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Environment Conservation Journal
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0972-3099 - ISSN (Online) 2278-5124
Published by Action for Sustainable Efficacious Development and Awareness Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Efficacy of chitosan on growth and yield traits of mulberry, Morus sp

    • Authors: Thanga roja Kaliappan, K. A. Murugesh, P. Mangammal, R. Shanmugam
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Chitosan is biopolymer of glucosamine residues, nontoxic, biodegradable and friendly to environment and it also helps to enhance crop production due to their bioactivities. The present experiment was conducted to assess the efficacy of chitosan on the growth and yield related attributes of mulberry, Morus sp. with various concentrations such as 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 ppm. The chitosan was sprayed thrice on 15, 30 and 45 days after pruning (DAP) on the foliage of three different mulberry varieties namely V1, MR2 and G4. The result revealed that, irrespective of varieties, the foliar application of chitosan at 75 ppm significantly increased the biometric as well as yield related attributes of mulberry over other concentrations. Among the three varieties, V1 showed more response to chitosan application than G4 and MR2. At 75 ppm, chitosan showed marked effect on VI variety of mulberry and significantly increased shoot length (170.67 cm), number of shoots per plant (9.03), number of leaves per shoot (29.48), leaf area (220.26 cm2) and leaf area index (2.72) were observed when compared with control. The application of chitosan at 75 ppm significantly enhanced the yield traits namely weight of 100 leaves (448.10 g), leaf shoot ratio (1.45) and leaf yield (14.01 MT/ha/harvest) in V1.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22301
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Profile distribution of soil organic carbon fractions under different
           landforms in the Meghalaya plateau of India

    • Authors: K. K. Mourya, R. K. Jena, P. Ray, S. Ramachandran, G. K. Sharma, S. Hota, S. K. Ray
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Assessment of organic carbon fractions in soil provides the basis to ascertain vulnerability of an ecosystem to climate change. In the present study, we assessed SOC fractions in four pedons under contrasting landforms i.e., denudational low hill, upper plateau, lower plateau and valley in the Meghalaya plateau, India. Results indicated that soils of the studied pedons were acidic in nature, low in cation exchange capacity and base saturation. Further, surface (0-30 cm) soils were high in Walkley Black C (WBC) content (0.83-1.13%) in the studied pedons located under different landforms. The density of very labile carbon (VLC) fraction up to a depth of 150 cm was highest (49.22 Mg ha'1) in pedon 2 (P2) located in the upper plateau under shifting cultivation while that of less labile carbon (LLC) was highest (50.25 Mg ha'1) in pedon 4 (P4) in the valley under paddy cultivation. Higher densities of WBC and LLC in the valley (P4) as compared to other landforms in the study area indicate higher carbon sequestration potential of valley soil.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22302
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Effect of differential nitrogen management practices on growth, yield and
           water use efficiency of rice under varying moisture regimes

    • Authors: Barnali N, L. Nabachandra Singh, Ingudam Bhupenchandra, S.K. Chongtham, L.C. Olivia, E. Lamalakshmi Devi, Soibam Sinyorita, Soibam Helena Devi, Reaya Chanu, Merinda Wangkheimayaum
      Pages: 17 - 30
      Abstract: Pot experiments were conducted during 2018and 2019 at the College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur, India to investigate the effect of different nitrogen management practices on growth, yield and water use efficiency of rice variety “CAU R1” under varying moisture regimes. Keeping this rationale, three nitrogen management practices {60 kg N/ha (Urea), 40 kg N/ha (Urea) + 20 kg N/ha equivalent FYM, 30 kg N/ha (Urea) + 15 kg N/ha equivalent FYM + 15 kg N/ha equivalent Azolla and three levels of moisture regime {continuous flooding (5 cm depth), no standing water (wetting soil just after hairy cracks appear), 5 cm water depth at tillering, panicle initiation and flowering stage} were tested in a Factorial Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice. Overall, the results of investigational findings indicated that the integrated approach of nitrogen management viz. 50% RDN through Urea + 25% RDN through FYM + 25% through Azolla with maintenance of 5 cm water depth at tillering, panicle initiation and flowering stage markedly improved growth and yield attributes and subsequently yield and water use efficiency of rice as compared to conventional method of nitrogen supplementation through fertilizer. Multivariate principal component analysis and stepwise regression showed that number of tillers/hill is the most important yield attributing characters implicated in augmenting the rice yield significantly.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22303
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • The Influence of irrigation and hydrogel application on yield and
           economics of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) under Eastern UP

    • Authors: Sumit Ray, Umesha C., M. R. Meshram, Lalit K. Sanodiya
      Pages: 31 - 36
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at CRF (Crop Research Farm), Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P.) during Zaid crop season 2020. The soil of site was sandy loam in texture with neutral PH. The experiment was carried out in split plot design having nine treatment consisted of main plot Irrigation viz., I1 (2 Irrigation during Emergence and Early Tillering), I2 (3 Irrigation during Emergence, Early Tillering and Boot stage) and I3 (4 Irrigation during Emergence, Early Tillering, Boot stage and Grain filling) and sub plot, Hydrogel viz., H0 (0 kg/ha), H1 (2 kg/ha) and H2 (4 kg/ha) which are replicated thrice and effect was observed on Manipuri variety of Bajra. The result indicated that increase in irrigation interval and hydrogel significantly improved yield attributes and yield. At, harvesting, 4 irrigation recorded maximum of Grain yield (1.88 t/ha), Stover yield (4.31 t/ha) and Harvest index (30.24 %) hydrogel also resulted significantly higher Grain yield (1.98 t/ha), Stover yield (4.44 t/ha) and Harvest index (30.79 %) Maximum Gross return (69222.96/ha), Net return (45066.76/ha) and Benefit to Cost ratio (2.87) were recorded by application of 4 kg/ha hydrogel with 4 irrigation.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22304
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Stubble burning: Root cause, impacts and its management in Indian scenario

    • Authors: Rohith Gottipati, Pavan M N Burra, Sandeep Menon
      Pages: 37 - 45
      Abstract: The practice of purposefully setting fire to the residue that remained after harvest of rice and wheat crop is increasing periodically. Stubble burning has become one of the challenging issues in India in recent times. Government has been consistently instructing farmers not to burn the crop residues, instead asking them for in-situ management. Farmers are citing various complications in stubble management which pulling them to setting up fire to the stubble. Rice straw burning generates life threatening greenhouse gases which causes air pollution injury. Particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the capital state of India (New Delhi) have been exceeded by 14 times than threshold level because of episodic agricultural fires in the neighbouring states namely Punjab, Haryana. A very limited study has been done so far on this complete issue despite of its importance. The present review tried to expose root cause, impacts on ecosystem and management strategies of stubble burning especially in India. There are plethora of possibilities in managing residue in sustainable ways including in-situ residue management, mushroom production, livestock feed, composting, biochar preparation, bio-thermal power plants and paper industries. Mechanical and effective method of in-situ management has been come into existence in the form of happy seeder. Depending on the land holding farmers can follow any of the said methods and manage their residue in sustainable way by overcoming the constraints thereby reducing the impacts on ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22305
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Evaluation of diverse range microbes for their plant growth promoting
           abilities and their pesticide compatibility

    • Authors: Tulja Sanam, S. Triveni , J. Satyanaryana , Sridhar Goud Nerella , K. Damodara Chari , Suseelendra Desai
      Pages: 47 - 58
      Abstract: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) contribute to an increase in crop yield through an environmentally friendly method, therefore eight rhizospheric bacteria, two of each genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Azotobacter and Azospirillum were examined for their efficacy to solubilize mineral nutrients using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a flame photometer. Their potency to produce phytohormones, synthesis biocontrol components and their compatibility with pesticides using in vitro assays was studied. All of the chosen bacterial isolates proved positive for the above-mentioned Plant Growth Promoting traits. Among the eight bacterial isolates Pseudomonas isolate P69 showed the highest phosphorous solubilization efficiency of 190.91 % and another isolate P48 produced a maximum of 27.63µg mL-1 of gibberellic acid, Bacillus isolate B120 could solubilize maximum amount of ZnO and ZnCO3 accounting for 21.3ppm and 25.9ppm, respectively, not merely in terms of solubilization when compared to the other isolates, B120 produced the highest levels of HCN (77.33 ppm TCC) and siderophores (48.87psu). On day 9 after inoculation, Azotobacter isolate AZB17 performed effectively in potassium solubilization of 6.25g mL-1 with a pH drop to 3.83. The Azospirillum isolate ASP25 outperformed all other isolates in terms of IAA production (22.64g mL-1) and Bacillus isolate B365 was found to be more compatible with eight different pesticides used in the field at varying concentrations. All of these factors point to the possibility of using these bacterial isolates B120, P48, P69, AZB17, and ASP25 as biofertilizers in sustainable agriculture.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22306
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Insights into the antibiotic resistance in Biofilms – A Review

    • Authors: Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Ambika Prasad Mishra , Kailash Chandra Samal , Ashish Kumar Dash
      Pages: 59 - 67
      Abstract: The biofilms comprise a population of bacteria with a varying variety of polysaccharides, proteins and DNA. Bacterial multi-phase defence consists of low antibiotic absorption, sluggish replication in the biofilm, and adaptive stress response. This antibiotic resistance produced by biofilm makes it challenging to deal with bacteria with effective antibiotic dosages in planktonic forms. A crucial component in the virulent colonisation of live tissues or medical equipment is having favourable situation for bacteria to create biofilms. The high level of recalcitrance in biofilm populations is due to several molecular pathways. As the stock of effective antibiotics is depleting, bacterial resistance is becoming an increasing risk to public health. As a result, new antibiotics are urgently needed. This review includes current empirical findings related to antibiotic resistance in biofilms and summarises the biofilm resistance and tolerance mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22307
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • The Rapid in-vitro micropropagation of Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) and
           its genetic fidelity testing using ISSR markers

    • Authors: Shambhu Ram Khare, Pawankumar S. Kharate, Ritesh kumar Sahu, Zenu Jha
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Bamboo is a versatile, arborescent, perennial and non-wood forest tree with tremendous commercial importance. For mass scale propagation of bamboo, the micropropagation is an effective way for producing elite, infection free and true-to-type planting material. Here, the nodal explants of Dendrocalamus strictus used to develop an effective protocol for micropropagation based on tissue culture technique. In this study, the sterilization treatment of 70% ethanol + Tween 20 + Bavistin + Hgcl2 + PPM was successfully controlled the contamination up to 90 % as compared to other treatments. The shoots were initiated from nodal segments in MS medium supplemented with BAP (4 mg/l) and PPM (500µl/l). Shoot multiplication was found best with BAP (4 mg/l) and kinetin (2 mg/l) by using liquid MS medium. Whereas, rooting in solid MS medium has shown good results when supplemented with NAA (4mg/l). Healthy and disease-free plants were obtained after hardening under greenhouse conditions. Genetic fidelity testing by using ISSR markers reported that there was no variation in plantlets developed through micropropagation.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22308
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Impact of Zinc levels and sowing dates on Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum

    • Authors: Nihal Dwivedi, Umesha C., Wasim Khan
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Central Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P.) during Zaid-2020 to study about the impact of Zinc levels and sowing dates on the crop Pearl Millet. The soil of experimental site was sandy loam in texture and nearly neutral in soil reaction. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and having nine treatment consisted of sowing dates viz., D1 (Sowing date of April 24th), D2 (Sowing date of May 02nd), D3 (Sowing date of May 11th) and Zinc viz., Z1 (15 kg/ha), Z2 (20 kg/ha), Z3 (25 kg/ha) which were replicated thrice and the impact was observed on Pearl Millet crop. The result revealed that, application of Zinc at 25kg/ha with the sowing date of May 11th recorded significantly higher plant height (215.97 cm), Dry weight (110.87 g), number of leaves/plant (15.9), Test weight (7.73 g), Grain yield (2.42 t/ha), Stover yield (7.62), net returns ( 67,293) and B:C ratio (2.84)
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22309
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Estimation of heterosis for grain yield and yield attributes in bread
           wheat genotypes utilizing line x tester analysis (Triticum aestivum L. em.

    • Authors: Amitava Roy, Anil Kumar, Karthick Babu S, Simran Sisodiya, Anu Singh
      Pages: 85 - 95
      Abstract: Eleven genotypes of bread wheat were crossed with three testers in the rabi season of 2018-19 inline x tester mating fashion to obtain 33 F1 hybrids, which were evaluated with parents and two standard checks of wheat viz., UP 2855 and HD 2967. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar in the rabi season 2019-20. Observations were recorded on various qualitative and quantitative characters including grain yield. The results obtained revealed significant differences among all the genotypes, indicating the presence of aconsiderable amount of genetic variability. The cross combinations SOKOLL x HI 1621, followed by QBP 12-11 x HI 1621, NAC/TH.AC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/ 2*PASTOR/5/… x HD 3237 were observed to be the better heterotic F1s in terms of grain yield. The hybrid QLD 75 x HI 1621 was identified as the best heterotic combination for grain weight per spike and harvest index. Whereas, for grains per spike F1, NW 6036 x HI 1621, for 1000 grain weight F1, SOKOLL x HD3237, for spike length F1, NAC/TH.AC//3*PVN/3/ MIRLO/BUC/4/2*PASTOR/5/… x HD 3237, for peduncle length F1, VORB/4/D67.2/PARANA 66.270 x HI 1621 and for days to 75% heading and days to maturity F1, PRL/2*PASTOR*2//FH6-1-7/3/KINGBIRD#1//… x PBW 725 were observed to be the better heterotic combinations. The crosses with higher heterotic values may provide an opportunity for isolation of desirable purelines in advanced generations.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22310
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Effect of integrated weed management on turmeric under mid hill conditions
           of Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Ankit Kumar, A D Bindra, S S Rana, Sandeep Manuja
      Pages: 96 - 102
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out on silty clay loam soil, acidic in reaction, high in available phosphorus, medium in available potassium and low in available N during kharif 2017 at the Research Farm of Department of Agronomy, CSKHPKV, Palampur to study effective weed control strategy for this important crop. The results revealed that Alternanthera philoxeroides was the major weed constituting 16% of the total weed flora. This was followed by Cynodon dactylon and Echinochloa colona with 14 and 12% of total weed population, respectively. The count of Echinochloa colona, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Commelina benghalensis, Digitaria sanguinalis and Ageratum conyzoides was maximum at 120 DAP and there after it gradually decreased. All herbicide treatments brought significant reduction in the count on Echinochloa, Alternanthera and Ageratum over weedy check. The lowest count of these weeds was recorded in metribuzin fb straw mulch fb hand weeding and the maximum count was in case of weedy check. All the weed control treatments significantly reduced the total weed count and dry weight of weeds as compared to the weedy check. Amongst different herbicide treatments application of metribuzin @ 0.70 kg/ha fb straw mulch fb hand weeding resulted in significantly lowest weed count at all stages of observation as well as at harvest though this treatment was at par with metribuzin @ 0.70 kg/ha fb two hand weedings and treatments in which atrazine 0.75 kg/ha and hand weedings were applied with or without the use of straw mulch resulted in significantly lower dry matter accumulation by weeds as compared to other herbicide treatments. Weed index calculated at 120 DAP was highest with use of metribuzin @ 0.70 kg/ha and atrazine @ 0.75 kg/ha used along with straw mulch and one or two hand weedings proving effective as compared to other herbicides tested. From the present study it seems that mulching must be included in any effective weed management strategy for turmeric. Also among different herbicides metribuzin and atrazine are effective and their integration with mulching and/or hand weeding gave good control of weeds in turmeric.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22311
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • The Potential of halophytes in managing soil salinity and mitigating
           climate change for environmental sustainability

    • Authors: Kathirvel Suganya, Ramesh Poornima, Paul Sebastian Selvaraj, E Parameswari -, P Kalaiselvi
      Pages: 103 - 110
      Abstract: Soil salinization is one of the foremost factors affecting global agricultural productivity. More than half billion hectares of agricultural land are unutilized due to excess saline condition. Hence, there is a great urge in exploring scientific interventions in restoring the saline affected areas and promote high productive and effective land utilization in order to respond to today's global concerns of food security. While a sound drainage system is required as a permanent solution to the soil salinity problem in order to regulate the water table, this option cannot be used in larger area with high energy and cost-intensity.Phytoremediation, a plant – based approach is one of the promising technology in enhanced dissolution of Ca levels along with sodium removal through cultivating suitable halophytes.During the process, the proliferation of roots, aggregate stability, hydraulic conductivity and nutrient availability increases. These improvement in soil quality enables the growth of less tolerant crops, enhances the overall ecosystem and climatic conditions by increasing carbon sequestration. In this perspective, the chapter focuses on halophytes, its kinds, the effects of salinity on soil physical, chemical, biological health, the influence of halophytes in stress management and on the function of halophytes in carbon sequestration.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22312
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Evaluation of IPM module against major insect pests of green gram, Vigna
           radiata (L.) Wilczek in lower Gangetic plains of West Bengal

    • Authors: Suprava Malik, Amitava Banerjee, A. Samanta
      Pages: 111 - 115
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of integrated management practices over farmers’ practices against insect pest complex of green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) during kharif season in the ‘A-B’ Block Farm of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya in 2019. The results revealed that the incidence of all of the insect pests viz. whitefly, pulse aphid, jassid, flower thrips, gram pod borer, spotted pod borer, blue butterfly, plant bug and pod bug was recorded comparatively less in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) plot as compared to farmers’ practices. The seed yield of green gram was also recorded a higher (1382.22 kg ha-1) in plots treated with integrated approaches as compared to farmer’s practices (476.94 kg ha-1). IPM module recorded maximum cost benefit ratio along with higher gross return and net profit as against farmers’ practices.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22313
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Developing nation’s soil microbial community shifts and diversity loss:
           leading towards major ecological threat

    • Authors: Arun Kumar, Sanjat Kumar Sahu, Jayanthi J
      Pages: 117 - 121
      Abstract: Nature does not discriminate and has no boundaries; however only developing nations faces huge food security issues and in such circumstances much of importance has been emphasised on food production technologies but studies and research on concealed factor behind food production i.e biogeochemical drivers were largely overlooked. Injudicious agricultural practices; for instance profound use of agrochemicals in continuous and unmonitored way may had already situate many soil microbial species in verge of extinction consequently creating ecological imbalance. With huge land pressure for crop production and lack of upto date technologies of preciseness, most of the developing nation which includes the whole of Africa, almost all Asian countries and numerous other island states faces the agricultural land degradation issues; one of the major reason for such degradation is missing out of ecological drivers i.e soil microbial diversity. Anthropogenic activities application of fertilisers, land use changes (LUC), land intensification, crop diversification, irrigation management etc accelerates the soil microbial community shifts and microbial diversity loss predominately in developing nations. In this short communication, we address the concerns faced by the developing nations to prevent the soil microbial community shift and diversity loss. Also we propose the each exported commodity may have specific tax included which may be utilised by soil scientist from developing nations for studying the current soil microbial shifts and diversity loss due to agriculture management practices more efficiently.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22314
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • UV photoelectrocatalytic degradation of m- cresol pollutant using TiO2 dip
           -coated stainless steel electrode system

    • Authors: Jayabharathi Jayapal, M. Thenmozhi
      Pages: 123 - 131
      Abstract: In the present study, the removal of m- cresol in an aqueous medium was studied by the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation by the TiO2 suspension on dip-coated stainless steel electrode under UV lamp of the wavelength of 352nm. The performance of the PEC method on the degradation of m- cresol was studied by made the comparison with the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) method in terms of COD removal and kinetic study. In the PEC study on the degradation of m- cresol pollutant was studied by the various parameters such as initial concentration, pH, and the bias potential. The result found that the optimum degradation efficiency of m- cresol in the PEC and PCO methods were 79.6% and 39.8% at pH 5.0. The result showed that the kinetic constants (k) in the PEC and PCO methods were -0.0116 and -0.0058 under optimum conditions. The result found that the PEC method using TiO2 coated on stainless steel electrode is two times higher than the PCO method on the degradation of m- cresol.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22315
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Environmental health: The most neglected part of one health

    • Authors: Sonali Dash, Adya Prakash Rath
      Pages: 133 - 136
      Abstract: One health concept and perspectives have gained momentum in past few years in global health sector. Keeping in view the increased popularity of “one health” American Veterinary & Medical Association has defined it as the emerging interdisciplinary field that inherently collaborates human, animal and environmental aspects to combat emerging global health problems especially related to zoonotic public health emergencies. According to key findings of “One Health Networks (OHNs)” environmental factor is the most neglected part of one health triad that consists of human-animal-environment interface. Currently, human and animal health has been constantly threatened by rise of novel challenges like antimicrobial resistance, environmental pollution, epizootics, pandemics, development of multifactorial chronic ailments etc which needs an interdisciplinary and intersectoral expertise. Ecosystem heath and its adverse effects on human and animal health have gained greatest attention over recent years as it serves as melting pot for all infectious diseases. Despite of achieving global success in the field of “One health” it is still in embryonic stage in our country. So, the success of one health requires breaking down the shackles that still separate human and veterinary medicine from environmental, evolutionary and ecological sciences that will ultimately lead to desired equilibrium and dynamics in maintaining healthy ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22316
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Heterosis in relation to genetic divergence in short duration maize (Zea
           mays L.)

    • Authors: Bal Krishna, Birender Singh, Shyam Sundar Mandal, Rashmi Kumari, Tushar Ranjan
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Thirteen lines and three testers were used to produce 39 single cross maize hybrids by line Ítester mating design. The genetic divergence among thirteen lines and three tester of maize were estimated by using Mahalanobis D2 statistic for twelve characters. The genotypes were grouped into five clusters. Cluster I comprised 12 parental genotypes (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5; L6, L7, L8, L9, L11; L12, L13), while Cluster II (T3), III (T1), IV (L10) and V (T2) were mono-genotypic, suggesting more variability in genetic makeup of the genotypes included in these clusters. The correlation coefficients and linear regressions were used to know the effects of parental genetic distance in determining heterosis and per se performance of the hybrids. Parental genetic distance exhibited significant negative association and significant linear regression along with very low coefficient of determination with better parent heterosis (BPH) and non-significant with per se performance of the hybrids. The present investigation, therefore, the parental genetic distance has significant role in determining heterosis and hybrid performance in kharif maize.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22317
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Germination and morphological responses of Triticum aestivum L. to
           different concentrations of fluoride

    • Authors: Rekha Sodani, Vijai Pandurangam, J. P. Srivastava
      Pages: 143 - 148
      Abstract: A laboratory experiment was conducted on germination papers to study the effect of fluoride (F) at 0 (T1), 50 (T2), 100 (T3), 200 (T4), 250 (T5) and 300 (T6) ppm on germination and morphological parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety, HUW-234 at 2, 4 and 6 days after initiation of germination process. Fluoride toxicity caused reduction in germination per cent, germination index, coefficient of velocity of germination and germination energy (%) while mean germination time increased with fluoride concentration. Root and shoot lengths and dry matters decreased with increased concentrations of fluoride. Ratio of root: shoot weight increased with increased concentration of fluoride. Elongation of seminal roots was adversely affected by increased fluoride level. Increased fluoride level in the germination medium decreased RGR of seedlings progressively. Present study revealed that enhanced fluoride concentration in germination medium caused reduction in germination and germination related parameters.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22318
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • A prediction of suitable habitat mapping of Pinus roxburghii sarg. using
           maxent modeling

    • Authors: Leishangthem Chanu Langlentombi, Manoj Kumar
      Pages: 149 - 153
      Abstract: Prediction of the potential geographic distribution of species is essential concerning various purposes in protection and conservation. The present study focused on predicting the distribution of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (chir pine) in Uttarakhand Himalayas using the MaxEnt model. The model produced AUC curve with significant value of 0.882 (± 0.023). The study results showed that 426200 ha (5.91%) cover highly potential habitat area for chir pine. Whereas 833900 ha (11.56%), 1019200 ha (14.13%) and 4936000 ha (68.41%) cover good potential, moderately potential and least potential habitat areas, respectively. Based on the jacknife test, it was observed that temperature seasonality (bio4), precipitation of seasonality (bio15) and precipitation of driest month (bio14) are the significant contributors to the occurrence of chir pine in Uttarakhand Himalayas. This study exemplifies the usefulness of the prediction model of species distribution and offers a more effective way to manage chir pine forest by all means, which is beneficial for both the wildlife and human beings for future prospects.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22319
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Review on regeneration status of Betulautilis D. Don: A critically
           endangered multipurpose timber line species in Indian Himalayan region

    • Authors: Anjana, Renu Lata, S.S. Samant , Mithilesh Singh
      Pages: 155 - 167
      Abstract: The Himalayan birch (Betulautilis D. Don), also known as Bhojpatra in India, is one of the Himalayan region's most important ethnobotanicaltreelinespecies. It aids in the preservation of the Himalaya's fragile environment by preventing soil erosion and conserving the rest of the flora and wildlife below the treelinezone.Betulautilis has been identified for medical (anticancer, anti-HIV, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory) and ethno botanical relevance by several ethnic and non-ethnic communities living in the Himalaya and elsewhere, in addition to several ecological benefits.The bark of the Betula tree has long been used to write old manuscripts.It may also be used as a packing material, is waterproof, can be used to roof dwellings, umbrellas, and other items.The historical usage of B. utilis, as well as recent overharvesting to suit community and commercial demands, have put strain on the species natural populations. B. utilis faces numerous threats, including overharvesting, deforestation, erosion, grazing, global warming, and disease attack.Thus, it has been categorized as Critically Endangeredspecies.The main problem of the mountain forestsislack of adequateregenerationprocess. Very little information on population dynamics, regeneration, and physiology and seed germination is available from different parts of the country but no any systematic study has been done so far on multipurpose timberline tree species of Indian Himalayan Region. As a result, it's critical to keep an eye on these sensitive places and keystone species for future changes caused by climate or anthropogenic pressure, especially in locations where baseline data is scarce. The ease and suitability of propagation methods for this species is also not well documented in the literature. With these limitations in mind, the current study aims to document the status of Betulautilis regeneration in the Indian Himalayan region.
      PubDate: 2021-11-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22320
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Association, direct and indirect effects of yield, biochemical and
           physiological characters on seed yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Halavath Saikumar, Sindhuja Yerrabala , G.R. Lavanya, G. Babithraj Goud, Y. Vinod Kumar Reddy, Varri Sharmila
      Pages: 169 - 180
      Abstract: The present research consists of the 25 genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) which was carried out at the field experimentation center, Department of the Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj during Rabi 2019-20 in Randomized Block Design with three replications with an aim to determine genetic variability, correlation, direct and indirect effects yield, biochemical and physiological characters on seed yield. All the genotypes of chickpea showed significant differences among them, significance variability existed for all the characters. Based on the mean performance, high yield was found for the C-18106 followed by C-18122, C-18103, and C-18101, genotypes C-18123, ICC-15896, C-18102 & GPF-02 showed against pod borer. High heritability ('70%) coupled with high genetic advance ('20%) were being observed for the number of seeds per plant, biological yield. Seed yield per plant exhibited positive and highly significant correlation with biological yield, chlorophyll index, starch content and number of seeds per plant at both genotypic and phenotypic level. Path analysis at phenotypic level identified hundred seed weight followed by chlorophyll index, number of seeds per plant, number of secondary branches, trypsin inhibitor and harvest index important direct components for seed yield per plant. Thus, due consideration should be given to these characters during the selection.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22321
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Effect of tillage and fertilizer doses on growth and growth indices of
           soybean (Glycine max L.) under conservation tillage systems

    • Authors: Shilpa Manhas, Janardan Singh, Ankit Saini, Tarun Sharma, Parita K.
      Pages: 181 - 186
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2019 at the Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, CSKHPKV, Palampur to study the effect of tillage and fertilizer doses on growth and growth indices of soybean under conservation tillage systems. The experiment consisted of twelve treatment combinations which included three tillage systems minimum tillage, minimum tillage with crop residue and conventional tillage and four fertility levels viz; 25 % recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) , 50 %(RDF) , 75 % RDF and 100% RDF and which were tested in split plot design with tillage system in main plots and fertility levels in sub plots.The soil texture of experimental site was silty clay loam. Minimum tillage along with crop residues (T2)recorded significantly taller plants and higher dry matter accumulation followed by conventional tillage. Absolute growth rate, crop growth rate, dry matter efficiency, relative growth rate and unit area efficiency were significantly higher with minimum tillage + crop residue treatment. Application of 100 % followed by 75 % recommended dose of fertilizer resulted in significantly higher growth parameters and growth indices.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22322
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Profile distribution of available nutrients in a Vertisol and Inceptisol
           as influenced by irrigated and rainfed cotton crops

    • Authors: Suresh Bambhaneeya, N. H. Garaniya, K. H. Patel, Vaishali Surve
      Pages: 187 - 196
      Abstract: Current study was conducted in cotton growing belt of South Gujarat (Gujarat) i.e. in 11 talukas namely, Bharuch, Surat, Jhagadia, Jambusar, Amod, Vagra, Narmada, Tilakwada, Dediapada, Sagbara and Hansot. To fullfil the objectives of present research GPS based 22 nos. of pedons representative (11 irrigated and 11 rainfed situation) were dug out, studied and depth-wise samples (0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm) of above 11 talukas were collected. During course of study it was observed that available N, P2O5, K2O, S and DTPA-Fe and Zn in irrigated pedons, varied respectively from 111.4 to 303.2 kg ha-1 (low to medium), 17.1 to 63.3 kg ha-1 (low to high), 221.4 to 1164.8 kg ha-1 (medium to very high), 6.5 to 20.1 ppm (low to marginally high), 2.47 to 10.42 mg kg-1 (low to high) and 0.06 to 0.51 mg kg-1 (low to medium), while the corresponding values of rainfed pedons were 94.7 to 299.8 kg ha-1 (low), 10.8 to 57.1 kg ha-1 (low to marginally high), 160.7 to 1180.7 kg ha-1 (medium to very high), 6.2 to 18.7 ppm (low to medium), 1.63 to 10.27 mg kg-1 (low to high), and 0.08 to 0.48 mg kg-1 (low), respectively. Means of above available nutrients were found slightly higher under irrigated situations in comparison compared to those of rainfed situation.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22323
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Friendly microbes help rice to grow and suppress its pathogens:
           Trichoderma and Bacillus Vs Xanthomonas in rice

    • Authors: Divya Mishra, Rajeswari B., P. Raghuveer Rao, T. Uma Maheswari , Kannan C.
      Pages: 197 - 209
      Abstract: Use of biological control for the management of diseases has gained huge awareness and importance in the present situation of climate change and food residues. Biocontrol agents play interesting role in developing plant health and provide protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we isolated Trichoderma and Bacillus sp. isolated from soil samples collected from rice fields in Kharif 2019. Profiling based on the pH of the soil, the fungal bioagents were more present in slightly acidic to neutral pH (5.8-7.2) whereas bacterial bioagents in slightly neutral to basic (7.4-8.3). The isolates were screened for their ability to produce phytohormones, cell-wall degrading enzyme and biofilm. Based on biochemical screening two Trichoderma isolates (T6 and T7) and two Bacillus isolates (B1and B5) were subjected to glasshouse studies. Per cent diseased leaf area and lesion length of plants treated with B1 were found to be effective against pathogen. However, the plant growth promotion was more enhanced by T6. Scanning electron microscopy and molecular characterisation along with their phylogenetic analysis proved the identity of isolate B1 as Bacillus subtilis and T6 as Trichoderma atroviride.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22324
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Antagonistic activity of rice rhizosphere isolates against Xanthomonas
           oryzae pv. oryzae bacterial blight pathogen

    • Authors: Yamini sousheel N., Bharati Narayan Bhat, Gouri Shankar Laha, S. Triveni
      Pages: 211 - 215
      Abstract: Attempts were made to isolate beneficial bio agents from rice rhizosphere which resulted in isolation of 46 Bacillus spp and 15 fluorescent Pseudomonas spp which were further investigated for their potential aginst BB of rice diseaseAmong twenty six isolates of Bacillus, two isolates were most antagonistic and showed highest inhibition percentage (57.09) The potential isolates of Pseudomonas (P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 and P-8), Bacillus (ARI 1-2, ARI 2-4, ARI 1-3, D1-1-2 and D2-1-1) were tested in vivo under glass house conditions for antagonism against Xoo which revealed that P-7 was effective in reduction of lesion length (18.5cm) when compared to control (20.37cm). The potential isolates of Pseudomonas (P-4, P-5, P-6, P-7 and P-8), Bacillus (ARI 1-2, ARI 2-4, ARI 1-3, D1-1-2 and D2-1-1) were tested in vivo under glass house conditions for antagonism against Xoo which revealed that P-7 was effective in reduction of lesion length (18.5cm) when compared to control (20.37cm). The present study indicated that PGPR isolates P-4, P-6, P-7 and P-8 can be used as biofertilizers, which will add up for enhanced growth of rice.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22325
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Simple water balance model and crop water demand at different spatial and
           temporal scales in Periya Pallam catchment of upper Bhavani basin,

    • Authors: A. Raviraj, Ramachandran J, Nitin Kaushal , Arjit Mishra
      Pages: 217 - 224
      Abstract: Reduction in agricultural water use and increasing the sustainability of water resources can be achieved by studying the water balance of the area and crop water demand. In this paper, by using a simple water balance model, Evapotranspiration, Rainfall, Runoff, Water Demand and Water Requirement different crops are estimated. The crop water requirement and crop water demand for different crops grown in the Periya Pallam Catchment of Upper Bhavani Basin, Tamilnadu, was estimated. Water balance estimation of the area reveals that out of the annual rainfall, runoff is estimated to be 129 mm, effective rainfall is 252 mm, and deep percolation is about 67 mm. The demand for water for agriculture in the study area is about 61 million cubic meters (MCM), but only 19 MCM of water is available through precipitation in the form of effective rainfall. Hence, the remaining 43 MCM of water is supplied through groundwater and other sources. The results will pave the way for sustainable crop water use planning and would achieve water security in the basin.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22326
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Novel green approaches towards utilization of flower waste: A review

    • Authors: Parvathi Bennurmath, Dipal S Bhatt, Anamika Gurung, Alka Singh, S. T. Bhatt
      Pages: 225 - 230
      Abstract: Floriculture has been associated with culture and heritage since very ancient time in our country. According to Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), the waste generation rate in India is increasing at the rate of 1.0 -1.33 per cent annually. In most of the developing countries like India, the floral waste generation occurs largely during worships, festivals, ceremonies etc. from temples, mosque, flower market, flower exhibition and wedding halls find their way into the garbage as a waste causing various environmental problems. This paper discusses the use of solid state fermentation to convert floral wastes into a variety of value-added products like as compost, biogas, bioethanol, dyes, food products, biosurfactants production, incense sticks and handmade paper production etc. and floral waste can thus be converted into wealth.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22327
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Physicochemical basis of resistance in certain green gram genotypes to
           pulse bruchid, Calloso bruchus chinensis (L.)

    • Authors: Kavitha G, Mahalakshmi MS, K. Bayyapu Reddy , Y. Pushpa Reni, K. Radhika
      Pages: 231 - 242
      Abstract: A study was conducted to know the influence of physical and biochemical parameters on development of the pulse bruchid in green gram at RARS, Lam during 2017-18. The physical parameters of seed viz., colour, shape, surface texture, seed length and width, seed coat hardness and 100 seed weight and biochemical parameters such as protein content, phenol content and total sugars were evaluated for twelve genotypes of greengram. The greengram genotypes with smooth texture, oblong or globose shape and light coloured seed might be less preferred by the pulse bruchid for egg laying. The data showed that genotypes having low sugar and protein contents and high phenol content were resistant to pulse bruchid. The correlation studies showed that biological parameters i.e., number of eggs, adult emergence and growth index had significant positive association with protein content, sugar content, moisture content and electrical conductivity and negative correlation phenol content, 100 seed weight and seed coat hardness. In contrast, mean development period had negative association with protein content, sugar content, electrical conductivity and moisture content and positive correlation with phenol content, 100 seed weight and seed coat hardness. Multiple linear regression studies revealed that all the physical and biochemical properties of seed together were contributing to a large and significant variation (65 to 87 %) in growth parameters of pulse bruchid.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22328
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Drying characteristics and prediction of best fitted drying model for
           coriander leaves

    • Authors: Sanjay Kumar Singh, Samsher, B.R. Singh, R.S. Senger, Pankaj Kumar, Amit Kumar Patil
      Pages: 243 - 251
      Abstract: Drying experiments were conducted on coriander leaves as affected by drying methods (solar greenhouse drying and open sun drying), pretreatments (dipping in a solution of magnesium chloride + sodium bicarbonate + potassium metabisulphite, boiled water blanching containing sodium metabisulphite, and untreated), and loading densities (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kg/m2). Validity of three commonly used drying models were examined to predict the most suitable drying model for coriander leaves. The increased drying temperature under solar greenhouse dryer (42°C) increases the amount of moisture removal from the coriander leaves and reduces the drying time by increasing the drying rate as compared to open sun drying (29°C), at all the selected levels of pretreatments and loading densities. Chemically treated coriander leaves dehydrated under a solar greenhouse dryer required less drying time than other treated leaves and dried leaves. Nevertheless, drying methods and loading densities had significant effects, while treatment effects were marginal. It was found that reduction of moisture and moisture removal rate per unit time occurred mostly in the falling rate period except some accelerated removal of moisture at the beginning up to 150 minutes. Page's model was found most appropriate for drying coriander leaves among the selected models.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22329
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Phenotypic correlation and regression of hydroponics maize fodder as
           influenced by seed rate, nutrient sources and spray schedule

    • Authors: Santosh Nagappa Ningoji, Thimmegowda M N
      Pages: 253 - 264
      Abstract: The experiments were carried out at AICRP on Dry Land Agriculture, University of Agricultural Science, GKVK, Bengaluru to study the “Phenotypic correlation and regression of hydroponics maize fodder as influenced by seed rate, nutrient sources and spray schedule” during 2017-2018. The results of revealed significantly positive correlation between fodder yield per kg seed and yield parameter like total fresh weight of fodder per kg seed (r=0.95**), total dry weight per kg of seed (r=0.86*), growth parameters like shoot length (r= 0.90**), root length (r=0.85*) and seedling vigour (r=0.84*), physiological parameters like water use efficiency (r=0.86*), relative water content (r=0.91*) and SPAD (r=0.92**). With respect to nutrition study correlation coefficients of traits with fodder yield revealed positive correlation growth components like shoot length (r=0.90**), root length (r=0.74**), seedling vigour (r=0.86**) and dry matter accumulation (0.97**), yield parameters like Total fresh weight of fodder (r=0.96**), individual fresh weight of plant (r=0.95**) and individual dry weight of plant (r=0.97**), physiological parameters like SPAD (r=0.78**) and WUE (r=1.00**), quality parameters like nitrogen content, crude protein, crude fibre and total carbohydrates (r=0.927**, 0.927**, 0.770* and 0.905**, respectively). The study revealed significantly higher fodder yield with two combined sprays of urea and MOP each @ 1 per cent at 3rd and 10th Days after sowing (DAS) with 2.5 kg m-2 under hydroponic conditions.
      PubDate: 2021-12-09
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22330
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Sulphur Dynamics under different land uses of Outer Himalayan region of
           Himachal Pradesh

    • Authors: Deepika Suri, V. K. Sharma , Pardeep Kumar, R. G. Upadhayay, Gazala Nazir, Anjali K.
      Pages: 265 - 270
      Abstract: The knowledge of different sulphur (S) forms and their relationship with soil properties is of much relevance in assessing the short- and long-term availability of the nutrients to crops and in formulating sound fertilizer recommendations. For this purpose one hundred and one representative soil samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for various physicochemical properties and forms of sulphur (water soluble, exchangeable, available, organic, non-sulphate and total S) using standard methods. The different forms of sulphur viz., water soluble, exchangeable, available, organic, non-sulphate and total sulphur ranged from 1.1 to 7.0, 1.9 to 10.9, 3.1 to 21.1, 75.9 to 316.1, 8.0 to 41.5 and 75.5 to 372.5 mg kg-1, respectively in soils of Outer Himalayas under different land uses. The content of different forms of sulphur present in these soils were in the order of total sulphur, organic sulphur, non-sulphate sulphur, available sulphur, exchangeable sulphur and water soluble sulphur. All the forms of S correlated positively and significantly with organic carbon and clay content of soils. A negative and significant relationship was also observed between all forms of sulphur and sand content of soils. In the present study, it was also found that all forms of S present in soils were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The knowledge regarding different forms of S in soils and their availability controlled by different soil properties will be helpful for its management to optimize crop yields in the Outer Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22331
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Socio-economic analysis of Baroda branch canal of Som Kamla Amba
           irrigation project, Dungarpur, Rajasthan

    • Authors: Kishan Makadiya, R C Purohit, Jitendra Rajput, Dimple, Ashish Rai, Ahmed Elbeltagi
      Pages: 271 - 279
      Abstract: Irrigation system development results in improvements of farmers' economy, followed by livelihood sustainability, standard of living and social attitude. Present analysis focused on socio-economic status of farming families in the command area of Baroda Branch Canal of Som Kamla Amba Irrigation Project. The study considered survey sampling of 10 per cent beneficiaries in the Baroda branch canal command which consisted 150 farming families having 787 persons in numbers. The socio-economic indicators viz., the family structures, employment pattern, education status, livestock ownership, farm asset distribution, cost of cultivation, and cost of returns were analysed. Results indicated that education and living standards are of farmers was low which may be one of the reasons for not adoption of newly farming technologies. Cost of cultivation per hectare for wheat, barley, gram, and mustard crops were found as Rs. 28,503.00, Rs. 26,727.00, Rs. 21,184.00 and Rs. 21,697.00, respectively and net benefits per hectare obtained from these crops were Rs. 13,297, Rs. 13,023, Rs. 14,416 and Rs. 18,303, respectively. The pattern of ownership of livestock showed that the average number of cows in the command area was about 1.97 per family. The productivity in the area is average due to low inputs use.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22332
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Role analysis of women in electricity consumption at domestic level

    • Authors: Bijoylaxmi Bhuyan, Ruplekha Borah
      Pages: 281 - 287
      Abstract: Women play an especial prominent role in buying things that provide sustenance for home and family. Therefore, this study was under taken to see how women play their role with special reference to electricity consumption and what can be done to improve it. ‘Awareness,’ ‘opinion’ and ‘practice’ of respondents regarding issues related to electricity consumption for household use revealed that ‘Awareness’, ‘Opinion’ and ‘Practices’ of the respondents were of ‘medium’ level. Looking at the women’s prominent role in household energy consumption they can be given some awareness programs to further play active role as consumer and conserve electricity.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22333
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Analysis of combining ability and gene action studies for grain yield and

    • Authors: Amitava Roy, Anil Kumar, Vaishali Rawat, Anu Singh
      Pages: 289 - 298
      Abstract: The present research investigation was conducted in order to analyze combining ability and nature of gene actions in 33 F1s of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) developed by crossing eleven lines with three testers in a line x tester mating design in terms of grain yield and associated traits. The hybrids along with the parental lines and two check varieties were planted in a randomized block design in three replications. Variance ratio between general and specific combining ability was found to be less than unity which indicated the prevalence of non-additive gene actions involved in the inheritance of these characters. Parental lines QLD 75 (3.164), followed by SOKOLL (2.888) and QLD 65 (2.819) exhibited significant GCA for grain yield, while another line PRL/2*PASTOR*2//FH6-1-7/3/KINGBIRD#1//… was observed to be the better general combiner for most other traits including maturity. Among the hybrids cross combination NAC/TH.AC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/2*PASTOR/5/…x HD 3237 showed significant higher positive SCA for grain yield and biological yield per plant, whereas, F1 QLD 75 x HI 1621was a good specific combiner for harvest index (%) and number of grains per spike. The cross combination VORB/4/D67.2/PARANA66.270 x PBW 725 was observed with significant higher positive SCA for days to 75% heading, days to maturity and plant height, and another hybrid VORB/4/D67.2/PARANA 66.270 x HI 1621 exhibited significant positive SCA for 1000 grain weight and spike length.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22334
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Ethnobotany of indigenous (Traditional) vegetables in Adi tribe of East
           Siang region of Arunachal Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Md. Ramjan Chandra Deo, Chandra Deo , L. Wangchu, P. Sarma , Amit Kumar Singh , Shivani Dobhal
      Pages: 299 - 307
      Abstract: Arunachal Pradesh is known as land of rising Sun which is the biggest in terms of area-wise amongst the state of north east India.The region has 26 major tribe; each tribe has its own enormous indigenous knowledge on the uses of wild plants. Among the tribe, Adi community is one of the major tribe inhabited in the region which has its own habitual way of using horticultural (vegetables) resources for sustaining livelihood. Most of the plants are also ethnically important without wich diverse rituals and festivals (Solung) of adi community remain unfinished. The current servey was under taken interviewed through planned questionaire. In our investigation among 25 wild species, 5 species belong to the Solanaceae family which was found to be most widely used family followed by Apiaceae, Rutaceae, Urticaceae and Araceae. Investigation on the basis of plant parts used reveals that the edible parts of the plants such as 6 species found to be widely used though leaves followed by 3 species fruits and 3 species whole plants besides these other plant parts like young tender leaves, tender stalks, petioles, rhizome also has been observed. This study is aim to initiated the basic information of these valuable herbs vegetable species for popularizing in future. These can compete with the best vegetables if appropriate study is initiated for production and ethanomedicine improvement.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22335
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Phytochemical investigation of extracts of rhizomes of Hedychium Spicatum
           Sm. in A. Rees of Himachal Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Manoj Upadhyay, Sourobhi Barman, Senthil Kumar , Vikas Tyagi
      Pages: 309 - 314
      Abstract: Hedychium Spicatum is a rhizomatous perennial plant of various ethnomedicinal significance, which belongs to Zingiberaceae family.In the present study, H.Spicatum extracts were investigated for the presence of major phytochemical compounds. The dried and powdered rhizomes were extracted employing Soxhlet extraction with selective solvents of varying polarities viz water, ethanol, petroleum ether and diethyl ether. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of each of these extracts of H.Spicatum suggested the existence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, alkaloids, reducing sugars (carbohydrate), proteins, steroids, saponins and oils. Greater extent of unsaturation was observed in diethyl ether and petroleum ether extracts. These extracts were also examined for their physico-chemical properties. All of the studied extracts were found to be optically active, specifically dextro rotatory. The phytochemicals present in the rhizomes suggest potential ethnomedicinal application of the species in the treatment, control and management of diseases and for new drug discovery.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22336
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • A novel soil quality assessment method for sustainable soil management and
           enhancing crop productivity in tribal areas of central India

    • Authors: Rajendiran S. Selladurai, Mohan Lal Dotaniya, M Vassanda Coumar, Samaresh Kundu, Nishant Kumar Sinha, A.K. Tripathi, Sanjay Srivastava, J.K. Saha, A.K. Patra
      Pages: 315 - 325
      Abstract: Soil quality degradation is a major threat to any agricultural production system. Therefore periodical monitoring of soil quality status is inevitable for sustainable management of agricultural production systems. Though there are various methods available to assess the soil quality, simple and management oriented methods are necessary. The current investigation aimed to evaluate soil quality of tribal areas of central India adopting minimum dataset of 15 soil physical, chemical and biological parameters. A novel scoring technique was followed to score soil quality indicators based on its relation with crop yield, degree of variation and percent deficiency. Relative soil quality index (RSQI) was calculated and was correlated with crop productivity. Most of the soils in the region had poor soil quality (77.2% in Jhabua, 85.4% in Alirajpur and 67.2% in Dhar) with low crop yield. The major constraints of crop production in these areas were low soil organic carbon (<0.5%), available N (<280 kg ha-1), S (<10 mg kg-1), P (<10 kg ha-1), Zn (<0.5 mg kg-1), dehydogenase activity (10 'g TPF g-1 24 h-1) and soil depth (<1 m). Adopting sustainable management practices could improve soil quality and crop productivity. This new approach is simple and systematic; this principle can be easily adoptable to other locations, and principally focuses on management related and soil parameters that constraint to production and ecological functions.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22337
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Assessment of woody plant species composition in secondary deciduous
           forests of Odisha, India

    • Authors: Subhashree Pattnayak, Rajendra Kumar Behera, Sudam Charan Sahu, Nabin Kumar Dhal
      Pages: 327 - 339
      Abstract: Plant species composition according to their functional types, distribution pattern are crucial for biodiversity conservation in tropical deciduous forest. The study assessed the woody plant species diversity, stand structure and population density in the secondary deciduous forest of Chandaka wildlife sanctuary, Odisha, India. A total of 70 species belonging to 63 genera and families were documented in this study.The stem density was found to be 1080 stems/ha with reverse J-shaped population structure indicating good regeneration potential of the forests. Shannon diversity Index varied from 0 to 2.31 whereas Simpson's index varied from 0 to 0.85. The correlation study between Importance Value Index and basal area were significant (p=40.63). The present study would be helpful for conservation and management of biodiversity in secondary dry deciduous forests of Chandaka Wildlife Sanctury in particular and tropical dry forests in general.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22338
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of Ocimum sanctum L. against certain
           bacterial species and phytochemical analysis

    • Authors: Aparajita Gupta, Mandeep Kaur
      Pages: 341 - 345
      Abstract: In the present study antibacterial efficacy of aqueous and methanol extract obtained from leaves and stem of Ocimum sanctum L. was evaluated against certain test bacterial species viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. It is a traditional medicinal herb, commonly used for the treatment of various human health disorders. The antibacterial activity was determined by using agar well diffusion method. Among the solvent extracts tested, aqueous extract of leaves exhibited higher antibacterial activity as compared to methanolic extract of leaves. Maximum antibacterial activity was recorded 17.6 mm against Bacillus cereus and minimum value was recorded 14 mm against S. aureus. Maximum antibacterial efficacy of O. sanctum leaves was found 7.3mm against P. aeruginosa and minimum value was 5mm against B. cereus in methanolic extract. Similar trend has been observed in extract of stem of O. sanctum in aqueous and methanolic solvent. The antibacterial efficacy has been found nil in methanolic extract. However in aqueous extract moderate activity has been recorded i.e. 9.3 mm against E.coli and minimum 7.3 mm against K. pneumoniae. The trend of phytochemicals revealed non significant variation. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and stem extracts of O. sanctum revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents i.e. alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tanins, glycosides.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22339
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Influence of soil moisture on energy requirement of rotary tilling

    • Authors: Shiddanagouda Yadachi, Indra Mani, Tapan Khura
      Pages: 347 - 355
      Abstract: The rotary tiller with ‘L’ shaped blades was examined for torque, power and specific tilling energy requirements to attain optimum soil-machine operational parameters. The three levels of moisture content (11.4%, 12.8% and 14.6% (d.b)), three speed ratios of 20 ('1), 12 ('2) and 9 ('3) at different passes (first, second and third) with rotational speed of 262 rpm were selected for study. The observations indicated inverse relation between torque and power requirement to moisture content. The lowest value of torque of 16.54 N-m and 26.66 N-m was associated with sandy loam and clay loam soil under third pass and moisture content of 14.6 per cent. Similarly, the minimum power requirement of 0.452 kW and 0.699 kW was observed under analogous conditions of rotary tiller. The energy requirement was found to decrease with higher number of passes due to the breakdown of the hard pan and clod aggregate size. The specific tilling energy is strongly correlated with forward speed and less dependent on the number of the passes of rotary tilling.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22340
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Causation studies for Kapas yield, yield components and lint quality
           traits in Mexican cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    • Authors: Mudhalvan S, S. Rajeswari, L. Mahalingam, P. Jeyakumar, M. Muthuswami, N. Premalatha
      Pages: 357 - 363
      Abstract: Cotton is a very important crop that consists of traits with different associationship due to genetic and environmental factors. In order to determine the degree of association between seed cotton yield and important traits, a study was done using an RBD experiment with 30 hybrids. Seed cotton yield, plant height, GOT, number of sympodial braches, boll weight, bolls per plant, span length, fineness and strength data were collected and analysed. The experiment was done with 30 F1 hybrids have delivered through Line x Tester mating configuration utilizing six lines and five testers were planted in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two replications at the Department of Cotton, TNAU, Coimbatore. Seed cotton yield per plant was found to have significant positive genotypic connection with boll weight (0.5810), number of bolls per plant (0.3867), plant height (0.422) and ginning percent (0.2182) however altogether and contrarily related with consistency proportion at genotypic level. The phenotypic relationship esteems likewise uncovered that seed cotton yield per plant had highly huge and positive phenotypic connection with number of bolls per plant (0.3470) and boll weight (0.4763). Path coefficients were processed to assess the commitment of individual characters to yield in cotton. The way investigation demonstrated high certain immediate impact of number of bolls per plant (0.4743) and fiber strength (0.6880) on seed cotton yield. Micronaire value displayed high sure circuitous impact on seed cotton yield through range length (0.3393), the outcome showed that number of bolls per plant had a high sure relationship with seed cotton yield and sympodial per plant recorded low certain connection with seed cotton yield. It was therefore concluded that selection of high yielding cotton hybrids could emphasize more on lint yield, boll weights, plant height and bolls per plant for better-performing lines. Gin outturn and fibre strength could be used indirectly to improve seed cotton yield through other traits.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22341
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Influence of sulphur aerosols on physiological, yield and yield
           attributing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using principal component

    • Authors: Babithraj Gaddameedi, Bhagawan Bharali , Soibam Helena Devi
      Pages: 365 - 373
      Abstract: Among several constrains curtailing the yield potential of a crop, lack of proper mineral nutrition in particular sulphur management, a nutrient that is needed in trace amount but essential for plant growth is more alarming. Sulphur is the main source of protein particularly for cereal crop. An experiment was conducted to find out influence of sulphur aerosols on morpho-physiological, yield, and yield traits of wheat. S-aerosols viz., (NH4)2SO4, CaSO4, and K2SO4: @ 300 ppm each ('30 kg N ha-1) along with a control were misted on the plants, on sunny days in the afternoon (after 2–3 P.M.) at three different growth stages i.e. seedling, maximum tillering and spike initiation stages. Therefore, a total concentration of each S-aerosols was 900 ppm ' 0.9%.Genotypes (viz., GW-322, GW-366, GW-273, GW-173, JW-336) were raised both under Pot culture (Expt.1) and field (Expt.2) observations recorded are : LA, LAI, SLW, Tiller numbers, No. of seed per spike, length of spike, spike weight, TW, BY, EY, HI. The investigation was carried out aiming to test the hypothesis that foliar fed Sulphur aerosols influence economic yield of wheat crop positively. The genotype GW-366 was the most responsive in physiological traits and GW-273 for yield traits under the influence of foliar fertilization with S-aerosols. Among the S-aerosols, (NH4)2SO4 was the most effective in the work. The results in this experiment are contribution of Sulphur aerosols using PCA towards total diversity.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22342
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Fatalism and stigma amongst cancer patients in south western Punjab

    • Authors: Lavjit Kaur, Shalini Sharma, Amanpreet Kaur
      Pages: 375 - 386
      Abstract: The ideology and beliefs have a profound impact upon once lifestyle. Economic status, level of knowledge and awareness, beliefs and notions, social support system available, constitutes important determinants impacting to copeup strategies for cancer victims. The present study was conducted to assess the fatalism and stigma amongst cancer patients in south western Punjab. Two districts i.e. Bathinda and Sri Muktsar Sahib were randomly selected. Majority (87.5%) of the respondents believe that in cancer patients attributed cancer has caused due to their karmas. Forty six per cent of the respondents believed that cancer is contagious. One third (34.3%) of the respondents and their family members used the term ‘cancer’ as they believed that taking the name of disease had nothing to do with its curability versus non-curability or to describe the dreaded disease from which they were suffering. One third of the male respondents perceived imbalanced diet and sedentary lifestyle behind as a reasoning causing cancer and half of the male respondents and significantly majority of the female respondents (93.3%) perceived substance abuse as a reason behind causing cancer in the region. The study suggests that NGOs, religious bodies and philanthropists can contribute significantly towards treatment, management and rehabilitation of cancer victims. The use of recommended doses of pesticides/ insecticides and fertilizers and unprecedented use of chemicals should be monitored through government agencies and guilty should be punished.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22343
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Assessment of groundwater quality of two selected villages of Nawada
           district of Bihar using water quality index

    • Authors: Mukesh Ruhela, Vikas Kumar Singh, Faheem Ahamad
      Pages: 387 - 394
      Abstract: Unplanned discarding of industrial effluent, sewage, domestic and industrial solid waste, unwise use of insecticides, herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizer in agriculture are the major causes of groundwater quality reduction. In the present paper groundwater quality of the two selected village of Rajauli subdivision of Nawada district of Bihar was assessed using water quality index (WQI). The samples were figured out for the parameters such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and fluoride. All the parameters were found below the standard limits of Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS, 2012) except total hardness (328.1mg/l to 346.6mg/l), calcium (105.3mg/l to 122.6mg/l), magnesium (46.1mg/l to 55.7mg/l) and fluoride (4.8 to 4.9mg/l). Fluoride was observed more than 3 times than the standard permissible limit (1.5mg/l). Water quality index (WQI) was also applied on the obtained data to make it easy to understand. Based on WQI (including the fluoride), all the four sites fall in unfit for drinking category (250.79, 258.78, 281.78, 247.30) and in poor to very poor category (80.23, 88.19, 88.59, 64.60) excluding the fluoride from WQI calculation. Both the values of WQI shows that fluoride alone is not responsible for the degraded quality of water but other high concentration of salts is also responsible.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22344
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Impact of engineering properties of grass seeds in developing post-harvest
           operations and machineries

    • Authors: Sanjay Kumar Singh, Sheshrao Kautkar, Amit Patil
      Pages: 395 - 399
      Abstract: Engineering properties of grass seeds are most important for the development of post-harvest mechanization and operations. Therefore engineering properties of fluffy as well as true seeds were determined in view of its important in development of post-harvest mechanization. The mean values of length, width, thickness, arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, volume, thousands seed mass and bulk density of fluffy Deenanath grass seed were observed in the range of 5.23-7.17 mm, 2.10-3.44 mm, 1.17-2.49 mm, 3.07- 4.13 mm, 2.53- 3.69 mm, 41.01-60.13 %, 19.12-43.70 mm2, 3.70-18.24 mm3, 0.789-0.849 g and 7.41-7.89 kg/m3 respectively. However, for true seeds of Deenanath grass, the range of these values varied from 2.23-2.65 mm, 0.69-0.95 mm, 0.47-0.69 mm, 1.16-1.40 mm, 0.93-1.17 mm, 38.69-47.33 %, 2.67-4.31 mm2, 3.60-9.64 mm3, 0.468-0.488 g and 602.97-624.29 kg/m3 respectively moisture level of 9 % db. Determined properties of fluffy as well as true seeds of Deenanath would be utilized to develop threshing, cleaning, grading, seed storage and packaging operations and machineries.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22345
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Opportunities and constraints in hydroponic crop production systems: A

    • Authors: Sunil Kumar, Manjeet Singh, K.K. Yadav, P.K. Singh
      Pages: 401 - 408
      Abstract: Hydroponic crops can be grown using a variety of media and production systems (NFT system, wick system, drip system, ebb flow system etc.). EC and pH management are required to successfully handle these hydroponic systems (water quality and nutrient solution maintenance). These hydroponics systems have gained rapid adoption due to disciplined management of their resources and food production. Although the hydroponic system was developed in a closed-loop system, and substrate nutrition increases production, it is not cost-effective to develop this system on big scale. It is critical to design a low-cost hydroponic structure that decreases reliance on human labour and lowers overall startup cost in order to increase the commercialization of hydroponic farms. We need more research to develop more productive and cost-effective organic nutrient solutions and improve hydroponic crop production systems. In this review paper, we will discuss the opportunity and challenges in hydroponic crop production systems.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22346
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Fatty acid profiling in gobhi sarson (Brassica napus)

    • Authors: Sunidhi Tiwari, S. K. Gupta , S. K. Rai , R. G. Upadhyay, Jeevanjot Kaur , Faisal Jameel
      Pages: 409 - 414
      Abstract: An experiment was carried out during 2017-2018 to estimate fatty acids and the oil content (OC) in fifteen Brassica napus genotypes. The quality parameters of oil include fatty acids (FA) and the oil content (OC), important trait differed significantly (p'0.05) amongst the Brassica species genotype. Among the genotypes, significant differences were noted for the fatty acids and the oil content (OC). In Brassica napus seeds oil content varies in between the range of 37.45–41.86% respectively. The saturated fatty acid (SFA) includes the Palmitic acid (PA) varied in between the range of 2.68–4.43% and oleic acid (OA) content results lied between 8.88-56.18% respectively. In linoleic acid (LA) and linolenic acid (LNA), presence of significant differences (p'0.05) was there. The content of linoleic acid (LA) lies in the range between 12.97- 17.98% respectively and linolenic acid (LNA) content varied from 13.41-23.42% respectively. The stearic acid (SA) content varied from1.20-1.66 respectively. Erucic acid, another essential trait, significant differences were noted amongst the Brassica species genotypes i.e. 12.96-48.80%. The minimum erucic acid (EA) content was noted in GSL-1 genotype and the genotypes namely RSPN-28 and CNH-13-2, EC552608, GSC-6 have also low EA content and the rest of the genotypes namely, RSPN-29, DGS-1, RSPN-25, CNH-11-7, CNH-11-13, RL-1359, HNS-1101, GSC-101, CNH-11-2, HNS-1102 have high erucic content. In fatty acids (FA) content, significant differences were observed in rapeseed-mustard. Desirable cultivars with higher yield and oil content are the chief objective of this concerned study to be further employed in the breeding program.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22347
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Comparative analysis of phenolic content in Solanum indicum L. harvested
           from different locations of Madhya Pradesh state of India

    • Authors: Hariom Saxena, Samiksha Parihar, Ganesh Pawar, G. Rajeshwar Rao, Ved Ram Sahu, Pranab Dhar
      Pages: 415 - 421
      Abstract: Phenolics are well distributed secondary metabolites in the plant kingdom and cure various ailments in human beings. In the present study, total phenolic (TP) and caffeic acid (CA) contents in fruits, leaves and stem of Solanum indicum species collected from different locations of Madhya Pradesh state of India were studied. Results showed the following trend for TP and CA contents; fruits> leaves> stem. Fruits (28.52±0.29) from Chhindwara & Betul area (Satpura plateau agroclimatic region) contained maximum TP content trailed by leaves (16.29±0.07) and stem (11.79±0.03) belonging to Amarkantak area (Northern Hill’s Zone of Chhattisgarh agroclimatic region). CA content was observed maximum in fruits (0.0192±0.00) followed by leaves (0.0187±0.01) and stem (0.0154±0.01) of Seoni area (Kymore Plateau & Satpura Hills agroclimatic region). The variation in the populations will be helpful for in-situ as well as ex-situ conservation of this reagionally threatened dashmool species and its further utilization in Ayurvedic formulations.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22348
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Tree species diversity in Kalidhar forest of western Shiwaliks, Jammu, JK

    • Authors: Sanjay Sharma , Dalip Kumar
      Pages: 423 - 431
      Abstract: The present study was conducted in Kalidhar forest of western Shiwaliks, Jammu, JK (UT), to assess the tree diversity and undertake phytosociological analysis in three major land use (LU) classes i.e. Forest, Agriculture and Scrub area. A total of 70, 50 and 50 sample plots of 0.1 ha were laid respectively in forests, scrub and agriculture LU classes. The study revealed that in forests possess a total 39 tree species belonging to 19 families and 31 genera, whereas, in scrub and agriculture lands a total of 9 tree species (8 families and 9 genera) and 60 tree species (26 families and 46 genera) were recorded respectively. Mallotus philippensis was the most dense tree species with 2.85 individuals per ha in forests followed by Pinus roxburghii 2.06 per hectare. In scrub and agriculture land Acacia modesta and Grewia optiva were found the densest species respectively. The value of Importance value index (IVI) was found highest for Pinus roxburhii (44.63) in forests, whereas, respective values were recorded highest for Syzygium cumini (82.64) and Grewia optiva (29.0) in scrub and agriculture lands. Flacourtia indica and Pinus roxburghii showed random distribution in forest and Syzygium cumini was also found to have random distribution in the scrub lands. Contiguous distribution was found for all tree species encountered in agriculture (LU) class. The diversity values of Shannon Wiener and Simpson indices showed highest tree diversity in agriculture lands with the values of 3.19 and 0.07 respectively followed by that in forests (2.47 and 0.14). Tree species richness was found high in agriculture area with Margalef’s (59.86) and Menhinick’s (1.80).
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22349
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Immunostimulatory potential of Nigella sativa seeds extract on chicken
           macrophage function

    • Authors: Yogendra Singh, Patel Nikunjkumar, Beenam Saxena, Saravanan Ramakrisnan
      Pages: 433 - 439
      Abstract: In present study, the effect of Nigella sativa seeds extract on the chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. The chicken PBMCs were stimulated with two different doses (125'g/ml; 250'g/ml) of Nigella sativa seeds extract and the cells were harvested at different time points till 48h post-stimulation for analysis of iNOS gene expression by quantitative PCR and nitric oxide (NO) estimation at 24 and 48h post-stimulation. High dose (250'g/ml) of Nigella sativa seed extract showed remarkable induction of iNOS transcripts expression and NO production at 48h post-stimulation, which were 12.8040±1.03347 folds and 5.7089±.64535µM respectively. The results indicated the immunostimulatory potential of the Nigella sativa seed extract on the chicken PBMCs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22350
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
  • Biocontrol of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid causing charcoal rot
           disease in Lycopersicon esculentum L. by using multi species bacterial

    • Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Sandeep Kumar , R.C. Dubey
      Pages: 441 - 449
      Abstract: Plant growth-promoting bacterial strains (LEP1-LEP31) were isolated from rhizosphere of Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Tomato) and screened for their plant growth promoting (PGP) activities. On the basis of morphological, physiological, biochemical, carbon source utilization and molecular characterization, these strains were identified as Pseudomonas sp., Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. For antagonistic activities all the strains were subject to the chitinase activities by the development of clear halo around the inoculated bacterial spots when loaded on chitin (0.2%) supplemented mediumBased on pot and field trial results of individual strains and consortium application, it may be concluded that all the three strains i.e. Pseudomonas sp. LEP17, Azotobacter sp. strain LEP21 and Bacillus sp. strain LEP25 showed plant growth promoting effects. The growth promotion provided by these strains was apparently related to improve shoot and root development, which resulted in better nutrient uptake capability and suppression of plant pathogen. All these three strains were superior in this regard because they provided the best and most consistent effects on growth and yield of L. esculentum. All these strains Pseudomonas sp. LEP17, Azotobacter sp. strain LEP21, Bacillus sp. strain LEP25 and their consortium seems to be suitable for use as a plant growth promoting and improvement of growth and yield
      PubDate: 2021-12-19
      DOI: 10.36953/ECJ.2021.22351
      Issue No: Vol. 22, No. 3 (2021)
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