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ISSN (Online) 2673-9488
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 145-172: Internal Flesh Browning in Apple and
           Its Predisposing Factors—A Review

    • Authors: Ramandeep Singh Sidhu, Sally A. Bound, Nigel D. Swarts
      First page: 145
      Abstract: This review article is focused on internal flesh browning (IFB)-related physiological disorders affecting apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit. The expression of different physiological and metabolic IFB-related disorders during post-harvest storage are investigated along with the pre-harvest factors contributing to development. The effectiveness of commercially available pre-harvest technologies for preventing IFB-related disorders are also examined. Internal flesh browning-related disorders are erratic and devastating disorders that result in post-harvest deterioration of fruit quality in apples. Internal flesh browning-related disorders can result in severe economic losses to the apple industry through reduced consumer trust and market acceptability of susceptible cultivars. There are several IFB-related disorders and incidence can range from 0 to 100% of a crop, with severity ranging from no brown flesh to browning of the entire fruit flesh. While IFB-related disorders are found in several apple cultivars, some cultivars are more prone than others. The development of IFB-related disorders involve complex mechanisms depending upon the different types and causes, or factors involved in loss of structural integrity and functional stability of the cell membranes and cell components. Membrane disruption followed by enzymatic oxidation of fruit phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidases and the production of brown polymers is considered to be the general underlying mechanism causing the browning of flesh tissue. It can be observed in different patterns based on the injured portion of the fruit flesh and the cause of membrane disruption. Three broad categories of IFB-related disorders, including chilling injury, internal CO2 injury, and senescent-related browning disorders, are discussed along with their sub-types. The development of IFB-related disorders can be influenced by both pre-harvest factors and post-harvest conditions and their interactions. Although commonly associated with storage, IFB can also be found immediately after harvest and sometimes in unharvested fruit prior to full maturity. As pre-harvest conditions are a strong contributor to IFB-related disorders, the influence of several pre-harvest orchard conditions, including fruit size, crop load, maturity at harvest, cultivar, climatic conditions, seasonal temperatures, growing degree days, and major mineral nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) are reported. Although there are contradictory findings in the studies reported, in general, factors such as larger fruit size, light crop load and delayed harvesting, along with cool temperatures after bloom and warmer temperatures before harvest, increase the risk of IFB-related disorders. In relation to fruit mineral concentrations, high N and low Ca have been associated with increasing IFB, while there is conflicting evidence in relation to the impact of both P and K. This review also examines the effectiveness of commercial pre-harvest technologies such as 1-methylcyclopropene, aminoethoxyvinylglycine and diphenylamine in the prevention of IFB-related disorders, but none of these technologies were found promising due to varied and contradictory results.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 173-207: Anticancer Potential and Molecular
           Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and Its Congeners Present in the Cinnamon

    • Authors: Sabyasachi Banerjee, Subhasis Banerjee
      First page: 173
      Abstract: Background: Today, cancer is the leading cause of death. It appears that using large amounts of natural resources reduces the damaging consequences of cancer therapy. Over the last decade, phytoconstituents in food have shown potential as anticancer agents. Cinnamaldehyde and its congeners have shown their ability to act against several cancers. Objective: This article’s purpose is to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms that entail cinnamaldehyde’s potential for use in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Methods: The anticancer effects of cinnamaldehydes were researched by searching a variety of academic databases (such as Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Google scholar) in accordance with a predetermined set of criteria. Results: Studies were conducted in order to investigate the mechanism(s) by which cinnamaldehyde causes cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Additionally, research has shown that cinnamaldehydes have an effect that inhibits the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. This class of compounds was investigated for their possible application in the treatment of cancers, such as leukaemia, colon, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate, mouth, and breast cancers. Conclusion: According to an in-depth examination of the relevant published research, cinnamaldehyde and its analogs demonstrate several signalling pathways that are effective against cancers. This review provides a summary of recent research on cinnamaldehyde and its congeners as potential candidates for anticancer drugs.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 208-220: The Role of Gut Microbiome in
           Psoriatic Arthritis—A Literature Review

    • Authors: Cristina Alexandru, Carmen Catalina Iorgus, Ionut Melesteu, Elena Daniela Șerban, Florin Bobircă, Maria Magdalena Constantin, Razvan Simu, Ioan Ancuța, Mihai Bojincă, Anca Bobircă
      First page: 208
      Abstract: Psoriatic arthritis is a heterogeneous chronic autoimmune disorder characterized principally by skin lesions, arthritis, dactylitis and enthesitis. The exact etiology of the disease is yet to be discovered, with genetic predisposition alongside environmental factors being a well-known theory. In recent years, new discoveries have emphasized the role of gut microbiome in perpetuating inflammation in spondylarthritis. The exact mechanism through which dysbiosis underlies the pathophysiology of psoriatic arthritis is not defined. One of the current areas of focus in rheumatic research with new studies emerging annually is the link between microbiome and psoriatic arthritis. In this review, we synthesized the recent knowledge on intestinal microbiome and psoriatic arthritis. We screened two databases for articles, PubMed and Medline, using the following keywords: “microbiome”, “microbiota” and “psoriatic arthritis”. We described the current expertise on diversity and composition of gut microbiome in psoriatic arthritis, comparing the results with other inflammatory diseases. In the future, preventing the dysbiosis process that leads to the development of psoriatic arthritis could open the door to new therapeutic modalities. Moreover, fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics’ benefits in modulating the gut microbiome are being intensively researched at the moment.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 221-232: Curcumin Epigenetically Represses
           Histone Acetylation of Echinocandin B Producing Emericella rugulosa

    • Authors: Vandana Kumari, Vinay Kumar, Manisha Kaushal, Antresh Kumar
      First page: 221
      Abstract: Echinocandin B is a natural product that possesses potent antifungal property against a wide array of fungi. This antifungal agent is produced by Emericella rugulosa. The biosynthetic genes of echinocandin B are physically organized in two gene clusters (ecd and hty). The ecd gene cluster comprises 12 genes (ecdA–L). On the other hand, hty contains six genes (htyA–F). These gene clusters regulate Echinocandin B expression and play an essential role in chromatin modifications. The present study elucidates the epigenetic regulatory network of echinocandin B production using Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibitor; curcumin using transcriptional gene expression analysis. The High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed suppression of the echinocandin B levels in the cells treated with curcumin. Curcumin was also found to repress the expression of different ecd genes by several folds. Taken together, we conclude that curcumin targets echinocandin B production by inhibiting histone acetylation as well as disrupting interspecies consortium communication, which eventually leads to a decrease in the echinocandin B synthesis.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-04-11
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 233-246: The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient
           Supplement Containing Wasabia Japonica Extract, Theacrine, and Copper (I)
           Niacin Chelate on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell DNA Methylation,
           Transcriptomics, and Sirtuin Activity

    • Authors: Michael D. Roberts, Michael B. La Monica, Betsy Raub, Jennifer E. Sandrock, Tim N. Ziegenfuss, Ryan Smith, Varun B. Dwaraka, Hector L. Lopez
      First page: 233
      Abstract: Herein, we determined if a multi-ingredient supplement (NAD3; 312 mg of combined Wasabia japonica extract, theacrine, and copper (I)niacin chelate) versus a placebo (CTL) affected peripheral blood mononuclear (PMBC) transcriptomic, DNA methylation, and sirtuin activity profiles in middle-aged adults after 12 weeks of supplementation. Several mRNAs demonstrated interactions (n = 148 at ±1.5-fold change, p < 0.01), and more stringent filtering indicated that 25 mRNAs were upregulated and 29 were downregulated in the NAD3 versus CTL group. Bioinformatics on these 64 mRNAs suggested that DNA conformational alterations may have been promoted with NAD3 supplementation, and this was corroborated with more CpG sites being hypermethylated (p < 0.001) in the CTL versus the NAD3 group when examining pre- to post-intervention changes (369 versus 35). PBMC SIRT activity decreased in CTL participants (p < 0.001), but not in NAD3 participants (p = 0.289), and values at 12 weeks trended higher in NAD3 participants (p = 0.057). Interestingly, the pre- to post- changes in SIRT activity values significantly correlated with changes in PBMC NAD+: NADH values obtained from a previous investigation in these participants (r = 0.534, p = 0.015). In conclusion, the current mRNA and DNA methylation data indirectly suggest that NAD3 supplementation may affect PBMC DNA conformation, while other direct assays suggest that NAD3 supplementation maintains SIRT activity through the potential maintenance of NAD+: NADH levels. However, these results are preliminary due to limited n-sizes and the study being performed in middle-aged adults.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 247-258: Physiological Responses of Anemic
           Women to Exercise under Hypoxic Conditions

    • Authors: Maria D. Koskolou, Stamatia Komboura, Emmanouil Zacharakis, Olga Georgopoulou, Michail E. Keramidas, Nickos Geladas
      First page: 247
      Abstract: When combining two conditions of reduced oxygen availability, anemia and hypoxia, human physiological responses are highly challenged to maintain arterial oxygen delivery, especially during whole-body exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses of mildly anemic women with those of healthy controls, while cycling in normobaric hypoxia. Two groups of young females were matched for age, weight, height, and involvement in physical activity, one with normal hemoglobin, hematocrit, and ferritin levels and another suffering from mild iron deficiency anemia (10 < (Hb) < 12 g/dL, 34 < Hct < 37%, ferritin < 15 μg/L). They cycled to exhaustion under normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 0.21 and 0.14), and their physiological responses were compared at 40, 80, and 100% VO2max of the specific condition. The two groups differed (p < 0.05) mainly at the higher exercise intensities; the anemic participants exhibited similar heart rate but lower oxygen pulse than their control counterparts, as well as a larger drop in maximal oxygen uptake. However, they sustained maximal effort by employing the anaerobic metabolism to a larger extent, which stimulated a greater ventilatory response. It appears that iron deficiency anemia of mild severity, which is commonly observed in young athletic females, impacts physiological responses during whole-body exercise in the presence of moderate hypoxia.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 259-271: Hemodynamic Responses to a Handgrip
           Exercise Session, with and without Blood Flow Restriction, in Healthy

    • Authors: Spyridoula Filippou, Paris Iakovidis, Dimitrios Lytras, Konstantinos Kasimis, Freideriki Solomonidou, Christos Kopsidas
      First page: 259
      Abstract: Exercising at submaximal intensity with a hand dynamometer causes mild hemodynamic adaptations that can improve cardiovascular function. However, hemodynamic responses and fatigue have not been adequately studied in an isometric exercise protocol combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Our study aimed to examine and compare acute hemodynamic responses and muscle fatigue after an isometric exercise session using a handgrip dynamometer, with and without BFR. Twelve volunteers performed the exercise protocol, with and without BFR, at random, with the BFR pressure set at 140 mmHg. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and muscle fatigue were measured before, during, and 15 min after the completion of the exercise session. Without BFR, we noticed a slight, albeit statistically insignificant, HR increase. The variations found in systolic and diastolic pressure were small and statistically insignificant. Furthermore, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) did not change significantly. Significantly higher levels of fatigue were found in exercise with BFR, compared to without BFR, at the end of each set of isometric contractions. In conclusion, a handgrip exercise session with mild BFR does not alter the acute hemodynamic responses to exercise in healthy volunteers. However, it results in higher muscle fatigue compared to that experienced after exercise without BFR.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 272-280: Response of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
           to Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Food Sources in Bumblebees (Bombus
           terrestris) and Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    • Authors: María José Ludewig, Klaus-Peter Götz, Claudia S. Romero-Oliva, Patricia Landaverde, Frank-M. Chmielewski
      First page: 272
      Abstract: The conception of “floral strips” is a strategy to provide more and different food sources for pollinators. The impact of “homogeneous” Phacelia tanacetifolia (“Phacelia”) and “heterogeneous” (flower mix) food sources on the enzyme activity of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) under urban conditions has not been reported. Organisms responding to challenging environmental conditions are known to exhibit increases in oxidative stress parameters which in turn affect both physiological and metabolic parameters. A field study was conducted in Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, using the response of the “marker” enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) on food sources for assessment. SOD data is also shown from the wild bee Megachile rotundata (Fabricius 1787), obtained from three different locations in the federal state Brandenburg, Germany. The results demonstrate that the enzyme activity of SOD significantly increased in bumblebees visiting the flower mix compared to the Phacelia. The experimental approach had individual effects at the level of the species, bumblebees and honeybees, respectively. The activity of the biomarker SOD could be successfully used to assess the effects of the compositions of homogeneous and heterogeneous flower fields.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 281-294: The Ins and Outs of Urea:
           Identification of Putative DUR3-like Urea Transporters in the Oligohaline
           Nerite Snail Theodoxus fluviatilis and Their Expression under Changing

    • Authors: Jan Knobloch, Sarah Gößeler, Laura I. R. Fuchs, Janina Fuß, Montserrat Torres-Oliva, Christian Müller, Jan-Peter Hildebrandt
      First page: 281
      Abstract: Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Neritidae) is an oligohaline aquatic gastropod that inhabits most of Europe and adjacent areas of Asia. Two different ecotypes can be distinguished: One in freshwater (FW) and another along the Baltic Sea coast in brackish water habitats (BW). Individuals of either ecotype use free amino acids and urea as organic osmolytes to adjust body fluid osmolality to the external medium; however, the BW ecotype is able to accumulate them in larger quantities. The use of urea as an organic osmolyte in aquatic gastropods such as T. fluviatilis has only recently been initially described and raised the question of how urea transport between body fluids and the environment is balanced. Upon examining transcriptome and preliminary genome sequence data of T. fluviatilis, we identified putative homologues of DUR3 genes, which code for urea transporters (UTs) in other organisms. In this study, we provide evidence for the presence of four different subtypes of DUR3-like UTs that belong to two distinct families. Two of the UT subtypes were subject to qRT-PCR analyses to investigate differences in mRNA expression during the acclimation of individuals of both ecotypes to different salinities. Our results indicate that only BW animals regulate DUR3 gene expression in the context of osmoregulation.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 295-304: The Acute Effects of Plyometric
           Exercises on Sprint Performance and Kinematics

    • Authors: Maria Zisi, Ioannis Stavridis, Gregory Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis, Giorgos Paradisis
      First page: 295
      Abstract: Background: Post-activation potentiation refers to the acute and temporary enhancement of performance in explosive movements after performing a conditioning activity, such as plyometrics. The current study aimed to investigate the acute effects of horizontal leg bounding on 30 m acceleration performance, 5 m split times, and sprint kinematics (step frequency and length, flight and contact time). Methods: Fourteen young sprinters, nine females and five males, performed two experimental conditions and one control condition in randomized and crossover orders. The experimental conditions included 3 × 10 repetitions of alternate-leg horizontal bounding or 3 × 5 repetitions of single-leg horizontal bounding for each leg. Active recovery was performed in the control condition. A 30 m sprint test was executed before and 5 min after each condition. Results: Sprint times at 5 m (p = 0.014) and 10 m (p = 0.041) were improved after performing alternate-leg horizontal bounding. Additionally, an increase in running velocity (p = 0.017) and step frequency (p = 0.028) was observed in the 0–5 m segment of the sprint. Sprint performance and kinematics showed no significant differences after performing single-leg horizontal bounding. Conclusions: Alternate-leg horizontal bounding, which is a sprint-specific exercise that emphasizes a horizontal impulse, can be used effectively to improve performance in the initial phase of sprint acceleration.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 305-328: The Involvement of Lipid Mediators in
           the Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    • Authors: Athanasios G. Gakis, Tzortzis Nomikos, Anastassios Philippou, Smaragdi Antonopoulou
      First page: 305
      Abstract: Lipid mediators are a class of signaling molecules that play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and energy metabolism. Exercise has been shown to affect the production and metabolism of several types of lipid mediators, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, sphingolipids, platelet-activating factors and endocannabinoids. Eicosanoids, which include prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune function. Endocannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, are involved in the regulation of pain, mood, and appetite. Pro-resolving lipid mediators are involved in the resolution of inflammation. Sphingolipids have a role in the function of skeletal muscle during and after exercise. There are many studies that have examined the effects of exercise on the production and release of these and other lipid mediators. Some of these studies have focused on the effects of exercise on inflammation and immune function, while others have examined the effects on muscle function and metabolism. However, much less is known about their involvement in the phenomenon of exercise-induced muscle damage that follows after intense or unaccustomed exercise.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 329-346: Investigating the Effectiveness of
           Plant-Mediated Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles as Larvicidal Agents against the
           Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

    • Authors: Pratik P. Dhavan, Vivek R. Sonawane, Abhinava K. Mishra
      First page: 329
      Abstract: Aedes aegypti mosquito is responsible for the transmission of some of the most serious vector-borne diseases affecting humans, including dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika. The only effective method for minimizing their transmission is vector control. In this work, an environmentally friendly method for synthesizing cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) is highlighted, and the larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti was studied. This method uses the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves (BL) as an oxidizer and stabilizing agent. UV–Vis spectroscopy presented a distinctive absorbance band at 303 nm for CeO2 NPs with a band gap of 3.17 eV. The functional groups from the plant extract connected to CeO2 NPs were identified by FT-IR analysis, while X-ray diffraction revealed the cubic fluorite orientation of CeO2 NPs. Zeta potential revealed a surface charge of −20.7 mV on NPs. The formation of CeO2 NPs was confirmed by an energy dispersive spectral analysis, and TEM and DLS revealed an average diameter of 40–60 nm. The LC50 of synthesized CeO2 against Ae. aegypti fourth instar larvae was reported to be 46.28 μg/mL in 24 h. Acetylcholinesterase (47%) and glutathione S-transferase (13.51%) activity were significantly decreased in Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to synthesized CeO2 NPs versus the control larvae. All these findings propose the potential for using B. cylindrica leaves-synthesized CeO2 NPs as an efficient substitute for insecticides in the management of mosquitoes.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 347-365: Interrelation of the Radial Increment
           of Trees with Various Factors

    • Authors: Anzhella V. Rumyantseva, Sergei A. Chekrygin, Elena O. Vidyagina
      First page: 347
      Abstract: Radial increment objectively reflects the quality of the assimilation apparatus of a woody plant. Its features indicate the influence of various anthropogenic, biotic and abiotic factors as well as the stability of the plant under stress. The aim of this study was to survey the long-term dynamics of the radial growth of six tree species: Betula pendula, Ulmus glabra, Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Picea abies and Pinus silvestris, depending on the impact of creating a reservoir and the fluctuations of the water level in it. Additionally, another aim was to determine whether there is a dependence between the annual radial increment of these tree species and the change in the temperature factor during the growing season. We studied cores of trees growing in a park on the coast of the Sheksna river, the level of which is regulated by the water level in the Rybinsk Reservoir and changes along with it. This research presents the dynamics of the annual radial growth of Betula pendula over 59 years, Ulmus glabra over 50 years, Quercus robur over 59 years, Tilia cordata over 82 years, Picea abies over 128 years and Pinus silvestris over 125 years. The average annual radial growth decreases in the series Ulmus glabra > Betula pendula, Quercus robur > Tilia cordata > Picea abies > Pinus silvestris. The radial increase does not correlate with the annual water level in the Rybinsk Reservoir. However, years with extreme minimum and maximum reservoir filling affect the radial growth of Quercus robur (r = 0.56) and Tilia cordata (r = 0.52). It was found that after the creation of the reservoir, the radial increment of Picea abies was significantly reduced by 1.10 mm. The clearest dependence of ring width index was obtained for Picea abies on temperature in May (r = −0.30 at p ≤ 0.05) and for Pinus sylvestris on temperature in July (r = −0.25 at p ≤ 0.05). Similarly, a weak correlation of ring width index with temperature in some months was noted for deciduous trees. Picea abies is notable for its particular display of moderate inverse correlation to the radial growths of other trees.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3020024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 11-29: Proteogenomic Approaches to Understand
           Gene Mutations and Protein Structural Alterations in Colon Cancer

    • Authors: Soumyadev Sarkar
      First page: 11
      Abstract: With colon cancer being one of the deadliest and most common cancers, understanding the mechanisms behind colon cancer is crucial in improving therapies. One of the newest approaches in cancer research is the concept of proteogenomics. While genomic data is not sufficient to understand cancer, the integration of multi-omics data including proteomics in conjugation with protein modeling has a better potential to elucidate protein structural alterations and characterize tumors. This enables a more efficient diagnosis of cancer and improves remedial strategies. In this review, we aim to discuss the linkage between gene mutations and protein structural alterations that lead to colon cancer. Topics include alterations in the glycoproteome and structures of proteases that impact colon cancer development. Additionally, we highlight the importance of precision oncology with an emphasis on proteogenomic approaches, protein modeling, and the potential impact on colon cancer therapy.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 30-42: Bactericidal Effects of Snake Venom
           Phospholipases A2: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Minimum Inhibitory

    • Authors: Zainab Umar Abdullahi, Salihu Sabiu Musa, Hammoda Abu-Odah, Ayman Ahmed, Abdulmalik Ahmad Lawan, Umar Muhammad Bello
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Background: Infections caused by multi-drug resistance (MDR) strains are potentially fatal public health issues worldwide that need pressing attention. Previous reports suggested using snake venom fractions as an effective alternative mechanism to the already available antibacterial drugs. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to analyze the bactericidal effects of snake venom phospholipases (PLA2s). Methods: From the beginning through 30 March 2022, we searched the PubMed and Embase databases in accordance with the most recent PRISMA recommendations. We also conducted a manual search to identify relevant reports to improve literature coverage. Results: A total of 24 studies were included based on the selection criteria to compile this review. Of them, 16 studies were obtained from the abovementioned databases and eight through manual searches. The other 8 studies were obtained through the references of the included studies. According to the review, we reported that some PLA2s showed more vigorous bactericidal activity on some Gram-negative and a moderate effect on Gram-negative and Gram-positive. Furthermore, we reported that the presence of p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPP) showed a significant decrease in enzymatic and associated antibacterial activities. Moreover, we observed that about 80% of the PLA2s reported in our systematic review study were those from the Viperidae family, whereas 20% came from the Elapidae family. Moreover, some variations were revealed in the current study regarding the mechanism of actions of the snake venom PLA2s (svPLA2s). Conclusion: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the bactericidal effect of snake venom PLA2s and the analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of PLA2s for bacterial strains. Varying bactericidal effects from various snake species and South American rattlesnakes were reported, presenting compelling concepts to the alternative search for therapies against bacterial resistance. Thus, further analysis of the bactericidal effects of other snake venoms PLA2s considering different strains is needed. Moreover, more data are needed to investigate other bacteria of public health priority using peptides and other purified snake toxins.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 43-72: Remodeling in Persistent Atrial
           Fibrillation: Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Targets—A Systematic

    • Authors: Attila Roka, Isaac Burright
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by disorganized rapid atrial electrical activity, which leads to impaired atrial function, adverse hemodynamic effects, and increased thromboembolic risk. The paroxysmal forms of AF can be effectively treated with current pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities by targeting the arrhythmia triggers. Persistent AF, however, is more difficult to treat due to remodeling processes which may become major factors in the maintenance of the arrhythmia, rendering trigger-targeting treatment options less effective. We will systematically review the recent findings of the development and maintenance of persistent AF, including genetic, cellular, organ level, and systemic processes. As AF remains the most common sustained arrhythmia with the ongoing need to find effective treatment, we will also discuss potential treatment options targeting the remodeling processes.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 73: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           Physiologia in 2022

    • Authors: Physiologia Editorial Office Physiologia Editorial Office
      First page: 73
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 74-85: Effects of Culture System and Substrate
           Composition on Micropropagated Plantlets of Two Varieties of Stevia
           rebaudiana Bert

    • Authors: Susana Vilariño, María del Carmen Florido, José Luis García, Manuel Cantos
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Background: Secondary metabolites in stevia leaves offer important therapeutic benefits. The germination problems of stevia seeds and the high heterogeneity of the resulting populations make micropropagation the preferred tool for obtaining a large number of plants in a short time. Until now, studies have focused on optimizing the action of growth regulators for the improvement of stevia micropropagated plantlets. In this project, we study alternative mineral nutrients in the substrate and two culture systems on micropropagated stevia plantlets to obtain proper amounts of enhanced plantlets. Methods: Criolla and Morita varieties; MS, MSM, and G substrates, and temporary immersion (TIS) and agar-medium systems were used. Biometric variables and damage to the cell membrane of the resulting plantlets were tested. Results: More productivity in the Criolla plantlets growing in MS solid medium and TIS. The Morita plantlets presented higher productivity in the solid MS, MSM, and G substrates and TIS. The explants growing in MS and MSM presented the highest productivity. The solid substrate was generally better than TIS. No damage to the cell membrane was found. Conclusions: The micropropagation efficiency of stevia plantlets of the two varieties has been enhanced without negative effects on their physiological condition. Consequently, any of the culture systems used, including bioreactors, can be of industrial application on a large scale.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 86-97: Wnt Signaling in the Gastrointestinal
           Tract in Health and Disease

    • Authors: Negar Taheri, Egan L. Choi, Vy Truong Thuy Nguyen, Abhishek Chandra, Yujiro Hayashi
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Wnt signaling involves multiple pathways that contribute to organ development, cell fate, inflammation, and normal stem cell renewal and maintenance. Although the homeostasis of stem cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract highly depends on the Wnt signaling pathway, this regulation is impaired in cancers and in aging. Overactive (uncontrolled) Wnt signaling can induce GI epithelial cancers such as colon and gastric cancer. Overactive Wnt signaling can also contribute to the initiation and progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, which is the most common human sarcoma occurring in the walls of the digestive organs, mainly the stomach and small intestine. Wnt expression is positively associated not only with the progression of oncogenesis but also with resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Of note, recent reports show that decreased Wnt signaling is related to intestinal stem cell aging and that overactivated Wnt signaling leads to gastric pacemaker stem cell aging in tunica muscularis. These findings indicate that Wnt signaling has different crucial aspects of cell fate determination with age in GI tunica mucosa and muscularis. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in our understanding of Wnt signaling pathways and their role in regulating key aspects during development, carcinogenesis, inflammation, and aging, with the ultimate goal of identifying novel therapies.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 98-112: Fluid Replacement Strategies and Heart
           Rate Variability Recovery Following Prolonged Exercise in the Heat and
           Mild Dehydration

    • Authors: Ciara N. Manning, Margaret C. Morrissey, Sean P. Langan, Rebecca L. Stearns, Robert A. Huggins, Ryan M. Curtis, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Srinivas Laxminarayan, Jaques Reifman, Douglas J. Casa
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Background: In sporting and combat settings, optimal fluid replacement is rarely achieved, exacerbating physiological strain. It is unknown if prescribed fluid replacement following exercise in heat impacts heart rate variability (HRV). Purpose: Compare prescribed drinking (PD) and ad libitum (AL) fluid replacement on HRV following exercise in heat. Methods: Twelve participants (26 ± 5 years, VO2max: 58.44 ± 7.05 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed three trials in heat (36 °C, 36% humidity) on separate days, and were placed into groups, PD or AL. Recovery was assessed ~24 h later (hydration and HRV). HRV time and frequency was measured using a 3-lead electrocardiogram. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance measured changes in HRV pre-trial, post-trial, and follow-up between groups. Data reported: p-value, mean difference (MD). Results: Fluid consumption was greater in PD during recovery (p = 0.012, MD = 1245 mL). Both groups were euhydrated at follow-up. HRV time (p < 0.001, MD = 24.23) and frequency (p < 0.001, MD = −1.98 ms2) decreased post-trial and increased by follow-up (time, p < 0.001, MD = −32.12; frequency, p < 0.001, MD = 2.38 ms2). HRV was similar between groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Replacing ≥60% fluid sufficiently rehydrates and restores HRV 24 h post-exercise in heat and mild dehydration (BML ≤ 3%). Prescribed fluid consumption during recovery was ~30% greater. Additional measures of recovery sensitive to heat strain may provide a more holistic understanding of specific mechanisms of recovery.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 113-118: Children’s Sports
           Physiology—The Early Studies

    • Authors: Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Daniel A. Marinho, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Valentine D. Son’kin
      First page: 113
      Abstract: The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the main findings of early studies in the field of children’s sports physiology [...]
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 119-128: Heart Rate Variability Parameters to
           Evaluate Autonomic Functions in Healthy Young Subjects during Short-Term
           “Dry” Immersion

    • Authors: Liudmila Gerasimova-Meigal, Alexander Meigal, Nadezhda Sireneva, Maria Gerasimova, Anna Sklyarova
      First page: 119
      Abstract: There is a gap in the current knowledge on the immediate mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation in human subjects within short-term exposure to modeled microgravity using “dry” immersion. Aim. The purpose of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular responses in young healthy subjects during a 45 min session with the help of linear and nonlinear heart rate variability and hemodynamics parameters. The research voluntarily enrolled 33 subjects (18 men, 15 women) aged 19–23 years old. Results. The study showed that systolic and diastolic blood pressure was quite stable, some time-domain parameters of heart rate variability (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, etc.) and the frequency-domain (TP, HF, LF, but not VLF) have significantly increased within a 45 min “dry” immersion session. Of the non-linear parameters of heart rate variability, only ApEn significantly decreased during the “dry” immersion session. Conclusion. Our results suggest that a short-term 45 min DI session provokes in young healthy subjects neurogenic autonomic reaction based on the baroreceptor reflex. This provides stable hemodynamics in these subjects along the “dry” immersion session.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 129-144: Linking Phyllosphere and Rhizosphere
           Microbiome to the Plant–Insect Interplay: The New Dimension of
           Tripartite Interaction

    • Authors: Tanaya Das, Anindya Bhattacharyya, Anirban Bhar
      First page: 129
      Abstract: Plants are constantly interacting with the diverse microbial community as well as insect pests throughout their life cycle. Due to their sessile nature, plants rely solely on the intracellular signaling and reprogramming of cellular events to resist against pathogens. Insect pests are usually dependent on the nutrient-rich fluid obtained from plants or directly consume plant parts to sustain their life cycle. Plants possess a plethora of microbial communities; these microbiomes constantly influence the physiology, growth, development, and immunity in plants. Hence, the phyllosphere and rhizosphere are believed to play a major role in plant-insect interaction. The phyllosphere, rhizosphere, and endosymbiotic microbiome are currently under extensive scientific investigation. Recently, the advancement of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) platforms revolutionized plant-associated microbiome analysis and has unveiled many beneficial microbial communities protecting against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and insect pests. Mycorrhiza is also an important component of the rhizosphere, as it may play a role in soil microbiota, thus indirectly influencing the interaction of insects with plants. In this regard, the present review tries to focus on some major insect pests of plants, the molecular mechanism of plant–insect interaction, and the probable role of phyllosphere and rhizosphere microbiome in this plant–insect encounter. This review is believed to open up a new dimension in developing resistance in plants against insect pests.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2023)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 3, Pages 1-10: Assessing Asymmetry in Exercise Intensity
           Domains between Lower Limbs in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot

    • Authors: John W. Farrell, Shelby Shipman, Christopher D. Black, Carl J. Ade, Rebecca D. Larson
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) experience a variety of physical impairments that can present in an asymmetrical pattern, resulting in significant differences between contralateral limbs (i.e., >10%). Asymmetries in PwMS have been associated with walking impairment and postural instability. Exercise intensity has been shown to influence the degree of asymmetry outcomes in healthy populations, and may have an impact on appropriate exercise prescriptions. The purpose of the current pilot study was to investigate the potential presence of asymmetry in metabolic events demarcating exercise intensity domains during single-leg cycling in PwMS. Five PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale range 2.0 to 4.5) completed a single leg incremental cycling test (SLICT) and a series of single-leg constant power time-to-exhaustion trials to determine gas exchange threshold (GET), peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), peak power output (PPO), critical power (CP), and W’ (exercise tolerance above CP) for both lower limbs. Statistical analysis revealed no significant between-limb differences for VO2peak, GET, CP, PPO, and W’. Only W’ asymmetry score was significantly (49.5 ± 28.7 vs. 10.0, p = 0.04) greater than 10%. No significant differences between asymmetry scores at the GET, CP, and PPO were observed. Results from the current pilot investigation suggest that exercise intensity may not influence asymmetry outcomes in PwMS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and those with higher disability levels are required to fully understand the influence of exercise intensity on asymmetry in PwMS.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 121-131: Maximal Fat Metabolism Explained by
           Lactate-Carbohydrate Model

    • Authors: Ahmad Alkhatib
      First page: 121
      Abstract: (1) Background: Maximal fat oxidation (MFO), its associated exercise intensity (Fatmax) and the cross-over point (COP) are known indirect calorimetry-based diagnostics for whole-body metabolic health and exercise. However, large inter- and intra-individual variability in determining their corresponding intensity makes their use inconsistent, whether the intensity is based on power output or oxygen uptake. Blood lactate concentration (BLC) has often reflected a range in MFO and COP, which may offer another non-indirect calorimetry dimension based on the near equilibrium between lactate and pyruvate at the molecular level, which biochemically determines an interchange between lactate and relative rate of carbohydrate (relCHO) and relative rate of fat utilization (relFAO). This paper proposes a new testing approach describing relCHO as a function of BLC, with an individualized half-maximal activation constant of relCHO (kel), to explain and predict the variability in MFO, Fatmax and COP. (2) Methods: Following ethical approval, twenty-one healthy males participated in the incremental cardiorespiratory maximal test, and capillary BLC was measured. Indirect calorimetry relCHO and relFAO were calculated, and a constant kel that reflected 50% of CHO saturation level was estimated as a sigmoid function of BLC (mmol·L−1): relCHO = 100/(1 + kel/BLC2). (3) Results: 86% of relCHO variability was explained by BLC levels. The individualized kel estimations, which were 1.82 ± 0.95 (min/max 0.54/4.4) (mmol·L−1)2 independently explained 55% MFO and 44% of COP variabilities. Multiple regression analysis resulted in kel as the highest independent predictor of Fatmax (adjusted r-square = 22.3%, p < 0.05), whilst classic intensity-based predictors (peak power, maximal oxygen uptake, fixed BLC at 4 mmol·L−1) were not significant predictors. (4) Conclusions: The BLC-relCHO model, with its predictor kel explains the inter- and intra-individual variability in MFO, its exercise intensity Fatmax and power outs at COP through dynamic changes in BLC, fat and carbohydrates regardless of the intensity at which exercise takes place. kel capability as a predictor of MFO, Fatmax and COP independently of their associated intensities provides a new diagnostic tool in physiological exercise testing for health and exercise performance.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2040011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 132-153: Physiological Performance of Mimosa
           pudica L. under Different Light Quality and Photoperiods

    • Authors: Deepak Kumar, Hanwant Singh, Upma Bhatt, Jyotshana Sharma, Shubhangani Sharma, Vineet Soni
      First page: 132
      Abstract: In the present study, we examined the light quality and photoperiod-dependent physiological performance of Mimosa pudica. Plants were grown in pots under white, blue, green and red-light compositions under 12 h per day (12/12 h) and 24 h per day (24/0 h) for 12 days. After 12 days, the physiological parameters’ morphology, fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence and biochemical analyses, which include antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, pigment content and carbohydrate content were also measured. Necrosis was found in red, blue and green light and the plant was senesced at the end of the experiment. The blue 24-h light period showed the highest pigment and antioxidant content, whereas the lowest was observed in green light conditions. The OJIP curve was complete in white light, hence it was not completely formed in red, blue and green light. The phenomenological parameters also fluctuated in different light conditions. Photosynthesis ultimately results in starch content, which was highest in blue light and lowest in red light. Different monochromatic light qualities inhibited plant growth by reducing the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in plants. White light was more effective in driving photosynthesis and promoting the plant growth, while green and red light showed a suppressive effect on plants’ growth. The 24 h photoperiod was also accompanied by various spectra to reduce the plants’ growth. The results clearly indicate that the photoperiod and light spectrum must be considered before growing plants in a greenhouse.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2040012
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 154-163: Effect of Ice Slurry Ingestion on
           Post-Exercise Physiological Responses in Rugby Union Players

    • Authors: Akihisa Morito, Takayuki Inami, Akihiro Hirata, Satoshi Yamada, Masatsugu Shimomasuda, Keita Kato, Shigeyuki Tahara, Naohiko Kohtake
      First page: 154
      Abstract: Delayed recovery of the core body temperature after exercise adversely affects physiological functions, and the effects of ingesting lower-temperature ice slurry on post-exercise recovery remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ingesting −2 °C ice slurry on physiological recovery after field-based rugby union training. Fifteen university rugby union players participated in our randomized controlled study. The players participated in the training for 60 min in a hot outdoor environment (wet-bulb globe temperature, 30.5 °C). Physiological responses were measured during a physical performance test performed after the players ingested either −2 °C-ice slurry (ICE, N = 7) at 5 g/kg body mass or a 30 °C-fluid (CON, N = 8) during the 15 min recovery period after the training. Tympanic temperatures and heart rates were measured as the physiological indices, as well as heat storage. The ICE group showed significantly decreased tympanic temperatures and heart rates (p < 0.05) during the recovery period and increased heat storage (p < 0.05) but did not show improvement of physiological indices during the performance test compared to the CON group. These results suggest that ingestion of −2 °C ice slurry in even lower amounts than those previously reported is useful for physiological recovery after training in hot outdoor environments.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2040013
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 164-179: RNA-Sequencing Muscle Plasticity to
           Resistance Exercise Training and Disuse in Youth and Older Age

    • Authors: Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Craig R. G. Willis, Timothy Etheridge, Colleen S. Deane
      First page: 164
      Abstract: Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass and function is critical to health and wellbeing throughout the lifespan. However, disuse through reduced physical activity (e.g., sedentarism), immobilisation, bed rest or microgravity has significant adverse effects on skeletal muscle health. Conversely, resistance exercise training (RET) induces positive muscle mass and strength adaptations. Several studies have employed microarray technology to understand the transcriptional basis of muscle atrophy and hypertrophy after disuse and RET, respectively, to devise fully effective therapeutic interventions. More recently, rapidly falling costs have seen RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) increasingly applied in exploring muscle adaptations to RET and disuse. The aim of this review is to summarise the transcriptional responses to RET or disuse measured via RNA-seq in young and older adults. We also highlight analytical considerations to maximise the utility of RNA-seq in the context of skeletal muscle research. The limited number of muscle transcriptional signatures obtained thus far with RNA-seq are generally consistent with those obtained with microarrays. However, RNA-seq may provide additional molecular insight, particularly when combined with data-driven approaches such as correlation network analyses. In this context, it is essential to consider the most appropriate study design parameters as well as bioinformatic and statistical approaches. This will facilitate the use of RNA-seq to better understand the transcriptional regulators of skeletal muscle plasticity in response to increased or decreased use.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2040014
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 180-197: Drought Stress Tolerance in Plants:
           Interplay of Molecular, Biochemical and Physiological Responses in
           Important Development Stages

    • Authors: Muhammet Cagri Oguz, Murat Aycan, Ezgi Oguz, Irem Poyraz, Mustafa Yildiz
      First page: 180
      Abstract: Drought is an important abiotic stress factor limiting crop productivity worldwide and its impact is increasing with climate change. Regardless of the plant growth period, drought has a deadly and yield-reducing effect on the plant at every stage of development. As with many environmental stressors, drought-exposed plants trigger a series of molecular, biochemical, and physiological responses to overcome the effect of drought stress. Currently, researchers are trying to determine the complex functioning of drought stress response in plants with different approaches. Plants are more sensitive to drought stress during certain critical stages like germination, seedling formation, flowering, fertilization, and grain formation periods. Plants have high success in reducing the effects of drought stress in vegetative development periods with the activity of tolerance mechanisms. On the other hand, drought stress during the generative period can cause irreversible losses in yield. This review focuses on the progression of molecular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms involved in the drought stress tolerance in plants and the responses of field crops to drought stress at different development stages.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-12-09
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2040015
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 198-230: The Impact of Wetsuit Use on Swimming
           Performance, Physiology and Biomechanics: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Ana Gay, Jesús J. Ruiz-Navarro, Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Óscar López-Belmonte, J. Arturo Abraldes, Ricardo J. Fernandes, Raúl Arellano
      First page: 198
      Abstract: This systematic review aims to summarize the effects of wearing different types of wetsuits and swimsuits in front crawl swimming performance and physiological- and biomechanical-related variables. The Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming databases were searched from inception to 25th March 2022. From the 1398 studies initially found, 26 studies were included in the review. The quality assessment and inter-rater reliability between researchers were conducted. The full body was the most studied wetsuit, with its use allowing 3.2–12.9% velocity increments in distances ranging from 25 to 1500 m, in incremental tests, in 5 and 30 min continuous swimming and in open water events. The sleeveless long vs. the full-body wetsuit led to a 400–800 m performance enhancement. Higher stroke rate, stroke length and stroke index were observed while using three different covered body part wetsuits vs. a regular swimsuit, with a lower energy cost being observed when swimming with the full-body wetsuit compared to a swimsuit. These findings provide useful information for coaches, swimmers and triathletes about the full-body and sleeveless long/short wetsuit use, since these three wetsuits allow improving swimming performance in different distances in diverse aquatic environments.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2040016
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 46-54: Effect of Ingestion of Ice Slurry on the
           Sleep Quality of Rugby Union Players in the Summer Season

    • Authors: Akihisa Morito, Takayuki Inami, Akihiro Hirata, Satoshi Yamada, Masatsugu Shimomasuda, Keita Kato, Shigeyuki Tahara, Naohiko Kohtake
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ingestion of ice slurry before bedtime on the sleep quality of rugby union players in the summer season. Thirteen healthy male university rugby union players volunteered for this study. The participants ingested either ice slurry or a room-temperature beverage (control) 30 min before bedtime. A wearable activity-based sleep monitor was used to analyze objective sleep parameters, and the subjective sleep scores were assessed using the Oguri–Shirakawa–Azumi Sleep Inventory, middle-aged and aged version (OSA-MA). No differences in the amount or efficiency of sleep were observed between the ice slurry/control beverage conditions. Significant shortening of the sleep latency was observed in the ice slurry condition as compared with the control beverage condition. Moreover, significant improvement of the subjective sleep score for “feeling refreshed” on the OSA-MA was observed in the ice slurry condition. There were no significant differences in the other subjective sleep scores between the two conditions. The results suggest that ice slurry ingestion before bedtime may improve the latency of sleep onset, accelerate recovery from fatigue, and be useful as a sleep improvement strategy in rugby union players engaging in exercises during the summer season.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2030005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 55-65: Physiological Stress as Risk Factor for
           Hypersensitivity to Contrast Media: A Narrative Review of the Literature
           and a Proposal of Psychophysiological Tools for Its Detection

    • Authors: Carlo Pruneti, Sara Guidotti
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The use of contrast media in clinical diagnostic practice has increased significantly in recent years, accompanied by an increase in adverse reactions. These are the fleeting symptoms most complained about by patients: Flushing of the face, feeling of nausea, and heat lasting a few seconds, considered side effects related to the drug. Hypersensitivity reactions are rarer but dangerous and are driven by the immune system. To ensure the optimal management of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, various types of health specialists, such as radiologists, are looking into how to deal with the problem. While there are many suggestions in the scientific literature on what to do in the case of important reactions during or after radiological examination, unfortunately, there are no studies on primary and secondary prevention and, in particular, on psychophysical and psychophysiological influences. Some inferences could be made by observing the studies about psychophysiological stress and immune-inflammatory processes of allergies. The few studies in the literature on the analysis of processes affecting both psychophysiological stress and allergic responses have been analyzed. Finally, stress measurement methods are proposed that can highlight “hypersensitive” people with physiological characteristics capable of exacerbating or accentuating an allergic reaction to contrast media.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2030006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 66-79: Pathophysiology of Placenta in
           Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    • Authors: Anca Bobircă, Ana Dumitrache, Cristina Alexandru, Anca Florescu, George Ciobotaru, Florin Bobircă, Romina-Marina Sima, Cristian Poalelungi, Mihai Bojincă, Ioan Ancuța
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by clinical manifestations caused by arterial or venous thrombosis and pregnancy conditions such as recurrent miscarriage, fetal death, or premature birth in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The obstetrical manifestations are strongly related to the placental alterations. The aim of this review is to summarize the latest data on pathophysiology of obstetrical APS, emphasizing the disturbance of the placentation process. Due to a lack of extravillous trophoblasts to properly reconstruct the spiral arteries, APS causes hypoxic or ischemic injury or high-speed blood flow that damages the placenta. This results in decreased or interrupted maternal blood flow to the placenta and a lack of nutrients for the fetus. Antiphospholipid antibodies can lower the proliferation and infiltration of the extravillous trophoblasts. The placental mal-perfusion causes the release of antiangiogenic substances such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin. Placental growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may be sequestered by sFlt1 and blocked from binding to trophoblast and endothelial cell VEGF receptors, inhibiting their proangiogenic effects. Preeclampsia is the clinical result from a lack of angiogenic factors needed for endothelial vascular homeostasis due to an excess of sFlt1 in the maternal circulation.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2030007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 80-93: Mitochondrial Effects, DNA Damage, and
           Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Cryopreserved Human Sperm Samples: A Pilot

    • Authors: Patrícia Pinto-Pinho, Regina Arantes-Rodrigues, Isabel Gaivão, Francisco Peixoto, Zélia Gomes, Miguel Brito, Osvaldo Moutinho, Bruno Colaço, Rosário Pinto-Leite
      First page: 80
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a vapor freezing protocol on antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR)), sperm with active mitochondria, DNA damage, and spermatic parameters. Twenty-six semen samples from men undergoing infertility investigation were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) vapors and plunged into LN, with (method A) and without (method B) a commercial sperm freezing medium (SFM) and inherent removal with a sperm preparation medium (SPM). Most parameters were assessed before and after freezing, except for SOD and GR activity, which were only assessed after freezing. Although method A promoted better results than method B, the percentage of spermatozoa with active mitochondria, motility, vitality, and normal morphology decreased significantly. DNA damage (determined by comet assay) increased similarly with both methods, but the percentage of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA (by TUNEL assay) remained similar to fresh values when method A was applied. GR activity was higher and SOD activity lower with method A. The addition of SFM coupled with the sperm wash with SPM seems essential to preserve the quality of most of the analyzed spermatic parameters and active mitochondria. The detrimental effects promoted by freezing were shown to depend on the quality of the fresh semen, according to correlation coefficients. Interestingly, thawed samples of both methods shared similar DNA damage. These results highlight the need to find more effective protocols, especially for the freezing of low-quality semen samples.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2030008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 94-108: Investigation of Possible Effects of
           Wearing Exoskeletons during Welding on Heart Rate

    • Authors: Marco Schalk, Ines Schalk, Thomas Bauernhansl, Jörg Siegert, Urs Schneider
      First page: 94
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the possible effects of wearing exoskeletons during welding on heart rate. Additionally, the validity of a measuring instrument for determining acute heart rate is to be assessed. N = 15 young healthy subjects with welding experience took part in the study. The study design defines a one-hour workflow that abstracts welding and grinding tasks. The sequence is based on the internationally recognized standard DIN EN ISO 9606-1 and reproduces authentic work sequences in constrained body positions. Each subject completed the workflow once with and once without an exoskeleton. Recorded measures were the heart rates measured by a wrist-worn smartwatch and by Impedance Cardiography (ICG). The average heart rate shows no statistically significant differences in the measurement series with and without exoskeletons. The temporal variation of the heart rate shows a statistically significant influence of wearing exoskeletons and provides a moderate to strong effect, corresponding to a Cohens d of d = 0.78. Only 28.57% of all data series obtained with a smartwatch were equivalent to ICG-data after analysis with t-test, Pearson’s correlation, and orthogonal regression. Using averaged heart rates to assess exoskeleton effects is not a suitable measure. A trend analysis using linear regression shows moderate to strong statistically significant effects in the time course of heart rates and provides an approach to evaluate exoskeleton-induced effects.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2030009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 109-120: Evaluation of the Efficacy of
           Cryopreserved Human Umbilical Cord Tissue Allografts to Augment Functional
           and Pain Outcome Measures in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: An
           Observational Data Collection Study

    • Authors: Justine M. Davis, Mitchell B. Sheinkop, Tyler C. Barrett
      First page: 109
      Abstract: The primary objective of this study is to report the initial efficacy data observed with the use of cryopreserved human umbilical tissue allografts for supplementation in patients with symptomatic degeneration of load-bearing articular cartilage in the knee joint. Our primary endpoints were pain, stiffness, and functional recovery scores. In this ongoing study, 55 participants (age 56–93 years) received a single Wharton’s jelly tissue allograft application. The study dose consisted of 150 mg of Wharton’s jelly allograft suspended in approximately 2 mL of sterile sodium chloride 0.9% solution (normal saline). Each study knee application was performed under ultrasound guidance in a physician’s office. The research methodology consisted of Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) subsection scores including pain, stiffness, and physical function. Study enrollment consisted of 55 patients followed for a post-application duration of 90 days. No adverse events or adverse reactions were reported. The results demonstrated statistically significant improvements of NPRS and WOMAC in initial versus 90-day examination. The data represent Wharton’s jelly tissue allograft applications are safe, non-surgical, and efficacious for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2030010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 32-33: A Note from the Editor-in-Chief of

    • Authors: Philip J. Atherton
      First page: 32
      Abstract: I am proud to call myself a physiologist, and, as such, it was my pleasure and honour (over a year ago now) to take on the role of founding Editor-in-Chief of Physiologia [...]
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2020003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 34-45: From Innate Immunity to Inflammation: A
           Primer on Multiple Facets of NF-κB Signaling in COVID-19

    • Authors: Ashutosh Pandey, Abhinava K. Mishra
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) induces the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes, including cytokines and chemokines. In the past decades, a wealth of clinical as well as animal model-based studies have demonstrated the association of the deregulated NF-κB signaling pathway with the progression of various inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Given the conserved role of the NF-κB pathway as the pivotal regulator of pro-inflammatory gene expression, different components of the NF-κB pathway are proposed as major therapeutic targets against these diseases. The ongoing coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a significant public health crisis regarding inflammation-related diseases. A robust inflammatory response is associated with COVID-19-infection-related complications, including muti-organ failure and death. This review summarizes the past and current state of knowledge on the role of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the innate immune response and inflammatory diseases with the objective of potential therapeutic use in developing effective treatment options for COVID-19.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2020004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 1-19: Hematological Parameters and Iron Status
           in Adult Men and Women Using Altitude Adjusted and Unadjusted Hemoglobin
           Values for Anemia Diagnosis in Cusco, Peru (3400 MASL)

    • Authors: Dulce E. Alarcón-Yaquetto, Ramón Figueroa-Mujica, Valeria Valverde-Bruffau, Cinthya Vásquez-Velásquez, Juan José Sánchez-Huamán, Luis Jimenez-Troncoso, Rodrigo Rozas-Gamarra, Gustavo F. Gonzales
      First page: 1
      Abstract: (1) Background: Current diagnosis of anemia in high altitude populations uses an adjustment of observed hemoglobin (Hb) values. Such an approach has been challenged by findings in different populations in Tibet, Ethiopia and the Andes as inappropriate, as it might incorrectly classify an individual with complete iron stores as anemic. We aimed to assess the suitability of this approach in adult men and women from Cusco, Peru (3400 m); (2) Methods: Complete blood count and iron status biomarkers were measured in 345 subjects (189 females and 156 males), iron status biomarkers were quantified with enzyme-linked immunoassays; (3) Results: Anemia prevalence was overestimated when the altitude-adjustment factor was applied. Hematological parameters were better correlated to iron status biomarkers in the non-adjusted anemia category. When stratified by sex, only women showed a significant association between Hb and other hematological parameters with iron storage and availability (Hepcidin and TFR-F); (4) Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia is overestimated with current guidelines. The rate of anemia using non-adjusted Hb values is more closely related to the rates of anemia or iron deficiency when used hematological parameters, markers of iron status, and measurements of hepcidin and erythropoietin. Sex differences related to iron status were observed, suggesting that men are at a higher risk of iron overload than women at high altitudes. It could be highlighted that a personalized approach is important when assessing a subject, taking in to account hematological parameters as well as origin (Southern Andean or other).
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
  • Physiologia, Vol. 2, Pages 20-31: Enhance Trial: Effects of NAD3® on
           Hallmarks of Aging and Clinical Endpoints of Health in Middle Aged Adults:
           A Subset Analysis Focused on Blood Cell NAD+ Concentrations and Lipid

    • Authors: Michael D. Roberts, Shelby C. Osburn, Joshua S. Godwin, Bradley A. Ruple, Michael B. La Monica, Betsy Raub, Jennifer E. Sandrock, Tim N. Ziegenfuss, Hector L. Lopez
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Limited pre-clinical and clinical data suggest theacrine or theacrine-based supplements modulate biological processes associated with lipid metabolism and aging. Herein, we sought to examine if 12 weeks of daily supplementation with a theacrine-based supplement (termed NAD3®; 312 mg of combined Wasabia japonica freeze-dried rhizome standardized for isothicyantes, theacrine, and copper (I)niacin chelate) altered serum lipids as well as select nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-associated metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Twenty-eight participants (12 males, 16 females) were randomly assigned to receive either NAD3 (n = 13; age: 52 ± 7 years old, body mass index: 29.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2) or a cellulose placebo (n = 15; age: 51 ± 5 years old, body mass index: 28.3 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Blood samples were obtained in mornings following overnight fasts prior to supplementation (Pre) and following the 12-week intervention (Post). PBMCs were freshly isolated and prepared for targeted NAD+ metabolomics, and serum as well as whole blood was assayed for blood lipids and other safety markers through a commercial laboratory. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL: HDL ratio and post hoc analyses indicated these biomarkers significantly decreased with NAD3 supplementation (Pre-to-Post percent decreases were 11.1, 15.2, and −18.9%, respectively). A significant interaction was also observed for PBMC NAD+: NADH values, where levels trended downward from Pre to Post in the CTL group (p = 0.081) and values at Post were greater in NAD3 versus CTL (p = 0.023). No interactions were observed for systolic/diastolic blood pressure, body mass, or blood markers indicative of clinical safety. Although participant numbers were limited, these first-in-human data demonstrate a theacrine-based NAD3 supplement can favorably alter biomarkers of lipid metabolism and cellular NAD+ status. However, the latter data are limited to targeted NAD+ metabolites, and the effects of supplementation on other cellular metabolites or mechanisms related to the observed outcomes need to be further explored.
      Citation: Physiologia
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/physiologia2010002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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