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Journal Cover European Journal of International Law
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0938-5428 - ISSN (Online) 1464-3596
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [372 journals]
  • Je Suis Achbita!; The Trump Jerusalem Declaration and the Rule of
           Unintended Consequences; 10 Good Reads; A propos Book Reviewing; EJIL Roll
           of Honour; In This Issue
    • Pages: 989 - 1018
      Abstract: Je Suis Achbita!**
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chy001
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Feminist Strategy in International Law: Understanding Its Legal, Normative
           and Political Dimensions
    • Authors: O’Rourke C.
      Pages: 1019 - 1045
      Abstract: While international law has typically waxed and waned in feminist favours, contemporary feminist engagements reveal a strongly critical, reflective thrust about the costs of engaging international law and the quality of ostensible gains. To inform this reflection, this article draws on feminist scholarship in international law – and a specific feminist campaign for the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security in Northern Ireland – to distil three distinct feminist understandings of international law that underpin both theory and advocacy. International law is understood, first, as a system of rules to which states are bound; second, as an avenue for the articulation of shared feminist values; and, third, as a political tool to advance feminist demands. The study finds that feminist doctrinalists, and those working within the institutions of international law, share concerns about the resolution’s legal deficiencies and the broader place of the Security Council within international law-making. These concerns, however, are largely remote for local feminist activists, who recognize in the resolution important political resources to support their mobilization, their alliances with others and, ultimately, it is hoped, their engagement with state actors. The article concludes that critical reflection on feminist strategy in international law is usefully informed by more deliberate consideration of its legal, political and normative dimensions as well as by an awareness that these dimensions will be differently weighted by differently situated feminist actors.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx067
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Liability to International Prosecution: The Nature of Universal
    • Authors: Reeves A.
      Pages: 1047 - 1067
      Abstract: This article considers the proper method for theorizing about criminal jurisdiction. It challenges a received understanding of how to substantiate the right to punish and articulates an alternative account of how that theoretical task is properly conducted. The received view says that a special relationship is the ground of a tribunal’s authority to prosecute and, hence, that a normative theory of that authority is faced with identifying a distinctive relation. The alternative account locates prosecutorial standing on an institution’s capacity to address the basic reasons generating criminal liability. This reframes the normative issues at stake and has the result that various, perhaps quite heterogeneous, considerations can substantiate penal authority. It also eliminates the existence of a special relation as a necessary condition for legitimate criminal accountability. The argument proceeds by offering an analysis and account of universal jurisdiction. Not only does the alternative elegantly perform where the received view struggles, it can accommodate much of what motivates the pursuit of relational ties in existing efforts to vindicate jurisdictional conclusions.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx064
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Responsibility to Protect beyond Borders in the Law of Nature and
    • Authors: Glanville L.
      Pages: 1069 - 1095
      Abstract: While histories of human rights have proliferated in recent decades, little attention has been given to the history of thinking about duties to protect these rights beyond sovereign borders. We have a good understanding of the history of duties of sovereign states to ensure the safety and well-being of their own citizens and of the right of other states to forcefully intervene when these duties are violated. But the story of the development of thinking about duties to assist and protect the vulnerable beyond borders remains to be told. This article defends the importance of excavating and examining past thinking about these duties. It then sketches key aspects of Western natural law thinking about such duties, from Francisco de Vitoria through to Immanuel Kant, claiming that such study holds the promise of exposing from where ideas that prevail in international law and politics have come and retrieving alternative ideas that have been long forgotten but that may reward renewed consideration. It concludes by briefly outlining how three such retrieved ideas might be of particular use for those seeking to push international law and politics in a more just direction today.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx065
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Techniques in International Law-Making: Extrapolation, Analogy, Form and
           the Emergence of an International Law of Disaster Relief
    • Authors: Sivakumaran S.
      Pages: 1097 - 1132
      Abstract: This article traces the emergence of an international law of disaster relief from a patchwork of norms through to a holistic body of international law. It argues that, for many years, the international law of disaster relief existed in piecemeal fashion. Since there is no overarching treaty on the subject at the global level, a hodgepodge of instruments have been concluded, namely subject-specific and disaster-specific treaties at the global level, regional and sub-regional agreements, bilateral agreements as well as soft law. However, through the work of the International Law Commission and the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, a holistic body of international law relating to disaster relief is in the process of emerging. This article argues that this holistic body is emerging primarily as a result of three techniques that, while unconventional, are used relatively frequently in the making of international law. The three techniques are: (i) extrapolation from a series of piecemeal instruments to form a generalized standard; (ii) the use of analogy and (iii) the conclusion of instruments that are soft in form but contain a mixture of hard law and soft law. The way in which the techniques have been used to develop a body of international law relating to disaster relief is analysed, their use in other fields of international law discussed and limitations on their use in the disaster law context identified.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx066
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Reflections on Role Responsibility: The Responsibility of International
           Organizations for Failing to Act
    • Authors: Klabbers J.
      Pages: 1133 - 1161
      Abstract: This article investigates whether international organizations can be held responsible under international law when they fail to act. It aims to conceptualize the notion of ‘omission’ in the international law on the responsibility of international organizations and does so in four broad steps. First, a discussion of the most well-known failure (the United Nations’ refusal to intervene in the Rwandan genocide in 1994) suggests that there is a need to conceptualize the omission and to reflect on the sort of factors that may cause a failure to act. Second, the article investigates how omissions have been addressed in the literature and in the codification of the law on responsibility and finds that little attention has been paid to omissions, and where attention has been paid, it has been limited to viewing the omission as the mirror image of the act. Third, the article addresses as one element of a relevant concept of omission that the organization must be in a position to act, and, fourth, it establishes the basis of an obligation to act in some circumstances on the basis of the organization’s mandate, thus introducing a version of what can be called ‘role responsibility’ into international law.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx068
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Radical Dissents in International Criminal Trials
    • Authors: Jain N.
      Pages: 1163 - 1186
      Abstract: International criminal law, for much of its history, has been a law characterized by dissents. However, international law scholarship has largely ignored the role of the dissenting opinion in shaping the discourse of international criminal law. This article critically examines the nature and function of dissents at international criminal tribunals at a particularly crucial moment in the life of these courts, when the project of establishing accountability for mass atrocity through criminal trials is increasingly under attack. The article argues that the dissenting opinion is a crucial legal device that can have a transformative potential in international criminal adjudication through its creation of a civic space for contestation that paradoxically shores up the legitimacy of the international criminal trial. To this end, it constructs a discrete category of dissenting opinions at international criminal courts: ‘radical dissents’. The content and rhetorical style of a radical dissent enables actors invested in the project of international criminal justice to use it as a vital dissentient voice both within and outside the courtroom. Agents who operate within the confines of the legal trial, such as defendants, lawyers, appellate chambers and future judges, may channel its authority to challenge the idiom in which the majority judgment speaks. Likewise, the radical dissent could provide a legal language through which academics, victims, civil society and other affected communities continue to grapple with constructing and coming to terms with events that defy human understanding.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx072
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Rights under International Humanitarian Law
    • Authors: Hill-Cawthorne L.
      Pages: 1187 - 1215
      Abstract: The idea of ‘rights’ under the law of war historically referred to state or belligerent rights – that is, rights to engage in actions not permitted under the law of peace. The different sense of rights of individuals was absent from those traditional accounts of the law, and whether individuals are granted rights (for example, of prisoners of war to be humanely treated, of civilians not to be targeted) under contemporary international humanitarian law (IHL) remains contested. This article explores how this debate has developed in recent history. It argues that clear support for the notion of individual rights during the drafting of the 1907 Hague Convention IV and subsequent treaties seemed to be overtaken by state practice in the area of war reparations, only to re-emerge in more recent practice that, in part, is shown to be a result of a more legalized approach to the invocation of responsibility for IHL violations. This growing support for the individual rights perspective of IHL is then juxtaposed with the re-emergence of state rights. The article concludes that these two different notions of ‘rights’ under IHL present two fundamentally opposing visions for the law’s role in regulating armed conflict.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx073
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Curious Case of Singapore’s BIA Desertion Trials: War Crimes,
           Projects of Empire and the Rule of Law
    • Authors: Cheah W.
      Pages: 1217 - 1240
      Abstract: This article critically analyses a set of war crimes trials, conducted by the British colonial authorities in post-World War II Singapore, which dealt, among others, with the contentious issue of deserting British Indian Army soldiers. While seemingly obscure, these trials illuminate important lessons about rule of law dynamics in war crimes trials. Although these trials were intended by their organizers to facilitate the return of British colonial rule, they resulted in unexpected acquittals and conviction non-confirmations. On the one hand, by applying British military law as a back-up source of law when prosecuting ‘violations of the laws and usages of war’, the British contravened the rule of law by retrospectively subjecting the Japanese defence to unfamiliar legal standards. On the other hand, by binding themselves to a pre-existing and relatively clear source of law, the British were constrained by the rule of law even as this empowered the Japanese defence. These findings speak to broader debates on the challenges of developing international criminal law, by provocatively suggesting that, from a rule of law perspective, what is most important in a body of law is its clarity, accessibility and comprehensiveness rather than its source or its purported ‘universality’.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx074
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Plurality as a Form of (Mis)management of International Dispute
           Settlement: Afterword to Laurence Boisson de Chazournes’ Foreword
    • Authors: Shany Y.
      Pages: 1241 - 1249
      Abstract: In ‘Plurality in the Fabric of International Courts and Tribunals: The Threads of a Managerial Approach’, Laurence Boisson de Chazournes maps out the variety of legal doctrines and communicative devices that allow international courts to navigate the course of international dispute settlement in ways that avert serious jurisdictional or jurisprudential clashes between different international courts. This reply is largely supportive of Boisson de Chazournes’ account of an evolving judicial ‘managerial approach’. It questions, however, whether international courts are truly committed to a ‘managerial approach’ and whether such an approach is likely to succeed in the long run without a structural redesign of the ‘fabric of international dispute settlement’. Section 2 of the Afterword discusses jurisdictional plurality as a deliberate choice by states, which is likely to restrict the coherence of international law. Section 3 discusses the dilemmas facing international courts: the choice of a pro-coherence ‘management approach’ may conflict with other mandated functions, including providing the litigating parties with cost-effective dispute settlement services and supporting the particular needs of the legal regimes in which they are embedded. Section 4 concludes.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx077
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Winners and Losers of the Plurality of International Courts and Tribunals:
           Afterword to Laurence Boisson de Chazournes’ Foreword
    • Authors: Streinz T.
      Pages: 1251 - 1257
      Abstract: By asking about ‘winners and losers’, this reply questions the preference of states for a plurality of international courts and tribunals, challenges the coherence of the international legal order as a dominant rationale for judicial actors to coordinate, and raises doubts about their overall success in managing plurality. It argues that their coordinating efforts have to be understood as reactive rather than proactive steps in a complex decision-making environment in which litigants, their lawyers, and domestic courts play a significant but underappreciated role. While it is true that some coordination between judicial actors exists, it remains to be seen whether the ‘threads of a managerial approach’ amount to more than thin, singular, and often random strings that will develop into dense, resilient, and predictable webs of international jurisprudence.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx083
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • The Threads (or Threats') of a Managerial Approach: Afterword to
           Laurence Boisson de Chazournes’ Foreword
    • Authors: Bílková V.
      Pages: 1259 - 1265
      Abstract: In her EJIL Foreword article, Boisson de Chazournes gives an optimistic account of the proliferation of international courts and tribunals. She argues that the proliferation has been a constant and desired feature of international dispute settlement and that problems arising from it can be resolved through ‘internal communication’ among judicial bodies and through various procedural rules preventing jurisdictional overlaps. These tools, richly illustrated by numerous examples primarily from the area of international economic law, attest, in the author’s view, to the emergence of a new, managerial approach. In my Afterword, I consider what this managerial approach consists of and how it relates to the other ‘managerial theories’ known in international law – the managerial model of Abram Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes and managerialism described by Martti Koskenniemi. I argue that the managerial approach is close to the former theory and, as such, is also vulnerable to the reservations raised against it (formalism, excessive optimism). I further argue that the managerial approach is not identical to managerialism but that the article, placing so much emphasis on formal, procedural rules, might not do enough to prevent the confusion between the two.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx075
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Experimentalism, Destabilization and Control in International Law:
           Afterword to Laurence Boisson de Chazournes’ Foreword
    • Authors: Puig S.
      Pages: 1267 - 1273
      Abstract: In this Afterword in response to the Foreword by Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, I argue that to address the challenges of coordination between the growing number of international courts and tribunals, the role of international judges is necessary but not sufficient. Overcoming the various obstacles requires not only clarifying rules and relationships (ex-ante specification) but also adding mechanisms that effectively accommodate interests while limiting pitfalls and contributing to calibrating adjudicatory authority (ex-post control). Such additional tools may help to control the tribunals’ ability to make and apply their decisions. They also can serve to relieve the international law processes from the pressures exerted by excessive legal ‘experimentalism’. Among the most obvious of such tools emerging in international economic agreements are consolidation or joint decision-making provisions, stays and under-ride processes, interaction requirements or special delegation arrangements.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx082
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Plurality in the Fabric of International Courts and Tribunals: The Threads
           of a Managerial Approach: A Rejoinder – Fears and Anxieties
    • Authors: de Chazournes L.
      Pages: 1275 - 1281
      Abstract: This rejoinder clarifies some aspects of my Foreword article, ‘Plurality in the Fabric of International Courts and Tribunals: The Threads of a Managerial Approach’, that may have been misconceived, such as the connection with the discourse of ‘managerialism’. It also expands on the role that international adjudicators, states and litigants must play in preventing chaos as well as highlighting what is now a real challenge, namely the rise of political backlash. Ultimately, we should not forget that the fabric of international courts and tribunals is itself vulnerable.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx081
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Roaming Charges: Moments of Dignity Ash Wednesday, Bogotà Colombia
    • Pages: 1283 - 1286
      Abstract: We deal in EJIL with the world we live in – often with its worst and most violent pathologies, often with its most promising signs of hope for a better world. But, inevitably, since our vehicle is scholarship, we reify this world. Roaming Charges is designed not just to offer a moment of aesthetic relief, but to remind us of the ultimate subject of our scholarly reflections: we alternate between photos of places – the world we live in – and photos of people – who we are, the human condition. We eschew the direct programmatic photograph: people shot up; the ravages of pollution and all other manner of photojournalism.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx071
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Does Exposure to Preparatory Work Affect Treaty Interpretation' An
           Experimental Study on International Law Students and Experts
    • Authors: Shereshevsky Y; Noah T.
      Pages: 1287 - 1316
      Abstract: Ample research has demonstrated that exposure to inadmissible evidence affects decision making in criminal and civil cases. However, the difficulty of ignoring information in the context of legal interpretation has not been examined yet. Our study addresses the possible effects that exposure to preparatory work has on the interpretation of treaties. In the present article, we examine the ability of students enrolled in international law courses and of international law experts to ignore preparatory work when they are not allowed to use it. We found that exposure to preparatory work affected the students’ interpretation of treaties, while no such effect was found among the experts. These results reaffirm the practical relevance of the debate over the hierarchy between the rules of treaty interpretation. In particular, our study demonstrates that preparatory work can play a significant role in decision making, depending on the legal rule that applies to the use of such materials. More generally, our study suggests that legal interpretation by students and experts is qualitatively different and that international law experts might be better able than non-experts to discount irrelevant information in the process of treaty interpretation.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx069
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Experimenting with International Law
    • Authors: Dunoff J; Pollack M.
      Pages: 1317 - 1340
      Abstract: A growing body of experimental research has begun to explore the causal mechanisms through which international law impacts behaviour. International legal scholars, however, are still in the early stages of adopting experimental methods. Indeed, Yahli Shereshevsky and Tom Noah’s article is one of the first experimental studies to appear in the European Journal of International Law. Its publication thus provides an opportunity to reflect not only on this pioneering work but also on the broader ‘experimental turn’ in the study of international law. To do so, we begin by motivating the experimental turn, which we argue reflects both a methodological shift from observational studies towards the increasing use of experiments and a theoretical shift from rational choice towards cognitive psychology and behavioural economics. Second, we engage in a critical reading of Shereshevsky and Noah’s study of the impact of preparatory materials on treaty interpretation. Applying the dual criteria of internal and external validity, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of Shereshevsky and Noah’s study. We conclude that experiments promise to extend our knowledge of international law and are likely to become increasingly influential in scholarly and policy debates. Hence, all international lawyers have an urgent interest in becoming knowledgeable and critical consumers of experimental research.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx076
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Protecting the Environment through Sports' Public-Private Cooperation
           for Regulatory Resources and International Law
    • Authors: Schmidt R.
      Pages: 1341 - 1366
      Abstract: This article examines a common, yet insufficiently researched, phenomenon: regulatory cooperation between public and private actors at the global level. It uses a case study that starts from the cooperation between the Olympic Movement and the United Nations Environmental Programme and then examines more broadly areas of convergences between sports and environmental regulation. The article depicts why a private regulator and an international organization would cooperate and what this tells us about the relationship between ‘expertise’, ‘power’ and ‘legitimacy’ within global governance. Two arguments are put forward and developed in the article. First, regulators cooperate because, in an unsettled global space with no hierarchical framework, cooperation is necessary for them to acquire sufficient authority to secure compliance with their regulatory agenda; cooperation opens a venue for the exchange of necessary regulatory resources and, thus, ultimately helps regulators establish and strengthen their authority. Second, because of the rate of recurrence of regulatory cooperation on a global scale, the article calls for the integration of the concept of regulatory cooperation into international law scholarship to help recognize and formalize this practice. It aims to encourage a debate about the risks and benefits involved in these regulatory interactions and about a (legal) framework that could safeguard important public policy interests.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx063
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Reading the Book that Makes One a Scholar
    • Authors: Yasuaki O.
      Pages: 1367 - 1377
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx085
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Authorizing Appropriation': Law in Contested Forested Spaces
    • Authors: Dehm J.
      Pages: 1379 - 1396
      Abstract: The 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change confirmed that the controversial reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation scheme, known as REDD+, will play a central role in the post-2020 climate regime. This review essay considers a recent Handbook dedicated to exploring the relationship between REDD+ and different areas of international law, which comprehensively brings together expertise on many diverse areas of international legal practice, including trade and investment, contractual and fiduciary risk as well as human rights considerations. While this valuable collection will surely become an indispensable ‘toolbox’ for practitioners and academics working on questions pertaining to REDD+, this review highlights some of the more complex methodological and political questions REDD+ raises and their implications for how REDD+ is characterized and its effects understood. It foregrounds the critiques by grassroots indigenous and climate justice activists, some of whom have argued that REDD+ represents a form of ‘green grabbing’ or ‘CO2onialism’. Additionally, it suggests that further investigation is needed into how REDD+ establishes, stabilizes and consolidates new forms of power relations and modes of authority as well greater consideration of the distributional consequences of carbon markets and their allocations of differentiated privileges, obligations and responsibilities.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx086
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Teaching International Human Rights Law: A Textbook Review
    • Authors: Binder C; Hofbauer J.
      Pages: 1397 - 1414
      Abstract: The increased focus on, and incorporation of, human rights into university curricula have led to a significant number of recently published (international) human rights textbooks. In a field that is distinctly known for idealism, human rights textbooks are the first introduction for students to the international human rights framework. With varying focus, methodology, tool sets and depth of engagement with a topic, there is a broad variety available on the market from which to choose. This review offers a selection of human rights textbooks that represent different writing styles and meet different teaching needs and preferences.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx079
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • To Reform the World: International Organizations and the Making of Modern
    • Authors: Cogan J.
      Pages: 1415 - 1418
      Abstract: SinclairGuy Fiti. To Reform the World: International Organizations and the Making of Modern States Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. 368. £70. ISBN: 9780198757962.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx084
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Commissions of Inquiry: Problems and Prospects
    • Authors: Becker M.
      Pages: 1418 - 1422
      Abstract: HendersonChristian (ed.). Commissions of Inquiry: Problems and Prospects. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2017. Pp. 371. £75. ISBN: 9781782258766.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx078
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Irresolvable Norm Conflicts in International Law: The Concept of a Legal
    • Authors: Birkenkötter H.
      Pages: 1423 - 1428
      Abstract: JeutnerValentin. Irresolvable Norm Conflicts in International Law: The Concept of a Legal Dilemma. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. xxii + 182. £70. ISBN: 9780198808374.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx080
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
  • Kathmandu
    • Authors: Shaffer G.
      Pages: 1430 - 1430
      Abstract: 1.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Feb 2018 00:00:00 GMT
      DOI: 10.1093/ejil/chx070
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 4 (2018)
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