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Afro-Egyptian Journal of Infectious and Endemic Diseases
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-7613 - ISSN (Online) 2090-7184
Published by Zagazig University Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Chatbots, ChatGPT, and Scholarly Manuscripts WAME Recommendations on
           ChatGPT and Chatbots in ...

    • Abstract: Journals have begun to publish papers in which chatbots such as ChatGPT are shown as co-authors. The following WAME recommendations are intended to inform editors and help them develop policies regarding chatbots for their journals, to help authors understand how use of chatbots might be attributed in their work, and address the need for all journal editors to have access manuscript screening tools. In this rapidly evolving field, we expect these recommendations to evolve as well.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Jan 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • Optimality of 2-week Versus 4-week Intervals in Secondary Prophylaxis of
           Bleeding by Endoscopic ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: There is a constant debate about the most appropriate intervals between endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) sessions that can help achieve variceal obliteration with minimal complications. This study aims to compare 2-weekly and 4-weekly EVL schedule as regards achieving variceal obliteration and prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding‎‎‎. Methods: ‎This study included 204 patients with first attack variceal bleeding randomly allocated in two groups; group I: included 102 patients who underwent 2-weekly EVL schedule and group II: included 102 patients who underwent 4-weekly EVL schedule. Both groups were followed up till either obliteration or recurrence of bleeding occurred‎‎.‎ Results: Group I had significantly higher rate of variceal obliteration at both week 8 (17.5 % vs 0 % P < 0.001) and in week 12 (40 % vs 6.2 % P < 0.001). The overall rate of rebleeding was higher in group II (9.8 % vs 21.6 % p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the studied groups as regards any of the post banding symptoms, complication, and rehospitalization‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: The two weekly EVL schedule can help achieve variceal obliteration in shorter duration than 4 weekly schedule and lower overall rate of rebleeding without any significant increase in the post banding symptoms, complication and rehospitalization‎.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Jan 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • Evaluation of Lipid Profile in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Related
           Liver Cirrhosis‎

    • Abstract: Background: Liver cirrhosis is characterized by multiple metabolic changes. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced cirrhosis is one of the universal causes of morbidity and mortality. The peak prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) was reported in Egypt. The aim of this study was to evaluate lipid profile in patients with hepatitis C virus induced liver cirrhosis‎‎. Study aim: To evaluate lipid profile in patients with hepatitis C virus induced liver cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: This Case control study was conducted on 63 subjects divided into 21 subjects in each of 3 groups: Chronic hepatitis C group, cirrhotic groups and healthy control group. Full history taking and  examination were done for all cases.  Fasting serum lipid profile of serum total cholesterol , TG ,  HDL, LDL, VLDL were measured for all cases‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Results: There was statistically significant difference between the studied groups regarding total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, TG and VLDL cholesterol. The best cutoff of HDL cholesterol in diagnosis of presence of liver cirrhosis was ≤37.71 mg/dl with area under curve 0.745, sensitivity 71.4%, specificity 71.4%, positive predictive value 55.6%, negative predictive value 83.3%m accuracy 71.4%. The best cutoff of VLDL cholesterol in diagnosis of presence of liver cirrhosis is ≤21.423 mg/dl with area under curve 0.78, sensitivity 84.5%, specificity 75.0%, positive predictive value 63.3%, negative predictive value 90.2%m accuracy 78.5%. Significant AUC was recorded with cutoff regard Serum cholesterol, Serum triglycerides, LDL and VLDL ≤157.5, ≤152.9, ≤83.2 and ≤30.59 respectively with perfect validity. Conclusion: lipid parameters may be considered as a supporting method in appraising hepatic illness ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • The Efficacy of Bacterial Meningitis Score in Predicting Bacterial
           Meningitis at Mansoura Fever ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aims: Despite the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, the meningitis and the encephalitis are still considered to be important causes of mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis and starting immediate empirical therapy are the key factors of decreasing morbidity and mortality. We aimed to detect the frequency of bacterial meningitis among the suspected cases and to evaluate bacterial meningitis score (BMS) for detection the bacterial meningitis cases‎‎‎.Methods: ‎This study was a cross-sectional included 48 patients admitted to the Mansoura Fever Hospital with clinical pictures suspected of meningitis. Full medical history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations and lumber puncture with CSF examination were provided to the participant patients. They were classified according to the results of CSF culture into two groups. The first group: included 12 patients with confirmed septic meningitis. The second group: included 36 patients with aseptic meningitis. The Application of bacterial meningitis score (BMS) was applied‎‎.‎Results: The incidence of the bacterial meningitis in our study was 25% (12 from 48 patients).The aspect of CSF was turbid among all the patients of septic meningitis, while was turbid only in in (8.3%) of aseptic meningitis cases. The total leucocytes count, polymorphs, and protein were significantly higher in patients with septic meningitis. The bacterial meningitis score has high sensitivity (91.7%), specificity (97.2%), PPV (91.7%) and NPV (97.2%) in the diagnosis of the septic meningitis cases‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.Conclusion: The BMS is a quick, simple score, and highly accurate, which could be used for the diagnosis of the septic meningitis ‎.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2023 22:00:00 +010
  • Carvedilol versus Band Ligation for Primary Prophylaxis of Variceal
           Bleeding in ‎Cirrhosis ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aims: Up to our knowledge, no study was performed on primary prophylaxis of variceal ‎bleeding in cirrhosis with systemic arterial hypertension. So, we will evaluate the safety ‎and efficacy of carvedilol versus endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for the primary ‎prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in hypertensive cirrhotic patients‎.Patients and Methods: ‎In this randomized controlled trial, 306 cirrhotic hypertensive patients‏ ‏with large and/or ‎risky esophageal varices were randomized into EBL and carvedilol groups. Carvedilol ‎was given orally at an initial dose of 6.25 mg twice daily, and titrated up to achieve a ‎normotensive response. When maximum of 25mg twice daily was given without ‎satisfactory control of blood pressure, diuretic and enalapril was added.‎Results: Variceal bleeding within a follow up period of one year was found to be 1.3% in EBL ‎group versus 2.6% in carvedilol group without statistically significant difference ‎‎(P=0.680).  In carvedilol group, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and ‎mean arterial pressure were significantly decreased at 3 months of follow up till the end ‎of the study, while heart rate was significantly decreased at 9 months of follow up till ‎the end of the study when compared with the baseline (P <0.001). Adverse events were ‎significantly higher in the EBL group (25.49%) than carvedilol group (10.46%) (P< ‎‎0.05)‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.Conclusion: Carvedilol was safe and effective in the primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal ‎bleeding in cirrhotic patients with systemic arterial hypertension ‎‎.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Association between Proton Pump Inhibitors Use and Spontaneous
           ‎Bacterial Peritonitis ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a frequent complication in ‎cirrhotic patients with ascites with significant morbidity and mortality. In ‎patients with liver disease, there are many indications for acid ‎suppressive therapy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most ‎frequently prescribed drugs for acid suppression in patients with ‎cirrhosis. Several studies evaluating the risk of SBP in patients on PPIs ‎use have shown conflicting results. This study aimed at exploring ‎whether PPIs use in Egyptian cirrhotic patients with ascites is associated ‎with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis development‎‎‎.Patients and Methods: ‎The study included 209 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. ‎According to ascitic fluid polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) cell ‎count, patients were allocated into: SBP group (PMN > 250 cell/ mm3), ‎and non-SBP group (PMN < 250 cell/ mm3). Both groups were ‎compared to each other as regards rate of PPIs use, PPIs types and their ‎indication‎‎.‎Results: Out of 209 cirrhotic patients with ascites, SBP was detected in 34.9% of ‎patients whether they were on PPIs or not. SBP patients had a ‎significant higher use of PPIs therapy (72.6%) than the non-SBP ‎patients (26.5%) (P<0.001). However, there was no statistical significant ‎difference regarding type of PPIs or indications of use (P>0.05)‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.Conclusion: The rate of PPIs use was higher in SBP patients than in patients without ‎SBP. There were no differences regarding PPIs types or indications of ‎use between both groups. Thus, PPIs therapy should be judiciously used ‎and only when indicated in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites‎.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Dec 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of Plasma Osteopontin in Egyptian Hepatocellular
           ‎Carcinoma Patients

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver ‎cancer, coming 4th in most common cancers, and 2nd in cancer-related ‎mortality in Egypt. HCC biomarkers help in case screening, diagnosis, ‎and follow-up. This study aims at evaluating the diagnostic value of ‎plasma osteopontin (OPN) compared to alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) for ‎diagnosing HCC in Egyptian patients.Patients and Methods: ‎‎‎ 120 ‎subjects in Alrajhi Liver Hospital, Assiut University were included (60 ‎HCC, 30 liver cirrhosis, and 30 healthy individuals). Plasma OPN and ‎AFP levels were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. ‎Uncontrolled diabetic and hypertensive patients, patients with other ‎tumors than HCC or those receiving HCC treatments were excluded‎‎‎‎‎‎.‎.‎Results: OPN plasma levels were higher in HCC group compared to cirrhotic ‎and control groups respectively (200 vs. 77.5 vs. 25.5 ng/ml, p < 0.05). ‎Tumors >5cm in diameter resulted in significantly higher plasma OPN ‎compared to tumors <5cm (p < 0.05). Child-Pugh score, multiple tumors, ‎or lymph nodes didn’t significantly affect OPN levels in HCC group ‎‎(p>0.05). Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of ‎OPN for HCC vs Cirrhotic group were superior to AFP (97%, 70%, ‎and 84% at cut-off value 90 ng/mL for OPN vs 90%, 63% and 77% at ‎cut-off value 5.5 ng/ml for AFP). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) ‎value for OPN was higher than AUC value for AFP (0.923 vs. 0.902)‎‎‎‎‎‎.Conclusion: Serum OPN had better diagnostic ability for detecting HCC compared to ‎AFP, suggesting OPN as a promising diagnostic marker for HCC at ‎normal AFP levels‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Dec 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • COP27 Climate Change Conference:‎ Urgent Action Needed for Africa
           and the ‎World

    • Abstract: The 2022 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) paints a dark picture of the future of life on earth, characterised by ecosystem collapse, species extinction, and climate hazards such as heatwaves and floods . While the Paris Agreement of 2015 outlines a global action framework that incorporates providing climate finance to developing countries, this support has yet to materialise. COP27 is the fifth Conference of the Parties (COP) to be organised in Africa since its inception in 1995. Ahead of this meeting, we—as health journal editors from across the continent—call for urgent action to ensure it is the COP that finally delivers climate justice for Africa and vulnerable countries. This is essential not just for the health of those countries, but for the health of the whole world.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 in the Ascitic Fluid as ‎Predictor
           for Spontaneous ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the complications of ‎decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites. A polymorphonuclear leukocyte ‎‎(PMNL) count of 250/mm3 or higher is the gold standard for diagnosing SBP. ‎Accurate and early detection of SBP is critical to reduce mortality and ‎complications in patients with cirrhosis. This study aimed to see how accurate ‎ascitic fluid Transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β 1] is a predictor for the ‎detection of SBP‎‎‎‎‎.‎ Patients and Methods: Eighty-two Egyptian patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites were enrolled; these ‎patients were divided into two groups: 42 patients with SBP and 40 patients ‎without SBP based on an elevated ascitic PMNL count of 250 cells/mm3 or ‎more. Ascitic fluid samples were examined in all patients for PMNL count, ‎culture, chemistry, and Transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β] concentrations.‎ The work was carried out in the Internal Medicine Department of Suez Canal ‎University Hospital.‎ Results: TGF-β1 levels in the ascitic fluid were correlated significantly with ascitic fluid ‎PMNLs and significantly higher in patients with SBP than non-SBP (P<0.001), ‎with the best cutoff value for the detection of SBP of 151.5 ng/ml with a ‎sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 100%‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: Elevated ascitic fluid TGF-β1 levels in cirrhotic patients are a diagnostic and ‎reliable marker for the detection of SBP‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Evaluation of Thyroid Functions in Cirrhotic Patients with Refractory

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: Disturbance of thyroid functions was observed in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. This ‎study aimed to assess thyroid hormone levels in cirrhotic patients and to evaluate the ‎relationship between thyroid function disturbances and cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites‎‎‎‎‎‎.‎ Methods: ‎‎‎ This study included 244 cirrhotic patients enrolled into 3 groups: group A included 122 ‎cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites, group B included 62 cirrhotic patients with ascites and ‎Group C included 60 cirrhotic patients without ascites. All patients were evaluated by complete ‎blood count, liver functions, kidney functions, coagulation profiles, serology for viral hepatitis, ‎serum Na, serum K, urine analysis, thyroid function tests, and abdominal ultrasonography‎‎‎.‎ Results: In group A, 21.3 % of patients had high TSH levels, 14.8 % had low free T3 levels and 9.8 % ‎had low free T4 levels. Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites had a statically significant ‎lower levels of free T3 (2.43 ± 0.66) and free T4 (1.16 ± 0.21) (P > 0.05), but no significant ‎difference as regard TSH levels compared to cirrhotic patients without ascites. Child C cirrhotic ‎patients had a statistically significantly lower levels of free T3 (2.44 ± 0.68) and free T4 (1.16 ± ‎‎0.21) compared to child A cirrhotic patients (P > 0.05)‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: The percentage of elevated TSH levels and decreased free T3 and T4 levels was more in ‎cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Hypothyroidism could be a risk factor for the ‎occurrence of refractory ascites in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis ‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Impact of Infection on Glycemic Control in ‎Diabetic Patients; a
           Hospital-based Cohort ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: In developing countries with high diabetes rates, it is essential to recognize the effect of infection ‎on the glycemic control. The purpose was to determine how infection affects glycemic control, ‎specifically HbA1c. The secondary objective was to compare infection-related outcomes between ‎good versus poorly controlled diabetes‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.‎ Methods: ‎‎‎A cohort study conducted from July 2019 to June 2020 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, ‎Karachi. A patient's HbA1c before infection is called pre-infection HbA1c; the HbA1c after 3 ‎months is called post-infection HbA1c. Pre-infection HbA1c were subcategorized into two groups, ‎i.e. poor and good glycemic control. Comparison of infection related outcomes between these two ‎groups was done using the chi-square test‎‎‎‎.‎ Results: A total of 168 patients had infection and diabetes. The mean age was 67.6 years and 86 (51.2%) ‎were males. Seventy patients (41.7%) had good-control, while 98 patients (58.3%) had poor-‎control. The mean pre-infection HbA1c in good-control diabetic patients was 6.2% while in poor-‎control was 8.5% (p: 0.000). While the mean post-infection HbA1c in the good-control was 6.9% ‎and in the poor-control was 8.3% (p: 0.010). The poor-control group had a higher infection-related ‎death rate (62.5% vs. 37.5%, p: 0.72), and multiple sites of infection (65.2% vs. 34.8%, p: 0.47). In ‎the poor-control group, there was a higher rate of re-infection (52.8 vs. 47.2%, p: 0.45), whereas ‎the rate of septic shock was similar (50%, p: 0.42)‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: Based on our study, we conclude that infection had variable effect on glycemic control ‎. ‎Moreover, diabetes per se had a major effect on infection risk, its severity, and mortality, regardless ‎of glycemic control‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound at Crossroads in COVID - 19 era:‎ a
           Multi-Center Global Study.

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: During COVID-19 pandemic most of non-emergency endoscopic procedures has ‎been suspended. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is important diagnostic and ‎therapeutic procedure. This survey aimed to provide a rapid assessment of status of ‎EUS during COVID-19 pandemic in different leading units of the world‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.‎ Patients and Methods: ‎‎‎Senior endoscopists from 10 different countries were invited to participate. Patient ‎demographics, COVID-19 status, EUS indications as well as laboratory and ‎radiology findings were reported. Pre-procedural preparation and post procedure ‎complications were reported. Data were analyzed to reveal the effect of SARS-CoV-‎‎2 pandemic on different perspectives of EUS practice in the collaborating ‎endoscopy units. Descriptive analysis was done by calculating percentages for ‎categorical variables and mean± standard deviation for quantitative variables‎‎‎.‎ Results: data of 316 patients from 11 countries were accrued. The mean (± SD) age of the ‎patients in this study was 55.57±13.94 years. In this analysis 62.3% were laboratory ‎confirmed SARS-Cov-2 negative while 8 patients were suspected and only 1 ‎patient was laboratory confirmed positive for COVID -19. Daily performance of EUS ‎was similar in before and during COVID-19 pandemic with an insignificant ‎decrease of -1.1%. Emergent and urgent EUS was needed in 58 (14.4%) and 91 ‎‎(28.8%) patients respectively. Pancreatic mass (27.8%),biliary dilatation (10.4%) ‎formed major chunk of indications for procedure. Therapeutic outcomes were ‎achieved with majority (40.8%)‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: our data underscores the point of efforts of clinicians to provide the same level of ‎care provided by EUS units despite the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Study Cardiac Dysfunction as an Early Predictor of Esophageal Varices in
           Patients with Liver ...

    • Abstract: Background and aim: Due to the increased mortality and danger of bleeding, the presence of esophageal varices (EV) ‎caused by portal hypertension is a serious concern in cirrhotic patients. 60–80% of newly ‎diagnosed cirrhotic patients have EV, and 5-15% of big EV cases experience their first variceal ‎bleeding within the first year. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between cardiac ‎dysfunction and endoscopic indicators of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients‎. Methods: ‎‎‎‎60 participants were included; 40 cirrhotic patients with oesophageal varices and 20 non-‎cirrhotic individuals with no evidence of portal hypertension in endoscopy (control group). ‎Complete blood count, liver and kidney functions, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, ‎Electrocardiographic evaluation, and echocardiography were performed‎.‎ Results: The QTc interval, the LA volume, LV mass index, E-wave deceleration time, atrial flow ‎velocities, E/E′ ratio, and E/A ratio were significantly increased among cirrhotic patients ‎compared to controls. However, only the LA volume was substantially higher and E/E′ ratio ‎was considerably lower for patients with high-grade EV than those with low grades. ROC ‎curve to discriminate between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups, the QTc interval, E-wave ‎deceleration time, and E/A ratio had the highest accuracy 93.7%, 96.1%, and 84.2% ‎respectively.  Likewise, discriminating patients with high-grade EV from those with low ones, ‎LA volume, E/È ratio, and QTc interval showed the highest accuracy at 75.6%, 70.9%, and ‎‎66.7% respectively with the sensitivity of 92.31, 100.0, and 76.92 respectively‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations are valuable non-invasive ‎procedures that could evaluate cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients and could help predict ‎EV‎ ‎‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Vulvovaginitis in Women: Risk Factors and Antifungal Effect of ‎Two
           Selected Plant Extracts ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: Candida species is a leading cause of recurrent inflammation of both the vagina and vulva known ‎as vulvovaginitis. The increasing occurrence of vulvovaginitis among women of reproductive ‎years makes it important to investigate the risk factors associated with vulvovaginitis and the ‎antifungal effect of selected plant extracts on Candida species associated with vulvovaginitis. Materials and Methods: ‎‎‎ Three hundred women of reproductive age (15 – 50 years) with complaints suggesting ‎vulvovaginitis were assessed for possible risk factors associated with vulvovaginitis. High Vaginal ‎swabs (HVS) were collected and cultured for the presence of Candida species on Sabouraud ‎Dextrose Agar (SDA). Colonies were identified based on colony morphology, germ tube test, and ‎biochemically using API 20C AUX. Agar-well diffusion was used to determine the effect of ‎Gomphrena celosioides and Vernonia perrottettii extracts on the isolates. Chi square (P<0.05) was ‎used to determine the factors associated with vulvovaginitis‎‎.‎ Results: There was a significant association (P<0.05) with the use of birth control pills, tight underwear, ‎tight clothing, pregnancy and vulvovaginitis. (χ2= 82.78, P<0.001, χ2= 23.06 P<0.001, χ2= 8.292 ‎P<0.004, χ2 = 30.95 P≤0.0001 respectively). Twenty-one (21) isolates of Candida species were ‎identified as Candida tropicalis 13(59.1%)), Candida glabrata 3(13.6%), Candida albicans ‎‎3(13.6%), Candida parasiplosis 1(4.6%) and Candida lambica 1(4.6%).‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that birth control pills, tight underwear, tight clothing and pregnancy had a ‎significant association with vulvovaginitis. All Candida species isolates were resistant to plant ‎extracts. Women should be educated on the risk factors associated with vulvovaginitis‎‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Effect of Lactoferrin Supplementation on Serum Iron level and
           ‎Haematological Parameters ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: The sleeve gastrectomy is one of the most effective bariatric surgical techniques for treating obesity (SG). It might lead to both dietary deficiencies and anaemia at the same time. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of lactoferrin supplementation for three months on serum iron level and haematological parameters after sleeve gastrectomy operation. Patients and Methods: This study was done in Ain Shams university hospital, in the period between January-June 2021. This study included forty patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy, they were divided into two groups each group included 20 patients. Group one included 20 cases received postoperative ferrous sulphate capsule once daily for 3 consecutive months. Group two included 20 cases received postoperative lactoferrin sachet twice daily with ferrous sulfate capsule once daily for 3 consecutive months. Results: : After three months on ferrous sulphate supplementation group and lactoferrin with ferrous sulphate supplementation group, there is a substantial rise in serum iron, haemoglobin, HCT, RBCs, MCHC, lymphocytes, and platelets. However, the group receiving lactoferrin supplementation and ferrous sulphate capsules had a greater improvement in haematological markers.  Serving as inflammatory marketing obesity, there is a significant decrease in serum ferritin after 3 months follow up to be in the normal range. Regarding side effects, the ferrous sulphate supplement group experienced diarrhea more frequently than the other study group (P=0.35). Conclusion: : In combination with oral lactoferrin, oral iron supplements were more readily taken and accepted, and over the course of three months of supplementation, haematological markers improved more than with oral iron therapy alone.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Risk of Surgery in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

    • Abstract: Background and aim: Chronic liver disease patients often undergo surgery for indications other than liver transplantation ‎and may face increased perioperative risk due to surgical and anesthesia-related complications. The ‎current study's objectives were to assess the risk of surgery in cirrhotic patients and to identify ‎various variables that influence postoperative outcomes‎‎. Methods: ‎231 participants underwent non-hepatic surgery under general anesthesia categorized into 117 ‎cirrhotic patients and 114 non-cirrhotic (controls). All participants were subjected to complete ‎clinical and laboratory evaluations (pre-operative, and post-operative) with an assessment of ‎postoperative outcomes. For cirrhotic patients, the severity of liver disease was assessed by Child-‎Pugh and MELD scores‎.‎ Results: ‎In cirrhotic patients, hepatic causes are considerably the cause of not having surgery, additionally, ‎the majority of patients who underwent surgery had Child-Pugh scores of A or B (42.7 % and ‎‎44.5%,respectively), whereas only 12.8% had Child-Pugh C. Hepatic complications including HE, ‎decompensation, and SBP were more frequent in patients with CTP grades B and C than those ‎with grade A. Postoperative mortality significantly associated with higher white blood cells ‎‎(WBCs), serum creatinine, and MELD score (p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.002,respectively), and lower ‎serum albumin (p=0.028). AUC for WBCs, serum creatinine, MELD score, and serum albumin ‎was 0.958, 0.759, 0.963, and 0.765 respectively at cut-off >11.5, >1.2, ≤2.3, and >15 respectively‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: Operative complications (hepatic and non-hepatic)are more frequent in patients with CTP grades B ‎and C than those with grade A.  Postoperative mortality significantly associated with higher ‎WBCs, serum creatinine, and MELD score, and lower serum albumin‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 among ‎Egyptian
           Children Aged from ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: Recent research has highlighted the importance of monitoring trends in herpes simplex ‎virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence and their etiological ‎surveillance. In this study, we aim to evaluate the seroprevalence of HSV1 and HSV2 ‎among Egyptian children aged from one to 15‎ years old‎‎. Materials and Methods: ‎This study was based on a sample of children who regularly attended Misr University for ‎Science and Technology University hospital's outpatient clinics. The participants in the ‎study ranged in age from 1 to 15 years old. An ELISA kit tested blood samples for HSV-1 ‎and HSV-2 IgG and IgM‎.‎ Results: In the present survey, 123 children were included. Overall, the median IgM and IgG values ‎for the HSV type I study cohort were 0.39 (range, 0.0-3.07) and 1.50 (range, 0.02-3.89), ‎respectively. The median IgM and IgG values for the HSV type II study cohort were 0.32 ‎‎(range, 0.00-2.11) and 0.42 (range, 0.00-2.87), respectively. The prevalence of HSV type I ‎among study candidates was 56.1%. However, the prevalence of type II was 4.1%. In ‎comparison with the different age groups, it was found that the IgM levels in both HSV I ‎and II have no difference (P-value = 0.701 and P-value = 0.576, respectively). In HSV I ‎patients, there was a significant difference in IgG levels between age groups (P-value = ‎‎0.001), but no difference was found in HSV II patients (P-value = 0.870)‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: HSV1 and HSV2 seroprevalence is prevalent among Egyptian children.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Prevalence of Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax among Patients
           ‎suffering from ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: The Oral cavity harbors many microorganisms and their balance is essential for its ‎health. Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax are the most commonly ‎found oral protozoa. This study aims to explore their prevalence in patients with ‎chronic systemic diseases and the associated risk factors.‎‎‎‎. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included 150 chronic patients from Fayoum Governorate, ‎Egypt, designated into three groups (50 each). These are; a group of diabetic ‎patients, a group of chronic renal failure on regular hemodialysis, and a group of ‎chronic liver diseases with Child-Pugh Class B and C. In addition to 50 healthy ‎volunteer subjects were enrolled as a control group. A specialized dentist collected ‎dental plaques and saliva samples from all subjects. A designed questionnaire was ‎taken for personal, demographic data, oral risk factors as regular oral hygiene, ‎smoking, halitosis, and history of chronic or recurrent gum and teeth complaints‎. Oral samples were examined using direct microscopy, saline wet mount, and ‎Giemsa staining.  Each sample was cultured on Diamond's medium [TYM] for ‎detection of T. tenax, and on Locke’s-egg medium for detection of E. gingivalis. ‎HbA1c as indicator for diabetic control was measured in sera drawn from cases and controls.‎ Results: The prevalence of oral protozoa was significantly increased in chronic diseases, ‎as E. gingivalis was reported in 80%, 76, and 74% of diabetic, renal, and hepatic ‎groups of patients respectively compared to 20% in the control healthy group. ‎While T. tenax was reported in 70%, 62%, and 64% respectively compared to 16 ‎‎% in the control group < em>‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: This high prevalence in chronic systemic disease needs more investigations ‎concerning its pathogenesis, immunological mediators that may affect systemic ‎diseases and the interplay between them‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Characteristics of Hepatocellular ‎Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients : ‎A
           Single Center Pilot ...

    • Abstract: Background and study aim: Hepatocellular‏ ‏Carcinoma ( HCC) is regarded as one of the most ‎widespread leading causes of mortality annually . The most ‎frequent risk factors for HCC are chronic viral hepatitis  infection‎‎, which account for 80% of all HCC cases globally. This study ‎aims to highlight epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and ‎radiological characteristics of HCC in patients attending ‎Tropical Medicine Department‎‎. Patients and Methods: A Retrospective study was conducted on medical records of all ‎patients attending Tropical Medicine Department to determine ‎the socio demographic, laboratory, clinical and radiological ‎characteristics of HCC.‎ Results:‎715 patients with HCC were included in this study. The mean ‎age of HCC onset was (59.76±8.14), 68% were males, 32 % ‎were females, 39.7 % were diabetic ,  Two thirds of the patients ‎were Child-Pugh A (67%), the remaining third were child B ( ‎28.2%) and child C (4.9%).  9.5% were jaundiced, 20% were ‎ascitic, 74.8% had splenomegaly, 8.7% had malignant PVT ‎while 0.4 % had Benign PVT, AFP was > 400 in 16.2 %  of ‎patients. 19.8 % had received HCV treatment, 67 % were active ‎HCV‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma is predominant in older- male patients ‎with chronic hepatitis C not receiving treatment, and  have ‎diabetes mellitus‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • COVID-19 among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients on ‎Immunosuppressive
           Therapy During the First ...

    • Abstract: Background and aim of the work: COVID-19 has multiple challenges among risky cases like rheumatoid arthritis patients. So, this ‎study was done to look for COVID-19 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and compare the severity ‎and outcome of COVID-19 in rheumatoid arthritis patients to those in other groups‎‎‎. Patients and Methods: the prospective comparative study included 146 randomly selected patients attending Zagazig ‎University Hospital in Egypt ,who were treated by the Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population ‎protocol for COVID-19, and the disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)who fulfilled the ‎selection criteria to be recruited into three groups: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients; rheumatoid ‎arthritis with COVID-19 patients (RA-COVID); and a COVID-19 (COVID-19) group‎.‎ Results: the mean age of the studied group was 50 years old. The three studied groups showed no statistically ‎significant difference (p > 0.05) as regards age, sex, level of education, and marital status. But there ‎was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding occupation and special habits in ‎the form of hashish smoking. There was no marked difference in COVID-19 symptoms between group II and group III. The mean of the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) was 5.5 in RA group versus 8 in RA-COVID-19 group ,with ‎statistically significant difference between group I and II as regard DAS28. The duration from being diagnosed with ‎COVID-19 till recovery was significantly higher in RA-COVID-19 cases compared to COVID-19.  ‎RA-COVI-19 group did tend toward higher hospital admission rates (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.35-0.88; p = 0.03)‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎. Conclusion: COVID-19 is accompanied by non-significant worsening of symptoms in RA patients on DMARDs, ‎except the admission rates. More research into expanding cases is required‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Image Case: Coincident Malaria falciparum and Covid19 Infection in a 27
           Years Old Male Student ...

    • Abstract: A 27 years old male student was admited to fevers hospital by high grade fever, chills and cough. He just arrived to Egypt 5 days before appearance of symptoms coming from Central African Republic to study at Al- Azhar University. In addition to the previously mentioned symptoms, he also complained of headache, anorexia, vomiting and dark colored urine. Upon admission he was feverish (39.5) and laboratory finding revealed slight elevation of total bilirubin (1.3mg/dl) and creatinine level (1,6mg/dl).Covid 19 PCR test by (nasopharyngeal swab) was done and found to be positive. High resolution CT chest was done showing bilateral small peripheral patches of ground glass opacity(GGO). Thin and thick blood films and giemsa stained were done revealing Plasmodium falciparum ring stages, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for malaria   was done and found to be positive for Plasmodium falciparum.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Erratum to “‎Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis ‎Infections:
           Unsuitable Empirical ...

    • Abstract: It has come to our attention that an error was noticed during the response to reviewers and production stages in the abstract section and also within the manuscript,
      DOI : Published: March 1st, 2022
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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