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Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2707-2150 - ISSN (Online) 2707-2169
Published by Royallite Global Homepage  [4 journals]
  • The unseen face of infertility: an exploration of the man’s experience
           in Ayobami Adebayo’s Stay with me

    • Authors: Gloria Fwangyil
      Abstract: Infertility is perceived to be the woman's problem in patriarchal societies. The woman is usually subjected to different forms of mistreatment when a couple is battling infertility. Male infertility is rarely discussed because it is regarded as a taboo subject. Due to the little or no attention given to male infertility, men suffer the problem in silence. This study seeks to examine the aspect of infertility that is 'unseen' - the man's side of the story as exemplified in Ayobami Adebayo's Stay with Me (2017). The study is hinged on the African feminist theory that seeks the emancipation of both men and women from gender stereotypes and encourages complementarity between the sexes. The research reveals that men endure enormous mental, emotional and psychological pain when battling impotence. In most cases, the man devices ways of surmounting the problem alone. It concludes that male infertility has the potential of destabilising the atmosphere of peace and tranquility in the home hence the need to accord it the attention it deserves. The study also reiterates the need for men and women to be liberated from gender stereotypes and societal expectations that inhibit their personal development.
      Keywords: Articles ; Exploring female friendship in African literature: From Mariama Ba’s So
             Long a Letter (2008) to Binwell Sinyangwe’s A Cowrie of Hope (2000)

      • Authors: Precious Ami Tay, Faith Ben-Daniels
        Abstract: There have been several arguments over the years that women are their own worst adversaries. The smallest quarrel amongst women is sometimes followed by the statement, 'women are their own enemies.' Most women have internalized this adage and established prejudiced and biased notions about women they hardly know. Despite this, African female writers have written about female friendship and how women have united, rescued, and established solidarity with one another to endure oppression and patriarchy. Using Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter and other African literary texts, this dissertation investigates the theme of friendship in African literature. Using the theory of sisterhood, the paper highlights how writers have explored diverse forms of deep and honest friendship among women, women genuinely forgiving each other and coming together to achieve a common course. The discussion is achieved by focusing on the theory of sisterhood’s depiction of friendship. The paper concludes that women have and can form a great bond of friendship and the issue of women subjugating women is human nature and not a natural negative feminine gender reaction.
        Keywords: Articles ; Orators and Peace Building in Bafut Ritual-Incantation

        • Authors: Churchill Che
          Abstract: This paper sets out to investigate the different conflicts inherent in our societies as X-rayed in incantations from Bafut, North West Region of Cameroon. It contends that the language used by performers of incantations in general is geared towards peace-building and it is an embodiment of culture. This language usage is brought out through the diction of the performers as pacifiers, their usage of euphemisms and other diminutive aspects of the language. The work proceeds to highlight other techniques of peace-building employed by the performers during performance including the idea of avoidance of hate speech. The paper submits further that the performer of incantations from Bafut is a whistle blower to early warnings for dispute settlement in order to prevent further conflicts. It concludes that traditional peace-building techniques using incantations are effective in building peace in our societies by first of all identifying the elements that hinder peace in the society, bringing the people and various groups together, and preaching the merits of living as a peace loving people both from within and without.
          Keywords: Articles ; Analysis of three novels as representative models of Kenyan Literature’s
                 suitability for filmic adaptation

          • Authors: Elias Herbert Mutendei Nabutete, Selline Oketch, Caroline Kimathi
            Abstract: In the multi-media creative space, a close relationship exists between literature and film. Writers and film creators employ their unique skills to make their audience visualize: the former mentally, the latter through audio-visual senses. The distinction between the two media types lies in the perception of the visual image and concept of the mental image, which informs the adaptation of prose fiction, particularly novels. Global and regional level film producers adapt literary works into film, yet in the Kenyan context, a creative disconnect exists between literary works and their film adaptations. Generationally popular Kenyan literary texts are deficiently adapted into Kenyan film. The study evaluated three novels, namely The River and The Source, Striving for the Wind and Dust as representative models of Kenyan Literature’s suitability for adaptation. It was guided by the Reader Response Theory, Intertextuality and Adaptation Theory. In view of the qualitative and quantitative nature of the study, a mixed methods research design was employed. The study drew its primary data from Jicho Four Productions’ adaptations of Ogola’s The River and the Source, close reading of Ogola’s The River and the Source, Mwangi’s Striving for the Wind, and Owour’s Dust, alongside semi-structured interviews of fourteen persons purposively sampled from across literature and film industries, utilizing mixed questionnaires. The study finds that Kenyan Literature and Kenyan Film as solid creative pillars exist individually, without a bridge to substantitively link them and their audiences. This research is significant as it gives insights to the barriers to adaptations of Kenyan Literature into film, untapped potential of adaptations, internal and external standard-based yardsticks influencing adaptations, and provides a structured outline of stumbling blocks and potential remedies to enable film adaptations of Kenyan Literature to be at par with regional and global counterparts.
            Keywords: Articles ; Perspectives on law and justice depicted in Muroki Ndung’u’s A Friend
                   of the Court (1994)

            • Authors: Japheth Langat, Selline Oketch, Diana Mutuku
              Abstract: One of the subjects of literary fiction is the law. Outside the world of fiction, law occupies a grand position and justice is underpinned by a legal process. This study sought to determine the different perspectives on Kenyan law depicted in Muroki Ndung’u’s novel A Friend of the Court. The research was guided by postmodernist literary theory, particularly Lyotard’s contestations on grand narratives, Derrida’s binary oppositions, contradictions in language use as founded in Saussurean philosophy and fiction as representation of the unconscious. Content analysis was used, relying on a close reading of the selected novel to collect primary data. Secondary data was obtained from a review of published works on law and literature, including Kenyan daily newspapers, which helped to contextualize issues in the study. In his novel, Muroki Ndung’u shows how in Kenya there is tension between politics and the law. Although law is a product of political processes, namely public debate and consensus, the processes of drafting, amendment and promulgation, implementation and enforcement of the constitution is rife with political overtones. For this reason, Ndung’u lampoons the chaotic nature of Kenya’s judicial processes in his work. The fact that his novel is politico-legal in itself is symbolic of the confusion between law and politics in the Kenya he represents in the novel. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on the relationship between literature and the law and the contest between grand and marginalised narratives.
              Keywords: Articles ; Feminism as a tool for social engineering and change in Akachi
                     Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Children of the Eagle (2002)

              • Authors: Leah Iliya Jalo
                Abstract: This paper explicates the use of feminism as a tool for social engineering as outlined in Akachi Adimora Ezeigbo’s Children of the Eagle. It examines the propagation of identified feminist tools which results in the female characters coming out of the confines as they transform the stereotypes that surround them into liberating modes of freedom. The postcolonial feminist theory serves to underscore the way the protagonist’s gender and class aided their subjugation, marginalization and oppression. Ten excerpts were purposively sampled from our selected text. Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling that is based on the aim of the study. This paper affirms that in order to achieve change, women need to create symbols for the new set of relationship they are seeking to institutionalize in a particular society. To accomplish this change, it is imperative for women to perceive and pursue the possibilities of altering their structural position, to find out the extent to which they are willing to work for changes in laws and other political structures which affect women. Furthermore, it is important for women to work towards establishing an essential feminist agenda that is all embracing. This agenda should encourage women to explore the opportunities that abound in negotiation, dialogue, economic independence, complementarity, self-discovery, female bonding and mentoring for overall growth and development.
                Keywords: Articles ; Interweaving of Melodies: Convergence of Divergent Voices in Ngugi Wa
                       Thiongo’s Devil on the Cross (1980)

                • Authors: Andrew Nyongesa
                  Abstract: Literary critics have analysed the African novel using few philosophical models that reflect conventional experiences on the continent. Dominant subjects such as political upheavals, relegation of women and revolutions characterize African works of prose, which prompts most critics to employ Marxist, postcolonial and feminist canons in critical appreciation. As much as these canons aptly dissect African classics, there exist other literary canons that bring out multiple voices embedded in some African works of prose fiction. This study breaks away from the aforementioned conventional trends by unearthing divergent voices and how they turn the novel into a conference of competing ideologies. Using dialogism, this article analyses divergent voices with regard to diverse subjects conveyed by characters in Ngugi Wa Thiong’o’s Devil on the Cross (1980).  The ideas of Mikhail Bakhtin (1984) will form a theoretical basis of interpretation.  This analytical study is, therefore, a close textual reading of the primary and secondary texts while Bhakhtin (1984) serves as a theoretical framework for the interpretation. One major finding of the study is that its Marxist content, notwithstanding Ngugi’s Devil on the Cross is a polyphonic novel.
                  Keywords: Articles ; Marginality, subversion and the performativity of declining masculinity in
                         selected Kenyan feature films by women filmmakers

                  • Authors: Gloria Kemunto Mokaya, Charles Kebaya, Larry Ndivo
                    Pages: 1 - 13
                    Abstract: Borne out of the need to understand the performance of masculinity in film, this article explores practices and notions of masculinity in the Kenyan society as represented in feature films. It seeks to understand both men’s and women’s perceptions of masculinity and how, in defining, enacting and performing them, they evoke social expectations, personal agency, and cultural subversions. Specifically, the article shows how feature films represent marginality and reconfigure declining trends of masculinity in society today. Thus, the article probes two questions; where are real men' and how is masculinity performed in contexts where the ‘conventional’ artefacts of masculinity are not readily available to men' Raewyn Connell’s theorization of hegemonic masculinity guided analyses and interpretations of findings in this article. Using two feature films by women filmmakers, Dangerous Affair (2002) and Soul Boy (2010), the paper shows how men are fashioning and working out masculine identities and selves away from the reveled mythic figurations of masculinity which, largely due to shifting contexts, appear elusive to them.  It also reveals that marginalized men’s experiences with masculinity are unique, because context undermines the everyday ways they express themselves as dominant females emerge.
                    Keywords: Articles ; Racial interference in the justice systems in John Grisham’s A Time to
                           Kill (1989) and The Chamber (1994)

                    • Authors: Gideon Kiplangat Too, Margaret Njoki Mwihia, Peter Muhoro Mwangi
                      Pages: 1 - 10
                      Abstract: Premised on the tenets of intertextuality and structuralism, this study sought to examine how racism has influenced the administration of justice in the two selected texts of John Grisham, A Time to Kill, and The Chamber. It further sought to immerse the practice of law right inside the societal space where reality is supreme so that law is understood alongside human experiences and conditions. Law as it exists as written law is one thing; it is the other to juxtapose and read these set of rules together with the situations in real life. The main objective of this study was to carry out reading of legal representation in selected fiction of John Grisham and critically analyse the influence of legal fiction on law and justice. The study established that racism available within the judicial structures affected administration of justice in the selected texts. This paper after carrying out the study established that in the American society where John Grisham’s texts are set, administration of justice was at different levels in the judicial systems interfered by socials aspects such as racism, organized crimes amongst other aspects but this paper will focus on racism.
                      Keywords: Articles ; Beautiful dreams: Deconstructing discourses of redemption in Darko’s
                             Beyond the Horizon (1995), Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street (2009),
                             Adichie’s Americanah (2013) and Mbue’s Behold the Dreamers (2016)

                      • Authors: Gloria Ajami Makokha, Mugo Muhia, Oluoch Obura
                        Pages: 11 - 24
                        Abstract: This paper entails an analysis of how in their different particularities, Amma Darko’s Beyond the Horizon, Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street; Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah and Imbolo Mbue’s Behold the Dreamers explore the underbelly of notions informing the discourse of a redemptive West for Africans located at the margins of globalisation. The analysis locates Chimamanda’s Americanah and Mbue’s Behold the Dreamers within the racialised polity in the USA, in the midst of either a global economic meltdown or individual inability to access the fruits of globalisation because of the fact of race or immigration status.  It also explores how choicelessness in the job market in Europe informs the radical choice of persisting at the social and economic margins of Europe despite the harsh realities and outcomes in this choice. This paper demonstrates that the questions of place at particular moments in history force a revision of initial fantasy about the notions of the redemptive West.  This textual analysis is informed by the postcolonial theory, as articulated by Robert Nichols and Homi Bhabha and their postulations on identity, ‘othering’ and ‘in-between spaces’.
                        Keywords: Articles ;
                         
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