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Revista Latinoamericana de Educación Inclusiva
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 0718-7378
Published by SciELO Homepage  [911 journals]
  • El Covid-19 y las Brechas Educativas

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  • Narrativas sobre los Procesos de Inclusión y Exclusión de las
           Disidencias Culturales, Étnicas, Políticas, de Edad, Sexuales y de
           Género en la Educación Escolar en Chile y Brasil

    •  
  • Diferencias Morales y Fronteras Sociales. Los Límites de la Inclusión en
           la Educación Sexual de los Colegios Católicos de Santiago

    • Abstract: Resumen: En los colegios católicos de élite, la educación sexual intenta regular la intimidad y el carácter personal, para así dar forma a un individuo capaz de orientarse a sí mismo y su sexualidad hacia un fin determinado. En el presente artículo examinaremos el resultado de una investigación cualitativa desarrollada en 16 establecimientos católicos de la ciudad de Santiago. A partir de 53 entrevistas a orientadores y psicólogos a cargo de la educación sexual, dos grupos focales que convocaron a 23 adolescentes de dichos colegios y observaciones etnográficas en distintas actividades de formación de tales establecimientos, se propone un nuevo análisis de la noción de inclusión, centrado no en la orientación sexual de los sujetos -como las escuelas la suelen representar-, sino en la construcción de la alteridad que cada currículo conlleva. Como resultado de esta investigación, se evidencia la dificultad para comprender los límites que la experiencia subjetiva impone a la discusión moral sobre sexualidad. En estas escuelas católicas las formas de inclusión siguen estando confinadas a compartir una misma posición socioeconómica, sin comprender como persisten ciertas alteridades invisibles cuya inclusión probablemente evidenciaría el carácter contingente de la educación sexual.Abstract: In elitist Catholic schools, sex education attempts to regulate intimacy and personal character, in order to shape an individual capable of guiding himself and his sexuality towards an ethical project. In this article, we will examine the result of a qualitative research carried out in 16 Catholic establishments in the city of Santiago. From 53 interviews with counselors and psychologists in charge of sexual education, two focus groups that convened 23 adolescents from these schools and ethnographic observations in different training activities of such establishments, a new analysis of the notion of inclusion is proposed. In this case, we are not focused on the sexual orientation of the subjects - as schools usually do, representing the idea of sexual diversity- but instead, we will observe the construction of the otherness associated to sexual education. As a result, the limits that subjective experience imposes on moral discussion about sexuality become evident. In these schools, “diversity” is still confined to share the same socioeconomic position. The inclusion of certain invisible alterities would probably evidence the contingent nature of sex education.
       
  • Representaciones Sociales de Profesores y Estudiantes sobre las Personas
           LGBTI: Un Estudio de Caso en un Liceo Católico y Laico

    • Abstract: Resumen: Hoy nos enfrentamos a una revitalización de la discusión respecto de la diversidad sexual en el contexto educativo, sin embargo, no se puede desconocer que las orientaciones que cada establecimiento tenga respecto de la concepción de diversidad sexual pueden marcar diferencias significativas en torno a las ideas y actuaciones que llevan a cabo en sus comunidades. En ese marco, la investigación que da origen a este artículo se propuso identificar las representaciones sociales que tienen docentes y estudiantes acerca de la inclusión de las temáticas y estudiantes lgtbi en un centro educativo secundario de orientación católica y otro laico de la ciudad de Santiago. A través de la aplicación de entrevistas en profundidad a docentes y estudiantes, se pudo establecer que existen diferencias relevantes en ambos establecimientos respecto de la forma de abordar la diversidad sexual, su visibilidad y las creencias que los actores tienen al respecto.Abstract: Nowadays we are facing a revitalization of the discussion regarding sexual diversity in the educational context. However, we cannot ignore that the orientations that each establishment has regarding sexual diversity can lead to significant differences when it comes to the beliefs and actions that they carry out in their communities. The research that gives rise to this article aimed at identifying the social representations of teachers and students regarding the inclusion of lgtbi subjects and students in a Catholic secondary school and another secular one in the city of Santiago. Through the application of in-depth interviews with teachers and students, it was established that there are relevant differences between these establishments regarding the way to approach sexual diversity, its visibility and the beliefs that the actors have in this regard.
       
  • Children, Gender and Sexualities: An Action-Research with Teachers of
           Early Childhood Education

    • Abstract: Resumen: O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer o processo de subjetivação dos professores sobre gênero, sexualidade e infância em suas práticas educativas. Foi realizada uma pesquisa-intervenção com o objetivo de dialogar com os educadores de um Centro Local de Educação Infantil. Realizaram-se oficinas e entrevistas para coletar dados. Identificamos o uso de tecnologias de gênero pelos professores na produção de infâncias padronizadas e como a escola atua como um agente que coloca essa padronização em ação. Dentre elas identificamos formas de atuar no processo pedagógico junto às crianças, a força de discursos como o da identificaçao das sexualidades a partir dos estereotipos binários de gênero, bem como das intervenções no sentido de corrigir os desvios de rota das sexualidades e dos gêneros. Ao mesmo tempo percebemos os os efeitos do brincar e a relação do mecanismo sexo/gênero que perpassam as brincadeiras pela mediação dos adultos e os discursos naturalizantes e normalizadores. A pesquisa se propôs a criar um espaço de formação e debate entre pesquisador e educadoras em que problematizações sobre as normalizações sobre gêneros e sexualidades pudessem ser colocados em movimento. Finaliza-se detenco considerações sobre as posibilidades de potencia da educação infantil em romper desde cedo os discursos binários e heternormativos sobre gêneros e sexualidades.Abstract: The aim of this study was to know the subjectivation process of teachers about gender, sexuality and childhood in their educational practices. For this, an intervention research was conducted with the purpose of organizing dialogues with early childhood educators of a Municipal Center of Early Childhood Education. Workshops and interviews were conducted to collect data. We identified the use of gender technologies by teachers in the production of normalized childhoods, and how the school acts as an agent that puts this normalization into action. Among them, we identified ways of acting in the pedagogical process with children, the strength of discourses such as the identification of sexualities based on binary gender stereotypes, as well as interventions to correct deviations in the route of sexualities and genders. We perceive the effects of play and the relationship of the sex / gender mechanism that permeates play through the mediation of adults and the naturalizing and normalizing discourses. The research aimed to create a space for training and debate between researcher and educators in which questions about the normalization of genders and sexualities could be put in motion. It concludes with some considerations about the potential possibilities of early childhood education in breaking from binary and heternormative discourses about genders and sexualities from an early age.
       
  • Relevance of Gender and Sexuality Themes for Children’s Scholar
           Education: What do Pedagogues Think'

    • Abstract: Resumen: Este artigo apresenta resultados parciais de uma pesquisa concluída financiada pela Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (fapesp). Recorrendo-se a parte dos dados coletados por meio de um questionário aberto aplicado com graduandos(as) em Pedagogia, objetivou-se analisar as concepções desses sujeitos sobre a importância dos temas gênero e sexualidades em sua formação pessoal e futura atuação profissional na escola. A amostra participante correspondeu a graduandos(as) matriculados(as) nos anos inicial e final do curso de Pedagogia que ambientou a pesquisa, de uma universidade pública do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, e a análise foi guiada pela técnica de Análise de Conteúdo junto ao referencial teórico de base consultado, notadamente a literatura feminista de gênero e sexualidades. Ressalta-se que as concepções dividiram-se entre o reconhecimento pleno da importância dos temas, o reconhecimento parcial e o não-reconhecimento. Chama-se atenção ao conflito das idiossincrasias desses futuros educadores e educadoras com seu compromisso social e legal, afirmado nas políticas públicas educacionais, que garante a presença e abordagem dos temas em questão na educação escolar de crianças. Se o(a) pedagogo(a) não reconhece sua importância para a própria formação e atuação profissional, dificilmente propiciará essa perspectiva de educação na escola.Abstract: This article presents partial results of a completed research funded by the São Paulo State Research Support Foundation (fapesp). Using part of the data collected through an open questionnaire applied to undergraduate students in Pedagogy, the objective was to analyze the conceptions of these subjects about the importance of gender and sexualities in their personal formation and future professional performance at school. The participating sample corresponded to undergraduate students enrolled in the initial and final years of the Pedagogy course that set the research, from a public university in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and the analysis was guided by the Content Analysis technique together with the consulted basic theoretical framework, notably the feminist literature on gender and sexualities. It is noteworthy that the concepts were divided between full recognition of the importance of the themes, partial recognition and non-recognition. Attention is drawn to the conflict between the idiosyncrasies of these future educators with their social and legal commitment, affirmed in public educational policies, which guarantees the presence and approach of the issues in question in the school education of children. If the educator does not recognize its importance for his own formation and professional performance, he will hardly provide this perspective of education at school.
       
  • Elementos para Comprender la Concentración de Estudiantes Extranjeros
           en Escuelas Chilenas

    • Abstract: Resumen: La migración hacia Chile se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años lo que impacta en la cantidad de estudiantes extranjeros que atiende el sistema escolar. Éstos, a diferencia de sus pares chilenos, asisten en mayor medida a escuelas municipales (públicas), sin embargo, se constata que la proporción de estudiantes extranjeros que son atendidos por este tipo de escuela es muy diversa aun cuando se ubiquen en un mismo territorio. Además, sólo algunas escuelas llegan a concentrar a este alumnado lo que habitualmente es explicado en función de la gratuidad y escasas barreras de ingreso que caracterizan a las escuelas municipales, así como por el patrón residencial de la población migrante. La concentración de estudiantes extranjeros resulta relevante para el chileno por representar una nueva forma de segregación escolar en un sistema especialmente segmentado en términos socioeconómicos y académicos. El artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio etnográfico desarrollado con dos escuelas municipales vecinas y que exhiben distinta proporción de alumnado extranjero. Los resultados sugieren que las familias jugarían un rol protagónico en la concentración porque tienden a auto segregarse con el objeto de proteger a sus hijos de situaciones de discriminación que se asocien a su condición de migrante.Abstract: Migration to Chile has incremented significantly during the last few years, which has an impact on the quantity of foreign students registered in the school system. These kind of students, unlike the Chilean ones, mainly attend public schools. However, it is established that the percentage of foreign students that go to this type of school also varies even when they are in the same area. Moreover, only some schools concentrate foreign students. This is usually explained by the fact that public schools are free of charge and there are few barriers to control the admission and, also, because of the migrant population residential pattern. The concentration of foreign students is relevant to Chilean school system because it represents a new form of segregation in a system already fragmented in a socioeconomic and academic level. This article presents the results of an ethnographic study developed in two nearby public schools. Both show a variation of foreign student percentages. The results show that families play a vital role because they tend to self-segregate themselves to protect their children from discriminatory situations related to their migrant condition.
       
  • Voces y Culturas Estudiantiles en la Escuela: Una Reflexión
           Teórico-Metodológica desde Procesos de Autoexploración de Barreras a la
           Inclusión Educativa

    • Abstract: Resumen: El presente artículo propone una reflexión a partir de una serie de experiencias de investigación-acción llevadas a cabo con distintos colectivos estudiantiles de escuelas municipales de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. La finalidad consiste en sistematizar el desarrollo de procesos de autoexploración institucional a partir de la voz del estudiantado con una particular sensibilidad a las culturas en la escuela, entre ellas las culturas estudiantiles. En primer lugar, se analizan teóricamente los fundamentos y reflexiones producto de las experiencias desarrolladas, para luego profundizar en las implicancias para su consideración en los procesos de desarrollo escolar inclusivo. Como conclusiones se plantean las conexiones recíprocas que el enfoque en cuestión mantiene con el desarrollo cognitivo y la educación intercultural, planteándose como vector a partir del cual pensar la escuela en sus diversas dimensiones.Abstract: This article proposes a reflection based on a series of research-action experiences carried out with different student groups of municipal schools in the city of Santiago de Chile. The purpose is to systematize the development of institutional self-exploration processes based on the student's voice with a particular sensitivity to cultures in school, including student cultures. In the first place, the foundations and reflections from the experiences are analysed theoretically, then deepen the implications for consideration in the processes of inclusive school development. As conclusions, the reciprocal connections that the approach in question maintains with the cognitive development and the intercultural education, arise as a vector from which to think the school in its diverse dimensions.
       
  • Nacionalismo y Narrativas Nacionales en Libro de Texto de Enseñanza
           Secundaria de Historia de Chile

    • Abstract: Resumen: Los libros de texto de enseñanza de la historia escolar, como fenómeno pedagógico, cultural y comunicacional, permiten indagar en las narrativas de la ideología del nacionalismo que, al imaginar creativamente la nación, excluyen e incluyen sujetos, actores y realidades. Esta investigación analiza las narrativas nacionales de una etapa histórica de Chile. Se ha optado por un enfoque cualitativo y los Estudios Críticos del Discurso para analizar las narrativas de un libro de texto de Historia, Geografía y Ciencias Sociales de Tercer Año de Enseñanza Secundaria. Los resultados indican que el nacionalismo se presenta en los períodos de transformaciones estructurales indagados, puesto que, además de cohesionar a los integrantes de la comunidad, validar autoridades y proyectos políticos, articulando imaginarios nacionales por medio de diferenciaciones semánticas, que narran un “Nosotros” frente a “Otros internos/externos”, incluyendo nuevas realidades, que estaban omitidas y silenciadas. Se concluye que, a pesar que los libros de textos de historia responden a los cánones de la historia y a la memoria colectiva oficial, relatan una ampliación del concepto de nación, incorporando actores y realidades sociales excluidas.Abstract: Textbooks teaching school history, as a pedagogical, cultural and communicational phenomenon, allow us to investigate the narratives of the ideology of nationalism, which when imagining the nation creatively, exclude and include subjects, actors and realities. This research analyzes the national narratives of a historical stage in Chile. A qualitative approach and Critical Discourse Studies have been chosen to analyze the narratives of a textbook of History, Geography and Social Sciences of the Third Year of Secondary Education. The results indicate that nationalism occurs in the periods of structural transformations investigated, since, in addition to uniting the members of the community, validating authorities and political projects, articulating national imagery through semantic differentiations, which narrate a "We" compared to "Other internal / external", including new realities, which were omitted and silenced. It is concluded that, despite the fact that history textbooks respond to the canons of history and official collective memory, they report an expansion of the concept of nation, incorporating actors and excluded social realities.
       
  • Comprendiendo el Diseño Universal desde el Paradigma de Apoyos: DUA como
           un Sistema de Apoyos para el Aprendizaje

    • Abstract: Resumen: Este artículo desarrolla una propuesta teórica consistente en la comprensión del diseño universal para el aprendizaje (dua), propuesto por Meyer, Rose y Gordon (2014), como la planificación de un sistema de apoyos. Se justifica la necesidad de esta vinculación a partir de la importancia de que la planificación curricular logre responder efectivamente a las necesidades de todos los estudiantes del aula, comprendiendo estudiantes con y sin discapacidad. Si bien el dua cuenta con amplio desarrollo conceptual y orientaciones metodológicas sobre su implementación, no se especifica en su formulación cómo se incorporan, teórica ni metodológicamente, las necesidades de los estudiantes en su planificación. Se propone vincular el dua con el paradigma de apoyos, específicamente, mediante la comprensión de este como un sistema de apoyos para el aprendizaje, lo que trae consigo la crucial incorporación del constructo necesidades de apoyo. Este constructo ya es ampliamente utilizado en el ámbito de la discapacidad y, como constructo psicológico, dispone de avances psicométricos y metodológicos que permiten su evaluación. Finalmente, se justifica la necesidad de desarrollar un instrumento que evalúe las necesidades de apoyo, específicamente para el aprendizaje, que permita atender, desde la planificación del dua, a las necesidades de todos y todas las estudiantes.Abstract: This article develops a theoretical proposal that consists in the understanding of the universal design for learning (udl), proposed by Meyer, Rose and Gordon (2014), as the planning of a support system. The need for this link is justified based on the importance of curricular planning effectively responding to the needs of all students in the classroom, including students with and without disabilities. Although the udl has broad conceptual development and methodological guidelines about its implementation, it is not specified in its formulation how the needs of students are incorporated theoretically or methodologically into its planning. It is proposed to link the udl with the support paradigm, specifically, by understanding it as a support system for learning. This formulation brings with it the crucial incorporation of the support needs construct. This construct is already widely used in the field of disability and, as a psychological construct, it has psychometric and methodological advances that allow its evaluation. Finally, the need to develop an instrument that assesses the needs of support, specifically for learning, that allows to attend, from the planning of the udl, to the needs of all and all students is justified.
       
  • Representaciones Sociales de la Experiencia Educativa de Jóvenes que
           Presentan Trastorno del Espectro Autista en Chile

    • Abstract: Resumen: El presente artículo tiene por objetivo visibilizar representaciones sociales de la experiencia educativa de jóvenes con trastorno del espectro autista (tea), construidas a partir de los relatos de vida de sus madres. En relación a la metodología, corresponde a un estudio cualitativo, enmarcado en un paradigma interpretativo y a su vez bajo un enfoque fenomenológico. La muestra, de tipo intencional estuvo compuesta por cinco mujeres madres de jóvenes con tea de entre 16 y 24 años, todos con residencia en Concepción-Chile. Los relatos de vida son trabajados a partir de un análisis de contenido categorial temático con un fuerte esfuerzo hermenéutico. Los principales resultados obtenidos, se refieren a profesores de educación regular con poca preparación y disposición al trabajo con estudiantes con tea, en contraposición a la actitud de los demás estudiantes (sin tea), quienes, de acuerdo a los relatos, tuvieron una recepción positiva, empática y afectuosa hacia los jóvenes. Por otro lado, las madres evidencian una integración escolar que no existe y un gran temor por el futuro de sus hijos luego de los 26 años producto de la legislación vigente en Chile. A partir de los relatos surge la representación social de la discriminación y del temor, la representación social de la no integración y la representación social del futuro educativo negado, todo lo cual es explicado en el desarrollo del presente artículo.Abstract: This article aims to make visible social representations of the educational experience of young people with autism spectrum disorder (asd), built on the stories of their mothers' lives. In relation to the methodology, it corresponds to a qualitative study, framed in an interpretive paradigm and in turn under a phenomenological approach. The sample, of intentional type was composed of five women mothers of young people with asd between 16 and 24 years, all with residence in Concepción-Chile. The life stories are worked from an analysis of thematic categorical content with a strong hermeneutical effort. The main results obtained refer to regular education teachers with little preparation and willingness to work with students with asd, as opposed to the attitude of the other students (without asd), who according to the stories, had a positive reception, empathic and affectionate towards young people. On the other hand, the mothers show a school integration that does not exist and a great fear for the future of their children after the age of 26, product of the legislation in force in Chile. From the stories emerges the social representation of discrimination and fear, the social representation of non-integration and the social representation of the denied educational future, all of which is explained in the development of this article
       
 
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