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Advances in Applied NanoBio-Technologies
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2710-4001
Published by Dorma Journals Publisher Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Chemical and Enzyme Treatment of Enset Yarn for Technical Textile
           Applications

    • Authors: Alhayat Getu TEMESGEN, Omprakash Sahu
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Yarns obtained from natural fibers have been played a significant role in human history for the manufacture of technical and conventional textiles. Enset yarn is manufactured from agro waste fiber called false banana fiber (enset fiber). Fiber and/or yarn is not effectively utilized in technical textile and textile fiber reinforced ecofriendly composites. This research work was focused on the effect of biochemical modification of enset yarn, morphological analysis and characterized the mechanical properties of the yarn. Chemical composition, morphological structure and tensile strength were investigated and studied by using Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and SHIMADZU Strength tester. The tensile strength of the yarns were evaluated before and after biochemical treatments. The result show that, enset yarns treated with caustic soda, amylase enzyme and Aloe-vera gel were exhibited a significant improvement in their morphological, tensile strength and weight loss as compared to untreated enset yarn. The test results shown that treated enset yarn with both chemical and enzyme had a tensile strength of 53.50 – 65.43 MP with lower percentage weight loss. The tensile strength of the yarn was improved by 22 % due to alkalization and softeners. The major weight loss (6.14 %) enset yarn was observed in both 7.5% w/v. of alkali and 20% w/v. of enzyme treatment. 
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
       
  • CRISPR/Cas9 as a tool for Genome Editing: A Mini Review on Development and
           Approaches

    • Authors: Elham Riazimontazer, Ahmad Gholami
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: By introducing recombinant DNA technology, first reported in 1972, biological researchers were able to manipulate DNA molecules to develop new therapeutic strategies. Nowadays, targeted methods for engineering the genome of diverse organisms have provided a powerful tool in the treatment of genetic diseases. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technique is one of the newest genome modification tools based on prokaryotic adaptive immune system. The simplicity and flexibility of the CRISPR/Cas9 site-specific nuclease system and its efficiency has led to its widespread use in many biological research areas. In this review, the basis of this technique and its application in the treatment of genetic diseases are explored while highlighting challenges as well as future directions. Derived from a remarkable microbial defense system, CRISPR/Cas9 is used widely as innovative scaffold from basic biology to biotechnology and medicine.
      PubDate: 2021-03-21
       
  • Manufacturing and Properties of Poly Vinyl Alcohol/Fibrin Nanocomposite
           Used for Wound Dressing

    • Authors: Fahime Sadat Hoseini, Reza Taherian, Amir Atashi
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to make PVA/fibrin nanocomposite with suitable mechanical and biological properties to be used in wound dressing. Characterizations are performed by SEM, microculture Tetrazolium Test (MTT), tensile strength, contact angle, and DAPI coloring. Low, medium and high Concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin were injected into the scaffolds by electrophoresis method. The tensile strength test of scaffolds shows that the ultimate tensile strength and fracture strain are 4.06 MPa and 0.93, respectively. Wettability and SEM tests show an increase in hydrophobicity by the addition of fibrin to the scaffolds. The DAPI coloring test or cell adhesion test also indicates an increase in cell adhesion of scaffolds contained fibrin in comparison to scaffolds without fibrin. MTT test for 4 days shows a better cell proliferation in the PVA/fibrin composites as compared to PVA scaffolds results Showed that PVA/fibrin nanocomposite could be used for tissue engineering applications as a wound dressing in animal models.
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
       
  • Nano materials-based devices by photodynamic therapy for treating cancer
           applications

    • Authors: Sargol Mazraedoost, Gity Behbudi
      Pages: 9 - 21
      Abstract:       Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive beneficial modality that is able to be used instead of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat cancer. Low water solubility makes administering photosensitizers (PSs) complicated, which undermines several molecules' medicinal application, limits PDT's efficacy. Nanotechnology can be used to tune the photoactive drug's pharmacokinetics and tumor selectivity and perform a vital role in the photosensitizer's photodynamic function by maintaining the photosensitizer's monomeric structure and thereby optimizing the photochemistry that occurs upon photon absorption. Also, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may progress a PS's transcytosis by allowing two or different drugs to be delivered at the same time via epithelial and endothelial barriers. Based on this, nanotechnology's application in medicine could open up a slew of novel cancer treatment possibilities while also improving the efficacy of presently available medicines. Consequently, this research aims to investigate nanotechnology-based medication conveyance instruments utilized for photodynamic cancer treatment.
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
       
  • Reducing Amination of Aldehydes and Ketons with Highly Branch
           Polyethylenemine Supported Zirconia Borohydride and Nano Tetrachlorosilane
           as a New and Mild Reducing Agent

    • Authors: Zeinab Niknam, Nooredin Goudarzian, Khadije Yousefi
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: The formation of stable nanoparticle-polymeric reagent obtained by electrostatic complexation is studied in this paper. The nanoparticles placed under scrutiny were nano tetrachlorosilane (SiCl4) reacted with highly branch polyethyleneimine moieties. The complex formation was monitored using different formulation pathways, including direct mixing, sonication, dilution, and quenching. In the first process, the hybrids were obtained by mixing stock solutions of polymer and nanoparticle.  Therefore, the introduction of new and efficient methods is still in demand. The use of heterogeneous catalysts provides a perfect solution to overcome the above limitations.
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
       
  • Modeling of the Thermal Degradation of Poly (methyl methacrylate) and its
           Nanocomposite with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    • Authors: Alireza Aghili, Mohammad Reza Kamrani
      Pages: 22 - 34
      Abstract: Modeling of non-isothermal degradation of polymers consists of the integration of the Arrhenius function which has no analytical solution. The integration is commonly estimated by a variety of approximation functions with varying complexity and precision. In this study, a mathematical formula was derived in which the Arrhenius integral is calculated without using common approximation functions. Calculations showed that the obtained formula has a better accuracy compared to the common approximation functions. The obtained formula was used to determine the kinetic parameters of thermal degradation of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and its nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). The kinetic parameters were also calculated by a different method which was based on a single point calculation and used the approximation functions for estimating the Arrhenius integral. The comparison showed that there is a better agreement between the experimentally measured and calculated data when the kinetic parameters obtained from new formula.
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
       
  • Covid-19 treatment by plant compounds

    • Authors: Sargol Mazraedoost, Gity Behbudi, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi
      Pages: 23 - 33
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health epidemic, with significant mortality and morbidity, including critical care, putting a strain on health care services. In the city of Wuhan, China, a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 appeared at the end of 2019, causing an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia. A type of coronavirus disease belonging to the family Coronaviridae is COVID-19. Moreover, the disease's symptoms include fever, dry cough, tiredness. It is possible to foresee numerous options to monitor or avoid emerging 2019-nCoV infections, including small-molecule drugs, interferon therapies, and Vaccines. Novel interventions may take a long time.
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
       
  • The electrochemical behavior of Dopamine as electron transfer mediator
           catalyst for adsorption of Phenyl Boronic Acid and Sodium Tetraborate

    • Authors: Sonia Bahrani
      Pages: 34 - 40
      Abstract: In this study, a new method is advanced using dopamine (DA) as mediator catalyst for electro-oxidation of phenyl boronic acid (PhBA) and sodium tetraborate (NaTB). In this case, DA immobilized on topside of gold (Au) electrodes modified by mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayers (Au-MPA-DA SAMs). Layer‑by‑layer fabrication and electrochemical behaviour of adsorbed PhBA and NaTB is traced by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The measurements are performed in the presence as well as in the absence of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+ redox probes. The results successfully confirmed formation of DA-PhBA and DA-NaTB complexes on modified electrode.
      PubDate: 2021-03-20
       
  • Water-borne polyurethanes for high-performance electromagnetic
           interference shielding

    • Authors: Dr Khadijeh Yousefi, Najmeh Parvin, Nastaran Banaei, Sargol Mazraedoost
      Pages: 35 - 45
      Abstract:      Nowadays, a kind of new environmentally friendly coatings is used extensively under the name of water-borne polyurethanes. These coatings have attracted the attention of many researchers compared to conventional coatings due to the low emission of volatile organic compounds and the use of water as the solvent. In fact, this kind of water-based polyurethanes, due to their incompatible with water, significantly usage of hydrophilic groups number to get water solubility. On the other hand, they have special properties such as high mechanical resistance and biodegradability. Therefore, the use of water-borne polyurethanes is used in a wide range of applications, including electromagnetic interference shielding that is electromagnetic wave emission in the form of radio waves, and is created in many electronic devices. So, in this chapter, first, the structure of polyurethane and its compounds will be discussed. The study of water-borne polyurethanes and their production methods and their application in electromagnetic interference shielding is mentioned
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
       
  • Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma treatment on the
           Polypropylene film in presence of air and nitrogen at atmospheric pressure
           

    • Authors: Hossein Azimi, Mitra Tavakoli, Mehdi Sharifian
      Pages: 41 - 48
      Abstract: The plasma treatment is an efficient method used for improving wettability of the polymer film surface and increasing the surface roughness. In this paper, polypropylene (PP) films are modified by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) Plasma in the presence of air and nitrogen separately at atmospheric pressure. The plasma-modified surfaces are characterized by contact angle measurements, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS). Results show a remarkable increase in hydrophilicity due to the implantation of oxygen and nitrogen containing groups in these modified polypropylene films. Atomic oxygen, atomic nitrogen, OH radicals, and ions, which are presented in the discharge, create radicals at the polymer surface, which can react with oxygen and nitrogen species, resulting in formation of oxygen and nitrogen containing functionalities on the polymer surface. It is shown that plasma in the nitrogen atmosphere is more efficient in etching and implanting functionalities than air plasma.
      PubDate: 2021-06-20
       
  • Influence of phosphor precursors on the morphology and purity of
           sol–gel-derived hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    • Authors: Khadije Yousefi, Alireza Khalife
      Pages: 49 - 52
      Abstract:    In this study nano crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were produced by both sol-gel and precipitation methods. For this purpose calcium nitrate tetra hydrate (Ca(NO3)2·4H2O) was selected as calcium precursors  and three types of phosphorus precursors such as acid phosphoric (H3PO4) , triethyl phosphate  (C2H5O)3PO and pentad oxide phosphorus (P2O5) were chosen. The produced powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that although hydroxyapatite can be produced by all phosphorus precursors used in the current research, the purity of HA obtained from penta oxide phosphorus and phosphoric acid is higher than that of triethyl phosphate. The SEM micrographs prove that the morphology of nano-HAP depends on the type of phosphorus precursor .The HAP prepared from acid phosphoric was spherically shaped whereas the one from triethyl phosphate  is needle like and  from penta oxide phosphorus was found to be Pyramidal in shape.
      PubDate: 2021-06-20
       
  • DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY DIAGNOSIS ALGORITHM USING MATHEMATICAL RATIO MODELS
           WITH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN SMA TYPE I DISEASE

    • Authors: Ozan Emre EYUPOĞLU, Nezahat Nazlı OKAY
      Pages: 59 - 62
      Abstract: Objective: Early diagnosis is life-saving in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a disease that is defined as a rare disease in the community and affects one person in ten thousand. When laboratory tests are examined from the diagnostic tests, it should be checked whether there is a homozygous deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene as the first diagnostic parameter for a patient who is thought to have spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). In order t o be sure of the diagnosis, it is necessary to look at the creatine kinase (CK) value of the patient and the nerve conduction results that will be obtained from the results of electrophysiological tests such as electromyography (EMG). It was aimed to develop an early diagnosis algorithm by using a mathematical ratio model to diagnose spinal muscular atrophy disease early, by proportioning the length of the electrocardiogram (ECG) frequency with the creatine kinase value being higher than normal.   Material and Method: A group of people with SMA disease and a group of healthy people were used in the study. Serum creatine kinase values of all patients were measured and the length of the electrocardiogram (ECG) frequency was measured. These two values are proportioned.   Result and Discussion: As a result of literature studies, the frequencies of electrocardiogram tremors and creatine kinase (CK) values of healthy people were compared. Electrocardiogram (ECG) frequencies and creatine kinase values of sick people were also compared. The range value of healthy people and the range values of sick people were compared and a range of values specific to sick people was determined. Based on this range, patients with vibration frequency / creatine kinase values between 0.125-0.175 can be diagnosed. This study will contribute to the development of computer-based android applications for diagnosis for patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with codes 0 and 1, using the inference that the patient is healthy as the value approaches 1 and the value approaches 0.
      PubDate: 2021-06-20
       
  • Effect of silver nanoparticles disinfectant on covid-19

    • Authors: Gity Behbudi
      Pages: 63 - 67
      Abstract: The modifications of sample in the metallic crystals from bulk to nano size have caused in wonderful and supreme attributes; which have dramatically created a broad range of applications. Exclusively, Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) attract more consideration due to their specific catalytic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties that can be modified with shapes, size, surface nature, etc. Therefore these crystals have been utilized in different areas such as antimicrobial agents in the health industry, electronic components, sensor, catalysis, etc. Silver is suitable for all pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In addition, Ag NPs disinfectants have attracted attention because of the applicable applications in our daily life. Hence the Ag NPs have been utilized in various sections such as food packaging, biomedical, animal husbandry, textile, water/air filters, etc. Because of the absence of efficient antiviral scales, the pandemic of COVID-19 is extanding. AgNPs are assumed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and have been studied due to owning antiviral properties. In this review, the Ag NPs as a disinfectant in disinfect of covid-19 have been discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-06-20
       
  • Providing a model to robust entanglement between a movable mirror and a
           cavity field in coupled optomechanical system

    • Authors: Mehrad Gavahi, Li hong Rong
      Pages: 68 - 76
      Abstract: Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen and Schr ̈odinger first identified Entanglement as a peculiar quantum mechanics phenomenon, challenging the completeness of the theory. Because of the significance of the phenomenon of entanglement, the entanglement between a movable mirror and a cavity field is discussed in this article. Due to the importance of the subject, two types of design are considered for the analysis of the cavity caused by the moving mirror and for both, the analytical solution was performed and the governing equations were derived. In the first example, between two mirrors, one fixed and the other movable, a cavity field is found, in which case the interconnection between the rotating mirror and the two level atoms in the cavity field can be studied. In the second example, the first field is coupled to another cavity field and the effect of entanglement is studied on a mirror on which the atom is not located. The findings indicate that the greater entanglement and the wider efficient detuning area can be obtained with the increase in the coupling power of the coupled optomechanical device, so it is simpler and more feasible to realize and observe this kind of novel phenomenon in experiment.
      PubDate: 2021-06-20
       
  • Surface Modification of Nano-Hydroxyapatite by Coating Stearic Acid

    • Authors: Manije Yousefi, Nafise Modghan, Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Todays, researchers are challenging with manufacturing polymeric nanocomposites reinforced with ceramic particles due to two inherent properties of ceramic reinforcement particles, particle agglomeration and incompatibility between hydrophilic ceramic particles and hydrophobic polymeric matrix. So in this study, we used nano-Hydroxyapatite (n-HA) as ceramic material and Stearic acid as amphiphilic material for coating n-HA, hydroxysteric acid (SA) surfactant was used for surface coating particles between the hydrophilic HA powders and the hydrophobic polymers. The surface modification and effect of this method were evaluated by by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result of FTIR showed that n-HA surfaces were modified successfully and the modification method had the proper grafting amount according to TGA due to this method of modification will be proper for coating reinforcement particles in polymeric matrix.
      PubDate: 2020-03-20
       
  • The importance of silver nanoparticles in human life

    • Authors: Shahram Ahmadi
      Pages: 5 - 9
      Abstract: One nanomaterial that is having an early impact in health care product is nano-silver. Silver has been used for the treatment of medical ailments for over 100 years due to its natural antibacterial and antifungal properties. The nano silver particles typically measure 25nm. They have extremely large relatively surface area, increasing their contact with bacteria or fungi, and vastly improving its bactericidal and fungicidal effectiveness. The nano silver when in contact with bacteria and fungus will adversely affect cellular metabolism and inhibit cell growth. The nano silver suppresses respiration, basal metabolism of electron transfer system, and transport of substrate in the microbial cell membrane. The nano silver inhibits multiplication and growth of those bacteria and fungi which cause infection, odor, itchiness and sores. Nano Silver can be applied to range of other healthcare products such as dressings for burns, scald, skin donor and recipient sites; acne and cavity wounds; and female hygiene products – panty liners, sanitary towels and pants.
      PubDate: 2020-03-20
       
  • Investigation Preliminary antimicrobial and anticancer properties: on
           Topic Rubia tinctorum plant by using Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS)

    • Authors: Afsane Hoseinzadeh, Yasin Sadeghipour, Gity Behbudi
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: In this study, the antioxidant content in Rubia tinctorum was investigated. The extraction of essences is sensitive to operational conditions. Therefore, the effect of different extraction techniques by using HS -SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/​Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), on the quality of essence oil composition was inspected and the composition of the final product was recognized using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy.Essential Rubia tinctorum is widely used in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agriculture and food industries for their bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical and insecticidal properties. Their anticancer activity is well documented. This review is focused on the activity of essential Rubia tinctorum and their components on various types of Blood cancer cells. The chemical composition of the essential Rubia tinctorum from was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents were. Ocimene , Sabinene hydrate acetate, Bornyl acetate, Thymol , Methyl isoeugenol ,isoelemicin, Asarone, Neophytadiene. The cytotoxic effect of essential and extracts Rubia tinctorum were analyzed, the results showed that the substance. Good resistance against the toxicity of cell lines is shown MOLT4.
      PubDate: 2020-03-20
       
  • Polyethyleneimine - based materials for gene therapy, bioimaging and drug
           delivery systems applications

    • Authors: Reza Masoumzadeh, Anahita zare
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: Polyethylene (PEI) has certain properties that have been widely considered for medical purposes. PEI has a primary, secondary and tertiary cationic structure that gives it special chemical properties that make it have special applications in medicine. The amine groups on PEI are used for biomedical applications such as the preparation of organic / inorganic or organic / organic composites. In this paper, we review the latest scientific advances in medical applications of PEI, such as bioimaging applications, especially cancer diagnosis, gene therapy, and drug delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2020-11-07
       
  • Modification and Improvement of Fe3O4-Embedded Poly(thiophene) Core/Shell
           Nanoparticles for Cadmium Removal by Cloud Point Extraction

    • Authors: Yasin Sadeghipour, Fatemeh Mojoudi, Gity Behbudi
      Pages: 20 - 27
      Abstract: Cloud Point Extraction (CPE) as an effective method for pre-concentration and separation of cadmium from aqueous solution is widely utilized. This study involves a surfactant mediated CPE procedure in order to remove cadmium from waste water using Polythiophene nanoparticle and Triton X- 100 as a non – ionic surfactant. Polythiophene – coated iron nanoparticles was successfully synthesized with novel method and as a super magnetic nano-particles (MNPs) for cadmium removal from aqueous solution was evaluated. Polythophene nano-particles emulsifying method have been synthesized and fabricated. Fabricated nano-particle was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and analysed transmission electron microscopy (SEM). Effects of pH, buffer volume, extraction time, temperature, amount of nano-particle were essentially investigated. To reach in optimum conditions, related experiments were replicated and accomplished as well. For removal of cadmium by CPE approach the optimization conditions were gained at pH = 7 , volume of buffer acid 1.5 millilitre , electrolyte concentration (NaCl) of 10 -3  mole L-1  , Trinton concentration 5 %, cloud point temperature 80 0 C , extraction time 40 minutes, and 5 mg of modified polythiophene nano-particle. The calibration graph was liner with a correlation coefficient of 0. 9984 and represents appropriate liner correlation with an amount and concentration. The results revealed that 5 gram of modified nanoparticle can significantly increase the efficiency of cadmium removal.
      PubDate: 2020-03-20
       
  • Phenol Novalac Epoxy-modified unsaturated polyester hybrid networks by
           Silica Nanoparticles/ and Cross linking with Silane Compounds

    • Authors: Shahram Ahmadi
      Pages: 28 - 32
      Abstract: In this study epoxy phenol novalac resin which consists of silica nanoparticles and unsaturated poly ester resin linked to the Silane and cross linking to that structure and also parameters affecting the processes involved have been evaluated. Cross linking in phenol novalac epoxy resins effects on many properties such as thermal, electrical, mechanical and chemical attributes especially in elevated temperatures. Silane cross-linking’s in phenol novalac epoxy resin with respect to other methods like proxiding, irradiation and utilization of Azo compounds, looks to be a very simple and low cost route, which makes it very encouraging for various industries. Unsaturated poly ester resin is compatible with phenol novalac epoxy resin and also creates some cross-linking and as far as tri methoxy Silane is added to the mentioned resin, its thermal, physical and mechanical properties are optimized. In this literature impact, tension, glass transition temperature, humidity absorption, FTIR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests were done and the results revealed that as the cross-linking occurs, tension in rupture region increases. This increase is more common at elevated temperatures. The growth in content of silica nanoparticles leads to a drop in water permeability of phenol novalac epoxy resin nanocomposite which contains unsaturated poly ester resin.
      PubDate: 2020-06-20
       
  • Mini review of polysaccharide nanoparticles and drug delivery process

    • Authors: Farzad Raeisi, Elham Raeisi
      Pages: 33 - 44
      Abstract: In recent years, according to research, the role of polysaccharides as drug carriers has attracted much attention. Polysaccharide nanoparticles have been considered as vesicles of various pharmaceutical agents due to the existence of special multifunctional groups in addition to physicochemical properties such as biocompatibility and biodegradation. The presence of groups with different applications on the main constituent structure of the polysaccharide allows easy chemical or biochemical modification for the synthesis of polysaccharide-based nanoparticles with different structures. Nanogels with polysaccharide base and structure have high water content, large surface area for polyvalent biological binding, adjustable size and internal network for combining different drugs. These special properties make it possible to use polysaccharide-based nanogels in drug delivery systems. Keywords: Polysaccharide, Nanoparticles, Drug delivery
      PubDate: 2020-06-20
       
  • The Recent advances in gene delivery using nanostructures and future
           prospects

    • Authors: Seyyedeh Narjes Abootalebi, Eslam Shorafa
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Gene therapy has attracted much attention as an encouraging solution to treat a wide range of diseases rather than rare hereditary and single-gene disorders. For this purpose, nucleic acids must be delivered to human target cells. This article reviews the history, key issues, recent advances, and future of gene therapy using nanostructures.
      Some intracellular and extracellular barriers need to be removed. Today, a wide range of nano-vectors vectors have been developed. Several vectors based on nanostructures have been developed and used for the successful treatment of some inherited diseases, immunodeficiency, ocular and cancer. Viral vectors are suitable for gene therapy for diseases that require long-term gene expression. Although non-viral vectors are less effective than viruses, they are more specific, have less immunogenicity, and are capable of transmitting longer genes.
      Overall, recent advances in various gene therapy strategies have been able to meet some of the expectations of gene therapy for years, and have raised many hopes for further success. Gene therapy seems to be the ultimate solution of the present century to treat many human diseases.
      PubDate: 2020-06-20
       
  • Graphene Oxide as a Docking Station for Modern Drug Delivery System. by
           Ulva lactuca species study its antimicrobial , anti-fungal and anti-Blood
           cancer activity

    • Authors: dr.mansoreh shokripur, Saghar Garayemi, Farzad Raeisi
      Pages: 53 - 62
      Abstract: In this study, employing modified Hummers method coupled with a multi-stage manufacturing procedure, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with Ulva lactuca species GOU at different weight ratios was synthesized. Although Ulva lactuca species treatment with graphene oxide tablets gave a faster release in an acidic medium compared with the commercial product (Ulva lactuca species), the cumulative amount of released drugs of the optimum formulation was found to be almost the same as that of the commercial product at the end of different amounts (h). Treatment by graphene oxid     matrix tablet formulations can deliver the drug to the small and large intestine. Thus, the - graphene oxid treatment by Ulva lactuca species may be a promising system for the treatment of Crohn’s disease involving both the ileum and large intestine. The best way to approach this problem is to utilize slow release drugs. In this research, the release of the GOU drug from a graphene oxide base has been investigated. The amount of Ulva lactuca species absorption and then, its release by graphene oxide were studied. XRD, EDAX, MAP, PSA, FT-IR and  SEM techniques were used in different steps in order to confirm the experimentations validity. Also MTT test was done to investigate the cytotoxicity of the new nanodrug on the large bowel cells. In this research, acidity level impact, drug density PH, mixing time and the optimum amount of absorbent in absorbing graphene oxide by Ulva lactuca species, and also the anti-fungal and anti-bacterial effect was studied. Keyword: graphene oxide, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, Ulva lactuca species
      PubDate: 2020-06-20
       
  • Effect of Solution Properties on Electrospinning of Polymer Nanofibers: A
           Study on Fabrication of PVDF Nanofibers by Electrospinning in DMAC and
           (DMAC/Acetone) Solvents

    • Authors: Mostafa Moshfeghian, Hossein Azimi, Mehrdad Mahkam, Mohammadreza Kalaee, Saeedeh Mazinani, Hossein Mosafer
      Pages: 53 - 58
      Abstract: Fabrication of nano poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers that have high surface area to volume ratio has been investigated nowadays for its applications in various industries. Among the important advantages of these fibers one can point to the efficiency and economic aspects (e.g fuel cost). One of the important features that has led to the widespread use of PVDF fibers in the industry (especially membrane systems) is the very high degree of hydrophobicity. Therefore, this study used two different solvents to evaluate their effect on the hydrophobic characteristic of PVDF fibers. Nanofibers of PVDF fibers were made by electrospinning in Dimethylacetamide (DMAC)/Acetone (6/4): (w/w) and DMAC solvents.  After determining the solvent effect, the effect of different concentrations were investigated. Hydrophobicity was evaluated by contact angle measurmement and fiber quality and morphology were discussed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis.
      PubDate: 2020-06-20
       
  • Mini review of Graphene Oxide for medical detection and applications

    • Authors: Gity Behbudi
      Pages: 63 - 66
      Abstract: Graphene, has single layer of carbon atoms with unrivaled physicochemical attributes (e.g. ease of functionalization, remarkable biocompatibility, unparalleled thermal conductivity, strong mechanical strength, excellent electrical conductivity and high surface area) has obtained increasing consideration in biomedical, chemical and physical fields. Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most applicable materials which applied in different applications such as biomedicine, electronics, photocatalysis, sensors and in energy storage (batteries and supercapacitors).  Graphene based Materials such as graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide have a high applicable potential in the medical applications. GO lonely and its improved form with several compounds (composite formation, immobilization of nanoparticles and surface functionalization) also demonstrate as a multifunctional volunteer for medical biotechnology.      In this work, investigated the methods of synthesis graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their applications in detection of medical fields. In particular, graphene based biosensors for small biomolecules detection, drug delivery, cancer therapy and biosensores have been summarized.
      PubDate: 2020-09-20
       
  • High-density polyethylene surface modification for the attachment of
           Eggshell and Oak Bark Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Nastaran Banaei, Shahram Ahmadi
      Pages: 67 - 71
      Abstract: Growing production speed of plastics in municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes of petrochemical complexes and related industries are giving rise to environmental, health and economic problems. Abundance sources of agricultural wastes such as rice husk, bagasse, palm fiber, straw, canola and sawdust having limited practical applications are mostly not recycled and most of them discarded or burnt. By collecting these wastes and processing them we are able to produce products having added-value and consequently reduce environmental pollutions. In this project a combination of rice husk and chitosan nanoparticles were combined and formed as a biopolymer. HDPE and also extrusion in a two-screw extruder are used. After producing the composite, physical and mechanical properties of the composite were studied. Analyzing results showed that 36 wt% rice husk has the maximum tensile strength and similarly by reducing the percentage of rice husk and increasing the percentage of chitosan nanoparticles the tensile strength lowered strongly because rice bran have silica compounds too and reducing the percentage of rice husk make tensile strength lowered , also flexural modulus is increased by increasing percentage rice husk but in samples that nanoparticles were increased and rice husk was decreased, flexural modulus decreased too and flexural strength.
      PubDate: 2020-09-20
       
  • Production of calcium silicate Nano-biocomposite and modeling of its
           flexural and compressive strength with statistics method

    • Authors: Khadije Yousefi, Habib Danesh Manesh
      Pages: 72 - 76
      Abstract: Nano Fast Cement (NFC) is a nanocomposite with a short setting time for repairing root teeth canals as an alternative to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate. The downside of this new tooth restorative material is the poor workability and low compressive strength. In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), colloidal nano-silica, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were added to NFC to improve its physical, mechanical, and biocompatibility properties of NFC. The effects of the three additives on strength were determined. Experiments were designed based on the Taguchi method. The optimum contents of the three additives for the highest compressive strength, flexural strength were also obtained. The results showed that the most effective factor on the mechanical (compressive & flexural strength) properties of NFC is polyvinyl alcohol. Based on the Taguchi method, the optimal (highest value) of the mechanical property is obtained for PVA, nano-silica, and nano-hydroxyapatite contents of  6, .0.5, 0 Wt.%.
      PubDate: 2020-09-20
       
  • Thermo Mechanical behaviour of Phenol Novolac Resin and Unsaturated
           Polyester Toughened Epoxy using nano Bentonite and Silica Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Jamshidi, Shahram Ahmadi
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract:  Phenol novolac epoxy resin is a polymer matter which its properties can be modified for industrial needs. In this research, nanocomposites of phenol novolac epoxy resin and unsaturated polyester are made nano Bentonite and silica nanoparticles as filler. For this purpose, effect of nanoparticles percent on nanocomposite formation is studied and their physical, mechanical and thermal properties are obtained. The presence of unsaturated polyester in this process forms a cross-link capable of improving the physical and mechanical properties of epoxy resin. Fracture behavior was determined by a SEM device. Moreover, TGA, DSC, impact tests and bending test were applied for data analysis. When process ability is growing, moisture absorption decreases. Fracture toughness was also evaluated in a stoichiometric network. Physical and mechanical properties improve significantly with increasing nanoparticles. The most important reason for using this nanocomposite is its high resistance to corrosion.          
      PubDate: 2020-10-13
       
  • A medical encyclopedia with new approach graphene quantum dots for
           anti-breast cancer applications: mini review

    • Authors: Reza Masoumzade, Gity Behbudi, Sargol Mazraedoost
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: In Last  years, graphene  quantum dots (GQDs) have received develop consideration due to their attributes such as small size and light weight, fluorescence detects , liquid solvability, biomedicine, photo sensors , drug delivery, gene delivery, and cancer therapy refers to new  approaches. Graphene quantum dots are fluorescent graphene nanostructures with sizes Low. The fluorescence in GQDs emanates through two original the fluorescence emission from bond fracture energy transmission of interlace π-domains and in this material from surface deficiency. The GQDs have found applications in multiple areas such as nano medicine. The GQDs have less toxicity and other particular properties in comparison to materials, quantum dots which make them superior properties for medical applications. In this article, we discuss the applications of GQDs in breast cancer control, drug delivery system and breast cancer treatment. In this work, the articles we used to treat breast cancer are all based on graphene-based conjugates and graphene. In fact, we provide a summary of the latest advances in the treatment of breast cancer using GQD, existing problems and innovative methods. The purpose of this study is to find answers to questions that help us in the treatment of breast cancer, such as why patients do not survive long, a general understanding of the biology of cancer cells and how nanocomponents work in the treatment of these patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate GQD as a potential anti-metastatic agent.
      PubDate: 2020-12-20
       
  • Nanoparticles induced oxidative stress and related effects especially
           under exposure to electromagnetic radiations

    • Authors: Shahram Ahmadi
      Pages: 91 - 98
      Abstract: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) have various chemical effects, including causing deterioration in large molecules in cells and imbalance in ionic equilibrium. Despite being essential for life, oxygen molecules can lead to the generation of hazardous by-products, known as reactive oxygen species (ROS), during biological reactions. These reactive oxygen species can damage cellular components such as proteins, lipids and DNA. Free radicals are unstable atoms or molecules with free outer electrons. This makes them highly reactive because free electrons always strive to form a stable bond. This stabilization involves gaining an electron from another molecule, triggering a chain reaction. Such reactions are omnipresent in the human body, but under certain circumstances can damage biomolecules. Whether nanoparticles are intracellular taken up leading to the activation of free radical production is currently being discussed. Ongoing studies are investigating whether the amount of free radicals formed on the surface of nanoparticles is sufficient to induce cellular effects. This dossier provides an overview about what free radicals are, how they originate, why organisms need them, how they are neutralized, and what we know about the connection between nanoparticles and free radical production. Several studies have reported that exposure to EMF results in oxidative stress in many tissues of the body. Exposure to EMF is known to increase free radical concentrations and traceability and can affect the radical couple recombination. The purpose of this review was to highlight the impact of oxidative stress on antioxidant systems.
      PubDate: 2020-12-20
       
  • Biochemical composition properties of Kombucha SCOBY: Mini Reviews

    • Authors: Sargol Mazraedoost, Nastaran Banaei
      Pages: 99 - 104
      Abstract: Kombucha is a fermented tea drink prepared as a result of the symbiotic nature of bacterial cultures and yeast, the so-called SCOBY (Symbiotic Cultures of Bacteria and Yeast). Kombucha is characterized by a rich chemical content and stable properties. Kombucha is a beverage produced by the fermentation of sugared tea using a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts. Kombucha intake has been correlated with certain health benefits, such as: lowered cholesterol and blood pressure levels, decreased cancer spread, improved liver, immune system, and gastrointestinal functions.
      PubDate: 2020-12-20
       
  • Preparation of PMMA/nano-SiO2 nanocomposite and its application in
           formation of microcellular foams using supercritical CO2

    • Authors: ALireza Aghili
      Pages: 105 - 114
      Abstract: Silica nanoparticles with an average diameter of 12 nm were used for preparation of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites using a solution blending method. Dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior of polymer and nanocomposites was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the thermal decomposition of nanocomposites occurs at slightly higher temperature compared to the neat polymer. The rheological behavior of polymer and nanocomposites was investigated by an oscillatory rheometer. The pure PMMA and its nanocomposites were used for production of microcellular foams using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Dry ice was used as the source of supercritical fluid. The morphology of microcellular foams was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the cell size and cell density of foams were calculated via image analysis. The effect of silica nanoparticles on cell size and cell density of foams was also investigated. The foams prepared from nanocomposites have smaller cell size and larger cell density.
      PubDate: 2020-12-20
       
 
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