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APIK Journal of Internal Medicine
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2666-1802 - ISSN (Online) 2666-1810
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [478 journals]
  • Newer Investigations in the diagnosis of cirrhosis of liver

    • Authors: Rajkumar Prannath Wadhwa, Aathira Ravindranath
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Rajkumar Prannath Wadhwa, Aathira Ravindranath
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):1-2

      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):1-2
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_130_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Acute gout – A harbinger for more serious outcome

    • Authors: Manjunath Premanath
      Pages: 3 - 7
      Abstract: Manjunath Premanath
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):3-7
      Gout is a crystal-induced arthropathy which can start as an acute arthritis and over a few years become chronic and cause systemic complications. Acute gout can manifest as an emergency and cause misery. It is considered as one of the risk factors for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease and when becomes chronic, may end in nephropathy. It may be primary or secondary. Recognition of gout is a simple exercise most of the times but may manifest with atypical features. This discussion is primarily on acute gout, hence its progression to chronic gouty arthritis and its attending complications has a passing mention.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):3-7
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_83_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Can a patient or physician refuse cardio pulmonary resuscitation?

    • Authors: GD Ravindran
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: GD Ravindran
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):8-12
      ICMR released guideline “Do not attempt resuscitation” in the month of April 2020. This article explores the ethical principles that underlie this guideline. The ethical principles involved are autonomy, futility, ordinary/extraordinary means, principle of double effect, and principle of Good Samaritan and the legal provisions are discussed. It summarizes the process of implementing the guidelines and problems that are involved in its implementation.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):8-12
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_92_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Assessment of clinical, biochemical, and hormonal profile of lean versus
           overweight polycystic ovarian syndrome patients: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Vikrant Ghatnatti, Shwetha Patil, Harpreet Kour
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: Vikrant Ghatnatti, Shwetha Patil, Harpreet Kour
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):13-16
      Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder having escalation in its prevalence. This study was planned to understand the clinical, biochemical, and hormonal profile of lean versus overweight patients diagnosed newly with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 1 year in the Department of Endocrinology of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 50 female patients newly diagnosed to have PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria 2003 were enrolled for the study. Assessment of clinical characteristics, biochemical, and hormonal profile was done. Results: Fasting serum insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance signifying insulin resistance were higher in overweight compared to the lean PCOS. Insulin resistance was present in 50% of lean PCOS and 82% of overweight PCOS. Glucose abnormalities were noted in 13.7% of lean PCOS and 32.2% of overweight PCOS. Conclusion: Obese women with PCOS have a higher risk of increased obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance as compared to lean PCOS women.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):13-16
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_117_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Foot care practices among patients with diabetes mellitus in South-Western
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Taoreed Adegoke Azeez, Martins Ehizode Emuze
      Pages: 17 - 21
      Abstract: Taoreed Adegoke Azeez, Martins Ehizode Emuze
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):17-21
      Introduction: Diabetes foot care is an evidence-based means of preventing diabetes foot ulcer. The components of diabetic foot care include yearly comprehensive foot examination, prompt identification of risk factors to diabetic foot ulcer, diabetes foot education, and standard footwear practices. This study is aimed at evaluating the foot care practices of patients with diabetes in a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study that employed standardized pretested structured questionnaire to obtain data from 100 participants. The study was conducted at the diabetes clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nigeria. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the hospital. Data were presented in tables and charts. Descriptive and analytical statistics was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Results: The mean age of the participants was 58.8 ± 11.8 years. There were 66 females and 34 males. The study showed that 77% of the participants were not having yearly comprehensive examination although 94% of the respondents did daily foot inspection at home. Only 16% had continuous foot education. Moreover, only 11% of the respondents wear recommended shoes, but 88% inspected their shoes before wearing them. Sadly, 11% of the respondents walked barefooted at home. The health-seeking behavior of respondents in an event of foot ulceration was significantly associated with their educational status. Conclusion: Foot care practices of the respondents were sub-standard. So, there is an urgent need to reinforce foot care education so as to improve these subpar practices.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):17-21
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_2_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Adverse drug reaction monitoring through active surveillance in the
           inpatients of general medicine ward of a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Pooja Roy, Pratibha Nadig, CA Jayashankar
      Pages: 22 - 27
      Abstract: Pooja Roy, Pratibha Nadig, CA Jayashankar
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):22-27
      Objective: To monitor and analyze the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by active surveillance in the inpatients of the department of general medicine of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on the patients aged 18–70 years conducted for a period of 6 months. Patients' medical history, any new symptoms after commencing treatment, and their details were obtained after direct interviews. The case report forms were also reviewed. Suspected ADRs were documented in consultation with the attending physicians. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data for the occurrence, relatedness to the drug, seriousness, preventability, severity, intensity, and predictability of ADRs. Results: Fifty-three women and 47 men consented to participate, the majority of whom were between the ages of 20 and 30 years. Thirty suspected ADRs were detected in 24 out of 100 patients. The most common indications for which the drugs were prescribed were depression, psychosis, bipolar disorder, atopic dermatitis, and cervical spondylitis. Of the 30 ADRs, 28 were probably related, and 2 were possibly due to the prescribed drugs. Seven ADRs were serious in nature. Four ADRs were definitely preventable, seven were probably preventable, and nineteen were not preventable. Maximum ADRs were caused by immunosuppressants including steroids. Dermatological reactions were the most common manifestations of ADRs followed by that of central nervous system. There were four rare ADRs, namely, escitalopram-induced duodenitis, phenobarbitone-induced pancytopenia, quetiapine-induced thrombocytopenia, and aripiprazole-induced ocular gyrus syndrome. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity. Conclusion: Monitoring the ADRs through active surveillance is helpful to get a detailed information and to detect rare ADRs.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):22-27
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_7_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Gender differences among patients hospitalized with acute heart failure in
           a tertiary care teaching hospital: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Preema Dsa, Soumya Umesh, Deepak Kamath
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Preema Dsa, Soumya Umesh, Deepak Kamath
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):28-33
      Background: Heart failure (HF) prevalence in India is about 1% which is about 8–10 million, and significant gender differences exist. Aims: This study was done to investigate the differences in modes of presentation, cardiac etiology, comorbidities, and inhospital outcomes between both genders and to identify predictors of prolonged hospital stay. Settings and Design: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from November 2016 in the coronary care unit. Materials and Methods: Consenting adult patients admitted with the primary diagnosis of acute HF were included. Patients with reversible noncardiac circulatory failure and malignancies were excluded. Their clinical details and inhospital outcomes were recorded. Results: Out of 150 patients, 86 (57.33%) were males and 64 (42.6%) females. More women were admitted with Stage 4 New York Heart Association (59 [92.2%], P = 0.002), cardiogenic shock (10 [15.6%], P = 0.04), or with hypertensive emergency (23 [35.9%], P = 0.027). The mean duration of stay in males was 6.17 ± 2.21 days and 7.23 ± 2.69 days in females (P = 0.009). Multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted risk of prolonged hospital stay (≥7 days) was 4.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.96, 10.82), with the risk being almost five times greater among patients with the presence of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), compared to those who did not have it (P < 0.001). Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, Student's t-test, and logistic regression were used in the study. Conclusion: Our study highlighted that women were more vulnerable, and came in with advanced HF or hypertensive emergency and stayed in the hospital for a longer duration. CRS was the crucial predictor of prolonged hospital stay.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):28-33
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_10_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A clinical profile of adverse drug reaction in HIV patients on highly
           active antiretroviral therapy

    • Authors: Nitish Ashok Gurav, K Ravi, B Sumana, Avinash Hannabe Rajanna, Rakesh Shetty Rajalbandi
      Pages: 34 - 38
      Abstract: Nitish Ashok Gurav, K Ravi, B Sumana, Avinash Hannabe Rajanna, Rakesh Shetty Rajalbandi
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):34-38
      Background: The expansion of antiretroviral therapy has increased the life expectancy of patients living with HIV (PLHIV). However, the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has a wide range of toxicity ranging from low grade intolerance to life threatening adverse drug reactions (ADR). Mild toxicity does not require any change in therapy. Moderate to severe toxicity may require substitution with an alternate class of drug while life threatening side effects need discontinuation of HAART till the condition of patient is stabilized and toxicity is resolved. Aim and Objective: To estimating the frequency of occurrence of ADRs in PLHIV on HAART. To estimate the clinical profile and severity of ADRs. Materials and Methods: The data of the patient who were registered at Centre of Excellence, Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital, Bangalore Medical Collage & Research Institution, Bangalore, from May 2015 to April 2017, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, routine blood investigations, ADRs and CD4 count at that time were noted. Results: In our study conducted from May 2015 to April 2017, 1834 PLHIV were included. Out of these patients, 1554 PLHIV were on HAART. 601 patients showed ADRs secondary to HAART. The age distribution was between 18 to 75 years and the mean age was 43.19+9.18. M: F:: 62:38. 409 patients had hypertriglyceridemia, 472 patients had hypercholesterolemia, 84 had hyperbilirubinemia, 48 developed anemia, 17 patients developed hepatotoxicity, 25 developed drug induced skin rash. Significant association was found between the above reactions and the causative drug. Other reactions like hyperglycemia, night mares, Steven Johnson syndrome (SJS) observed in the study did not show statistical significance. Conclusion: The commonly observed adverse drug reactions of HAART were hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, hepatotoxicity and skin rashes. However hyperglycemia, SJS, night mares were rarely seen.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):34-38
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_31_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Tumor-induced osteomalacia: Easing the diagnosis with fibroblast growth
           factor 23

    • Authors: Mala Dharmalingam, Lohit Kumbar
      Pages: 39 - 41
      Abstract: Mala Dharmalingam, Lohit Kumbar
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):39-41
      Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome resulting in bone pain, muscle weakness, and recurrent fractures. Hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, low 1, 25 dihydroxyVitamin D, and normal serum calcium are noted. It is mostly caused by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreting tumors. Apart from testing for FGF23, additional imaging modalities are required to identify the causative lesion. Prompt remission follows successful lesion excision. This case report highlights the importance of FGF 23 in the diagnosis of TIO.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):39-41
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/AJIM.AJIM_35_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Fish bone ingestion mimicking acute coronary syndrome

    • Authors: B Mahalingappa, Manjunath Hatti
      Pages: 42 - 44
      Abstract: B Mahalingappa, Manjunath Hatti
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):42-44
      Fish bone as a foreign body is the most common food-associated foreign body in Asians as compared to meat impaction in the Western population, and the most common site is upper esophagus. The impaction of fish bones in the gastrointestinal tract during ingestion is a common complaint and can mimic acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A 45-year-old man presented to our emergency department with acute-onset retrosternal pain. Electrocardiogram, Troponin I, and two-dimensional-echocardiography were normal. Computed tomography of the chest showed a lodged fish bone tenting the upper esophagus, which was removed endoscopically. He was discharged on the 3rd day of the procedure. This case showed an unusual cause of acute chest pain which was initially suspected as ACS based on American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. This case highlights the importance of thorough history taking and a need for high level of alertness in reaching the correct diagnosis.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):42-44
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/AJIM.AJIM_26_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Wintergreen Oil: A Boon or Curse

    • Authors: S Deepak, NS Harsha, BM Suraj, Supreeth S Kanakavidu, GG Mayuka, R Monisha
      Pages: 45 - 47
      Abstract: S Deepak, NS Harsha, BM Suraj, Supreeth S Kanakavidu, GG Mayuka, R Monisha
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):45-47
      ”All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not be poisonous” – Paracelsus. Some substances are so toxic that small amounts can be harmful. Here is a case detail about a 58-year-old male who consumed a small quantity of methyl salicylate, mistaking it to Indian blackberry juice. He ended up undergoing six cycles of hemodialysis and critical care polyneuropathy.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):45-47
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/AJIM.AJIM_32_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Wallenberg syndrome with ipsilateral upper motor neuron facial palsy: A
           rare manifestation

    • Authors: Vijay Sardana, Pallav Jain
      Pages: 48 - 50
      Abstract: Vijay Sardana, Pallav Jain
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):48-50
      Lateral medullary syndrome presents with features of ipsilateral Horner syndrome, ipsilateral ataxia, and contralateral hyperalgesia. Patients can have ipsilateral lower motor neuron-type of facial palsy if there is rostral extension of the infarct as it involves the facial nucleus. Presence of ipsilateral upper motor neuron facial palsy is rare, which is due to the involvement of the corticofacial fibers which ascend in the dorsal medulla to reach the facial nerve nucleus. Our case supports the presence of this hypothetical neuroanatomical loop of supranuclear corticofacial fibers.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):48-50
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_57_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Challenges of managing viper envenomation

    • Authors: Purvesh Agrawal, Nidhi Khandelwal
      Pages: 51 - 54
      Abstract: Purvesh Agrawal, Nidhi Khandelwal
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):51-54
      The signs and symptoms following snakebite envenomation vary according to the type of snake encountered. Typically, Viperidae (vipers) envenomates with a hemotoxin causing coagulopathy and muscle breakdown, while elapids envenomate with a neurotoxin. However, these are not exclusive; the venom from elapids can have a hemotoxic effect and that of the Viperidae can be neurotoxic. We present a case series of viper envenomation presenting to the emergency department at a secondary care Indian Navy Hospital during 2019–2020. These cases highlight the clinical challenges involved in presentation of viper envenomation.
      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):51-54
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_62_20
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Obituary -Dr Gangadhar HC

    • Authors: M Gopichand
      Pages: 55 - 55
      Abstract: M Gopichand
      APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):55-55

      Citation: APIK Journal of Internal Medicine 2022 10(1):55-55
      PubDate: Thu,6 Jan 2022
      DOI: 10.4103/ajim.ajim_125_21
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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