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Porta Aurea
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1234-1533
Published by Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Uwagi na temat gdańskiego budownictwa publicznego drugiej połowy XVI i
           pierwszej połowy XVII wieku pod kątem zaopatrzenia w materiał

    • Authors: Franciszek Skibiński
      Pages: 5 - 32
      Abstract: Works of architecture and stone sculpture would never have been created without the existence of a supply network enabling access to assets crucial for their production, including stone. Based on archive quarries and analysis of existing works of architecture and stone sculpture, this article focuses on the importation of stone for the building and stonecutting industry in early modern Gdańsk. In the second half of the 16th and the first half of the 17th century the city was experiencing an era of economic prosperity and became a major center of architecture and stone sculpture in the Baltic region and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Gdańsk authorities put much effort into securing suitable stone necessary to carry out their ambitious projects. Builders and sculptors based in the Baltic metropolis applied various kinds of stone imported from abroad, including limestone from Oland and Sweden, sandstone quarried in Bückeburg and Bentheim, Belgian marble, and English alabaster. The kind of stone most commonly used in local architecture and sculpture was, however, the sandstone from the Isle of Gotland. To obtain this material the city authorities often approached the Danish king, as revealed by numerous letters preserved in Gdańsk and Copenhagen archives. Each year several shipments of Gotland stone would arrive in the city, the amount of stone reaching up to 10,000 cubic feet. Some of the material destined for the public building works was then prepared by workers supervised by the ‘Bauknecht’. He was an official appointed by the city authorities to support the public building industry and to facilitate the work of specialized building and sculpting workshops by overlooking low-skilled workers and supply of materials. Some of the local builders and stonecutters were also involved in the importation of stone from Gotland. Besides carrying out major architectural and sculptural works, at least some of the guild masters running large workshops were engaged in the supply of necessary materials. For this reason, they had to maintain a network of professional contacts within the Baltic region and beyond. The most prominent among them was Willem van der Meer, called Barth, a stonecutter from Ghent established in Gdańsk. Between roughly 1590 and 1610, he supplied the city with a large amount of Gotland stone, including that used for the building of the Great Arsenal. Other important members of the local milieu engaged in the stone trade were Willem and Abraham van den Blocke as well as Wilhelm Richter, continuator of Van den Blocke’s enterprise often engaged by the city authorities. These findings broaden our understanding of the professional practices of builders and stone sculptors in Gdańsk and the Baltic region in the late 16th and in the 17th centuries.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.01
  • Świat zwierząt Daniela Schultza

    • Authors: Anna Sobecka
      Pages: 33 - 61
      Abstract: Daniel Schultz (1615–1683) was one of the most important painters of his time, highly regarded among the Polish nobility and patricians of his native city of Gdańsk. Schultz’s game and animal pieces resemble works of Flemish artists. His earliest animal picture Trophies in the Pantry is perhaps most Southern Netherlandish in character. Fred G. Meijer attributed to Schultz a painting on the subject of hunting, bearing the monogram “DS” and dated 1649. Schultz also executed a smaller painting, which is a depiction of a fox (or rather a dog) head shown in profile and a bunch of grapes, with some killed birds. Furthermore, two other animal paintings by Schultz are known from the National Museum in Gdańsk. In 2014, a pair of pendant paintings of dead birds appeared on the art market. Their similarity to the Medicean Trophies led the experts of the Artcurial auction house to ascribe them to Schultz. As one compares them with some other works by the Gdańsk artist, the resemblance is even more pronounced. Both paintings are now in a Polish private collection. In the Museum of Fine Arts in Gent there are two other paintings attributed to Frans Snyders and Jan Fyt which could have been painted by Daniel Schultz. The focus on perfectly studied animals, framing of the composition, and a summary treatment of the background are characteristic of him. The ‘Ds 16__’ monogram bears the painting from the Kuscovo Palace (Moscow), which depicts A Heron, a Bittern and a Rabbit. Schultz was the first artist in the territories associated with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to create independent animal and still life paintings. Possibly a pupil of Elias Vonck, the Amsterdam master active in Prussia, Schultz was also influenced by Antwerp masters such as Frans Snyders and Johannes Spruyt. Schultz’s interest for animal themes and still life may have been connected with characteristic features of the culture of Gdańsk, such as, for instance, a penchant for hunting, viewed both as a pastime and a subject for art. Gdańsk citizens enjoyed the right to hunt as of 1588, earlier than any other European bourgeoisie. Most signed works by Schultz are his depictions of animals. Tis could be an indirect suggestion about the identity of the recipients of Schultz’s depictions of the animal world. As stated above, the Gdańsk citizens had a predilection for hunting pieces; they also cared more than courtiers about the fact that such representations were authored by a Gdańsk artist.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.02
  • Przekształcenia gdańskich obiektów zabytkowych w pierwszej połowie XIX
           w. w kontekście rodzącej się myśli konserwatorskiej

    • Authors: Magdalena Staręga
      Pages: 62 - 93
      Abstract: The article discusses modifications in antique structures of Gdańsk in the first half of the 19th century. The exact time frame for the phenomenon explored is marked by the seizure of the city by the Kingdom of Prussia as a result of the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, and the early 1860s. It was a highly difficult period in the history of Gdańsk. Terrible economic situation resulted in an extremely small number of new, important architectonic projects being implemented. Instead, the authorities began adapting old buildings to new needs, often not without significant alterations. Other major modifications to historic structures were introduced in the course of repairs and reconstructions of deteriorated and war-damaged buildings. The first half of the 19th century is a time which saw a substantial change in the perception of historic sites and their value. The article highlights the occurrence of this process in Gdańsk. Reconstructions involving classicist stylistic forms, which gave way to the coexistence of old and new formal marks, as well as later ones, introduced in the course of regothicisation, characterised by aiming at stylistic cohesion are examined. The modifications extended to many of Gdańsk’s most important historic buildings. Architects such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel or Friedrich August Stüler were involved in the discussed process. The number and extent of undertaken redevelopments indicates that they constitute a significant aspect of the 19th-century Gdańsk architecture.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.03
  • Nawiązania do tradycji nowożytnej w ceglanej architekturze
           wczesnomodernistycznej północnych Niemiec

    • Authors: Rafał Makała
      Pages: 94 - 111
      Abstract: One of the manifestations of the so called ‘conservative modernism’ was the reference to the brick building tradition in Northern Germany. The trend was primarily associated with the activities of Fritz Schumacher and Fritz Höger in Hamburg and Bremen in the 1920s and 1930s, but the genesis of this architecture dates back to the first decade of the 20th century and is associated with the attempts to shape North German patriotism. Just as in the art of neo-Gothic, brick architecture of ‘conservative modernism’ was meant to express the ‘North German Identity’, and in fact help in the creation of identities of the Bismarck Germany. Like the late neo-Gothic architecture, this architecture was perceived as a kind of ‘Hanseatic style’, reflecting the specificity (perceived in a mythologized way) of the Hanseatic League as a prefiguration of the New Germany and their power in maritime trade. Early-modern architecture continued to refer to the art of the past. However, the way of referring to the past changed: with only few quotes from the old art, with a considerable simplification of historical styles’ and so did the historical point of reference. In addition, the modernists became more interested in the brick building of the 17th and 18th centuries, the times of the Baroque and early Neoclassicism. Tis is evident in the works of the most important architects of North German modernism, including Fritz Höger, Fritz Schumacher, or Bruno Möhring but also works of lesser-known, though certainly interesting artists like Johann Garlef, Erich Blunck or Eugen Prinz. The interest of the North German architects of early modernism in brick construction is an element of a wider process that had been thriving in Northern Germany since the early 1900s. Interestingly enough, this process was equally intense in great artistic centres (Hamburg and Bremen) as well as in less-significant cities which were looking for their identity or tried to recreate it, as was the case in Kiel, Lubec or Szczecin. Tis paper is an attempt to show the evolution of this architecture and its most important features. The examples have been selected to show the most important characteristics of this architecture and its geographical range.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.04
  • Krössinsee (zachodniopomorski Złocieniec-Budowo) i inne
           narodowosocjalistyczne „zamki zakonne”. Budowa – funkcja – kostium

    • Authors: Tomasz Torbus
      Pages: 112 - 132
      Abstract: In 1934, construction began on training centers for the upper echelons of future NS leadership: the Vogelsang in the Eifel, Krössinsee (Polish Złocieniec-Budowo) in western Pomerania, and Sonthofen in Allgäu. Through the enormous efforts of the German Labor Front (DAF) the training centres, called Ordensburgen (literally: ‘castles of the orders’), were completed in 1936. In the meantime, much literature has been published on all of the NS Ordenburgen, yet an investigation of the genesis and analysis of their form is still lacking, which this essay partially attempts to address. The intention was undoubtedly to build Ordensburgen on the southern, western and eastern fringes of the Reich distanced less than 60 kilometres from the border. Rosenberg, who had made a statement to this effect in a speech in 1934, coined the name ‘Ordensburg’ in connection with the Teutonic Order – the proud champion of ‘Germanness’. The name evoked other echoes from history: young men who were trained for warfare and administration and who lived a life closed of from outside influences. The name also recalled the medieval orders of knights who exercised their power as a military authority along the frontiers of Christianity from Spain to Palestine. If we go beyond a formal interpretation of the Ordensburgen, what can be seen in all the three structures is the important symbolic function of towers (two rectangular brick towers were erected in Kroessinsee in 1939). In all of them so-called Tingplätze were built, a kind of open-air theatre for political rallies. Moreover, the architect Clemens Klotz embraced the modern age. In adhering to contemporary thought, he blended the cosiness of the Heimatstil with the monumentality and pathos of Neoclassicism. Other forms are also found, such as oval risalites derived from ‘Neues Bauen’ or the protruding window reveal, or the use of unworked stone blocks, something that was particularly characteristic of NS architecture. Yet despite the name ’Ordensburg’, formal references to medieval architecture are sparse. The most apparent examples are seen in the Sonthofen architecture of Herman Giesler in the proportions of the main tower or the vaulted ceilings of the tavern (the so-called Fuchsbau). After 1945, the Ordensburgen became the military barracks of the victors: Vogelsang was British until 1950, then Belgian; Sonthofen was American until 1956 and then turned over to the German Bundeswehr; Krössinsee was used by the Soviet army from 1947 or 1948, and afterward became the Polish Budowo. Vogelsang was opened to the public in 2006. Today, we face ongoing questions about the preservation and new uses of the Ordensburg structures and facilities. The designation of the former NS training centres as memorial sites, in which the juncture between Ordensburgen and the NS crimes finds physical expression, will presumably be the sole way to ensure their continued existence. Between 1939 and 1940, approximately 260 Ordensjunkers (the name derived from ‘Junker’: a nobleman from the landed class) were sent from Krössinsee on military assignment to the area of Poznań (‘Warthegau’), from where up to a half a million Poles and Jews were expelled to the Government General. Further documentation shows the involvement of the Ordensjunkers in the Holocaust during 1941 in the occupied Soviet territories. In making the buildings of the Ordensburgen accessible to the public, while at the same time laying bare the reality behind the mystique, it seems necessary to proceed on a different path than that which has been taken up to now. ‘Domesticating’ the testimonies of a terror regime has been expressed in ways such as the oversized colourful pillows for visitor seating at the Wewelsburg Castle or the garish plastic forms in Vogelsang. Tus, in addition to taking stock of the buildings and making a case for their preservation, the serious question that must be asked is how to deal with this kind of legacy. (translated by Sharon Nemeth)
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.05
  • Wystawy Związku Plastyków Pomorskich i Grupy Plastyków Pomorskich w
           Muzeum Miejskim w Bydgoszczy w latach 1930–1936

    • Authors: Marta Borowska
      Pages: 133 - 161
      Abstract: The displays of particular artistic associations in the Municipal Museum in Bydgoszcz between 1930 and 1936 are being discussed. The history of Pomeranian artistic associations is not a well-known subject, and no dedicated monographs have been written to date. It appears commonly in the history of the regional chapter of the Polish Association of Visual Artists (Związek Polskich Artystów Plastyków) located in Bydgoszcz. The basic sources include the Archive of the Leon Wyczółkowski District Museum in Bydgoszcz and information contained in Polish press of the period in question. There were two main goals to be achieved for the Pomeranian artists: while aspiring to equal the art represented by more important artistic centres of the country, to show a close connection with their own region and its Polish heritage. During the interwar period, a number of artistic organisations appeared in Bydgoszcz. The most significant were the local branch of the Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts (Towarzystwo Zachęty Sztuk Pięknych), established in September 1921, and the Artistic and Cultural Council (Rada Artystyczno-Kulturalna), founded in December 1934. The first exhibition of the Pomeranian Association of Visual Artists (Związek Plastyków Pomorskich) was opened in December 1930 as a summary of the Association’s achievements of that year. It comprised 92 works by 15 artists. Subsequent exhibitions in December 1931 and December 1932 served a similar purpose. The turning point in the history of Pomeranian artistic associations took place in 1933 when – as a result of an internal conflict – the Group of Pomeranian Visual Artists (Grupa Plastyków Pomorskich) was formed. The Group quickly became the leading artistic force of the region, with their first exhibition opening in December 1933. The 4th annual exhibition of the Group of Pomeranian Visual Artists took place in December 1934, simultaneously with the founding of the Artistic and Cultural Council (Rada Artystyczno-Kulturalna) in Bydgoszcz. The Council coordinated, implemented, and documented artistic movements in specially dedicated sections for literature, music, visual arts and radio, quickly becoming an intermediary between artists and their audience. Tanks to their efforts, the first Salon Bydgoski exhibition was organised in 1936. That very year the Group of Pomeranian Visual Artists changed their name to the Group of Visual Artists of Bydgoszcz. Both organizations lacked a well-defined artistic programme, whereas their members were mainly connected for non-artistic motivations, such as the possibility to exhibit their works in well-known institutions or prestige. All of the discussed displays were widely covered in the local press, especially by Henryk Kuminek and Marian Turwid, two leading art critics of the region.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.06
  • Wystawa "100 lat realizmu w sztuce polskiej" w Akademii Sztuk Pięknych
           ZSRR w Moskwie (1952) w kontekście polsko-radzieckich stosunków
           kulturalnych w latach 1949-1955

    • Authors: Irina Gavrash
      Pages: 162 - 178
      Abstract: The article analyses the exhibition named „100 lat realizmu w sztuce polskiej” [100 Years of Realism in Polish Art] at the Academy of Fine Arts in Moscow in 1952 and its reception in the artistic environment of USSR in the context of Polish-Soviet artistic relations in 1949–1955. The exposition, prepared by the Committee of the International Cultural Cooperation with and the Ministry of Culture and Art, consisted of the Polish art of the 19th century and the art of a few previous years. It was supposed to present to the Soviet party the progress of the implementation of Socialist Realism in Poland on the basis of the Soviet example and Polish tradition of realistic art. However, the implementation of the scheme deviated from the official declarations due to both including in the exhibition the turn of the century, as well as presenting the issues of modernism and the selection of modern pieces, resulting from the specific emphases in the cultural policy of the time. The contemporary department was composed of pieces of artists from the ‘Sopot School’, combining in its art the Socialist Realism doctrine with elements of colourism. Opening the method onto elements of the Impressionism tradition was dictated by a need to break the deadlock which the Polish art found itself in soon after the 1st OWP. The exhibition caused a reaction in the environment of Soviet critics and artists, exposing differences in attitude towards art in the two countries, which, in the conditions of the political dominance of USSR, had been deepened further with time, impinging on the artistic relations dynamics.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.07
  • Działania artystyczne w gdańskim środowisku fotograficznym promujące
           fotografię marynistyczną w latach 1948-1981

    • Authors: Anna Polańska
      Pages: 179 - 217
      Abstract: With Gdansk artists an approach to the subject of the marine photography, was marked on several levels – artistic, documentary, journalistic and usable. Since 1945 to the first half of the 80s, we notice the popularization of maritime theme in the environment throughout artistic exhibition activities, and the program objectives. Maritime photography or maritime themes in photography' An analysis of the photographic medium in terms of belonging to the art can give the answer to this question. It is also worth considering whether there was „Gdansk School of the Maritime Photography”' The phenomenon of Polish marine art in the case of photography has been strongly emphasized in the Gdansk photography environment. The traditional display of the maritime theme has been broken, and with the approval of the authorities. Shipyard workers and dockers joined to the effigy of the sea people (fishermen, sailors). Photographers began to enter the maritime economy and use the effects of cooperation with maritime institutions for artistic purposes. Thematic exhibitions on shipyards and ports were created showing the sea from a different point of view, from the perspective of land. Socio-political events related to Solidarity stopped the promotion of the sea through the image of a shipyard worker and a shipyard, which became icons of the struggle for freedom. The Gdansk photographic community after the socio-political crisis of the first half of the 1980s, has not yet rebuilt its leading position in the dissemination of the maritime theme in photography on a large scale. Maritime exhibitions still appeared, but mainly on the local level, and the sea was reduced to the landscape understood very traditionally. At the same time photographers of the younger generation were interested in completely different issues of the style and aesthetics of photography. Te slogan „face to the sea” ceased to correspond with new times.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.08
  • Architektura w śródmieściu Gdyni po 1989 roku wobec
           tradycji modernistycznej

    • Authors: Alicja Melzacka
      Pages: 218 - 243
      Abstract: The following article explores the recurring stylistic tendencies in the architecture of Gdynia after 1989, and seeks to identify their origins. The study encompasses four distinguished areas in the city centre, and places emphasis on the relationship between the contemporary (and postmodern) architecture and the architectural legacy of Gdynia’s inner city, which can be broadly defined as ‘modernist’. Based on a series of case studies, the Author has distinguished three intertwined architectural tendencies, each of them referring in their own way to the local context. Often manifested in the same architectural designs and, therefore, inseparable, these tendencies cannot be strictly delimited. They are: ‘regionalist tendency’ deploying architectural forms of the interwar origin, ‘semiotic tendency’ which perceives architecture as the system of signs, and ‘technologising tendency’ of which strive for the ‘high-tech’ appearance can be considered an ideological continuation of the modern imperative of progress. To conclude, contemporary architecture in Gdynia represents, widely understood, contextualism: comprising all of the aforementioned tendencies. Tis status quo is reinforced by the strong need to maintain the continuity of the city’s architecture, but also of its identity. As a result of operating with a relatively limited range of means of expression, architecture in Gdynia constitutes a coherent whole, which can be considered an advantage for the local landscape. Nonetheless, the notorious and often naive application of widely accepted patterns originating from the vocabulary of West European modernism, and the limitations inherent in that approach, should be definitely pointed out for further scrutiny.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.09
  • Próby uobecniania tradycji w gdańskiej architekturze lat
           dziewięćdziesiątych XX wieku

    • Authors: Dominika Piluk
      Pages: 244 - 268
      Abstract: Gdansk architecture of last decade of 20th century by all means tried to reconnect to the Gdansk architectural tradition, especially the glorified 19th-century German/ Gdańsk Renaissance. The essay aims to present a preliminary analysis of the phenomenon strongly present in the Gdańsk architectural discussion in the nineties: the phenomenon of reconstruction. The city’s architectural achievements of the 19th-century were reinterpreted. Moreover, not only did architects in democratic Poland have to face a new economic situation, but also the need to emphasize the departure from the visual form imposed by the communist system, which, particularly in Gdańsk, took a form of historicism. The complex history of the city, preserved in its architecture, had a huge impact on the aesthetics of buildings designed during the transformation period. Tis thorough introduction is aimed to show commitment to the great tradition of the harbour city, which often resulted in neglecting innovations and modern architectural standards, these forced by the diffcult times of the economic change, as well as the concept of the city’s identity. The article focuses on the examples of buildings erected after 1989, as well as the public opinion debate, which jointly attempted to emphasise the mythical greatness of old Gdańsk.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.10
  • Gdańskie instytucje kultury jako miejsca (jakiej') pamięci

    • Authors: Marta Wróblewska
      Pages: 269 - 289
      Abstract: The article contains reflections on the cultural image of Gdańsk and its cultural institutions as they near the mark of thirty years of self-governance. On the basis of the analysis of aspects connected with some of the themes derived from permanent exhibitions presented at selected cultural institutions in Gdańsk, an attempt is undertaken to highlight the problems and phenomena which remain in close connection with the processes of constructing the post-communist cultural identity of the city. Among the crucial factors which are subject of the analysis first and foremost mention has to be made of the specificity of the local memory and identity which can be referred to as insertive, yet with the dominant tendency towards historicism. Those features, in turn, lead to describing some of the cultural institutions as places of memory, both with reference to their architecture, as well as to the narratives they present. An important place in the course of those deliberations is assigned to Gdańsk’s cultural policy and its role in programming the local memory and identity, presented on the basis of the analysis of the development strategies published by the city over the analysed period of time. The state of events in Gdańsk is finally juxtaposed with popular trends in the development of new museology in Europe, where tendencies towards increasing introspection, revision, and anthropological approach can be observed.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
      DOI: 10.26881/porta.2018.17.11
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