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Medical Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2314-8748 - ISSN (Online) 2314-8756
Published by Egyptian Liver Research Institute and Hospital (ELRISH), Egypt Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Incidence and predictors of acute oesophageal variceal haemorrhage in
           patients with spontaneous ...

    • Abstract: Background: Rupture oesophageal varices (REV) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. Bacterial infection is linked with the risk of variceal bleeding through complex pathophysiologic pathways. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the commonest well-known bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. the aim of this study is to estimate the incidence and predictors of REV in cirrhotic patients with SBP. Patients and methods: 389 patients with cirrhotic ascites out of 2880 patients with ascites and/or acute gastrointestinal bleeding were divided into two groups, group 1 included 189 patients with SBP and group 2 included 200 patients without SBP. Routine clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results: Compared to patients without SBP, patients with SBP had significant higher incidence of oesophageal variceal hemorrhage (25.4% in patients with SBP versus 14% in patients without SBP (P =0.004). multivariate analysis for factors associated with oesophageal variceal haemorrhage in patients with SBP demonstrated that, the independent predictors for rupture oesophageal varices in patients with SBP were, increased age (p value= 0.001) with EXP(B) 1.068; 95.0% C.I. was (1.026-1.113), presence of fever (p value= 0.005) with EXP(B) 3.433; 95.0% C.I. was (1.458-8.083) and hepatic encephalopathy (p value= 0.039) with EXP(B) 3.159; 95.0% C.I. was (1.060-9.421). Conclusion: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis increases the risk of oesophageal variceal haemorrhage. Increased age, presence of fever and hepatic encephalopathy were independent predictors of acute oesophageal variceal haemorrhage in patients with SBP.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Nanoparticle zinc oxide obviates oxidative stress of liver cells in
           induced-diabetes mellitus model

    • Abstract: Background: Because of vital features including biocompatibility, high surface reactivity, and oxidation resistance, emerging nanomedicine is well-known for its potential therapeutic prospects. The goal of this study is to see if nanoparticle zinc oxide (ZnONPs) may reduce hepatic problems and oxidative stress in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ).Materials and methods: This study included 39 rats separated into three groups, each consisting of 13 rats; control group, streptozotocin group, and streptozotocin + ZnONPs group. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured as biochemical-specific oxidative stress measures. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-β) were also measured, as well as total cholesterol and triglycerides. The percentage of P53 in the liver was determined. Inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in tissues were also seen by histological investigation. Results: FBS, HbA1C, liver function tests, MDA, NO, ROS, P53, and TNF-β serum levels were increased in STZ-treated rats. Treatment with ZnONPs (5 mg/kg) in the STZ+ ZnONPs group significantly improved, FBS, HbA1C, MDA, NO, GSH, ROS, liver function, fasting blood sugar, HbA1C, and tumour necrosis factor. In addition, ZnONPs treatment banned inflammatory cell infiltration and P53 in STZ-administered rats. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that ZnONPs may aid in controlling hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in rats.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Fulminant hepatitis by concurrent acute HBV-HCV infection successfully
           treated with antivirals ...

    • Abstract: Background: A severe, near-fatal liver failure due to a concomitant acute HBV-HCV infection has been controlled and later fully resolved from a clinical and a virological point of view, by a prompt and appropriate antiviral treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Anti-cancer activity of hesperidin against hepatocellular
           carcinoma-induced in rats through ...

    • Abstract: Background: Receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1) is an important protein in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis. Hesperidin (Hes) is a natural product found in citrus species and is believed to have an anti-cancer effect. Aims: This research was planned to elucidate the protective influence of Hes on the RIPK1 pathway in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced HCC.Materials and methods: HCC was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats using TAA and Hes was administered orally. Liver function tests, oxidative stress status, and antioxidant markers were evaluated. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissues was carried out by staining with hematoxylin and eosin stains. The protein level of RIPK1 was quantified by ELISA. Results: Hes exerted a hepatoprotective effect by significantly improving liver functions and oxidative stress status. This was supported by the integrity preservation of the liver tissues, which was indicated by histopathological examination. Moreover, Hes significantly increased the hepatic RIPK1 protein level.  Conclusion: These results reveal that, Hes protected against HCC by decreasing oxidative stress and upregulation of RIPK1 protein level.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010
  • Impact of long-term eradication of chronic Hepatitis C infection using the
           direct-acting ...

    • Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment aims to halt the progression of fibrosis and reducing its complications. HCV-treatment has been enhanced by the development of all-oral DAAs with good efficacy and a reasonable side effect. Aims: The goal of this study is to see how long-term eradication of HCV affect liver fibrosis following DAAs therapy.Materials and methods: 500 HCV patients receiving sofosbuvir-based therapy with daclatasvir or ledipasvir (with or without ribavirin). In addition to clinical, laboratory, and radiological examination, FIB-4, APRI, Fibroscan examination, Child and MELD scores were calculated at baseline and one year after end of therapy (EOT). Results: Out of 500 participants included in the study, 493 participants complete the study period. 454 (92.1%) patients had sustained virologic response (SVR) during the period of study and 39 patients were non-responders. In patients with SVR, FIB-4 index, APRI score and fibroScan measures showed significant reduction one-year post-EOT versus baseline (p < 0.001 for all). Although, Child score in patients had SVR did not demonstrate a significant improvement one year after EOT versus baseline (p = 0.479), it showed a significant improvement versus non responder (p < 0.001). In addition, MELD score revealed a significant reduction in patients who achieved SVR one-year post-EOT versus baseline (p = 0.028). Furthermore, one-year following EOT, there was a significant improvement in MELD score in patients with SVR versus non-responder (p < 0.001).  Conclusion: DAAs therapy in HCV-related liver disease had a good impact on liver fibrosis regression and the improvement of its outcome.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2022 22:00:00 +010

    • Abstract: Acute on chronic liver failure, also known as acutely decompensated cirrhosis, is a clinical condition characterized by sudden hepatic decompensation in patients with pre-existing chronic liver dysfunction, as well as extrahepatic organ defects and increase mortality in some patients. The prevalence of acute on chronic liver failure and the associated mortality rate is high in both developed and developing countries. We report the case of a 19year old male patient with no relevant medical or family history but a three year history Hepatitis B Virus Infection who presented to the hospital with jaundice and progressive generalized body swelling. Six days later, the patient developed hematemesis, ascites, melena and progressive body weakness. We present a review of literature on Acute on Chronic Hepatic Failure with a focus on the role of chronic Hepatitis B Infection. Also highlighted in the article is the limitations in the diagnosis and management of the patient in our health facility.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Sep 2021 22:00:00 +010
  • The Role of Endoscopic Ultrasound in Patients with Choledocholithiasis: A
           pilot study

    • Abstract: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a diagnostic modality that continues to expand its clinical ap-plications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of EUS in common bile duct stones.The study was carried on 29 patients with suspected CBD stones from them only 15 patients were diagnosed as Common Bile Duct stone(s). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is considered as gold standard for diagnosis of CBD stones and compare EUS findings with that of ERCP. The diagnostic performance of EUS show that sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 100%, 92.8%, 93.7%, 100% and 96.5% respectively. It can catch 15 of 15 true positive cases with only one false positive case and 13 of 14 true negative cases. EUS is considered as minimally invasive method with low incidence of complications allowing exact determination of site and size of stones.So EUS aid in good planning for CBD stones removal. Nevertheless resources, availability, operator experience, and cost limit widespread use of this modality.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 22:00:00 +010
  • HCV Genotype 5a presenting with hepatocellular cancer: First report from

    • Abstract: HCV genotype 3 followed by genotype 1 are the predominant genotypes in India. Genotype 5 has been reported only in case reports from India previously. We report the case of a 70 year old male who presented with Hepatocellular cancer in the background of chronic hepatitis C. The patient on evaluation was found to have genotype 5. Considering the rarity of the entity, we report this case with phylogeny and other details.HCV genotype 3 followed by genotype 1 are the predominant genotypes in India. Genotype 5 has been reported only in case reports from India previously. We report the case of a 70 year old male who presented with Hepatocellular cancer in the background of chronic hepatitis C. The patient on evaluation was found to have genotype 5. Considering the rarity of the entity, we report this case with phylogeny and other details.HCV genotype 3 followed by genotype 1 are the predominant genotypes in India. Genotype 5 has been reported only in case reports from India previously. We report the case of a 70 year old male who presented with Hepatocellular cancer in the background of chronic hepatitis C. The patient on evaluation was found to have genotype 5. Considering the rarity of the entity, we report this case with phylogeny and other details.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 22:00:00 +010
  • Influence of Liraglutide, Dulaglutide Versus Conventional Treatment on
           Fatty liver index and ...

    • Abstract: AbstractBackground and study aim: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a major public health challenge in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis( NASH), cirrhosis, and carcinoma. Our aim was to detect the changes of the fatty liver index (FLI) and FIB-4 score six months after treatment with liraglutide, or dulaglutide; novel antidiabetic medications in the Egyptian market versus the conventional therapy alone in Egyptian patients with T2D and co-existent NAFLD. Results: We found a significant improvement of the FIB-4 and FLI values in the patients who used liraglutide and dulaglutide than the conventional treatment and with better results in the liraglutide group. We noticed a significant reduction of the bodyweight, waist circumference, BMI, SBP, DBP, GGT, ALT, AST, HBA1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C values in the liraglutide and dulaglutide groups versus the conventional treatment group. FLI, AST and Platelet count changes were the significant predictors of the change in log FIB-4 score. However, the change in log FLI was independently affected by ALT changes. Conclusion: the addition of the liraglutide or dulaglutide exhibited many clinical and metabolic beneficial effects in the patients with concomitant T2D and NAFLD.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 22:00:00 +010
  • Prevalence of Occult HCV Infections in Saudi Patients who Achieved
           Sustained Virologic Response ...

    • Abstract: Background: Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OCI) is a condition where HCV RNA is present in hepatocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but not in the serum, in patients treated for hepatitis C infection. Serum HCV antibodies may or may not be present. Aim: We investigated the prevalence of OCI in PBMCs and hepatocytes in patients who had achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) after 24 weeks of direct-acting antiviral treatment.Methods: Chronic HCV patients with Genotype 1a and 4 who achieved SVR 24 weeks after treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) were prospectively selected. RNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen GmbH, Germany) was used for RNA extraction from blood and liver tissue samples. Superscript IV First-Strand Synthesis System (Invitrogen) was used for reverse transcription PCR. Quantitative and qualitative detection of HCV RNA was performed using primers specific to the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR).Patients: Of the six chronic HCV patients recruited for this study, five were infected with genotype 4 and one with genotype 1a. Five patients were treated with Sofosbuvir and Daclatasvir, and one patient with Ledipasvir plus Sofosbuvir.Results: None of the patients had detectable HCV RNA in either the PBMCs or hepatocytes, suggesting zero prevalence of OCI in patients who achieved 24 weeks SVR post DAA treatment. Conclusion: We failed to detect HCV RNA in both the hepatocytes and PBMCs of all patients recruited for the study. This finding suggests that OCI is a rare phenomenon and uncommon among immunocompetent patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 May 2021 22:00:00 +010
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Heriot-Watt University
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