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Journal of High Institute of Public Health
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2357-0601 - ISSN (Online) 2357-061X
Published by Alexandria University Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Determinants of Severity of COVID-19 Infection Among Health Care Workers
           in a Tertiary Hospital ...

    • Abstract: Background: Egypt joined several countries in immunizing her citizens with COVID19 vaccines; a priority was given to health care workers (HCWs), then to patients with chronic diseases. However, HCWs are exposed to a higher viral load; in addition, asymptomatic infection is commoner among them, thus potentially exposing them to a more severe illness. Objective(s): To identify the determinants of the severity of COVID-19 infection among HCWs. Methods: A case control study was conducted, where we recruited HCWs diagnosed as moderate or severe COVID-19 from isolation and critical care units; and compared their vaccination exposure with that among matched controls. A data collection sheet was filled by residents and included information about mask wearing, comorbidities, smoking, and COVID-19 manifestations. Results: The predictors that significantly affected severity of infection were cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, being a nurse, and mask compliance (OR 17.38 p=0.012 *, OR 5.86, p=0.002*, and OR=0.06, p=0.001 *respectively). Most females, as well as nurses were not vaccinated (90% p= 0.009 *, and 83.3% p=0.016 *respectively). There was no significant difference in mean oxygen saturation between vaccinated and non-vaccinated cases. Conclusion: Among HCWs, the most significantly protective factor against COVID-19 moderate and severe illness was mask compliance. Furthermore, being a nurse as well as having cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease were significant positive predictors of getting a more severe disease. There was no significant effect of vaccination on severity of COVID19 illness.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • Tobacco Smoking: Knowledge of Primary School Children and Impact of
           Educational Intervention in ...

    • Abstract: Background: Schools are a channel to better inform, and health educate children and adolescents about the hazards of tobacco smoking increasing their chance of stopping smoking, or even prevent its sporadic or regular use. Objective(s): To assess primary public school children’s knowledge regarding smoking, its associated factors, and to evaluate the impact of an educational session about tobacco smoking on the knowledge of school children in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. Methods: A one- group pretest-posttest design was conducted targeting a total number of 565 primary public-school children by using a pre-designed self-administered questionnaire, as a tool for assessment of their knowledge before and after applying an educational session for them. Results: Current smokers among the participant students accounted for 6.1% (6.2% of girls vs. 5.9% of boys), while 7.1% were ever smokers. Students with good knowledge constituted 9.7%, while those with poor knowledge represented 37.7%. Five items showed less than 50% correct response before the intervention and improved significantly (p = 0.000) after the intervention, namely “Nicotine is the substance that gives the distinctive flavor of cigarettes and is also used as an insecticide”, “Cigarettes contain toxic substances such as arsenic and cyanide”, “Tobacco kills nearly half of its users”, “Drinking waterpipe (Shisha) is less harmful than cigarettes”, and “Electronic cigarettes have no harm and help in quitting smoking”. Education of the mother (beta = 0.139, p= 0.017), information on packets (beta = 0.135, p = 0.015), having a friend who is smoker (beta = -0.135, p = 0.005), having a working mother (beta = 0.131, p = 0.006), gender (beta = 0.128, p = 0.007), and smoking status (beta = - 0.119, p = 0.012) were the most important predictors of the baseline knowledge score. The total knowledge of the participating students improved significantly after intervention, there was a highly statistically significant difference in the median score before and after the intervention (9 vs. 13, p = 0.000). Conclusion: The lower incidence of smoking among the children having better knowledge combined with the revealed result of the effectiveness of the educational intervention in improving the knowledge of school children especially at that young age mandate the integration of such education among the school curricula.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • Progress in Egypt’s Sustainable Development Goals from a Public
           Health Nutrition Perspective

    • Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include several nutrition-focused goals. Nutrition has direct effects on the second and third SDGs, namely achieving zero hunger and good health and well-being, as well as indirect effects on the first, fifth, sixth, eighth, and seventeenth. Achievement of SDG goals is a prerequisite for meeting the global nutrition targets by 2025. Despite some improvement, Egypt is falling short of meeting the majority of the nutrition targets. From a public health nutrition perspective, there are several gaps in progress toward the SDGs related to nutrition policies, programs, or intervention levels. Political commitment, multisectoral cooperation, adequate financing, scaling up existing interventions, delivering new policies, and incorporating best practices into national policies are crucial for accelerating nutrition progress. Investing in data needed and the capacity to use it, health system capacity building, service providers training, informing beneficiaries, program monitoring and evaluation, and establishing a nutrition surveillance system to adequately inform policy formation are crucial to achieving the target. In order to provide nutrition interventions in an integrated manner, a multi-systems approach should focus on the food, health, water, and sanitation systems, as well as the education and social protection systems. The food system must support low-cost and nutritionally diverse diets, healthy food environments, and positive practices. In addition, legislation, labeling, taxes, and marketing regulations are significant. In generating evidence, science and academia play a crucial role in accelerating the progress of SDG targets. This article reviews the nutritional problem in Egypt and concludes that long-term sustainable development in Egypt cannot be achieved unless malnutrition is effectively addressed (especially in anemia among preschool and school children, exclusive breastfeeding, and overweight and obesity in adolescents and adults).
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • Carbon Footprint of High Institute of Public Health Before and During
           COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: Background: Carbon footprint is a widely used tool to measure the impact of human activities on global warming. The lockdowns caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have significantly changed energy consumption forms and decreased CO2 emissions worldwide. This research is a trial to elaborate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the carbon footprint of the High Institute of Public Health (HIPH). Objective(s): The present study aimed at measuring the amount of water, electricity, fuel, and paper consumption by HIPH before and during the emergence of COVID-19 and assessing the carbon footprint of the HIPH population inside the building through the same period. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done using a pre-designed questionnaire targeting 10 % of the HIPH population before and during the pandemic. Bills of water, electricity, paper, and fuel consumption were used to calculate the carbon footprint for one year before and one year during COVID-19. Results: Online responses increased during COVID-19 emergence (69.2% during COVID-19 pandemic versus 44.1% before COVID-19 pandemic). Females were more than 2/3 of the respondents (70.6%). There was a significant difference in traveling outside Egypt before and during COVID-19 (χ2=12.794, p-value=0.002). A significant reduction in the average time spent in front of the computer at HIPH was found during the emergence of COVID-19 as most of the work became from home (χ2= 18.443, p-value= 0.001). Significant reduction in the consumption of hot drinks, cold drinks, bottled water and food inside the HIPH was noticed (χ2=50.219, p-value<0.0001; χ2=12.030, p-value=0.017; χ2=15.945, p-value=0.004; χ2=72.929, p-value<0.0001 respectively). The carbon footprint of HIPH in the period from July 2018 to June 2019 was 79.43MT of CO2e. In the period from July 2020 to June 2021, it was 59.85MT of CO2e with a 25% reduction in the emission. Conclusion: The carbon footprint of HIPH was reduced during the lockdown period compared to that before the epidemic. So, efforts should be gathered to hasten the reduction of carbon footprint through encouraging online teaching and changing lifestyle.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Feb 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • Screening for Developmental Delays in Children 2-36 Months of Age in a
           Primary Health Care ...

    • Abstract: Background: Developmental delays (DDs) in children are rising and necessitate routine screening for early recognition and management. Objective(s): To estimate the prevalence of developmental delays among children 2-36 months of age in a Primary Health Care (PHC) center in Cairo, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Saraya El-Koba PHC center involving 193 children 2-36 months of age. Data were collected using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) to assess five domains of development: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving, and personal-social. Some parents’ characteristics were also included. Results: Frequency of developmental delays was 9.3%. The domains with the most frequent delays were the communication and gross motor (3.1% each) and the least was the fine motor domain (1.04%). Girls scored significantly higher than boys in the problem-solving domain (p=0.037). First to third order of birth had higher communication and social scores (p=0.025, p=0.003 respectively). Highly educated mothers had children with higher fine motor and total developmental scores (p < 0.001 and 0.014 respectively), while highly educated fathers had children with higher communication scores (p=0.009). Duration of breast feeding was positively correlated with gross motor and social scores (p=0.001, p=0.042 respectively). Conclusion: The frequency of DDs was 9.3%. This prevalence is considered high compared to previous studies. It showed several associated factors and recommended early screening of preschool children for prompt recognition and timely intervention.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Vitamin D Level among Overweight and Obese Adults Attending Outpatient
           Clinics at Alexandria ...

    • Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and a high body mass index (BMI) are both regarded as serious public health issues. VDD has been documented at all stages of life and is frequently linked to the development of obesity. Objective(s): To measure Vitamin D (Vit. D) level in overweight and obese adult patients, and to determine the effect of anthropometric measurements on Vit. D level. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by random sampling technique, upon 250 overweight and obese adult patients (62% females and 38% males) admitted to the outpatient clinics at Alexandria Main University Hospital in the period from April 2021 to September 2021. Patients were categorized according to WHO BMI classification. Data were collected by a questionnaire through interview which included data about the patients’ sociodemographic characteristics. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, and the enzyme linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) method was employed to quantify serum 25(OH) D by using the Endocrine Society cutoffs to determine Vit. D level. Results: Among 250 overweight and obese patients, 59.2% suffered from VDD.  Negative correlations were found between Vit. D levels and age (r=-0.139) , weight (r=-0.844), waist circumference (r=-0.502), and truncal fat (r=-0.395). Conclusion: More than half of the overweight and obese persons had low serum concentrations of Vit. D. Their anthropometric measurements had a negative correlation with Vit. D levels. They may need a higher dose of Vit. D supplements compared to lean subjects.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Impact of Disorders of Sex Development on Egyptian Parents and Factors
           Affecting Them

    • Abstract: Background: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a category of congenital diseases characterized by aberrant internal and external genital structure development. Parental adjustment and functioning have been highlighted as being at risk in this environment. Objective(s): To compare the impact of children with XX, DSD and XY, DSD on their families, and factors influencing the burden on these parents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on parents of all 72 children with DSD who were diagnosed and followed up regularly between January and May 2021 at Alexandria University Children's Hospital's Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic, Egypt. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Family Impact Module (PedsQLTM FIM) (Arabic version) version 2 was used for assessing family impact and economic burden. Results: The current study included 72 children with DSD, 57 diagnosed with 46,XX, and 15 with  46,XY. The mean age of studied children was 7.93 ±  4.03 years. Parents of children with XX, DSD had lower scores (reduced family function) on all categories (except for family relationships) of the PedsQL™ FIM version 2 questionnaire, with no statistically significant difference. The worry domain had the lowest mean scores, with 33.86 ± 21.59 in children with XX,DSD and 45.33 ± 29.79 in those with XY,DSD. Univariate and correlation analyses found that having a sibling with the same condition had a statistically significant (r=-0.359,p= 0.002)negative impact on the family. Conclusion: XX,DSD had more negative impact on parents than XY,DSD, especially in the worry domain. Additionally, having siblings with similar conditions exhibited a strong correlation to creating a negative influence.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Caffeine Consumption among Young Athletes and Their Perception in Relation
           to Performance

    • Abstract: Background: Caffeine intake is common among adolescents especially young athletes for many reasons. Many young adolescents and athletes had mixed perceptions of caffeine safety. Aims: The aim of present study was to estimate mean daily caffeine consumption among young athletes, identify different caffeinated products commonly consumed by them, assess their perception towards caffeinated products in relation to athletic performance. Methods: A cross sectional approach using a predesigned interview questionnaire to collect data from 420 adolescent athletes, aged 13-18 years of both sexes, recruited from different sports was followed. Results: The mean caffeine intake from all sources (frequently cola drinks) was 47.3 ± 54.2 mg/day (0.9 ± 1.3 mg/kg/day). Total daily caffeine intake was positively correlated with training load (p < 0.001). More than half (57.8%) of young athletes who took supplements or caffeinated beverages were advised to do so by a coach. Improvement of athletic performance, increase attention, and improvement of body shape were the common reasons for supplements and caffeinated beverages intake. Around 40% of young athletes perceived that intake of caffeinated beverages before training improves energy and attention, respectively during training. While 20.5% agreed that they reduce tension before training or competitions. Conclusion: The mean caffeine intake from all sources was considered safe. There is a positive relationship between total daily caffeine intake and perception that intake of caffeinated beverages before training improves energy and attention during training, and that they reduce the tension before training. Although, caffeine intake was within safe levels, young athletes should be aware of different sources of it to avoid negative side effects of its high intake.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Common Mental Health Disorders and Mental Health Help-Seeking Behaviors
           among Caregivers of ...

    • Abstract: Background: Mental health issues are major public health concern. Primary caregivers of diabetic children carry multi-dimensional burden during management of this chronic condition and are vulnerable to various mental disorders. Objective(s): To identify the common mental health disorders and mental health help-seeking behaviors among caregivers of diabetic children. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study including primary caregivers of children with type-1 diabetes (n=151) and caregivers of non-diabetic children (n=151) was carried out at Suez Canal University and Health Insurance hospitals in Ismailia, Egypt. Participants completed a structured questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, medical histories, and recent mental health help-seeking behaviors. WHO self-reporting questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) was used to assess the suspected Common Mental Health Disorders (CMHD) among studied caregivers. Results: suspected CMHD among caregivers of diabetic children was relatively higher than the caregivers of non-diabetic children (75.5% vs. 72.2%, p = 0.513). The proportion of caregivers of diabetic children who sought formal sources of mental health help was significantly lower than caregivers of non-diabetic children (6.7% vs. 20.5%). Caregivers with suspected CMHD had significantly lower perceived mental and physical health and sought mental health help more than those with no suspected CMHD (31.8% vs. 17.7%, p =0.02). The main significant determinants of suspected CMHD were the perceived mental and physical health (p < 0.001, and 0.027, respectively). Conclusion: No significant difference in CMHD existed between caregivers in studied groups. Caregivers of diabetic children were less likely to seek formal sources of mental health help-seeking. Perceived mental and physical health were the determinants of CMHD.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Wastewater Surveillance System as a Complementary Approach for Rapid
           Identification of ...

    • Abstract: The rapid identification of infectious disease outbreaks is critical, both for effective initiation of public health intervention measures and timely alerting of government agencies and the general public. Surveillance capacity for such detection can be costly, and many countries lack the public health infrastructure to identify outbreaks at their earliest stages. Wastewater surveillance is a promising complementary approach to clinical surveillance for monitoring community outbreaks. This approach can help detect the presence of pathogens across municipalities, and estimate disease incidence independent of individual testing. Wastewater surveillance may help overcome known limitations of clinical surveillance, such as low population coverage, high costs, testing and reporting delays, and the uncertain likelihood of an individual to seek health care. It is less resource intensive than large scale clinical testing, making it an optimal and cost-effective tool for long term monitoring as well as early identification of pathogens circulating in the population.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:00:00 +010
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Heriot-Watt University
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