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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2813-0545
Published by MDPI Homepage  [255 journals]
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 1-14: Flaminio Rota, 16th Century Anatomist at the
           University of Bologna: A Biography on the Walls

    • Authors: Emanuele Armocida, Francesco Fornai, Gianfranco Natale
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Flaminio Rota was a 16th century anatomist and medical figure at the University of Bologna. He was highly praised, despite his poor scientific production. As a matter of fact, Rota competed with scientific activities in different anatomical arguments, but he did not publish any important research. Nevertheless, we know the principal results of his scientific activity because indirect information can be found in other publications, where some of his studies were emphasized by his contemporary colleagues. Henning Witte even mentioned Rota as a very famous Italian medical figure, together with Galilei and Santorio. On the other hand, Rota was a highly esteemed teacher. The best evidence of his recognition is well-documented in the Palace of Archiginnasio in Bologna, where Rota’s teaching activity was praised with six memorial epigraphs. In the south-eastern outskirts of Bologna, there is an 18th century villa, including a more ancient annex, that belonged to Rota. At this location, the upper parts of the walls and the ceiling are decorated with a pictorial cycle illustrating medical scenes. In this paper, we theorize regarding his scientific thinking by analyzing the pictorial cycle he commissioned.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 15-26: Observer Sensitivity for Detection of
           Pulmonary Nodules in Ultra-Low Dose Computed Tomography Protocols Using a
           Third-Generation Dual-Source CT with Ultra-High Pitch—A Phantom

    • Authors: Natascha Leitzig, Sonja Janssen, Hany Kayed, Stefan O. Schönberg, Hans Scheffel
      First page: 15
      Abstract: This study evaluates ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) protocols concerning the detectability of pulmonary nodules. The influence of tube current settings, kernels, strength levels of third-generation iterative reconstruction algorithms, and pitch was investigated. A chest phantom with artificial spherical nodules of different densities and diameters was examined with a third-generation dual-source CT. Scanning and post-processing protocols, tube current levels, and ultra-high and non-high pitch modes were applied. Images were reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) or advanced model-based iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) algorithms. Sharp (Bl57) or medium-soft (Br36) convolution kernels were applied. The reading was performed by an experienced and an inexperienced reader. The highest observer sensitivity was found using a non-high pitch protocol at tube currents of 120 mAs and 90 mAs with the sharp kernel and iterative reconstruction level of 5. Non-high pitch protocols showed better detectability of solid nodules. Combinations with the medium-soft kernel achieved slightly higher observer sensitivity than with the sharp kernel. False positives (FP) occurred more often for subsolid nodules, at a tube current level of 120 mAs, and with the sharp kernel. A tube current level of 90 mAs combined with the highest iterative reconstruction level achieved the highest accuracy in lung nodule detection regardless of size, density, and reader experience.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010002
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 27: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Anatomia in

    • Authors: Anatomia Editorial Office Anatomia Editorial Office
      First page: 27
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010003
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 28-42: Advances in Neuroanatomy through Brain

    • Authors: Wieslaw L. Nowinski
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Human brain atlases are tools to gather, present, use, and discover knowledge about the human brain. The developments in brain atlases parallel the advances in neuroanatomy. The brain atlas evolution has been from hand-drawn cortical maps to print atlases to digital platforms which, thanks to tremendous advancements in acquisition techniques and computing, has enabled progress in neuroanatomy from gross (macro) to meso-, micro-, and nano-neuroanatomy. Advances in neuroanatomy have been feasible because of introducing new modalities, from the initial cadaveric dissections, morphology, light microscopy imaging and neuroelectrophysiology to non-invasive in vivo imaging, connectivity, electron microscopy imaging, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics. Presently, large and long-term brain projects along with big data drive the development in micro- and nano-neuroanatomy. The goal of this work is to address the relationship between neuroanatomy and human brain atlases and, particularly, the impact of these atlases on the understanding, presentation, and advancement of neuroanatomy. To better illustrate this relationship, a brief outline on the evolution of the human brain atlas concept, creation of brain atlases, atlas-based applications, and future brain-related developments is also presented. In conclusion, human brain atlases are excellent means to represent, present, disseminate, and support neuroanatomy.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010004
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 43-62: Lobe X of the Cerebellum: A Natural
           Neuro-Resistant Region

    • Authors: Carlos Hernández-Pérez, Eduardo Weruaga, David Díaz
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The cerebellum is an encephalic region classically known for its central role in the control of movement, although recent research has revealed its involvement in other cognitive and affective tasks. Several different pathologies are known to affect this structure, causing a wide range of behavioral and gait impairments. Intriguingly, although the neurodegenerative factors affect all Purkinje cells of the cerebellum uniformly, certain neurodegeneration patterns can be distinguished, in which some Purkinje cells persist longer than other cell types. Specifically, there is a cerebellar region, lobe X, which is more resistant to different types of neurodegeneration, regardless of the injury. Degeneration patterns of the cerebellum have been described in several models, but this review goes further, as it aims at describing a phenomenon not so described: the resistance of the lobe X to neurodegeneration. For this purpose, the main models of cerebellar degeneration will be reviewed and a common origin for the lobe X resistance will be sought.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010005
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 63-77: Surgical and Bioengineering Integration in
           the Anatomy Course of Medicine and Surgery High Technology: Knowledge and
           Perception of Anatomy

    • Authors: Selenia Miglietta, Giuseppe Familiari, Michela Relucenti, Stefania Basili, Fabiano Bini, Gabriele Bove, Claudio Barbaranelli, Pietro Familiari
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The Locomotor System Anatomy (LSA) course, placed in the first semester of the first year of the new Master’s degree in Medicine and Surgery High Technology (MSHT) at the Sapienza University of Rome, was integrated with surgical and bioengineering content. This study investigated the educational value and the students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of these two types of integration, comparing surgical integration (SI) with engineering integration (EI). Anatomy knowledge and students’ opinions attending the LSA course in MSHT degree (n = 30) were compared with those of students (n = 32) attending another medical and surgery course not comprising EI. Data show that students in the MSHT course like in-depth SI much more than in-depth EI. However, those who like in-depth SI also like in-depth EI. Significant differences were in anatomy knowledge between the two groups in the three sections of the test. There was no significant correlation between the three test scores and the levels of liking, while there was a significant correlation between students liking SI and those liking EI. A statistically significant correlation was also found in students who correctly responded to questions on the head and trunk, with students responding correctly to questions on the upper limbs. This study will be important in optimizing the deepening of SI and EI in the LSA course.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010006
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 78-87: Wolf and Dog: What Differences Exist'

    • Authors: Alessandra Coli, Davide Prinetto, Elisabetta Giannessi
      First page: 78
      Abstract: A morphological study of the skeletal specimen of Canis lupus L. from an archeological dig of Agnano (Pisa) (Fauna Laboratory, Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Pisa, Italy) that is chronologically placed in the Wurm period (last glaciation) was done to perform an anatomical comparison between this wild ancestor and osteological specimens of Canis familiaris L. present in the Veterinary Anatomy Museum (University of Pisa). Marked morphological differences in the splanchnocranium (nasal bone, zygomatic arch and orbital angle), neurocranium (sagittal crest) and temporomandibular joint (due to different developments of the masticatory muscles) are highlighted on the wolf specimen compared to those in the domestic dog specimens present in Museum. The appendicular skeletal bones of the wolf show anatomical features similar to those of dog bone specimens, confirming their belonging to the same family (Canidae). This result confirms that domestication has almost exclusively affected the anatomical features of the skull that have changed due to the difference in dietary approach between wolves and dogs.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010007
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 88-98: Using a Portable Autostereoscopic Screen to
           Improve Anatomy Teaching and Learning

    • Authors: Elsa-Marie A. Otoo, Hannah Leibowitz, Oliver Wong, Kawal Rhode
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Conventional anatomical models and cadaveric specimens can be time-consuming and resource intensive for any anatomical institute. In recent years, there has been a push for more flexible and varied approaches to teaching, including problem-based and computer-aided learning, which includes web-based anatomical models or the use of three-dimensional visualization technology. With advances in hardware, autostereoscopic (AS) 3D screens have become more affordable, portable, and accessible to individuals, not just institutes. At King’s College London (KCL), we developed the Virtual Anatomy and Histology (VAH) platform—an online resource which focuses on perspective volumetric 3D viewing of medical scan data and 3D models to facilitate the online teaching and learning of anatomy. This paper presents the features of VAH and details a study that was conducted in 2022, to evaluate the VAH 3D AS viewer configured with The Looking Glass Portrait (TLG) (Looking Glass, New York, NY, USA) 8-inch AS display. We tested the hypothesis that using an AS display can improve spatial understanding of cardiovascular anatomy. A cardiovascular 3D textured model was used from our gallery to carry out a spatial test. Twenty current healthcare students at King’s participated in the study and completed a structured questionnaire. Results showed that 47.6% and 52.4% of participants agreed and strongly agreed, respectively, that identifying anatomical structures was easier in 3D compared to 2D. Qualitative feedback was positive as most students found King’s VAH and TLG display “useful for people who need help with spatial understanding” and that “it was a good tool to test your anatomical knowledge”. In conclusion, based on the quantitative results and feedback, we are optimistic that King’s VAH and portable AS displays can be beneficial in anatomy education. With the increasing availability of such systems and competitive pricing, this technology is likely to have a significant impact in education in coming years.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010008
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 99-108: Anatomical Variations of Modiolus in
           Relation with Vestibular and Cranial Morphology on CT Scans

    • Authors: Caroline Guigou, Raabid Hussain, Alain Lalande, Alexis Bozorg Grayeli
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Background: Fundamental knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear is necessary to understand otologic diseases and therapeutic strategies. Aim: Evaluate the inter- and intraindividual variability of the modiolar position in relation to vestibular landmarks and cranial morphology on computed tomography scans (CT scan). Methods: Thirty CT scans of normal temporal bones (25 adults, 5 children) were analyzed after multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). The measurements for each ear included the angle of each semicircular canal (SCC) made by a line passing through the chosen plane and a line passing between the apex and the ampulla of the SCC studied and the angle of the modiolus in the transverse and sagittal planes. Results: Intraindividual asymmetries with a moderate to good right/left correlation were observed for the lateral SCC in the transverse plane, posterior SCC in the frontal plane, and the superior SCC in the sagittal plane and for the modiolus in the transverse plane. Conclusions: An anatomical variability in the cochlea, independent of other surrounding anatomical elements, seems to exist, but the SCCs seem to remain symmetrical. Significance: The orientation of the modiolus is an important knowledge to acquire during presurgical planning prior to transmodiolar auditory nerve implantation.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010009
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 2, Pages 109-116: Presumed Presence of Extensor Indicis et
           Digiti Medii Communis Muscle in a 70-Year-Old White Male Donor

    • Authors: Isabella Penkwitz, Gary Wind, Elizabeth Maynes, Maria Ximena Leighton, Guinevere Granite
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Forearm extensor muscle variations can be diverse and, in some instances, rare. During a routine anatomical dissection of human cadaveric donors during the 2021 first-year medical gross anatomy course and 2021 graduate nursing advanced anatomy course at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, bilateral agenesis of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle was noted in one 70-year-old white male donor. This variation is described as extremely rare in the literature. The presence of an extensor indicis et digiti medii tendon, a variant of the extensor indicis tendon, appeared to be evident in post-dissection photographs on the left hand. The presence of a duplicated extensor indicis proprious tendon appears to be evident on the right hand. However, further inspection of this region was impeded as the body was sent for cremation prior to the variation being identified. The presence of various juncturae tendinum was also noted bilaterally. Reported prevalence of extensor indicis muscle variants ranges from 0.75% to 13%, depending on the specific type or grouping of variations observed. Knowledge of variations in the extensor compartment of the forearm and wrist is crucial for orthopedic surgeons and specialists. Alteration of surgical approaches may be necessary if such a variation is present. Such variations can be options for grafts, resulting in minimal functional change to the grafted area due to the continued existence of other muscles performing similar functions. Knowledge of such variations, and alternative, synonymous names for them, is also important for anatomy instructors, who may need to assist students in identifying these rare variations during anatomical dissection.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia2010010
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2023)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 119-125: A Variant of the Deltoid Muscle and Its
           Clinical Implications: A Cadaveric Study

    • Authors: Stella Maris Gómez-Sánchez, Francisco Gómez-Esquer, Antonio Gil-Crujera, Mª Angustias Palomar-Gallego, José Delcán-Giráldez, Gema Díaz-Gil
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Background: The deltoid is the muscle that forms the rounded contour of the shoulder. Anatomically, it seems to be made up of three different sets of fibers. The three anatomical portions in which the deltoid muscle are typically divided into the anterior (clavicular), the mean (acromial), and the posterior (spinal). Different variations of the deltoid muscle have been described in the literature. The analysis and knowledge of these anomalies are essential for surgeons and anatomists. Methods: A total of 21 specimens (12 women and 9 men) were used with a 10% formaldehyde solution. All specimens were dissected bilaterally (the classical dissection methodology was used). Results: In one corpse, an additional bilateral belly of the deltoid muscle was found. It was observed that this additional muscular belly was related to the fascial tissue of the deltoid muscle and its muscle fibers take origin from the middle third of the inferomedial bands of infraspinatus fascia. In addition, the belly attaches to the posterior belly of the deltoid muscle. The deltoid muscle and the additional belly were innervated by the axillar nerve, which is a lateral terminal bouquet of the posterior fascicle of the brachial plexus. Conclusions: This new variation of the deltoid muscle must be considered by surgeons, as well as abnormal conditions in terms of compartment syndrome involving the shoulder. Therefore, consideration of this variant is necessary for the correct diagnosis and treatment of trauma or other shoulder pathology that may be refractory to standard treatments.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 126-133: Short Practise in Human Body Dissection
           Benefits Acquisition of the Musculoskeletal System in First Year Medical
           Students at University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    • Authors: Ricardo Insausti, Maria del Mar Ubero, Mónica Muñoz López
      First page: 126
      Abstract: Dissection in anatomy teaching is key in medicine; however, a debate is underway about whether it complements well a modern curriculum in the digital era. We aimed to determine whether a short add-on dissection practise facilitates learning of the gross anatomy relative to studying it with just prosection, plastic models, and digital 3D atlases. We tested the hypothesis that dissection, even if brief, benefits both aptitudes and attitudes with respect to anatomy learning. A total of 106 1st year medical students studied the musculoskeletal system with prosection and models and a 3D digital atlas (5 h). Of these, 52 had a further 2 hours self-directed dissection session (a handout was provided with instructions) while the reminder 54 students, who lacked the experience of dissection, formed the control group. Academic grades and student satisfaction were evaluated. The dissection group obtained 10% higher grades in anatomy (F1,51 = 12.71, p < 0.001) and were highly satisfied with the dissection session (Likert scale 0–5, median = 4, IQR = 3.5), also rating the sessions as particularly motivating (median = 4, IQR = 4.4). We conclude that human body dissection, even for a limited time, has a positive impact on human anatomy grades in 1st year medical students, and is valued and motivating.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020013
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 134-147: Blending Virtual Reality Laboratories
           with Cadaver Dissection during COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Naree Choi, Euijin Kim, Jae Hyun Ahn, Jae Ha Ahn, Ji Yei Park, Se Hyun Kim, Joon Ho Bang, Chan Park, Junyang Jung, Sang Ouk Chin, Youngbuhm Huh, Dokyoung Kim
      First page: 134
      Abstract: EduTech (Education and Technology) has drawn great attention in improving education efficiency for non-face-to-face learning and practice. This paper introduced a blended gross anatomy class using both virtual reality (VR) devices and traditional programs alongside a practice-based cadaver dissection and in-class observation. The class allowed the students to get hands-on experience with both practical practice and VR operations to identify the biochemical aspects of the disease-induced internal organ damage as well as to view the three-dimensional (3D) aspect of human structures that cannot be practiced during the gross anatomy practice. Student surveys indicated an overall positive experience using VR education (satisfaction score over 4 out of 5, Likert scale question). There remains room for improvement, and it was discussed with the results of the essay-based question survey. Formative evaluation results showed that the students who trained in blended anatomy classes with VR set-ups received higher scores (85.28 out of 100, average score) than only cadaver-based anatomy class (79.06 out of 100, average score), and this result represents that the hybrid method could improve the academic efficiency and support the understanding of the 3D structure of the body. At present, VR cannot totally replace actual cadaver dissection practice, but it will play a significant role in the future of medical education if both students and practitioners have more VR devices, practice time, and a more intuitive user-friendly VR program. We believe that our paper will greatly benefit the development of EduTech and a potential new curriculum item for future medical education.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020014
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 148-151: Introduction of a New Classification of
           the Cleidooccipital Muscle

    • Authors: Sandeep Silawal, Shikshya Pandey, Gundula Schulze-Tanzil
      First page: 148
      Abstract: The “cleidooccipital branches” are integral muscular branches of the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM), as well as the trapezius muscles, which construct the anterior and posterior borders of the posterior triangle of the neck, respectively. The term “cleidooccipital muscle”, in the literature, generally describes the accessory muscle, which is proximally attached to the middle portion of the clavicle, separate from the clavicular attachment of the SCM or trapezius muscle, and crosses the posterior triangle of the neck obliquely. With proximity to either the trapezius or the SCM, the accessory cleidooccipital muscles can be divided into posterior and anterior accessory cleidooccipital muscles, respectively. At present, most of the descriptions in the literature associated with the accessory cleidooccipital muscles concern the posterior accessory cleidooccipital muscles. The anterior accessory cleidooccipital muscles are mostly recognized as a proximal clavicular-head-sided supernumerary variation of the SCM. We propose a new classification of these muscles, with nomenclatures to help researchers to differentiate the cleidooccipital branches or muscles from one another. Introducing this classification, we hope that more clarity can be achieved when addressing the so-called “cleidooccipital muscle” in the future.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020015
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 152-169: Anatomy of Cerebral Arteries with
           Clinical Aspects in Patients with Ischemic Stroke

    • Authors: Francesco Barbato, Roberto Allocca, Giorgio Bosso, Fabio Giuliano Numis
      First page: 152
      Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) angiography is the main method for the initial evaluation of cerebral circulation in acute stroke. A comprehensive CT examination that includes a review of the three-dimensional and maximum-intensity projection images of the main intra and extracranial arteries allows the identification of most abnormalities and normal variants. Anatomical knowledge of the presence of any normal variants, such as fenestration, duplications, and persistent fetal arteries, plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of acute stroke. However, the opposite is also true. In fact, sometimes it is the clinical picture that allows weighing how relevant or not the alteration found is. Therefore, in this review, a concise representation of the clinical picture attributable to a given arterial vessel will be included.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020016
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 170-176: Orofacial Anatomy Discrepancies and Human
           Identification—An Education Forensic Approach

    • Authors: Ana Corte-Real
      First page: 170
      Abstract: The objectives of this study were to identify and correlate orofacial anatomy discrepancies as biometric data and the impact of its rehabilitation as an educational, forensic approach to human identification. An observational and retrospective cohort study was performed on cephalography and photographic exams of a clinical database. The clinical reports were randomly selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, reviewed, and interpreted according to the anatomical features. The anatomic features analyzed for human identification compare pre- and post-medical intervention data. The challenging anatomical area was the lower one-third of the face. In an extreme forensic condition, identification should consider the medical history for a positive and accurate conclusion.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-11-03
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020017
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 177-185: Do Anatomical Differences of the Volar
           Rim of the Distal Radius Affect Implant Design' A Three-Dimensional
           Analysis of Its Anatomy and Need for Personalized Medicine

    • Authors: Hidemasa Yoneda, Katsuyuki Iwatsuki, Masaomi Saeki, Michiro Yamamoto, Masahiro Tatebe
      First page: 177
      Abstract: The distal radius, one of the frequent sites of upper extremity fractures, includes unique anatomy referred to as the volar rim. Few studies have addressed its interindividual differences. Additionally, implants for osteosynthesis must match the anatomical structures to prevent soft tissue invasion, but no implants have focused on that so far. In this study, three-dimensional surface models were created from CT images of 101 cases. Analysis of the distal radius, including the volar rim anatomy, was performed to design plates to minimize the discrepancy between the bone anatomy and the implant. The results showed that there were considerable interindividual differences in the morphology of the distal radius, particularly in the degree of palmar protrusion of the volar rim. A moderate correlation between the width of the distal radius and the shape of the volar rim was demonstrated. Considering that variations in plate width are available for treatment of normal distal radius fractures and that the shape of the volar rim changes in correlation with the width of the bone, we infer that simply adding volar rim shape information to the current variations should suffice in preventing complications. We conclude that individualized design according to the shape of the volar rim is unnecessary in fracture surgery.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020018
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 186-203: The Microbiota Is Not an Organ:
           Introducing the Muco-Microbiotic Layer as a Novel Morphofunctional

    • Authors: Alberto Fucarino, Stefano Burgio, Letizia Paladino, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Fabio Bucchieri, Francesco Cappello
      First page: 186
      Abstract: In this paper, we want to refute the notion that the microbiota should be considered an organ, given that an organ comprises tissue of similar or different embryological origin, while the microbiota is a pool of different microbial species originating individually from single replications and not from a common ancestral cellular element. Hence, we would like to propose a new morphological interpretation of its nature, based on the comprehensive context in which these microbes live: a muco-microbiotic layer of hollow organs, such as the airways and the bowel. The above concept should represent not only a new terminological annotation but also a more accurate portrayal of the physiology and pathophysiology of these organs. Indeed, a better understanding of the biological nature of this part of the human body can help scientists develop more specific experimental protocols, potentially leading to the establishment of better therapeutic strategies.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020019
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 204-209: A Rare Configuration origin of the
           Superior Thyroid, Lingual and Facial Arteries in a Pentafurcated Common
           Carotid Artery

    • Authors: Fabrizio Zaccheo, Francesco Mariotti, Alessandro Guttadauro, Alfredo Passaretti, Maria Elisabetta Campogrande, Giulia Petroni, Andrea Cicconetti
      First page: 204
      Abstract: Detailed knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations is a necessity in good clinical and surgical practice. The case we are reporting here shows a rare configuration origin of the superior thyroid, lingual and facial arteries arising directly from a pentafurcated common carotid artery. A fresh frozen latex-infiltrated cadaver was dissected. The superior thyroid artery, the lingual artery and the facial artery were found to be directly detached from the common carotid artery as terminations of the five terminal rami variations. The current classifications of anatomical variants are discussed in detail in relation to this case.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020020
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 210-216: A Missing Flexor Digitorum Brevis Tendon
           and Its Relationship to Sex and Ancestry: Evaluation in Hispanic

    • Authors: Jailenne I. Quiñones-Rodriguez, Cristian Mantilla-Rosa, Félix Rodríguez, Catalina I. Villamil, Juan Fernández, Maryvi González-Solá, Cristhian Torres-Toro, Martin G. Rosario
      First page: 210
      Abstract: Background: The flexor digitorum brevis tendon to the fifth digit is frequently absent, and this absence is typically an incidental discovery during dissection or surgical studies. This study aimed to assess the frequency of a missing flexor digitorum brevis tendon in a Hispanic population for the first time, the association between the absence of the flexor digitorum brevis tendon, variables such as sex and ethnicity, and the functional implications of an absent tendon. Methods: Our sample consists of 30 cadavers whose feet were dissected and examined for the presence or absence of the digiti minimi tendon. Results: We found no significant relationship between the presence or absence of the tendon to sex or ethnicity. However, due to a lack of significant effects on human ambulation from the absence of this tendon, and the ability of adjacent muscles to adapt to its absence, the absence of this tendon might become increasingly prevalent over time. Conclusions: Knowledge of the frequency of flexor digitorum brevis variations concerning the demographic characteristics of patients would be of clinical importance for tendon repair, tendon transfer to correct deformities such as claw toe or hammer toe, or soft tissue reconstruction in foot surgery.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-12-06
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020021
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 217-221: Clinicopathologic Features of
           Neuroblastoma-like Schwannoma: A Case Report of Unusual Morphologic

    • Authors: Samira Mortazavi, Kambiz Kamyab Hesari, Atieh Khorsand, Maryam Ardalan
      First page: 217
      Abstract: Neuroblastoma-like schwannoma is known as a rare unusual variant of schwannoma with difficulties of differential diagnosis with neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor and other cutaneous small round cell tumors. Herein, we describe a neuroblastoma-like schwannoma that was presented as a painless lesion on the dorsal side of the left hand in a 39-year-old woman. Composed collagen fibers in the central core of rosettes and diffuse expression of S100 protein in the tumor cells found in the biopsy specimens confirmed the Schwann cell origin of the tumor.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-12-09
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1020022
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 3-13: Detection of Potential Markers for Lip
           Vermilion Epithelium in Japanese Macaques Based on the Results of Gene
           Expression Profile

    • Authors: Hiroko Kato, Yiwei Ling, Emi Hoshikawa, Ayako Suzuki, Kenta Haga, Eriko Naito, Atsushi Uenoyama, Shujiro Okuda, Kenji Izumi
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Development of effective in vitro human lip models, specific to the vermilion epithelium, has not progressed as much as that of skin and oral mucosa/gingiva models in vitro. Our histologic examination demonstrated that a Japanese macaque (male, 7 years and 9 months old) had vermilion in the lip distinct from adjacent skin and oral mucosa, resembling histological characteristics of the human lip. Therefore, in this study, we examined the gene expression profile of the three distinct epithelia (skin/vermilion/oral mucosa) within the lip of a Japanese macaque to explore a single potential marker of human vermilion epithelium. Six pairwise comparisons in the skin/vermilion/oral mucosa epithelium in vitro and in vivo revealed 69 differentially up-regulated genes in vermilion epithelium in vivo, in which a few unique genes were highly expressed when compared with both skin and oral mucosa epithelium in vivo using clustering analysis. However, we could not detect a single marker specific to vermilion epithelium supported by the gene expression profile of a Japanese macaque. Instead, the pair of keratin 10 and small proline-rich protein 3 resulted in a potential marker of vermilion epithelium in the human lip (female, 53-year-old) via a double-immunostaining technique. Nonetheless, our result may provide further clues leading to other potential markers of the vermilion epithelium.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010002
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 14-32: Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of
           Quantitative Computed Tomography Parameters of Adrenal Glands in Patients
           from Internistled ICU with Sepsis and Septic Shock

    • Authors: Moritz Milberg, Alida Kindt, Lisa Luft, Ursula Hoffmann, Michael Behnes, Stefan O. Schoenberg, Sonja Janssen
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The aim was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of different quantitative analysis methods assessing adrenal gland parameters on contrast-enhanced CT scans in patients with septic conditions. Seventy–six patients (49 men, 27 women) received CT scans for focus search. Adrenal glands were analyzed by means of three different methods: subjective region of interest (ROI) measurement, organ segmentation and histogram analysis using semi-automated software. Univariate analyses with multiple testing thresholds and receiver operating characteristic curves were performed. Clinical endpoints were 8-days, 28-days and 6-months mortality. Forty-four CT scans were analyzed (ground truth: patients with no sepsis: n = 6; patients with sepsis: n = 15; patients in septic shock: n = 21). Left adrenal gland (LAG) values were analyzed and compared, as data variation was lower than in the right adrenal glands. In patients with septic conditions, the combination of high LAG and Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) density values was highly specific for septic shock with all three methods. Only segmentation values were significantly different between the sepsis and septic shock groups after confounder correction (p = 0.048). Total adrenal gland volume was 20% higher in the septic shock patients while a relatively small LAG volume within the septic shock subgroup was associated with higher mortality at day 8 (AUC = 0.8; p = 0.006) and at 6 months (AUC = 0.7; p = 0.035). However, time-consuming density analysis methods assessing adrenal glands do not provide additional diagnostic value in patients with septic conditions. The combination of high LAG and IVC attenuation values seems to be highly specific for septic shock, regardless of the analysis type. Adrenal gland volume reveals short- and long-term prognostic capacity.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010003
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 33-40: Distribution and Appearance of Arrector
           Pili Muscle in the Skin of the Rhesus Monkey Face

    • Authors: Inga May, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Christian-Albrecht May
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Although the presence of an arrector pili smooth muscle is documented in many monkey species, its regional peculiarities are hitherto not well documented. We aimed to study this aspect in the face of rhesus monkeys with different areas of hair coat. Eight different regions of six monkeys (male and female) were studied using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry (antibody against smooth muscle alpha actin). We identified two regions (lips and eyelids) with vellus hairs that did not show an arrector pili muscle. In the eyelids, the hairs are rather small and short; in the lips, the vellus hairs were surrounded by striated muscle fibers from the orbicularis oris muscle. In all other regions (frontal region, forehead, cheek, chin), the vellus hairs contained an arrector pili muscle with comparable morphology. Only in the chin region, where additional striated muscles from the face muscles were present, the arrector pili muscles were thinner. All vibrissae showed a close relation to striated muscle fiber bundles of the facial muscles. They never developed smooth muscle bundles assigned as arrector pili equivalent.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010004
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 41-53: Hippocampal Dentation in Children and
           Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from Birth to 18 Years Old

    • Authors: Julia F. Beattie, Roy C. Martin, Edwin W. Cook, Matthew D. Thompson, Rajesh K. Kana, Ruth Q. Jacobs, Tanya A. Correya, Anandh K. Ramaniharan, Lawrence W. Ver Hoef
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The degree of hippocampal dentation, a morphologic feature of the inferior surface of the human hippocampus, has been positively associated with episodic memory performance in healthy adults. This study examined hippocampal dentation in healthy children and adolescents. The Cincinnati MR Imaging of NeuroDevelopment (C-MIND) dataset was used to examine the relationship between age and hippocampal dentation in 90 healthy children, age < 1 to 18 years old, using T1-weighted MPRAGE scans. Hippocampal dentation was assessed by counting the number of dentes for the left and right hippocampi. Participants had slightly more left than right hippocampal dentes, on average. Dentation did not differ significantly between males and females. Correlational analyses revealed that the numbers of left, right, and total dentes were positively associated with age in this sample. Interestingly, these data highlight the wide variability of dentation in older age groups. While younger children tended to have absent or few dentes, a range of dentation was present in older children and adolescents (ranging from absent to numerous, bilaterally). This is consistent with previous research in a healthy adult cohort, where a range of dentation was also observed. This study is the first to examine hippocampal dentation in children.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010005
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 54-67: Morphological Relationships between the
           Cholinergic and Somatostatin-28(1-12) Systems in the Alpaca (Lama pacos)

    • Authors: Pilar Marcos, Rafael Coveñas
      First page: 54
      Abstract: In the alpaca brainstem, the distribution of the cholinergic system by the immunohistochemical detection of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) has been described, and its relationship with the distribution of somatostatin-28(1-12) is analyzed by double-immunostaining techniques. Overlapping distribution patterns for both substances were observed in many brainstem regions, suggesting that interactions between them may occur in the reticular formation, nucleus ambiguus or laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. Colocalization of the two substances in the same cell bodies was only observed in restricted areas, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, reticular formation and nucleus ambiguus. In addition, in several regions, an apparent high innervation of the peptidergic fibers on cholinergic neurons has been observed. The results suggest that chemospecific interactions could be crucial for the control of specific cardiorespiratory and/or digestive functions in alpacas. These interactions may represent brain-adaptive mechanisms to particular environments and have a potential therapeutic use in respiratory disorders.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010006
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 68-74: Anastomosis between Median and
           Musculocutaneous Nerve: Presentation of a Very Rare Anatomical Variation
           in Comparison to Classical Divisions

    • Authors: Rosario Barone, Agata Grazia D’Amico, Noemi Di Lorenzo, Grazia Laura Di Grado, Egle Matranga, Giulio Spinoso, Leonardo Luca Bavuso, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesca Rappa, Fabio Bucchieri, Francesco Cappello, Weronika Piotrowska, Jan Henryk Spodnik, Edyta Spodnik, Sławomir Wójcik
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) is the terminal branch of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, and emerges at the inferior border of pectoralis minor muscle. The nerve can interact with the median nerve (MN), adhering to the nerve and sharing fibers with it. During anatomical dissection of twelve cadavers, we have detected a rare variation of the anastomosis between MCN and MN. The knowledge of this anatomical variation could be of great relevance during surgical and clinical practices.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010007
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 75-85: Detailed Morphology of the Incisive or
           Nasopalatine Canal

    • Authors: Andrei Valentin Iamandoiu, Alexandru Nicolae Mureşan, Mugurel Constantin Rusu
      First page: 75
      Abstract: (1) Background: The nasopalatine canal (NPC), or the incisive canal (IC) of maxilla, unites the anterior nasal floor with the anterior palatine region. Different morphological variables of the NPC were investigated, indicating it is either anatomically variable or constant. It was therefore decided to perform an additional study of the NPC. (2) Methods: A retrospective cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) study was performed on 89 patient files: 38 males and 51 females. The study documented the presence or absence of a well-defined NPC, the number of openings, and the anatomic variables of the canal (number, course, and secondary canaliculi). (3) Results: the NPC/IC in the coronal plane was classified into five types: (I) NPC present with two superior, nasopalatine foramina (NPFs) (66.29%); (II) NPC absent with two NPFs (2.25%); (III) NPC present and single NPF (17.98%); (IV) NPC present with three NPFs (3.37%); (V) both absent NPC and NPF (10.11%). (4) Conclusions: The anatomical possibilities of the NPC are numerous and diverse; they include the absence of the canal. Therefore, a standardized description of this canal could not be assumed and a radiological assessment is recommended before surgical treatment in the premaxilla area.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010008
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 86-90: Online Teaching Alternative in Human

    • Authors: Alberto Garcia Barrios, Ana Isabel Cisneros Gimeno, María Camen Garza García, Itziar Lamiquiz Moneo, Jaime Whyte Orozco
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The objective was to implement a “Breakout” activity using an online platform (Genially®) similar to those carried out in person to increase interactivity, motivation, and teamwork. The activity was proposed during the 2021–2022 academic year in the Human Anatomy II (Splanchnology) course taken in the second semester of the Bachelor’s Degree in Medicine (University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain) and was carried out with the participation of 89 students enrolled in the course. The evaluation of the experience by the students was carried out by means of an online questionnaire that comprised four questions (based on the Likert scale) and by the teaching staff through a coordination meeting. In total, 86% of the students agreed regarding the positive effect of these kinds of activities on interactivity and motivation, with 65% agreeing on the usefulness of these tools. Around 70% agree that this activity helped them to integrate course content and to enhance teamwork.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010009
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 91-106: Common Anatomical Variations of
           Neurovascular Canals and Foramina Relevant to Oral Surgeons: A Review

    • Authors: Laura Sferlazza, Fabrizio Zaccheo, Maria Elisabetta Campogrande, Giulia Petroni, Andrea Cicconetti
      First page: 91
      Abstract: (1) Background: The anatomical variations of neurovascular canals that are encountered in oral surgery are often overlooked by anatomy textbooks or provided with insufficient information. The aim of this study is to analyze the most common variations, describing their morphology, prevalence and clinical implications. (2) Methods: A review of published literature from the 20th century onwards was performed using the PubMed electronic database as well as anatomical textbooks. The variations being investigated were: retromolar canal (RMC) and foramen (RMF), accessory mental foramen (AMF), midline (MLF) and lateral (MLF) lingual foramina and canalis sinuosus (CS). (3) Results: Anatomical variants of neurovascular canals and foramina have a significant incidence and important clinical implications in the most common oral surgery procedures such as third molar extraction, bone harvesting and implantology. (4) Conclusions: Knowledge of these variables is highly important both for students to have a more accurate anatomical awareness and for professional surgeons to be able to provide better diagnoses and prevent complications during oral surgery techniques.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010010
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
  • Anatomia, Vol. 1, Pages 107-118: Recognizing and Distinguishing the
           Phenomenon Referred to as Meningioma

    • Authors: Bruce M. Rothschild
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Background: The reliability of a recent review of meningiomas in the archeologic record was difficult to assess, given the inverted sex ratio of the report and other contents apparently at variance with anatomical/medical findings in scientifically identified cases. It therefore seemed appropriate to reexamine the nature of meningiomas and derive improve criteria for their recognition in the archeologic record and distinguish them from hemangiomas and bone marrow hyperplasia (recognized in the form of porotic hyperostosis). Methods: Medically documented cases of meningiomas were examined to establish a macroscopic standard distinguishing them. Alleged cases in the archeologic record were examined for conformity with those criteria. Results: An en face pattern of uniform mesh with contained whorls appears pathognomonic for meningiomas. This contrasts with the non-uniform marrow expansion displacement of trabeculae in porotic hyperostosis and non-uniform vascular displacement of trabeculae in hemangiomas. Reassessment of past attributions revealed few cases of meningiomas that could be confidently diagnosed. Those identified have sex ratios parsimonious with medical literature reports. Conclusions: Criteria suggested for identifying meningiomas permit distinguishing from hemangiomas, bone marrow hyperplasia (porotic hyperostosis) and from the macroscopically observable surface spicules characteristic of osteosarcomas. Examination for fulfillment of criteria for meningiomas and hemangiomas seems to provide a picture (including sex ratios) mirroring that of the clinical literature, concluding that Cook and Danforth’s disparate ratios were related to less fastidious case selection. Additionally, confidence in recognizing porotic hyperostosis may be compromised because of apparent similar macroscopic alterations to those seen with hemangiomas.
      Citation: Anatomia
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/anatomia1010011
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2022)
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