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Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2338-8617 - ISSN (Online) 2443-2067
Published by SCAD Independent Homepage  [1 journal]
  • The Discursive Construction of Strategies for Implementing Anti-Corruption
           Education at State Islamic Higher Educational Institutions

    • Authors: Mustafa A. Rahman (Author
      Abstract: Corruption is so pervasive in the Republic of Indonesia that it has becomea rampant conundrum in various economic, social, educational, and even religious sectors. Using discursive analysis as the research methodology with the Foucauldian paradigm, this paper aimed at identifying and describing the strategies used in the discursive construction of the implementation of anti-corruption education (Pendidikan Antikorupsi, PAK) by three State Islamic Higher Educational Institutions (Perguruan Tinggi Keagamaan Islam Negeri, PTKINs) in Aceh. Given fairness of the geographical location, Ar-Raniry State Islamic University, Lhokseumawe State Islamic Institute and Teungku Dirundeng State Islamic College were selected as the research sites. The data were collected by interviewing the leaders of three PTKINs—rectors, deans, and heads of departments—through questionnaires and focus group discussions with lecturers. The findings indicate that the three PTKINs generally have strategies for implementing PAK; separate subjects, incorporating the PAK curriculum into related subjects, such as fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), and state resilience. PAK is also integrated into students' activities that take place on campus. Both internal and external factors, such as overloaded subjects in the departments and insufficient support from the community, hamper PAK at the PTKINs.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Improving Language Skills Through Linguistic Intelligence Learning Design

    • Authors: Dani Gunawan; Bachrudin Musthafa, Dinn Wahyudin (Author
      Abstract: This research aimed to determine the difference in students' language skills levels before and after using a verbal-linguistic intelligence-based learning design. This research was conducted in an elementary school in Garut Regency, Indonesia, using a pre-experimental design with a one-group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 22 sixth-grade elementary school students. The data were obtained by test. The test instrument was tested for validity and reliability. Then, the data were analyzed by inferential and descriptive tests. The inferential test was done through normality and homogeneity tests. Furthermore, the data were tested for the mean difference using SPSS 22 software. The results prove differences in students' language skills before and after applying the verbal-linguistic intelligence-based learning design. The acquisition sees the difference in scores of the average score of each skill after treatment increases with an n-gain score of 68.75. This proves that verbal-linguistic intelligence-based learning design can improve each student's language skills. The findings can be an insight for future researchers conducting research on learning design based on verbal-linguistic intelligence or language skills.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role of ‘Modul Pembinaan Karakter (MPK)’ in Building a Superior
           Personality in Trainees: a Case Study

    • Authors: Darwina Darus; Abu Bakar Ibrahim, Amir Hassan Dawi, Abu Zarrin Selamat (Author
      Abstract: Program Latihan Khidmat Negara (PLKN) is a national agenda that aims to train Malaysian youths to become a generation of more excellent heirs and the core of development and the backbone of the country's future. MPK is a module implemented to build prominent personality in trainees as an excellent and quality human development process. The implementation of MPK in the PLKN camp is focused on personality elements that form discipline and self-awareness of essential matters and exemplary personal qualities with noble values that are the core of community life. Thus, this study analyzed the role of MPK in building a distinguished personality in trainees: a study at the Tawau PLKN Camp, Sabah. The variables involved in this study were character building, prominent personality, trainee, and camp. All variables were examined for their manifestation through unity, character, leadership, confidence, self-strength, and national integration. The design of this study was conducted by combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, namely questionnaires and interview sessions. This study was conducted in Tawau for group 2 Series 9/2014. A total of 142 trainees were directly involved in the questionnaire study, and 90 respondents were involved in the interview session. The method used to analyze the collected data was to find the average score given by the respondents. Generally, the average score for all items studied ranged from 4.07 (agree) on a scale of 1-5. Overall, the findings from this study can be re-evaluated so that MPK can be reabsorbed in PLKN in the future to build healthy young people in terms of positive identity and physical and spiritual to form a national leadership that can compete in the eyes the world of the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pilot Study and Data Examination for the Teaching Composition of Higher
           Order Thinking Skills (HOTs) in the Field of Sirah on Islamic Education
           Teachers

    • Authors: Muhammad Talhah Jima'ain; Nurul Asyikin Ab Rahman, Khadijah Abdul Razak, Ahmad Marzuki Mohamad, Aminudin Hehsan (Author
      Abstract: A quality study requires a neat and demanding methodology for a pilot study to be conducted first and a regular examination of the data before an actual study. This paper would like to look at the findings from the pilot study and the results of the data examination on the methodology used in quantitative methods. In this study, the researcher conducted two pilot studies on 63 teachers of Islamic Education (GPI) and then analyzed data examination using SPSS 20.0. A pilot study is an essential thing before doing an actual study. However, examining the data in the pilot study analysis is an equally important matter rarely presented in any of the study articles. Therefore, this paper would like to reveal a little about the examination of data after the pilot study was conducted. The results of this study showed that the mean of the questionnaire was at a high and moderate level. While the test against the examination of the data was at a high internal consistency of the construct, typically scattered, the variables were found to be positive. Thus, actual field research can be carried out optimally.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Management of Strengthening Islamic Character Education in Senior High
           School

    • Authors: Nuranifah Nuranifah; Cut Zahri Harun, Nasir Usman (Author
      Abstract: Islamic character education aims to continuously shape individual self-improvement to train one's ability to lead a life through Islamic guidance. This study aimed to determine: strengthening programs, strengthening implementation, determinant factors in strengthening, and obstacles faced in strengthening Islamic character education at MAN Aceh Besar. This study used a descriptive method with a qualitative approach. Data collection techniques were carried out through observation, interviews, and documentation study. The research subjects were supervisors, school principals, and teachers. The results showed that: (1) The formulated program was incomplete and not detailed, especially regarding using the budget for teacher training activities. The program that was arranged was still implemented as well as possible by the principal to strengthen Islamic character education; (2) The program was implemented by involving all school personnel; (3) The principal followed up on the determinant factor in strengthening Islamic character education is through monitoring activities appropriately every activity that has been programmed; and (4) Obstacle encountered in strengthening Islamic character education include the lack of available funds for teacher training outside of service hours.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Identifying Items for “Self-Reflection” as a Religious Factor to
           Succeed in the Pre-Sea Training

    • Authors: Ahmad Firdaus Bin Mohd Noor; Khairunnisa Binti A Shukor, Mohd Zahirwan Halim Zainal Abidin, Muhd Imran Abd Razak, Paiz Hassan, Mukhamad Khafiz Abd Basir (Author
      Abstract: Self-reflection has become a necessary skill to achieve the goal students set for themselves to be successful in pre-sea training. It helps students to improve their actions in critical situations, primarily when supported by religious practices. This study aimed to identify items that represent self-reflection as a religious factor for success in pre-sea training. A three-round Delphi approach was adopted in which ten experts were selected who met the necessary condition to participate in the study. Data were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 23 for median and IQR. The study found that self-reflection can be implemented through meditation and self-evaluation, the act of repentance, and returning to the source of religion. However, the experts felt that isolation is unsuitable for them as a ship's crew. They are advised to find other methods of meditation and self-assessment, such as self-contemplation. Students should return to the sources of religion, including the Quran and Sunnah, by reading books and online references and also seek the help of knowledgeable and pious people. However, experts pointed out how difficult it is for a Muslim to reach out to this pious person when he is the only Muslim on board. This study has developed 18 practices for students to implement self-reflection in the form of meditation and self-contemplation.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • E-Module Mangrove Ecotourism: Difference and Relationship Perception,
           Interest, and Environment Character Care Elementary Students

    • Authors: Asrial Asrial; Syahrial Syahrial, Dwi Agus Kurniawan, Diki Chen, Mashelin Wulandari (Author
      Abstract: This research aimed at seeing how the level of perception, interest in learning, and the character of students' environmental care; this study also sees the difference after using the mangrove ecotourism e-module. This quantitative research used the variables of students' perceptions, interests, and environmental care. The sample used was 120 students in 3 different elementary schools, the sampling technique used was simple random sampling. Data analysis used descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, and correlation test. From the results obtained, it can be seen that the students of Islamic boarding schools have the lowest perceptions and interest in learning, namely 46.65 and 32.92. However, to protect the environment, the number of students in Islamic boarding schools is higher than in other students. In the Anova test, elementary school children had different perceptions and interests in learning, while for the character of caring for the environment between Madrasah and Islamic Boarding School children. Other results also showed that perception had a relationship of 20.6% with student interest in learning and 66% with concern for the student's environment. This study's conclusion showed that the e-module can increase the interest and character of students' environmental care.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Measurement of the Parenting Style of the Character of Millennial Students
           at State Islamic Higher Educational Institutions

    • Authors: Nurmawati Nurmawati; Cheri Julida Panjaitan, Khairul Amri (Author
      Abstract: The research aimed to determine how to measure parenting style for students who experienced security conflicts or great natural disasters such as tsunamis. The research focused on the parenting style of millennial children, particularly in building their character. The study sample consisted of 210 students at a state Islamic university in Aceh. This study found 38 valid items from the 40 instrument items developed, while two instrument items were invalid because of the rxy value <0 30. Furthermore, the reliability test is conducted by calculating the value of α Cronbach, which found a value of 0 871 for 38 valid items about the instrument. The ANOVA analysis measured the differences of each PTKIN in Aceh (STAIN, IAIN, and UIN). Obtained F value of 3.116 with sig = 0.046. Because the sig value <0.05, Ho is rejected. It can be concluded that there were differences in the average parenting style and student character in UIN, IAIN, and STAIN in Aceh.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Perceptions of Pendidikan Guru Penggerak Towards Blended Learning

    • Authors: Istiqomah Istiqomah (Author
      Abstract: This study aimed to report Pendidikan Guru Penggerak’s views on applying blended learning in these activities. In the study, the explanatory sequential mixed method was used as the study design. The quantitative data from the survey was conducted, followed by the follow-up interview, documentation study, and focus group discussion (FGD) as the qualitative data. To collect the data in this study, a specifically perceives of using blended learning in PGP was distributed to the total sample of 28 Guru Penggerak Angkatan 1 from Kabupaten Lombok Timur, Kabupaten Bima, and Kota Malang. Then, the interview was conducted with three selected participants from each city/regency, while the FGD involved the entire sample. The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of the research results. The results showed that participants perceived blended learning in PGP very well in terms of learning management system (LMS), synchronous and asynchronous online learning, and face-to-face mentoring and lokakarya. The realization of a learning community among fellow participants was an added value for PGP. As a result, participants could also improve their teaching skills which ICT-based.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Developing a Scale: Perceptions of High School Students About the
           Relationship Between Chemistry and Daily Life

    • Authors: Canan Koçak Altundağ; Fatma Merve Mustafaoğlu, Ayşem Seda Yücel (Author
      Abstract: This study aimed to develop an instrument to measure the perception of high school students regarding the relationship between chemistry and daily life and to determine the validity and reliability levels of the developed measurement tool. The data were collected from 7308 high school students from 59 provinces in Turkey. After the exploratory factor analysis was carried out to get an idea about the structure of the Perception Scale for Chemistry and Daily Life Relationship, the structure obtained was checked by confirmatory factor analysis. Originally consisting of 35 items, the load factor of the scale was decreased to 26 items following the removal of 9 items which were understood to be at a low level in item-total correlation and reliability. The Perception Scale for Chemistry and Daily Life Relationship consisted of 26 items and four factors: Awareness, Development, Interest, and Consciousness. These findings concluded that the scale obtained was valid and reliable in determining student perceptions about the relationship between chemistry and daily life. Teacher educators and chemistry teachers can use the instrument to determine high school students' perceptions of the relationship between chemistry and daily life. In this way, it may contribute to training students with potential for chemistry-related professions by implementing appropriate ways.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Rise of the Urban Piety Movement: Jamaah Maiyah as an Urban
           Spiritualism and Emerging Religiosity in the Public Sphere

    • Authors: Lukis Alam; Ahmad Lahmi, Meredian Alam, Aminah Aminah (Author
      Abstract: Recently, an intense discussion has developed among religion and social issues researchers on the discourse of spiritualism. The existence of spiritualism has changed parts of human civilization, including religious attitudes and expressions that exist in the public sphere. Therefore, in this study, the authors examined the discourse of spiritualism exemplified by Jamaah Maiyah Cak Nun. The model of spiritualism that the authors adopted was different in context from the cultural spiritualism studied by many scientists. This study sought to elaborate and explore the surge of religious spiritualism promoted by Jamaah Maiyah Cak Nun using a qualitative research framework. In addition, this research leads to a social and religious anthropological research model that combines virtual ethnography and fieldwork. The results of this study revealed the existence of spiritualism promoted by Jamaah Maiyah Cak Nun. Meanwhile, the development of various models of different aspects of spiritualism could not be separated from the support of the community itself. The Jamaah Maiyah's interaction also deserved attention; universal religious expressions and egalitarianism were the domains of the community. This research should be a reference for developing religious and social discourse in the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Good Governance in Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R.) Program at
           Siak Regency

    • Authors: Zainal Zainal; Deby Zeriand (Author
      Abstract: The fundamental problem of this research is the lack of transparency and accountability of the Regional Development Planning Agency (BAPPEDA) with P.T.IKPP disseminates the corporate social responsibility (C.S.R.) program to the people of the Siak Regency. This study aimed to determine the implementation of good governance in the corporate social responsibility (C.S.R.) program by the Regional Development Planning Agency (BAPPEDA) in Siak Regency. The research method used in this study uses a qualitative method with a purposive sampling technique. The study results indicated that good governance in the corporate social responsibility (C.S.R.) program is not running optimally due to the incompatibility between implementation in the field and the principles used in good governance, namely participation, transparency, accountability, and the rule of law. This study's conclusion showed the lack of collaboration from BAPPEDA with all stakeholders involved in providing reports on planned programs and even those that have been realized. Accountability and transparency activities were less than optimal in socializing with the people of Siak Regency. This research suggests that P.T. IKPP maximizes its role in providing information to the people of the Siak Regency. BAPPEDA must further increase its duties in supervising the company's implementation of C.S.R. in the community.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Development of a Virtual Laboratory on Qualitative Chemical Practicum
           Analysis

    • Authors: Hayuni Retno Widarti; Moh Ilmanul Hakim, Deni Ainur Rokhim (Author
      Abstract: In practical activities, it is necessary to have media that can provide multi-representation explanations, namely macroscopic, microscopic and submicroscopic, especially in qualitative analytical chemistry for group I and II cations. It takes an innovation of practicum learning media that can explain multiple representations to prepare students for practical activities well. An alternative solution is to use learning media as a virtual laboratory. The objectives of this research and development were to develop a virtual laboratory in qualitative chemical analysis practicum for group I and II cations based on multiple representations with internet integration and describe the feasibility of a virtual laboratory in the practicum of qualitative chemical analysis of group I and II cations based on multiple representations with internet integrated. This research and development used the R & D (research and development) method with a 4D (four-D) development model. The results showed that media expert validation was 87.8% (very valid), and material validation was 82.7% (very valid). The readability test results obtained percentage values ​​of 91.1% and 92.3% (Very Valid). The virtual laboratory explained multiple representations that can help students in practical activities well.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Struggle for Wealth and Power in the Age of Black Gold

    • Authors: Muhammad Thalal; Husaini Husaini, Muliadi Kurdi, Mursyidin Mursyidin (Author
      Abstract: This article discussed the historiography of oil history presented in this review article. This article aimed to demonstrate that oil historians are continually conversing with one another through their publications, even if it is not always visible. This historiographical perspective was supposed to provide a valuable framework for understanding this debate. This article used descriptive analysis in analyzing data to examine major disputes in oil history and how interpretations of those debates have influenced the trajectory of oil history and diplomatic and economic events. The Prize, a famous work by Daniel Yergin, focused on the article's debate. The goal was to examine historical events or topics in oil history from many angles, drawing on several sources that have affected historians' contributions to the field. According to the article, Oil has always been linked to a quest for money and power. The global economy, the result of conflicts, and the political landscape of states were altered by this battle. This study showed that a never-ending attempt to secure Oil, as long as it is vital to human civilization, would eventually lead to wars and conflicts.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Mother Tongue as a Threat for English Language Learning at Primary Level
           in Indian Schools: a Survey-Based Study

    • Authors: Tribhuwan Kumar; Mahyudin Ritonga, Julhadi Julhadi (Author
      Abstract: This study looked at the possibility of using the mother tongue (MT) as an instructional tool at the elementary level of schooling in India. Many academics have remained intent on using their native languages as a medium of teaching in elementary schools because of the country's multilingual character. This study explained why MT, as an instructional tool, may or may not be successful in the coming years, and many issues that make it impossible to carry out are also discussed. Through a purposeful sampling method, the researcher gathered data from 150 elementary school teachers from government-run and private schools in the western part of Uttar Pradesh, India. To gather data, the researcher needed a well-designed questionnaire consisting of questions in two parts- Part A and Part B. The first part wanted demographic data on respondents. In contrast, the second part focused on the many reasons that encourage or discourage primary school students in India from learning their native language. Alpha, mean, and standard deviation were used to evaluate the data obtained. Using MT as an instructional tool in Indian elementary education, the multilingual character of India, and the unavailability of instructional material and scientific equipment in indigenous languages constitute hindrances.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Digital Citizenship In Civic Education Learning: A Systematic Literature
           Review

    • Authors: Iwan Fajri; Dasim Budimansyah, Kokom Komalasari (Author
      Abstract: This paper aimed to analyze digital citizenship in civic education learning, focusing on the practice and implications of digital citizenship in civic education learning. This article provided a systematic review of 41 selected articles from the SCOPUS database of digital citizenship in civic education learning by analyzing content as a methodology for assessing the practice and implications of citizenship in civic education learning. The review identified the practice of digital citizenship in civic education learning from the dimensions of respecting, educating, and appreciating the practice of citizenship. The results of the literature review analysis revealed that the practice of digital citizenship is often used in political participation, democratic participation, citizen involvement, and being a citizen in the digital era. The implications of digital citizenship in civic education learning were still centered on materials such as politics, democracy, and citizen involvement. Another implication was that students, teachers, and curriculum are the most critical aspects of digital citizenship in the future. Some literature tries to carry out this study. Civic education is the central pillar in promoting digital citizenship in schools and the community.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Development of Learning Tools for Students with Comorbid
           Dyscalculia-Dyslexia

    • Authors: Budi Azhari; Khusnul Safrina (Author
      Abstract: This study aimed to develop learning tools to help children with learning disabilities of comorbid dyscalculia-dyslexia. The learning tools were developed using the 4D model. Each stage of development was conducted based on the materials focused on in this research, namely the topics of recognizing and understanding numbers, sorting numbers, and operating numbers. This study involved 280 students, ages between 7 and 8 years old, from four elementary schools. Students took a series of tests, and 11 students were found with comorbid dyscalculia-dyslexia. The results of this study provided an overview related to the learning tools developed, tested, and implemented in mathematics learning for students with dyscalculia and dyslexia. This finding was indicated by the analysis results of recognizing numbers, sorting numbers, and operating numbers using paired-sample t-tests (p< 0.05). The results showed increased students' essential mathematics ability based on the pretest and posttest scores.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Dialectics of Islam and Custom in the Kenduri La’ōt Tradition of
           the Coastal Muslim Community of East Aceh

    • Authors: Zubir Zubir; Kamaruzzaman Bustamam Ahmad (Author
      Abstract: Religion is a sensitive issue for the Acehnese Muslim community. However, the practice of religion and culture of marine safety for coastal communities, primarily fishers, is significant, although sometimes it cannot be separated from magical things. This paper aimed to describe how the religion and customs of salvation run in harmony among the people of East Aceh are solid with the tradition of Islamic law. This research results from an empirical study with a phenomenological approach that seeks to see people’s behavior in celebrating marine safety. The source of the data was obtained from the coastal communities of East Aceh who were directly involved with the practice of the kenduri laot tradition. Empirical research was conducted on a coastal Muslim community located in the eastern part of Aceh. This paper argued that the phenomenon of maritime security carried out by coastal Muslim communities is a tradition that previous people have practiced. However, the coastal Muslim community of East Aceh is very thick with Islamic teachings. However, the marine safety tradition is important because it contains a philosophical aspect  still maintained today. The Islamization of the kenduri la’ōt practice wrapped in Islamic events eliminates the mystical impression. This illustrated that there is a dialectic shift from a naturalistic tradition to a theological tradition; the belief that is built by the community is that there is a compromise between tradition and religion to create harmonious conditions, religion becomes the spirit and supporter in the celebration of marine safety, and this is what makes the practice of kenduri la’ōt (sea safety) survive.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A View of Time in Open and Distance Learning

    • Authors: Hoo Fang Jing; Mohd Amin Mohd Noh, Raihan Ibrahim, Mohd Faeez Ilias (Author
      Abstract: Time is a significant and massive worry in behaviour that causes difficulties amongst instructors and learners in ensuring an effective process of teaching and learning in open and distance learning (ODL) environment. This study aimed to identify instructors’ and learners’ ability to allocate time in ODL. The study was conducted with 320 respondents, and the instrument used was questionnaires. The results showed that ODL instructors and learners were challenged with many obstacles to prioritizing tasks and allocating time accordingly in their teaching and learning. A close inspection of the role of time management is much required. The most reported challenges were managing the academic schedule on ODL and multitasking while teaching and learning on ODL. Lastly, it was deemed unnecessary to have additional time to satisfy the expectations of ODL. It was found that both instructors and learners from public and private higher education institutions needed effective educational practices to succeed in ODL and blended learning. In short, time allocation in prioritizing tasks is still an obstruction to achieving effective and balanced teaching and learning system with ODL that satisfies the desire of the instructors and learners. This research suggests investigating social, cognitive, teaching and emotional presence to successfully conduct the teaching and learning process.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Why Was “Self-Government” Not Achieved in Aceh' The Challenges of
           Implementing a Peace Agreement

    • Authors: Suadi Zainal; Kamarulzaman Askandar, Muhammad bin Abubakar (Author
      Abstract: The "self-government" was proposed as an alternative solution to independence and special autonomy to end the protracted conflict in Aceh. Based on the contents of the peace agreement signed in 2005, Aceh is given the right to self-government. However, this is not realized fully. This study aimed to explain the imagined self-government and the causes challenging it to be implemented. The study used a qualitative library research method in which data was sourced from online text documents. The data were analyzed using critical discourse analysis. The study found that the issue of "self-government" was initially at the center of the negotiation. The Free Aceh Movement - GAM envisioned it like Olan Island in Finland and Sarawak in Malaysia. Still, it has not been realized because it was not declared explicitly in the agreement, and the term "self-government" was used as a strategy to persuade GAM negotiators to continue in the negotiation. Further, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) offered Aceh special autonomy instead of self-government through the Law on Governing Aceh by ignoring the limitations on the authority of GoI over Aceh that was agreed. This was caused by five reasons that lay in the negotiation process and the realization of the agreement interconnected. Amongst; GAM was unbalanced to GoI during the negotiations and powerless to force GoI to obey the deal, and there was no punishment mechanism for the violator of the agreement. Finally, the study revealed that an inclusive process in drafting new laws for a post-conflict region does not always result in full outcomes by the agreement.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +000
       
 
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