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Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0145-482X - ISSN (Online) 1559-1476
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1162 journals]
  • How the Lived Experiences of Adults with Visual Impairments Are Shaped by
           Innumerable Factors

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      Authors: Sandra Lewis
      Pages: 83 - 84
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 83-84, March–April 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-03-19T07:19:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211001167
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Positioning Practices of Orientation and Mobility Specialists When
           Teaching Street Crossings: Is There a Standard Approach'

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      Authors: Kim T. Zebehazy, Rebecca L. Renshaw, George J. Zimmerman
      Pages: 85 - 94
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 85-94, March–April 2021.
      Introduction:An important skill for orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists to have is to monitor clients appropriately when they are learning to cross intersections. Techniques books provide some suggestions for positioning during street crossings, but no research has been conducted about consensus or priorities for making appropriate decisions on positioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate general positioning decisions using visual monitoring techniques.Method:A total of 234 participants (practicing O&M specialists, preservice O&M students, and O&M university personnel) completed a 40-question survey. The survey included demographic questions, diagrams of intersections that participants used to select positioning locations, questions about lanes of threat, and questions about important factors to consider when positioning to monitor safety. Commonality of selections were analyzed and compared with demographic information.Results:The greatest consensus was found for all intersection types when the client is positioned on the corner waiting to cross and for identification of the first lane of threat. More variable position selections were made for monitoring during the crossings, and the second and third lane of threat selections were also more variable. Factors respondents indicated as most important to consider when positioning aligned with their positioning choices overall.Discussion:Personnel preparation programs may want to consider to what extent they teach considerations for positioning before and during crossings, and whether the predominant tendency to put oneself between the client and traffic warrants additional conversation. Future research should look at more complex intersections and the additional nuances used to make positioning choices.Implications for practitioners:Practitioners should reflect on whether they actively change their positioning decisions based on the situation and type of intersection versus tending to use a standard strategy.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:55:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000947
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Personal Characteristics Associated with Working After Disability Onset
           for People with Visual Impairments

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      Authors: Zhen S. McKnight, Adele Crudden, Michele C. McDonnall
      Pages: 95 - 105
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 95-105, March–April 2021.
      Introduction:This study utilized data from the 2014 Survey of Disability and Employment (SDE) to examine personal characteristics that influenced employment after disability onset for people who are visually impaired (i.e., those who are blind or have low vision).Method:The selected sample from the SDE data set included 131 individuals who are visually impaired, had disability onset after age 14 years, and worked before their disability onset. Logistic regression was used to examine working after disability onset associated with age at disability onset, years since disability onset, gender, race, education, receipt of government disability benefits, self-reported health, encouragement received to work, additional disabilities, and the interaction between age at disability onset and years since disability onset.Results:Persons who were female, received government benefits, and had multiple disabilities were less likely to work after disability onset; persons who had more sources of encouragement were more likely to work after disability onset. Age at disability onset interacted with time since disability onset; as age increased, odds of working after disability onset increased but only for persons who had their disability for at least 4 years.Discussion:Persons with newly acquired disabilities may need time to adjust to their disability and learn new skills that allow them to continue employment. Information about how employment may influence receipt of government benefits would be helpful to persons evaluating their options regarding continuing employment.Implications for practitioners:A person who has not worked after recent disability onset may be adjusting to life with a disability and may return to work in the future. Encouragement to work from both service providers and family members made a meaningful difference in employment retention after disability onset, and this is an area that vocational rehabilitation professionals can influence.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:55:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000960
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Assessing the Longitudinal Change in Low Vision: A Test of Competing
           Hypotheses

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      Authors: Hui-Peng Liew
      Pages: 106 - 120
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 106-120, March–April 2021.
      Introduction:Visual impairment among older adults has increasingly become one of the biggest challenges to public health and personal well-being in the United States. This study aims to examine whether the intersectionality hypothesis can be used in conjunction with the cumulative advantage (disadvantage), persistent inequality, or age-as-leveler to explain heterogeneity in low vision trajectories across birth cohorts, race or ethnicity, gender, and the level of education.Methods:Growth curve modeling was used to analyze data from the 2002–2014 Health and Retirement Study.Results:The type of trajectory (i.e., cumulative advantage or disadvantage, the persistent inequality, and the age-as-leveler) that characterize low vision is largely dependent upon the characteristics of an individual (i.e., race or ethnicity, gender, and education).Discussion:Trajectories of low vision are higher among females and those from ethnic minority groups with low levels of education.Implications for practitioners:Targeted interventions and attempts to close interethnic disparities in vision functioning should begin early on in life and should focus on racial ethnic minorities, females, and those with low education.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:55:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000959
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Stimulus Generalization Using Nonvisual Stimuli with a Student Who Has
           Autism Spectrum Disorder and Visual Impairment

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      Authors: Robin Arnall, Yors Garcia, Annette K. Griffith, Jack Spear
      Pages: 121 - 133
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 121-133, March–April 2021.
      Introduction:The main objective of this study was to determine whether stimulus symmetry, or untaught generalized relations among stimuli, could be demonstrated using audio and tactile stimuli (i.e., nonvisual).Methods:A modified alternating treatment within a concurrent multiple baseline design across nonvisual stimulus sets (i.e., tactile and audio) was implemented with Zach, an 11-year-old male diagnosed with autism and visual impairment, to teach two relations (sound–touch and sound–label) among stimuli. Following training, the researcher tested whether Zach could identify stimuli through an untaught relation (touch–label). The study presented here required a week to complete and was conducted at a private school for individuals with behavioral concerns.Results:During baseline, Zach demonstrated low levels of correct responses (average of 7% across all relations) for all skills. In the training phase (for only two of the three targeted skills, sound–touch and sound–label relations), Zach demonstrated proficiency for most stimuli used in the sets (average of 61% across relations). Finally, in the testing phase (the untaught touch–label relation), Zach demonstrated high levels of generalized acquisition (89%).Discussion:Results indicated that the procedure used in this study could be generalized to novel populations, including those with visual impairments, and that different forms of sensory input could be used, including auditory and tactile-based teaching.Implications for practitioners:Individuals working with learners with differing levels of visual impairment could utilize the demonstrated procedure to associate types of stimuli, using methods other than visual input. The procedure outlined would benefit a population that may require assistance with developing language skills but who also may have difficulties using common visual stimuli.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X21999503
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • OASID, an Instrument for Assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders in
           Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Combined with Visual
           Impairments or Deafblindness

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      Authors: Gitta de Vaan, Mathijs P. J. Vervloed
      Pages: 134 - 142
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 134-142, March–April 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-03-22T09:05:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000965
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Innovative Inclusion Program for Early Learners with Visual Impairments
           Offered by Miami Lighthouse Learning Center for Children

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      Authors: Virginia A. Jacko, Isabel Chica, Sandra Lewis, Rebecca Bulotsky Shearer
      Pages: 143 - 151
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 143-151, March–April 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000967
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Educational Attainment and Employment for Individuals with Visual
           Impairments

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      Authors: Michele C. McDonnall, Andrew Tatch
      Pages: 152 - 159
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 152-159, March–April 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:54:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000963
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • An Examination of the Efficacy of an Open-Access Online Multimedia
           Tutorial System for the Malay Braille Code

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      Authors: Lay Wah Lee, Sien Sut Lee
      Pages: 160 - 167
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 160-167, March–April 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:55:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000982
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The Use of Growth Curve Modeling to Analyze Change Over Time

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      Authors: Robert Wall Emerson
      Pages: 168 - 169
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Volume 115, Issue 2, Page 168-169, March–April 2021.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-04-07T11:55:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211000983
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Vision-Related Quality of Life and Its Sociodemographic Correlates Among
           Individuals With Visual Impairments

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      Authors: Ansuman Panigrahi, G. Nageswar Rao, Amrita Kumari Konar
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: Visual impairment is an important public health concern worldwide that negatively affects quality of life (QOL). We aimed to assess the vision-related QOL and determine its sociodemographic correlates among individuals with visual impairments. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study during the years 2016–2017 among 201 individuals with visual impairments aged ≥ 40 years. After obtaining informed consent, we collected relevant information regarding sociodemographic characteristics using a pretested questionnaire and assessed vision-related QOL using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ-25). An ophthalmologist conducted comprehensive ophthalmic examinations of all the eligible study participants. Results: The mean VFQ-25 composite score was 52.91 + 7.61. The subscale score was highest for color vision (72.39 + 21.71) and worst in the dependency subscale (31.43 + 25.2). Multivariable ordinal regression revealed that variables such as gender, place of residence, household overcrowding, dietary habits, practicing exercise or yoga, and type of eye disorder were significantly (p< .05) associated with the QOL of individuals with visual impairments. Discussion: The QOL among individuals with visual impairments was poor in our study. Further research is needed to establish associations of various factors with the QOL. Implications for practitioners: Incorporating these determinants of vision-related QOL in the existing strategies could be useful for health care providers and social service providers in promoting the well-being of individuals with visual impairments.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T01:38:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211028938
       
  • Supporting Learners Who Are Blind Who Are Studying American Sign Language:
           Adaptations and Strategies

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      Authors: Bradley Blair
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T01:30:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211028944
       
  • Effects of a Physical Therapy Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life
           of Visually Impaired People: Development of an Audio–Tactile Exercise
           Protocol

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      Authors: Maristella Borges Silva, Suraya Gomes Novais Shimano, Nuno Miguel Lopes de Oliveira
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an audio–tactile protocol for therapeutic intervention in individuals with visual impairments. Methods: The Physiotherapy Protocol for People with Visual Impairment (PP-PVI) was developed following five steps: physiotherapy evaluation, linguistic selection, protocol design, linguistic adequation for visually impaired, and linguistic adequation for English language. Three adolescents and three young adults with visual impairments participated in this longitudinal study and performed the protocol of therapeutic exercises twice a week for 12 months while being evaluated with respect to their quality of life before and after. The quality of life was evaluated using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results: The median score for all domains of the quality of life questionnaire improved after PP-PVI, with the exception of the body pain domain, which remained unchanged. Discussion: The PP-PVI was shown to be an important method of therapeutic intervention, and it was easy to understand and apply in persons with visual impairments. Implications for practitioners: The exercises of the PP-PVI facilitate the development of several physical and functional capabilities that are important to the independence of individuals with visual impairments.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T04:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211027491
       
  • Emotional and Behavioral Assessment of Youths With Visual Impairments
           Utilizing the BASC-2

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      Authors: Stephanie Vetere Sims, Brian Celso, Ted Lombardo
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction: Few studies have examined the psychological and mental health effects of visual impairments (i.e., blindness and low vision) on youths. Our objectives were to describe the behavioral and emotional profile of students with visual impairments, compare the BASC-2 composite scores for youths with visual impairments with the normative data to determine if significant differences exist, and compare the BASC-2 scores of students categorized as having low vision with students categorized as being totally blind. Methods: A total of 63 students with visual impairments entering a state school for the deaf and blind between 2012 and 2017 had a parent complete the BASC-2 Parent Rating Scale as part of the intake procedure. A retrospective study was conducted to determine patterns of emotional and behavioral strengths and weaknesses in students with low vision and blindness. A Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) and Wilcoxon Rank Sums test were performed to test for differences between children who are blind and children with low vision. Results: Students with visual impairments showed higher levels of clinical symptoms such as anxiety and withdrawal. Statistically significant higher deficits were detected for the students with visual impairments on the Behavioral Symptoms Index and Internalizing Problems composites and significant lower differences for the Adaptive Skills and Externalizing Problems composites compared to the BASC-2 normative sample. When compared with youths with low vision, students who are blind had statistically significant scores (i.e., deficits) for adaptive skills and resiliency. Discussion: Our results suggest that a substantial proportion of students with visual impairments may experience more emotional and behavioral difficulties than the average youth while lacking the adaptive skills to manage their conduct adequately. Implications for practitioners: Professionals working with youths with visual impairments face a number of daunting challenges, since the conditions under the visually impaired umbrella are heterogeneous, and variation exists within a statistically low-incidence disability category. Therefore, those who work with youths with visual impairments have to apply various and unique methods to understand, train, teach, rehabilitate, or counsel these youths.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-06-30T04:34:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211028939
       
  • Erratum to “Personal Characteristics Associated with Working After
           Disability Onset for People with Visual Impairments”

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      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-06-15T10:41:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211026422
       
  • Strategies for Addressing the Special Needs of People with Visual
           Impairments During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Javad Abbasi Jondani
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T12:53:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211014334
       
  • A Survey of Blind Orientation and Mobility Specialists about the
           Accommodations and Teaching Strategies They Use when Providing Orientation
           and Mobility Services

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      Authors: Nora Griffin-Shirley, Laura Bozeman, The Nguyen, Vitalis Othuon, Anita Page, Juhyun Hahm, Juyoung Hahm, Jaehoon Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction:The purpose of the study was to survey orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors who are blind concerning the identification of accommodations, teaching techniques, and resources to teach students with visual impairments (i.e., blindness or low vision).Methods:The study utilized an online survey via Qualtrics (2019) with 27 closed- and open-ended items to identify accommodations, teaching techniques, and resources needed. The survey was e-mailed to membership and certification organizations requesting O&M instructors who are blind to participate for 12 weeks. The participants were 15 O&M specialists, mostly male and Caucasian. Survey data were then analyzed using descriptive statistics.Results:Forty percentage of the participants reported that there were minimal standards that they had to demonstrate prior to their admittance into an O&M program. About one-fourth of the participants mentioned their program was modified because of their visual impairment. Eleven participants (73%) reported that their nonvisual instructional strategies and techniques were predominantly gained through their university programs or other visually impaired instructors (27%, n = 4).Discussion:Aspects of this study that are similar to the current literature are smaller faculty-to-student ratios for blindfold or simulation cane courses, accommodations used by participants, and suggestions for monitoring the safety of students. The results revealed the participants’ strong belief in the importance of immersion training, the use of the Structured Discovery Cane Travel (SDCT), nonvisual skills during O&M instruction, sleep shades, and students’ problem-solving abilities.Implication for practitioners:Although the participants had received SDCT immersion training, most personnel preparation programs approved by the Association for the Education and Rehabilitation of Blind and Visually Impaired do not use this method. For this reason, it is important for faculty to identify best teaching practices from among all programs and to integrate these practices into their curricula. Sharing best practices could strengthen all programs. Moreover, students with visual impairments should be taught early about self-advocacy and the ability to have helpful knowledge about one’s skills at a university and in the workplace.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T01:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211018000
       
  • The Importance of Numbers: Who Are You Going to Contact When You Have
           Questions'

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      Authors: Sandra Lewis
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T08:20:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211014336
       
  • In Support of the Evidence Base Since 1921: The American Foundation for
           the Blind and the Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness

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      Authors: Jane Erin
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T08:18:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211014333
       
  • Population Data for Students with Visual Impairments in the United States

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      Authors: Rachel Anne Schles
      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.
      Introduction:The purpose of this study was to determine how many young children and students (birth to 22 years old) were identified with visual impairments and receiving special education services in the United States. Professionals estimate at least 50% of students with visual impairments have additional disabilities and are not identified as having a visual impairments for the purposes of the federal Child Count census; therefore, the differences between Child Count and states’ total population counts were explored.Methods:A mixed-methods survey was sent to each U.S. state to determine the total population of students with visual impairments (birth to 22 years old) during the 2016–2017 school year.Results:The 49 responding states reported an average total population four times greater than the number of students with visual impairments than were documented in Child Count data. Many states had limited or no data on their total population of students with visual impairments.Discussion:The findings demonstrate many states are making policy and administrative decisions based on Child Count data not their total population data of students with visual impairments (e.g., planning for 100 students with a primary disability of visual impairments rather than a total population of 405 students with visual impairments). Misuse of Child Count data contributes to underfunding and under-hiring of teachers of students with visual impairments and orientation and mobility instructors. How to address these issues at a systemic level so all students with visual impairments receive appropriate access to resources and quality instruction is also discussed.Implications for practitioners:Practitioners can use available population data across states to educate decision makers at local and state levels regarding the differences between Child Count and total population data for students with visual impairments. Statewide vision programs can also circumvent limited data collection programs at the state level by developing their own systems for total population counts of students with visual impairments.
      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T08:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X211016124
       
  • Corrigendum to “Perceptions of Assistive Technology by Teachers of
           Students with Visual Impairments in Jordan”

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      Abstract: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness
      PubDate: 2021-01-06T09:11:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0145482X20986257
       
 
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