed in Sardinian children with T1DM collected at different time-points following the onset of the disease. It is known that anti-PI and anti-insulin (IAA) autoantibodies are the first to appear before the clinical onset of T1DM. In order to investigate the humoral responses, 69 children with T1DM were enrolled in the study, including 25 with new onset, 25 with T1DM at 1–5 years since diagnosis and 19 with T1DM at 6–12 years since diagnosis. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies (Abs) against PI46–61, three MAP epitopes (including MAP 2404c, which has a homologous sequence with PI) and two HERV-W-derived epitopes via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data obtained from the analysis showed significantly higher IgG responses against all peptides detected in the new onset group compared to longer suffering (1–5 and 6–12 years) T1DM patients, also showing a robust correlation between the proinsulin autoantibody and anti-MAP/HERV antibodies, characterized by a progressive decline the first year after onset. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that MAP and HERV could act as risk factors for T1DM, suggesting that they may serve as potential biomarkers of disease progression in early-stage T1DM.
      Citation: Zoonotic Diseases
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/zoonoticdis2010005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
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