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Alfarama Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2682-275X
Published by Port Said University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • GC/MS Volatile Constituents Analysis and Anticancer Activity of
           Moltkiopsis ciliata (Forssk.)

    • Abstract: Methanolic extract of the aerial part of Moltkiopsis ciliata (Forssk.) (Boraginaceae) was obtained and successively fractionated into two main fractions (hexane fraction and methylene chloride fraction), which were phytochemically investigated using GC/MS technique. The whole of thirty-five compounds were identified and quantified. They are belonging to different classes; twenty-one acetogenins (Fat derivatives), six shikimates, five terpenes and one sterol. Beside the characterization of the volatile compounds profile, β-amyrin was isolated and identified using chromatographic and spectral techniques. The methanolic extract and two fractions were screened for their cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cell line MCF7 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The methylene chloride fraction was proved to be the most potent cytotoxic agent. The major phyto-components of the two fractions were known by their various biological activity as antimicrobial, antiprofilative, antioxidant, Hypocholesterolemic, Antiandrogenic flavor, Nematicide, pesticides, anti-inflammatory, Hemolytic and have significant pharmaceutical importance especially as anticancer agents. The bioactive volatile constituents recommended phytopharmaceutical importance of the plant
  • Supplementary And Natural Remedy involved in ASD Therapy

    • Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a huge public health problem in children all over the world. Autism is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, limited interests in activities, repetitive behaviors, and a diminished ability to perform in school, the workplace, and other aspects of life. In recent years, the estimated prevalence of autism spectrum diseases has risen considerably. The condition necessitates long-term therapy and is typically regarded as incurable. Pharmacological intervention, which includes psychiatric medicines to treat behavioral issues, is accompanied with considerable side effects. Behavioral therapy, education, and nutritional therapies are the basis of traditional management. It has been reported that using natural compounds along with the pharmacological medications have a positive effect in treating ASD youngsters, as well as diminishing the adverse effects of chemical medications. Unfortunately, there is a scarcity of data on the efficacy of natural remedies in ASD. The current review seeks to investigate studies of using natural remedies in ASD.
  • Detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the raw and tap water of the
           Nile River in Dakahlia region, Egypt.

    • Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a major public health issue. It happens naturally, though human and animal overuse of antibiotics has accelerated the process. A drinking water treatment system is specifically intended to remove germs and diseases from water. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the Nile River's surface water as well as in Dakahlia's drinking water. The results recorded a total of 39 isolates belong to 14 isolates coliforms, 13 isolates fecal coliforms, and 12 isolates fecal enterococci. Ten antibiotics were used for the determination of antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates. The most resistant antibiotics of the Nile waters-isolates were amoxicillin (95%), and ampicillin (90%), and in tap water were clarithromycin (85%), and amoxicillin (83%). The MARI values for the Nile raw water were three times greater than the permitted limit (
  • Histopathological alterations in liver, kidney, and testis of obese male
           albino rats following thunder god vine roots extract treatment

    • Abstract: Obesity is a multi-factor chronic condition caused by a amalgamation of genetics, environment, and an energy intake/expension imbalance. Modern civilization is seeing a significant growth in obesity, as well as an increased risk of metabolic syndromes in the general population due to lifestyle change. Even though obesity is a medical problem, maintaining individual's quality of life will require weight control. Weight loss goals is to reduce health risks, promote weight loss, and prevent weight gain . Weight management herbs include thunder god vine (roots).. Herbs like thunder god vine (roots) are used for weight management. Various laboratory studies proved that using thunder god vine extract might causes damage to multiple organs and tissues, and is fatal in some cases. The goal of this study is to measure toxicity of two doses of thunder god vine root extract, low 5mg/kg and high 7.5mg/kg, on the liver, kidney, and testis tissues of fat diet-induced obese male rats.. Histological examination of the obtained sections of all animal groups revealed that treatment with two different doses of the extract in obese rats showed no changes in the seminiferous tubules and different stages of spermatogenesis in testis and. Liver injury and nephrotoxic effects were reported after treatment with the plant extract at with two doses.
  • Evaluation of bacteriophage to reduce Escherichia coli contamination in
           different food samples

    • Abstract: Food security is critical in the foodstuffs industry since most bacterial pathogens may cause foodborne illnesses and harm general health. In food, E. coli infection was recognized as the major cause of many cases of foodborne diseases. Moreover, the hazards have increased remarkably as most bacteria have acquired resistance to many antibiotics. Bacteriophages (phages) are a natural alternative agent that can be used for food preservation; they are viruses that can target bacteria specifically without causing harm to the human, plant, or animal cells. This research aimed to evaluate the efficacy of phage isolates in suppressing E. coli strains isolated from food samples. The phage was collected from sewage water and tested against E. coli isolate (EC/20) in vitro. Phage ZCECO 5 genome size was assessed to be ~339.5 kbp, and electron microscopy examination revealed that it related to the Myohoviridae family. In addition, it was found to be tolerant to a wide range of temperatures and pH. At different Multiplicity of Infections (MOIs), it showed a decrease in bacterial counts, with more bacterial elimination at stronger MOIs. Additionally, at MOI 10, the phage inhibited E. coli optical density from 1.0 OD600 to 0.7 OD600 after 230 min, and following a four-hour incubation period at 37°C, the bacterial titer decreased. The results indicated that ZCECO 5 could lyse E. coli and inhibit its activity. As a result, phage ZCECO 5 is suggested to be a bio-control agent in food for E. coli control.
  • Evaluation of toxicity effects on tissues of kidney, heart, and
           chromosomes in vivo induced by sodium bicarbonate and the possible
           treatment by ethanolic extract solid dried tubers for Cyperus esculentus

    • Abstract: Many fields exist in using rats in the experiment on different materials that have the desired result for the benefit of mankind. The rat is used in laboratories to perform experiments for various sciences such as physiology, pharmacology, cardiology, toxicology, neurosciences, and others. This is since small rodents in size, their life cycle is short, and their genetic traits are numerous, so the desired results appear in short times that do not reach several years like the rest of the animals. Also, the rodents are easy to rise if we provide a comprehensive environment to ensure their continuity. We used sodium bicarbonate in our experiment because of its frequent use today. It should be noted that sodium bicarbonate is considered a dangerous substance because it causes a marked increase in the volume of fluid in the vessels, which leads to acute pulmonary edema. Cyperus esculentus or what is known as (Tiger nut) to treat rats, as it is useful and contains some anti-inflammatory. It is used as a heart tonic and has an effective ability to treat diarrhea, and it also reduces colon cancer disorder.
  • Impact of the histological, biochemical, and cytogenetical changes caused
           by Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC) in the pregnant mice and treated with
           ethanolic extract of Tamarinds Indica seeds

    • Abstract: All parts of Tamarinds indica plants are included in traditional medicine in India and other countries. There are many chemical values as phenolic materials that make it possess variable activities, most important of them antioxidant activity against cancer. The extract of Tamarinds Indica using to thwart various cancer types. Forty mice were divided into four groups; the first group was as control (normal mice), the second group was injected only with Ehrlich carcinoma cells, the third group was treated with Tamarinds indica extraction only, and the fourth group was injected with Ehrlich carcinoma cells and treated with Tamarinds indica extraction. At the final of the experiment, we represented the fourth group of mice has a significant reduction in cancer effects, which confirmed the anticancer activity of Tamarinds indica extraction in vivo (mice). Finally, the conclusion proves the efficacy of Tamarinds indica ethanolic extract as a cancer prophylactic chemotherapy in therapeutic approaches to treat cancer caused by Ehrlich cells in serum protein level, fetal tissues, cerebellum tissues, lung tissues, and chromosomes.
  • New approach for solving of Extended KdV Equation

    • Abstract: the extended Korteweg de-Vries equation which includes nonlinear and dispersive terms cubic in the wave amplitude is derived from the water wave equations and the Lagrangian for the water wave equations. For the special case which only the higher order nonlinear term is retained, the extended Korteweg de-Vries equation is transformed into the Korteweg de-Vries equation. A Bubnov- Galerkin finite element method with quintic B-spline functions taken as element shape and weight functions is presented for the solution of the extended Korteweg de-Vries equation. Modulation equations for this equation are then derived from the modulation equation for the Korteweg de-Vries equation and the solution for the extended Korteweg de-Vries equation is found as a simple wave solution of these modulation equations. This solution is compared with the numerical solution with different time displacement. Simulations undertaken proved that the scheme can model faithfully the physics of the Extended Korteweg de-Vries equation.
  • Solid-state hydrolysis and fermentation of rice straw and manure for
           bioethanol production

    • Abstract: Bioethanol production from lignocellulose biomass is a suitable alternative to replace fossil fuels. In Egypt, rice straw and manure are the large resources of lignocellulosic biomass from agriculture wastes and animal wastes, respectively. Solid-state hydrolysis and fermentation utilizing rice straw and manure, using co-culture of Streptomyces aegyptia and Candida tropicalis, were investigated. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal medium volume in hydrolysis and fermentation processes for maximum ethanol production. The maximum ethanol concentration of 4.4 g/l (22 mg/g) was produced with medium volume in hydrolysis and fermentation processes of 1.5 and 3.5 ml/g, respectively. The efficiency of bioconversion processes not only depends on conditions used for cultivation but also depends upon the efficiency of strains used to utilize the lignocelluloses. UV mutagenesis of Streptomyces aegyptia was considered in this study. Results showed different effects among the lignocellulose enzymes measured in this study. Strain exposed to UV light (280-320 nm) at a distance of 10 cm for 20 seconds was the best one for sugar (57.3 mg/g) and bioethanol production 5.8 g/l (29 mg/g).
  • Different process designs for bioethanol production

    • Abstract: Improving the conversion of lignocellulosic residues into bioethanol in this study entails two trends: process design and substrate adding mode. Two methods of process design, separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were carried out to compare the efficient bioethanol production. Rice straw and manure were pretreated with Ca(OH)2 and further processed for SHF and SSF. Among both strategies, SSF in form of one-pot hydrolysis and fermentation design gave maximum ethanol production (200 mg/l) and bioconversion efficiency of 1.8% after 5 days of culturing at 30˚C. Substrate adding (batch and fed-batch) in the process design was applied in different modes. In batch fermentation, all working volume of substrates and medium was applied at the beginning of culture. In fed-batch fermentation, three substrate-feeding strategies were studied. The result showed that the fed-batch system with one-time feeding (75:25) was higher compared to other modes with ethanol production and bioconversion efficiency of 255 mg/l and 2.3%, respectively.
  • Microfacies analyses, depositional interpretation and sequence
           stratigraphic delineation of the Miocene rocks at Cairo-Suez Road, Egypt

    • Abstract: AbstractFacies analysis and depositional environment investigation coupled with the sequence stratigraphy gave a precise picture on the depositional framework and evolution of any succession. This study is ground on litho- and microfacies analysis and stratigraphical investigation to conclude the depositional and sequence stratigraphic framework of the Miocene rocks units along the Cairo-Suez Road. The studied depositional sequences of Burdigalian-Langhian age can be differentiated into two main stratigraphic units; A lower siliciclastic unit revealing lagoonal (intertidal lagoons, intertidal estuarine), and inner ramp facies, termed as Gharra Formation, and lies unconformably over the Oligocene continental sediments of Gebel Ahmar Formation. This unit is conformably overlain by the middle Miocene marine-nature sediments of Genefe Formation., revealing middle, to outer ramp facies. This depositional sequence was initiated as a result of the Miocene sea first advance over northern Egypt, including the study area. Retrogradational parasequences were stacked successively to evolve the lowstand system tract (LST), followed by the transgressive surface (TS), that matched the contact between Gharra, and Genefe formations. A deeper accommodation zone was formed as a result of the middle Miocene sea level rise, due to a tectonic subsidence, resulting in the deposition of Genefe Formation over the transgressive surface (TS), representing the transgressive system tract (TST).
  • Extraction of chitosan from Aristeus antennatus shells as a prior for
           biodegradable plastic production

    • Abstract: Crustacean shells can be used to extract chitin, which is the second most common biopolymer after cellulose (such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and krills). Chitosan is a biopolymer that can be modified chemically and physically. Deproteinization, demineralization, and deacetylation were employed to extract chitosan from red shrimp shells Aristeus antennatus the average total catch per (five-hours-hauls) is about 62 kg. FTIR, SEM and biodegradation were used to characterise the final product; Chitosans deacetylation degree was determined to be around 86 %, which was compared to commercial chitosan's deacetylation degree of 95 percent in the rest of the study.The chitosan yield was 18% with 7.65% moisture content and 32.27% ash containing different minerals. The solubility of extracted chitosan was 98.15%. There are 10 formulations of bioplastic films synthesized based on chitosan extracted from chitin-wastes of locally collected Aristeus antennatus were set at a basis of 100% as well as chitosan film. Castor oil was added as a plasticizer. The recovered chitosan's Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) revealed the expected properties. The produced bioplastic films were characterized via several judging criteria. The biodegradability of the formed bioplastic films was assessed along two weeks of incubation in seawater and marine sediment. Observably, all bioplastic films were decreased in their weights compared to polypropylene (PP) as synthetic plastic, which was not changed.
  • Clonal Micropropagation of Purplish-Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus
           costaricensis) Newly Introduced To Egypt

    • Abstract: In the present study trials were done to micropropagate Hylocereus costaricencis newly introduced to Egypt. Surface sterilized areole’s sections (as a starting material) were subjected to various factorial concentrations of benzyladenine, kinetin and thiadiazhuron at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/l added to MS culture media to induce shoot morphogenesis. The obtained shoots were rooted using indole butyric acid and/or naphthalene acetic acid individually, combined and with or without addition of activated charcoal. The results obtained revealed that cytokinins could successfully induce multiple shoot (mini-joints) morphogenesis and the response depended on their types and concentrations. After 12 weeks of treatment the number of shoots obtained using BA, Kin and TDZ at 1.5 mg/l reached up 13.67±2.03, 8.67±1.2 and 8.67±1.2 respectively in comparison with 1.0±0.58 shoots per control explant. The maximum number of rootlets 4.00±0.58 per shoot was obtained in response to the combination of IBA/NAA at 0.25mg/l for 12 weeks,. The addition of charcoal (0.1%) reduced the number of rootlets from 4.00±0.58 to 3.00±0.58 with concomitant increase in the root length from 0.83±0.17 to 4.17±0.44. The rooted regenerants were transferred to pots containing a mixture of peat moss: sand: clay in the ratio of 1:1:1 with a 100% survival regardless of the type of treatments used for either shoot or root induction. The obtained results indicate that in vitro micropropagation of H. costaricensis can be used as a modern biotechnological tool to meet with the growing local market demand and help the spread of this newly introduced plant in Egypt.
  • Survey of marine-derived fungal biota and efficacy of its metabolites as
           plant growth promoter

    • Abstract: Marine fungi inhabiting algae represent an ecologically and taxonomically interesting group of microorganisms. Because the algal host is the best known for fungi, the information on fungi associated with algae is necessary for discovering secondary metabolites. Marine macroalgae associated with the fungal communities like Ulva Lactuca linnaeus, Enteromorpha intestinalis Linnaeus, and Dictyota sp were carried out for surveying fungal biota. Those algae were collected from Suez Canal and seashore in the Mediterranean Sea at Port Said governorate. The study aims to investigate the role of these fungi and their secondary metabolites on plant growth. The most abundant fungal communities are phylum Ascomycota and genera Penicillium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Aspergillus.26, marine fungi were isolated from algal samples and culturing on plates with Czapek’s yeast extract agar amended with chloramphenicol and Rose Bengal. After identification of organisms by macroscopic and microscopic observation, isolated fungi are let to produce natural secondary metabolites into the media after a week, 50% ethyl acetate in water was added to broth media, then incubated at room temperature. The crude extract was collected after using a separating funnel for solvent separation and using rotavapor for extraction. Secondary metabolites were identified using GC-MS analysis as Linalool from Trichoderma harzainum while Methyl jasmonate and Nylidrin from Penicillium crustosum. Raw secondary metabolites of the taxa Penicillium crustosum and Trichoderma harzainum give increasing in length of shoot and root system of (eggplant) Solanum melongena and also affects the whole plant by increasing its dry weight.
  • Antioxidant, Antibacterial and GC/MS volatiles profiling of Alhagi
           graecorum Boiss

    • Abstract: Alhagi graecorum methanolic crude extract and its derived fractions (methylene chloride (mc), n-hexane (nh), n-butanol , and ethyl acetate finally the residual aqueous fraction) ;all were examined for their potential antioxidant activity performing the Superoxide dismutase like activity besides DPPH (α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assays. Moreover, the antibacterial property towards different pathogenic microbial Gram-positive ;( Staphylococcus aureus,(BS) Bacillus subtilis) in addition to Gram-negative strains(Proteus volgaris(PV), and Escherichia coli(EC)). Identification of the secondary volatile metabolites of both Alhagi graecorum hexane and methylene chloride fractions was by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectra (GC-MS) method. The identified extracted volatile constituents could be mainly categorized to two main classes, oxygenated acetogenins (fat derivatives) and oxygenated terpenes. Twelve volatile constituents were characterized in the hexane fraction, the most dominant compounds were methyl oleate (36.07%), methyl hexadecanoate (17.32%), methyl 11E,14E-octadecadienoate (13.32%). Of the eighteen constituents identified in the methylene chloride fraction, the most dominant were 4-(3-hydroxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-7-oxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1-yl)-but-3-en-2-one (5.51%), 2-dodecen-1-ylsuccinic anhydride (7.24%) and (–)-loliolide (19.73%).
  • Studies of Phytochemistry, Bioassay, and Synthesis of Magnetite
           Nanoparticles for Acalypha wilkesiana Müll Mosaica Plant

    • Abstract: Acalypha wilkesiana Müll. Mosaica.; is an herb from Euphorbiaceae Family. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates and glycosides as major components. n-Hexane and methylene chloride extracts of plant was subjected to column chromatography and GC/MS. Six compounds were isolated and identified. Octanoic acid was isolated as pure compound. 3-O-acetyl lupine and β-amyrin; Phytol and Squalene; β-sitosterol and Stigmasterol were isolated as mixtures. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPS Fe3o4) were synthesized. Structures and properties of the NPS Fe3O4 were categorized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Zeta potential and Zeta-size distribution. The average width size of synthesized nanoparticles of n-hexane extract ranges between 5.264 and 102.749 nm while mean length ranges between 18.424 and 222.16 nm. Otherwise, the average width size of synthesized nanoparticles of total ethanol plant extract particles ranges between 11.764 and 95.21nm, whereas average length ranges between 11.616 and 564.08nm. The shapes of almost nanoparticles are rods in shape with TEM analysis. This study reports the invitro cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized iron oxide NPs against Breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with IC50 % (27.83) in comparison with the plant extract with IC50 % (129.1). The plant extract derived nanoparticles displayed significant cytotoxic effects. The antioxidant effects were confirmed through DPPH, ABTS and Nitric oxide assays. Thus, the results of study indicate that biologically synthesized iron oxide NPs is a promising anticancer.
  • Circulating proteins as diagnostic breast cancer biomarkerss

    • Abstract: AbstractIn women, breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently cancer and among the leading causes of cancer-related death. Breast cancer is heterogeneous tumors group with varied molecular and morphological subtypes, making disease detection and patient outcomes evolution difficult. So, biomarkers are required to aim pathologists choose and apply the best therapy for each patient. For the last decades, reports have increasingly regarding biomarkers in liquid body fluids. Blood proteins, circulating components or secreted by cancers, are attributed to several biological functions and are an important tumor biomarkers source. These blood proteins (extracted from plasma or serum) can be used for minimally invasive, easy, simple and inexpensive determination of cancer risk, disease progression, prognostication and monitoring, treatment adjusting and early diagnosis. In this review, we discussed the main established studies on blood proteins in breast cancer and evaluate the potential of blood proteins to be prognostic and/or predictive breast cancer biomarkers.
  • Nonlinear shocklike, soliton, and periodic dust-ion-acoustic waves in
           Jupiter ionosphere

    • Abstract: For the time being, investigation of nonlinear structures in space have become an important tool that plays a role in the flybys electronic devices, as it has a very remarkable feature to protect the electronics used in spacecrafts.The dynamics behavior of nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic shock-like, soliton, and periodic waves are investigated in a stationary positively charged dusty plasma, mobile ions and isothermal electrons those interact with streaming solar wind ions and electrons. The basic equations describing the dynamics of dust-ion-acoustic waves is reduced to one evolution equation called nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation using the reductive perturbation method. Possible solutions of the KdV equation are obtained including shock-like, soliton, and periodic waves solutions using a traveling wave transformation. The effects of different plasma parameters (such as proton solar wind beam temperature, streaming velocity, and ion masses as well as Jupiter positive ions temperature and mass) on the behavior of the shocklike, soliton, and periodic waves have been examined.
  • Characterization of the feldspar placer deposits of Umm Shaddad Area,
           Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    • Abstract: In the present study, placer feldspar resources in the Umm Shaddad region, Qusier, Egypt were invested to the appropriateness as raw materials for the glass and ceramic industries. Umm Shaddad area located west of Umm Gheig Lead Zinc Mine, at latitude 25o37' and 25o41' and longitude 34o19' and 34o24'. Chemical analyses revealed that the SiO2 content in the analyzed feldspar placer deposit, is an average of 74.16%. This value is higher than that required for glass industries but lower than the commercial average of ceramic industries. When compared to the commercial average for glass and ceramic sectors, the average content of Fe2O3 (2.48%) is considered high. The average K2O content in the analyzed samples is 4.77%, which is higher than the commercial values. Na2O content averages 3.05% and Al2O3 averages 11.79%, which are lower than the commercial average for the glass and ceramic sectors. The radiometric effect of the raw feldspar of Umm Shaddad was also evaluated. Activity index of Gamma (Iγ) and Alpha (Iα), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and Hazard indices (Hex and Hin) are lower than the acceptable world value. However, the total Annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) of the studied samples ranged between 0.82 to 1.261 with an average 1.137 which is higher than that of the world’s acceptable values. In conclusion, although the feldspar placers of Umm Shaddad have suitable content of oxides after minor treatment while, the high values of total Annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) diminished its use for either ceramic or glass industries.
  • Statistical screening of process variables for improving bioethanol
           production using alkali-pretreated of some environmental wastes

    • Abstract: Bioethanol is considered the most proposed next automotive fuel generation. For the bioethanol production, the microbial conversion from some local environmental wastes (rice straw and manure) and the indigenous strains, namely Streptomyces aegyptia and Candida tropicalis were used in this study. Improving the conditions that may affect the process such as alkali pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation were investigated using the Plackett-Burman design (PBD) via submerged fermentation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity index of pretreated rice straw (52.2%) was significantly (p-value) lower as compared to the untreated one (63.1%). The results showed that the optimization of the microbial conversion reached 6.6 folds in comparison to the unoptimized process. An improvement in enzymatic activities of Streptomyces aegyptia was achieved in the design that the maximal lignin peroxidase, Mn-dependent peroxidase, total cellulase, endocellulase, and xylanase activities were 120 U/min.l, 1020 U/min.l, 3.7 U/min.l, 57.3 U/min.l and 78.1 U/min.l, respectively. Maximum ethanol concentration and bioconversion process efficiency were 0.8 g/l and 13.3%, respectively.
  • Petrographic investigation of the Precambrian basement rocks of Esh El
           Mallaha area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    • Abstract: The Esh El-Mallaha mountain range is located in the northwestern segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area encompassing it is of especial significance owing to its hydrocarbon resources. This works aims to present a comprehensive and detailed petrographic characterization of the major Precambrian basement rock units cropping out there, namely; the Dokhan Volcanics and Younger Granites. The Dokhan Volcanics are petrographically differentiated into basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacite lavas along with their pyroclastic equivalents. Their main volcanic textures include porphyritic, glomeroporphyritic, visecular, amygdalloidal and granophyric textures. Pyroclastics, particularly welded ignimbrites, are typified by eutaxitic texture. The Younger Granites of Um Dirrah and El-Esh are dominated by monzogranites and syenogranites, respectively, while those of Homra El Gerigab are mainly alkali feldspar granites. They are typically medium- to coarse-grained hypidiomorphic rocks, although porphyritic varieties are not uncommon.
  • Assessment of Water Quality and Bacteriological Indicators of Sewage
           Pollution in Bahr El-Baqar Drain, Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt

    • Abstract: This study assessed the seasonal and spatial variation of the water quality physicochemical parameters, major dissolved ions, and the bacteriological indicators of sewage pollution in Bahr El-Baqar drain, Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt, in the summer and winter seasons of 2018. Results showed that the drain water contained higher values of the physicochemical parameters: pH, Total dissolved salts (TDS), Electrical conductivity (EC), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biological oxygen demand (BOD), and Chemical oxygen demand (COD), which are typical for domestic and industrial wastewater. The concentrations of dissolved salts (mg/L) in the drain water followed the decreasing order: Cl− (743.5) > NO3− (30.26) > NH4+ (18.22) > PO43- (2.63). Additionally, the bacteriological indicators; Total Viable Bacteria (TVC), and Total Coliform (TC) groups in the investigated drain water samples. Results of TVC, which counted by standard plate method (SPC) and the TC showed high seasonal levels of sewage pollution in the water of the Bahr El-Baqar drain, particularly in the summer samples. The TVC ranged from 3.8 × 104 (winter) to 6.4 × 105 CFU/ml (summer), which highly exceeds (≤ 1000 CFU/ml) the recommended limit set by Egyptian Law No. 48/1982 for protection of the River Nile and waterways from pollution. Similarly, the TC ranged from 1.3 × 106 (winter) to 9.3 ×107 CFU/ml (summer), which highly exceeds the World Health Organization (WHO) safe limit (≤1000 CFU/100 ml) for wastewater use in irrigation. This study provides the current pollution status of Bahr El-Baqar drain to find sustainable solutions for the national water vulnerability crisis.
  • Incidence, Antibiogram and MAR Index of E. coli from Wastewater Treatment
           Plant, Reclaimed Forest Soil and Affected Water Bodies

    • Abstract: Wastewater is a major collector for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic microorganisms posing high risk on public health and environmental. Even efficient secondary sewage treatment does not ensure appropriate removal of pathogens especially MDR E. coli. This study aimed to shed light on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli in raw wastewater, treated water, sludge, and forest soil irrigated with treated water from the Serapium wastewater treatment plant in Ismailia, Egypt. Samples were collected monthly during the period February 2018 to January 2019 from different wastewater treatment stages as well as sludge, reclaimed soil and affected water sources. E. coli isolated on HiChrome E. coli agar and verified by indole reagent system. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 19 different antibiotics. E. coli mean count ranged between 4.7×104 and 6.3×105 MPN/100mL in the influent and 2.1×102 and 6.3×103 MPN/100mL for effluent indicating high bacterial load in the effluent. Antimicrobial susceptibility rate for the selected 337 E. coli strains was highest for ampicillin (29.2%), tetracycline (22.5%), and ciprofloxacin (16.3%) while lower resistance for ertapenem (2.4%), imepenim (2.3%), and meropenim (2.3%,) and 4.4% azithromycin. ESBL producing E. coli represents 20.67% of the isolates. Notwithstanding, upwards of 103 MPN/100mL E. coli with high MAR index (>0.2) has reached the receiving ecosystem and thus the processes of sewage treatment contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment.
  • Prevalence, Species Composition, Antibiogram and Vancomycin Resistant
           Determinant of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant
           and its Affected Ecosystems

    • Abstract: Most local and international legislation neglect the risk of transferring pathogenic bacteria, especially those with multiple antibiotic resistance, and causal genes. Egypt lacks data on the prevalence of MDR/VRE Enterococci in wastewater reclaimed soils or aquatic ecosystems receiving treated wastewater. Therefore, this study goals are to study the prevalence of MDR/VRE Enterococci in wastewater treatment system, reclaimed soil and effluent receiving water bodies. Monthly schemes were implemented in 2018 and 2019 to collect samples of raw and treated sewage, sludge, reclaimed soil, drainage canal, and downstream lake. Samples for total enterococci were analyzed using the Multiple Tube method. Enterococci isolates were purified and confirmed to species level by PCR. Antibiotics sensitivity testing was performed by Disk Diffusion method. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the Kirby bauer method. In addition, vanA and vanB genes were screened in the confirmed VRE strains. Although, the wastewater treatment plant was able to eliminate 98% of total enterococci, the discharged or reclaimed effluent still containing 3 LOG MPN/ 100 mL of enterococci, mostly (64%) MDR Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium with MARI >0.2. VRE was detected in 7% of samples, including reclaimed water and receiving water bodies regimen was not effective in removing VRE and multi-antibiotic-resistant enterococci (MARI). These findings demonstrate that MDR/VRE enterococci are released into the environment via wastewater, where they potentially pose a concern to human health.
  • Comparative study on the nutritional value of some penaeid shrimps from
           the Western Mediterranean coast of Egypt

    • Abstract: The present study highlights the nutritional value of three commercial shrimps; the green tiger prawn Penaeus semisulcatus (De Haan, 1844), the kuruma prawn Penaeus (Marsupenaeus) japonicus (Bate, 1888) and the ginger prawn Metapenaeus monoceros. (Fabricus, 1798) collected along the western Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The results show that the percentage of protein of the three studied shrimps was the main constituent where female and male Marsupenaeus japonicus had the greatest protein percentage (51.37% and 50.12%, respectively). The highest lipid value was documented in female Marsupenaeus japonicus (13.01%) while the highest carbohydrate percentage was recorded in male Penaeus semisulcatus (3.1%). Nine essential amino acids which are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine were identified. Arginine recorded the highest average concentration. Three non-essential amino acids were detected, that are aspartic acid, glutamic acid and glycine. Vitamins B1 and B2 were detected in both sexes. Analysis of minerals showed the presence of four minerals (Ca, K, Na and P). P recorded the highest mineral concentrations in Marsupenaeus japonicus, Metapenaeus monoceros and Penaeus semisulcatus. Concerning the results of this study that focused on the nutritional value of three commercially important shrimps, it is recommended to be consumed by human as a good source of protein, arginine, vitamins B1 and B2, phosphorus and calcium. In conclusion, this comparative study revealed that the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus has the best nutritive value among the studied shrimps.
  • Review Article: Cryptographic Algorithms for Enhancing Security in Cloud

    • Abstract: Cloud computing allows a huge amount of data storage and processing power to be available to users over the Internet. Many organizations are migrating from traditional data storage to cloud storage, which provides an efficient method to access data from anywhere and at any time. However, organizations' biggest barrier to adopting cloud computing is data security. Data security is one of the most critical aspects of cloud computing. As a result, there are various data security methods and implementations. Data encryption is the most commonly used method for protecting data security, which means that encrypting data before uploading it to the Cloud prevents unauthorized people from accessing it. This article provides an overview of existing symmetric and asymmetric cryptography algorithms. We cover Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm (AES), Data Encryption Standard (DES), Triple Data Encryption (TDES), Twofish, and Blowfish for symmetric encryption techniques. Rivest - Shamir Adleman (RSA), Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (DHKE), and El-Gamal are handled as asymmetric encryption algorithms.
  • Cnoidal and solitary dust ion-acoustic waves in Jupiter ionosphere

    • Abstract: The nonlinear wave structure of small-amplitude dust ion-acoustic cnoidal and solitarywaves are investigated in a five-component plasma consisting of positive proton beam fromsolar wind, positive ion fluid, two electrons population, one of them from the solar windand stationary positive dust grains. The physical parameters in the system such as, thetemperature ratio of proton beam and positive ion, magnetic field and streaming velocityof the beam plays the dominant role in the profile of the amplitude and the width of thewave. Using the reductive perturbation theory, the basic set of equations is reduced toa Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation. The latter has been solved using the Painlev ́e analysisto obtain a set of analytical solutions, which reflects the possibility of the propagationof various nonlinear structures. The solutions of Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation present apositive potential, which corresponds to a compressive wave profile. The findings of thisinvestigation are used to interpret the electrostatic cnoidal and solitary waves that maybe observed in the Jupiter ionosphere.
  • Topological Approaches for Theoretical Mathematical Morphology

    • Abstract: the mathematical morphology was originally developed to analyze and process binary image using the concepts and operations. Sets in mathematical morphology represented the shapes which were manifested on binary or gray images. The set of all the black pixels in a black and white image, constitutes a complete description of the binary image. In this paper, a novel point of view for mathematical morphology via topological concepts is proposed. And, the concepts of set theory and topological spaces will be imported to mathematical morphology. Furthermore, several topological spaces using morphological point of view are presented; by giving definitions for the families of sets that generates each space. we will first discuss the concept of morphological topological spaces, more topological structures and based on examples. Also, we will introduce new concepts based on these principles and definitions. Further, their topological properties are studied. we presented several topological spaces using morphological point of view; namely, morphological topological spaces, morphological co-topological spaces, morphological semi-topological spaces, morphological α-topological spaces and morphological pre-topological spaces.
  • Growth-inhibiting effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on some fungal
           isolates that may cause the football players’ skin diseases

    • Abstract: Football sport is a public sport that is widely distributed around the world. Football players are subject to the same skin conditions as others, but participation in a sports environment characterized by unique stresses on the skin that are not normally seen in inactive individuals can cause skin issues. Nano-technology approach involving the synergistic interaction between microorganisms and nanoparticles offers an affordable, environmentally, and beneficial solution for fungal skin infection prevention. Herein, CeO2NPs were properly characterized using different spectral analyses. Moreover, different fungal species were systematically isolated from the eleven volunteer football players’ different skin parts, Port Said sporting city, Port Said, Egypt, and grown on a modified sabouraud dextrose agar medium. Eleven pure-culture fungal isolates were identified using spacer between 18S and 28S rRNA genes identification technique. The growth-inhibiting effect of different CeO2NPs concentrations on the fungal isolates after ten days of incubation was studied. Furthermore, the reduction activity of used CeO2NPs towards the isolated fungal species was inclusivity researched. The outcome data experimentally symbolized that the fungal isolates were remarkably stable under a pH of 5.5 and temperature of 25°C (optimized conditions). Besides, the growth-inhibiting of different fungal isolates was directly proportional to increasing the concentration of CeO2NPs and completely stopped at the optimum dosage of 12 g/L compared to the control sample (non-treated CeO2NPs specimen). Overall, the present study illustrates an ample perspective of cerium oxide nanoparticles as a futuristic platform for the decontamination of fungal skin diseases.
  • Updating the Geographical Distribution of Twenty- Eight Species of the
           Egyptian Flora

    • Abstract: The Egyptian flora has been suffering from great changes in the distribution of some plants since the last flora of Egypt in 2005. The factors affecting this distribution are temperature, rainfall, agricultural practices, construction activities etc. So, the geographical distributions of many species needed to be revised and updated. This investigation updated the distribution of twenty-eight species in different phytogeographical regions of Egypt according to some previous studies and herbarium records. These species were freshly collected materials from different phytogeographical areas. They belonged to fourteen families including twenty-four genera and eight sub-species. The revision of their geographical distribution showed the newly addition of sixteen species to the flora of the Eastern desert. Additionally, eight species were recorded to the flora of Deserts except that of Sinai. Finally, nine species were added to the flora of the Mediterranean region. The present research aims to update the distribution of twenty-eight species in different phytogeographical regions of Egypt according to some previous studies and herbarium records. These species belonged to fourteen families including twenty-four genera and eight sub-species. The revision of their geographical distribution showed the newly addition of sixteen species to the flora of the Eastern desert such as: Cynanchum acutum, Amaranthus blitum and Euphorbia helioscopia. Additionally, eight species were recorded to the flora of Deserts except that of Sinai among them: Heliotropium aegyptiacum, Chloris virgata and Commelina bengnalensis. Finally, nine species were added to the flora of the Mediterranean region e.g., Veronica anagaIlis-aquatica, Leptochola panicea and Chenopodium ficifolium.
  • Interaction of laser pulse with a quantum electron-hole semiconductor

    • Abstract: A laser-driven plasma is investigated theoretically in a quantum electron-hole semiconductor plasma by a short electromagnetic pulse. The laser beam is single, short, and high-intensity. Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) physical model consists of continuityand momentum equations for electrons and holes. These equations are closed by Poisson’sequation. The momentum equations include the wave vector of the electromagnetic field,pressure, and Bohm potential. It introduces the effect of two formulas about the pressurein the form of the last differential equations. An electromagnetic field is represented in thecircularly polarized Gaussian profile. Laplace transformation and convolution theorem areused to obtain the final evolution equation of our theoretical model. A laser-driven plasma is investigated theoretically in a quantum electron-hole semiconductor plasma by a short electromagnetic pulse. The laser beam is single, short, and high-intensity. Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) physical model consists of continuityand momentum equations for electrons and holes. These equations are closed by Poisson’sequation. The momentum equations include the wave vector of the electromagnetic field,pressure, and Bohm potential. It introduces the effect of two formulas about the pressurein the form of the last differential equations. An electromagnetic field is represented in thecircularly polarized Gaussian profile. Laplace transformation and convolution theorem areused to obtain the final evolution equation of our theoretical model
  • Estimation of Log-Pearson Type III Distribution Using Percentile Roots:
           ATM Transactions Over 24 Years in Saudi Arabia as a Case Study

    • Abstract: Estimation methods of three-parameter distributions are essential in data-fitting distributions. In this paper, an application to a simple estimation method named Percentile Root (PR) was presented with ATM transactions as a case study. The PR method was applied to the ‎probability distribution Log-Pearson type III distribution. The statistical properties of the ‎distribution are exploited by PR to obtain the estimated parameters, ensuring the efficiency of ‎the method. The Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were performed on the results of PR method. The significant results of‎PR method are compared with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), and it is clear that the PR method is simple in coding by a computer and provides precise results‎. The point is highly beneficial to applications of economic and commercial sciences. The Log-Pearson type III distribution was used by PR method and fitted to the ATM data set to overcome the problems of predicting the prospect numbers of financial transactions in banks.
  • Fully nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic excitation in Jupiter ionosphere

    • Abstract: Fully nonlinear solitary wave structure of dust-ion-acoustic waves are investigated ina five-component plasma consisting of positive proton beam from solar wind, positive ionfluid, two electrons population, one of them from the solar wind and stationary positivedust grains. The physical parameters in the system such as, proton beam-to-positiveion temperature and density ratios, as well as solar wind electron number density playan important role in the profile of the large amplitude dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves.Using pseudo-potential approach (Sagdeev potential) the basic equations are reduced toone evolution equation called an energy equation. The latter has been analysed and solvednumerically to obtain an arbitrary amplitude solitary profile as well as the possible regionsfor the existence waves. The solution of energy equation presents a positive potential,which corresponds to a compressive wave profile. The findings of this investigation areused to interpret the electrostatic arbitrary solitary waves that may be observed in theJupiter ionosphere.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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