Journal Cover Aggression and Violent Behavior
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Literature review on children and young people demonstrating
           technology-assisted harmful sexual behavior
    • Authors: Rhiannon Lewis
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 40
      Author(s): Rhiannon Lewis
      The review examines existing literature around the concept of technology-assisted harmful sexual behavior (TA-HSB) as demonstrated by children and young people. This is when a child or young person demonstrates sexual behavior online or through the use of technology that may be harmful to themselves or others, have a significant detrimental impact on their daily functioning, or leave them vulnerable for criminal prosecution. The review was motivated by the increase of children and young people referred to a sexual abuse service, due to their demonstration of TA-HSB. This review aimed to explore theories relating to TA-HSB and to develop awareness on identified treatment needs of these behaviors, so that professionals may better understand and support children and young people demonstrating them. Furthermore, it discusses assessment, intervention and risk management approaches as currently identified within best-practice, to support towards prevention of future criminalization and further victimization. The review initially aimed to include current literature based on children and young people (aged 5 to 21 years old) demonstrating TA-HSB; however due to the limited availability of this, the search parameters were expanded with tentative consideration on the implications of this when working with children and young people.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2018)
  • A gendered strength-based treatment model for female sexual offenders
    • Authors: Dawn M. Pflugradt; Bradley P. Allen; William L. Marshall
      Pages: 12 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 40
      Author(s): Dawn M. Pflugradt, Bradley P. Allen, William L. Marshall
      Due to the relatively limited knowledge about female sexual offenders, treatment approaches and programs have been primarily based upon models developed for male perpetrators. Although male and female offenders share some common characteristics, there is increasing empirical evidence that many aspects of female sexual offending behaviors are separate and different from those of males. By integrating theoretical constructs from the current literature, this paper proposes a strength-based treatment approach utilizing a gendered paradigm of female sexual offending. In general, a gendered strength-based treatment model involves a collaborative process that builds upon positive skills and provides options to utilize those skills to fulfill unmet needs. This treatment process also considers the contextual nature of the female sexual offender's social functioning and the individual manifestations of her sexually assaultive behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2018)
  • Digital dating abuse measures: A critical review
    • Authors: Cynthia Brown; Kelsey Hegarty
      Pages: 44 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 40
      Author(s): Cynthia Brown, Kelsey Hegarty
      Digital dating abuse is an emerging form of dating violence thought to have serious health effects on young people. In order to fully understand the nature and magnitude of the problem, a clear understanding of the measured construct, and robust measurement instruments are required. To date, a synthesis of available survey instruments and their quality has not been published, despite the existence of several instruments measuring digital dating abuse in young people's relationships. This paper describes existing instruments and their characteristics. A review of the literature from 1990 to 2016 revealed at least 17 different terms representing the digital dating abuse construct, 22 instruments measuring the phenomenon of which 16 were included in this review, and few clearly defined constructs. Definitional inconsistencies suggest that the instruments may measure various constructs including aggression and abuse, although this remains unclear. Eleven of the 16 instruments reported psychometric properties, at times limited to reliability evidence. This review highlights the need for delineation between aggressive and abusive digital dating behaviours, stringency in defining the digital dating abuse construct, and the development of a robust measurement instrument that yields both reliability and validity evidence.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:27:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2018)
  • Psychological interventions for anger and aggression in people with
           intellectual disabilities in forensic services
    • Authors: Claire Browne; Ian C. Smith
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Claire Browne, Ian C. Smith
      This systemic review investigates the current evidence for the effectiveness of anger and/or aggression interventions for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in receipt of forensic mental health services. Due to the prevalence within this population of difficulties with anger and aggression, and the associated substantial individual and societal consequences, the provision of psychological interventions has become increasingly common. However, no critical synthesis of the empirical evidence relating to their effectiveness has previously been conducted. Sixteen peer-reviewed controlled trials or case series designs published between 2001 and 2016 met the inclusion criteria. The results highlight an emerging evidence base for the use of CBT in improving anger regulation, and for a range of psychological therapies in reducing aggressive behaviour. However, consistent methodological shortcomings limit the generalisability of findings and currently preclude firm conclusions on effectiveness. Recommendations are made for future research to address these shortcomings, including clearly-defined adaptations, adequately powered sample sizes, carefully designed baselines and follow-up periods. Despite the current status of evidence, the review provides an accessible and objective foundation to inform decision-making by service commissioners and clinicians providing anger and aggression interventions to people with ID.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T18:00:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Developmental pathways between peer victimization, psychological
           functioning, disordered eating behavior, and body mass index: A review and
           theoretical model
    • Authors: Kirsty S. Lee; Tracy Vaillancourt
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Kirsty S. Lee, Tracy Vaillancourt
      Peer victimization, a high body mass index (BMI), and disordered eating behavior are all considered to be major health concerns afflicting today's youth. We bring together evidence from epidemiological, longitudinal, and meta-analytic research to propose a theoretical model of how peer victimization relates to psychopathology, which in turn, leads to misguided attempts to alter physical appearance through disordered eating behavior, and highlight how the pathway may vary as a function of BMI and gender. Specifically, we argue that, as a result of being victimized by peers: (1) overweight adolescents will be at high risk of psychological dysfunction and disordered eating behavior (particularly binge eating), and the effect will be stronger in girls; (2) average weight adolescents will be at high risk of psychological dysfunction and disordered eating behavior (particularly binge eating and bulimic symptoms), and the effect will be stronger in girls; and (3) underweight adolescents will be at high risk of psychological dysfunction and disordered eating behavior (particularly to increase muscle mass), and the effect will be stronger in boys. The identification and testing of comprehensive theoretical models may be beneficial for the targeting of interventions for children and adolescents affected by repeated aggressive behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T17:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Hostile attribution bias and aggression in children and adolescents: A
           systematic literature review on the influence of aggression subtype and
    • Authors: A. Martinelli; K. Ackermann; A. Bernhard; C.M. Freitag; C. Schwenck
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): A. Martinelli, K. Ackermann, A. Bernhard, C.M. Freitag, C. Schwenck
      Hostile attributions of intention have been discussed in relation to the development and maintenance of aggressive behavior in children for over thirty years. In this time, factors such as subtypes in the function (reactive versus proactive) and form (relational versus physical) of aggression as well moderators of aggression, such as gender, have been studied in increasing detail in relation to attributions of intention. The present article reviews the literature on hostile attributions and aggressive behavior in children and adolescents under consideration of aggression subtypes and the influence of gender. Results of 27 empirical research articles show that hostile attribution biases (1) are more consistently related to reactive rather than proactive aggression, (2) show evidence for separate pathways between relational and physical aggression and the respective attribution bias, and (3) are associated with aggression in both genders, with no clear gender differences in association strength. Implications for cognitive training to reduce attribution bias in treatment of childhood aggression and an outlook on further research domains are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T17:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • From online to offline sexual offending: Episodes and obstacles
    • Authors: Francis Fortin; Sarah Paquette; Benoit Dupont
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Francis Fortin, Sarah Paquette, Benoit Dupont
      Script theory explains how different types of crime may be committed in a particular sequence. While researchers have traditionally been interested in crimes against property and crimes against persons, this study analyzes a new form of crime: sexual crimes committed on the Internet. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature and investigate how viewing and creating Child Sexual Exploitation Material (CSEM) can be understood dynamically. It is suggested that a motivated CSEM user, in acquiring new knowledge and techniques, goes through many stages and obstacles that lead ultimately to the contact sexual abuse of children. It is important to note that only a small proportion of individuals who follow the scripts described move on to the next step. The focus here is on the context and not on any causality between the steps, as the latter has not been demonstrated. Specifically, this study looked at the offenders' path from consumption of adult pornography, to consumption of CSEM, to its distribution, to child luring, and, finally, to child sexual abuse and production of CSEM. The limitations and implications of the study are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T17:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Social responsibility on the Internet: Addressing the challenge of
    • Authors: Raphael Cohen-Almagor
      Pages: 42 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Raphael Cohen-Almagor
      This article discusses the phenomena of cyberbullying especially among young people. The discussion, based on an interdisciplinary study in the fields of brain studies, child development, psychology, social policy, victimization and Internet studies, probes the troubling phenomenon of cyberbullying which may result in suicide. It is argued that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults because they lack maturity with respect to capacities such as thrill seeking, impulse control, peer pressure, reward sensitivity, cognitive processing, rational decision-making and long-term planning. The article suggests remedies to counter online social ills and argues for responsible cooperation between parents, schools, governments, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and social networking sites.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T17:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Violent behavior in autism spectrum disorders: Who's at risk'
    • Authors: Jill Del Pozzo; Matthew W. Roché; Steven M. Silverstein
      Pages: 53 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Jill Del Pozzo, Matthew W. Roché, Steven M. Silverstein
      Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a range of complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social impairments, communication difficulties, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. Over the last decade, there has been increased media attention focused on the relationship between ASD and violent behavior due to a number of school shootings and high-profile criminal cases involving offenders with alleged ASD diagnoses. This coverage and these incidents have given rise to public concern and led to the perception that people with ASD are predisposed to violent behavior. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature bearing on the relationship between ASD and violent behavior, and in doing so, characterize which people with ASD are most likely to be violent and under what circumstances. We conclude that, on the whole, while research findings are mixed, they lend support to the assertion that ASD does not cause violence, and indicate that when violent behavior occurs in people with ASD, it is the result of third variables including poor parental control, family environment, criminality, bullying, or psychiatric comorbidity (e.g., psychosis), that go undetected or untreated. The conclusions of this review have implications for families, clinicians, and policy makers, as a greater understanding of ASD-related violence risk is needed to combat misconceptions about people with ASD and the stigma associated with these conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T17:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Victim-focussed studies of intimate partner femicide: A critique of
           methodological challenges and limitations in current research
    • Authors: S. McPhedran; L. Eriksson; P. Mazerolle; H. Johnson
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): S. McPhedran, L. Eriksson, P. Mazerolle, H. Johnson
      Developing strategies to prevent intimate partner femicide (IPF) remains a pressing policy challenge across nations. However, most research to date focuses on perpetrators of IPF rather than victims, which creates gaps in understanding of IPF. A contributor to the limited amount of victim-focussed knowledge is that – for sadly obvious reasons – IPF victims cannot directly provide information about their own experiences and circumstances. This challenge, and methodological approaches researchers have used in an attempt to overcome it, has not been given consideration in its own right. The current study examines dominant approaches used in the study of IPF, and discusses strengths and limitations of each approach. Implications and potential ways forward for enhancing methodological approaches to the study of IPF victimisation are identified, such as adapting ‘psychological autopsy’ methods commonly used in suicide research to the study of IPF.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Communication skills training in the management of patient aggression and
           violence in healthcare
    • Authors: Maria Baby; Christopher Gale; Nicola Swain
      Pages: 67 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Maria Baby, Christopher Gale, Nicola Swain
      Challenging behaviours may sabotage therapeutic relationships if not addressed appropriately. While medication, environmental planning and staffing resources are requisites for the management of challenging behaviour, effective communication is an important aspect in the management of these challenging behaviours including aggression. Good communication helps the patient become an active partner in the process. Staff training that focuses on communication skills can be useful to both patients and healthcare workers. This paper aims to review the research evidence from existing communication skills training programmes that are exclusively or partly focused on the reduction of aggression perpetrated by patients. This review included one randomized controlled trial protocol, one quasi experimental study, six pre-test/post-test designs, three mixed methods, four qualitative studies, one descriptive survey and four with other designs that were mostly conducted in mental health settings. The findings show that communication skills training improve the confidence of staff in dealing with aggression. However, minimal number of studies with a focus on aggression reduction, the quality of the studies in terms of design and lack of active controlled trials minimizes the generalizability of the findings. These findings reiterate the need for future research with a focus on well designed, active controlled studies to establish the effectiveness of communication skills training as a suitable strategy to minimise and prevent patient aggression.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T18:00:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Out of place: Sexualities, sexual violence, and heteronormativity
    • Authors: Aliraza Javaid
      Pages: 83 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Aliraza Javaid
      In this paper, I offer a platform in which to theorise sexual violence against men. In doing so, I critically interrogate the ways in which male sexual victimisation is socially and culturally constructed in the public space of compulsory heterosexuality. Drawing on male rape as a case study and focus, I explore how rape against men is constructed and socially defined in public territory where homosexuality is often marginal, excluded, and stigmatised. The interactional, social and cultural contexts wherein rape against men is constructed are considered, with the adoption of the theoretical framework of heteronormativity to make sense of the connection between male rape and ‘heterosexual spaces’. In respect of the binary distinction between the public and private, whereby homosexuality is deemed ‘private’ and heterosexuality ‘public’, and drawing on ideas of male sexual victimisation and victim blameworthy, I provide an improved understanding of the different ways in which rape against men is constructed within a heterosexual landscape that always surrounds us all.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Shame and a Theory of war and violence
    • Authors: Thomas Scheff; G. Reginald Daniel; Joseph Sterphone
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Thomas Scheff, G. Reginald Daniel, Joseph Sterphone
      It is possible that war in modern societies is largely driven by emotions, but in a manner that is almost completely hidden. Modernity rationalizes the self and tends to ignore emotions, which can result in the total hiding of humiliation leads to vengeance. This essay outlines a theory of the social-emotional world implied in the work of C. H. Cooley, whose concept of the “looking-glass self” can be used as antidote to the assumptions of modernity: the self is based on “living in the mind” of others, resulting in feeling either pride or shame. This essay proposes that the complete hiding of shame can lead to feedback loops with no natural limit. These ideas may help explain the role of France in causing WWI, and Hitler's rise to power in Germany.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Treatment effect on psychosocial functioning of juveniles with harmful
           sexual behavior: A multilevel meta-analysis
    • Authors: Ellis ter Beek; Chris H.Z. Kuiper; Rachel E.A. van der Rijken; Anouk Spruit; Geert Jan J.M. Stams; Jan Hendriks
      Pages: 116 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Ellis ter Beek, Chris H.Z. Kuiper, Rachel E.A. van der Rijken, Anouk Spruit, Geert Jan J.M. Stams, Jan Hendriks
      This multilevel meta-analysis examined the effects of treatment for juveniles with harmful sexual behavior on psychosocial functioning, and the potential moderating effects of outcome, treatment, participant, and study characteristics. In total, 23 studies, comprising 31 independent samples and 1342 participants, yielded 362 effect sizes (Cohen's d). A moderate overall effect size was found of d = 0.60, indicating that groups receiving treatment achieved an estimated relative improvement in psychosocial functioning of 33%. Type of outcome did moderate the effect of treatment, indicating that effects on atypical sexual arousal and empathy (a trend) were smaller, compared to effects on other outcomes. Most prominently, studies of weak quality produced larger effect sizes. Unexpectedly, non-established treatments had more effect than did established treatments, which may be explained by the use of less rigorous study designs. Treatment groups with a higher percentage of juveniles with similar age victims or mixed type problem behavior also yielded larger effect sizes. Lastly, evaluation of treatment effects by professionals produced higher effect sizes, compared to other sources of information (e.g., adolescent self-report). Although only a marginal to no indication was found for publication bias by means of funnel plot analysis of the distribution of effect sizes, articles published in peer reviewed journals showed relatively large effect sizes. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Who would destroy the world' Omnicidal agents and related phenomena
    • Authors: Phil Torres
      Pages: 129 - 138
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Phil Torres
      The capacity for small groups and even single individuals to wreak unprecedented havoc on civilization is growing as a result of dual-use emerging technologies. This means that scholars should be increasingly concerned about individuals who express omnicidal, mass genocidal, anti-civilizational, or apocalyptic beliefs/desires. The present article offers a comprehensive and systematic survey of actual individuals who have harbored a death wish for humanity or destruction wish for civilization. This paper thus provides a strong foundation for future research on “agential risks” and related issues. It could also serve as a helpful resource for counterterrorism experts and global risk scholars who wish to better understand our evolving threat environment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Distorted cognition related to male sexual offending: The multi-mechanism
           theory of cognitive distortions (MMT-CD)
    • Authors: Filip Szumski; Ross M. Bartels; Anthony R. Beech; Dawn Fisher
      Pages: 139 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Filip Szumski, Ross M. Bartels, Anthony R. Beech, Dawn Fisher
      Cognitive distortions are considered an important factor in the etiology and maintenance of sexual offending behavior in males. A predominant view within the literature is that cognitive distortions are cognitive products that arise from deeper cognitive structures, although it has also been proposed that goals and situational factors can play a role. In this article, we provide an updated theoretical account of cognitive distortions in males – the Multi-Mechanism Theory of Cognitive Distortions (MMT-CD). Adopting a dual-process perspective, and incorporating the concept of motivated cognition and the effects of visceral factors, we propose that cognitive distortions arise from three mechanisms, which can be identified in terms of their temporal occurrence to an offense. Mechanism I accounts for cognitive distortions that arise long before an offense is committed but serve to influence an individual's life-course and goals in a way that brings them closer eventually sexually offending. Mechanism II accounts for distortions that arise in the lead up to or immediately before a sexual offense, thus, providing a justification for committing an offense. Mechanism III accounts for distortions that are formed post-offense as a result of the adversarial context of the individual's social environment. We describe: (1) the nature of each mechanism; (2) the way they underpin particular distortions; (3) the role they play in the etiology of sex offending; (4) and how they may play out in research and practice.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 39 (2018)
  • Foreshadowing targeted violence: Assessing leakage of intent by public
           mass murderers
    • Authors: James Silver; John Horgan; Paul Gill
      Pages: 94 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 38
      Author(s): James Silver, John Horgan, Paul Gill
      The idea that identifiable behaviors presage violence is a core concept in the threat assessment literature. Especially meaningful from an operational perspective is “leakage”, which concerns whether offenders intentionally or unintentionally reveal insights into their thoughts or feelings that suggest impending targeted violence. Previous research has generally been limited to assessing the prevalence of leakage in various offender populations. The present study more thoroughly describes leakage in a sample of 115 public mass murderers in the U.S. whose activities took place between 1990 and 2014. We disaggregate leakage into three distinct forms (written statements, verbal statements to the public, verbal statements to family/friends), and examine these in relation to theorized correlates of leakage. We found that a significant predictor of leakage is the presence of a grievance, specifically a grievance against a person or entity, as opposed to a grievance against a category of people or a grievance against an idea, movement or religion. We discuss implications of these results as well as directions for future research.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T18:00:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2018)
  • Systematic review of empirical studies on cyberbullying in adults: What we
           know and what we should investigate
    • Authors: Cristina Jenaro; Noelia Flores; Cinthia Patricia Frías
      Pages: 113 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 38
      Author(s): Cristina Jenaro, Noelia Flores, Cinthia Patricia Frías
      Cyberbullying is a worldwide phenomenon and most of our knowledge comes from studies with adolescent and younger populations. Adult populations have received scarce attention. The present study is a systematic review of empirical academic papers on cyberbullying in the adult population. An online databases search (CINHAL, PsycInfo, ERIC, Medline, Pubmed, and Web of Science) identified 3986 references that, in successive steps, were reduced to 90 studies published between 2004 and 2016 that met the inclusion criteria. Each study was analyzed regarding topic, methods, ages, and other general characteristics. In addition, the measures used to assess cyberbullying, the impact of cyberbullying, and the different roles of those involved in the studies with adult population were explored. Results showed that there is a need for studies conducted in locations other than university settings and that the variety of measures, as well as the different criteria utilized to identify the cyberbullied, cyberbullies, and bystanders makes it difficult to compare findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies and for evidence-based practices to deal with these violent and aggressive behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T18:00:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2018)
  • Understanding conflict and the role of community development: Is building
           a peaceful society within our reach'
    • Authors: August John Hoffman
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): August John Hoffman
      The nature of human conflict and causal factors that are associated with extreme violence, hate crimes and terrorism (both domestic and global) have remained perplexing problems given their increasing prevalence despite recent international efforts to address these crimes (Al Ramiah & Hewstone, 2013). The current article summarizes Staub's (2013) essay: Building Peaceful Society and provides a community-based preventative approach that examines the psychological, cultural and sociological factors that contribute to modern extremism and hate crimes. Preventative methods involving interdependent community participation, community-based and prevention oriented (P&EI), “green” sustainable community service activities and civic engagement programs are offered as viable methods to reduce ethnic conflict, hate crimes and to help build a more peaceful society. Suggestions for future research are offered.

      PubDate: 2018-02-06T18:00:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2018)
  • The power of family and community factors in predicting dating violence: A
    • Authors: Sihyun Park; Sin-Hyang Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Sihyun Park, Sin-Hyang Kim
      Dating violence (DV) has been well-documented as one of the serious public health problems leading various negative health consequences, such as physical injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and so on. Many factors predicting DV have been already identified; however, few papers presented the predicting power of those factors. Therefore, this study aims to identify the power of family- and community-related factors in predicting the perpetration and victimization of DV and to determine the strongest risk factors using a meta-analysis. Through a rigorous search procedure, a total of 131 correlates of DV perpetrators and 139 correlates of DV victims were identified in 27 studies. The results showed that “having deviant peers” was the strongest risk factor of DV perpetration, whereas “witnessing parental violence” was the strongest risk factor of DV victimization. Also, we found that the risk factors were more powerful predictors of DV perpetrators and victims than were the protective factors. Findings from this study provided valuable evidence to identify DV victimization and perpetration, and to develop intervention strategies preventing DV.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.03.002
  • Provocation and target gender as moderators of the relationship between
           acute alcohol use and female perpetrated aggression
    • Authors: Cory A. Crane; Robert C. Schlauch; Maria Testa; Caroline J. Easton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Cory A. Crane, Robert C. Schlauch, Maria Testa, Caroline J. Easton
      Acute alcohol use appears to exert a small but significant effect on female perpetrated aggression in the laboratory but there has been no effort to evaluate comprehensively the situational moderators of this relationship. This preliminary review was intended to explore the moderating effects of provocation and target gender on alcohol-related aggression among females in this understudied area of research. Moderator analyses were conducted on 14 studies. Despite limitations imposed by the sparsity of laboratory based research on alcohol-related aggression among females, initial results suggest that alcohol may exert stronger effects over female aggression following high (d = 0.25, k = 8, p < .01, 95% CI = 0.10–0.40) rather than low (d = −0.07, k = 6, p = .52, 95% CI = −0.29–0.15) provocation and when targets of aggression are female (d = 0.19, k = 9, p = .01, 95% CI = 0.04–0.34) rather than male (d = −0.06, k = 4, p = .61, 95% CI = −0.30–0.18). Results offer initial insight into situational risk factors pertinent to research and treatment of alcohol-related aggression among females while serving as an impetus for future research in this critical, neglected area of study.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.03.001
  • The time for causal designs: Review and evaluation of empirical support
           for mechanisms of political radicalisation
    • Authors: Oluf
      Abstract: Publication date: March–April 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 39
      Author(s): Oluf Gøtzsche-Astrup
      This paper evaluates the most influential current approaches to the mechanisms of radicalisation on the basis of their empirical evidence and calls for a focus on research designs capable of arbitrating on matters of causality, not just correlation. It shows how the existing evidence converges on a handful of factors involved in radicalisation, including negative life experiences leading to fundamental uncertainty or loss of significance, which spur on the search for and identity shift towards groups with strong norms and ideals, including sacred values that enable extreme ingroup defences (e.g. acts of terrorism). The cumulative empirical data indicates support for some, but not all, kinds of interventions. Finally, because both theoretical approaches and current interventions propose cause-and-effect relationships, the paper argues that it is imperative that the field shifts its focus to experimental research designs capable of making causal inferences.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
  • Does theory matters: Constructing an integrated theoretical framework to
           describe kidnapping for ransom in Nigeria
    • Authors: Smart E. Otu; Macpherson U. Nnam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Smart E. Otu, Macpherson U. Nnam
      Assumptions and debates on the causes/motives and, by implication, theories of kidnapping in Nigeria for ransom, are legions, and largely speculative, however. This paper engages in a rigorous analytical review of the factors, patterns and processes of kidnapping, and several related theories, to construct an integrated/alliance model of kidnapping in Nigeria. Kidnappers' social constructions and interpretative meanings show that the factors and processes that enable kidnapping to occur are, though, basically economic and space-based, they vary, occurs in chains-spaces in a coordinated, interdependent and interconnected manner. The policy implication suggests (1) that several factors coalesce and intervene at different stages to explain kidnapping (2) future research on kidnapping and meaning construction consider the kidnappers' perspective and those of the other actors and the media (3) a multi-dimensional and interdisciplinary (Epi-criminology) approach to tackle the several different theories/causes animating young Nigerians to engage in the criminal enterprise of kidnapping is a welcome development.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.010
  • A developmental approach to cyberbullying: Prevalence and protective
    • Authors: Robin M. Kowalski; Susan P. Limber; Annie McCord
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Robin M. Kowalski, Susan P. Limber, Annie McCord
      Recent years have witnessed a plethora of research on cyberbullying. However, many of the published studies have yielded mixed findings related to cyberbullying and its relation to demographic variables such as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Review papers have been published on some of these topics, but comprehensive reviews of the relation between age and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are lacking, particularly with regard to protective factors. Thus, the current paper takes a developmental approach to examine age and cyberbullying. The review focuses specifically on age variations in technology use, prevalence of cyberbullying involvement, risk and protective factors, and outcomes. Directions for future research, including implications for prevention and intervention, are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T23:43:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.02.009
  • The test of time: A meta-analytic review of the relation between school
           climate and problem behavior
    • Authors: Samantha Reaves; Susan D. McMahon; Sophia Duffy; Linda Ruiz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Samantha Reaves, Susan D. McMahon, Sophia Duffy, Linda Ruiz
      School climate is conceptualized as a pattern of experiences within the school, which reflect the culture and norms of the school community. School climate is correlated with student outcomes. This review focuses on longitudinal literature investigating the relation between school climate and problem behavior to determine if the two are correlated over time. Six electronic databases were searched using keywords, and two recent reviews were hand-searched for references. Thirteen articles were included in this meta-analysis. Effect sizes were calculated using correlational data provided from individual studies and weighted by sample size. Results supported a small but significant relation between school climate and problem behavior over time. Research continues to support the importance of school environment as we seek to reduce problem behaviors and improve student experiences in school. This study illustrates the longitudinal impact of school environmental factors, and describes implications for theory, research, and practice.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T17:53:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.006
  • Sixty years of child-to-parent abuse research: What we know and where to
    • Authors: Melanie Simmons; Troy E. McEwan; Rosemary Purcell; James R.P. Ogloff
      Pages: 31 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 38
      Author(s): Melanie Simmons, Troy E. McEwan, Rosemary Purcell, James R.P. Ogloff

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T05:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Socio-cultural risk factors impacting domestic violence among South Asian
           immigrant women: A scoping review
    • Authors: Abha Rai; Y. Joon Choi
      Pages: 76 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 38
      Author(s): Abha Rai, Y. Joon Choi
      Domestic violence (DV) is a significant concern for the well-being of South Asian (SA) immigrant women. Although there have been empirical studies that discussed socio-cultural risk factors related to SA immigrant women's experience of DV, there have not been any efforts to summarize these factors in a single study. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize empirical studies that explored socio-cultural risk factors of DV among SA immigrant women in English speaking countries. 16 English language peer reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. The socio-cultural risk factors identified in the reviewed studies included lack of social support, low acculturation, high enculturation, patriarchal beliefs, economic control by the husband, traditional gender role attitudes, and stigma about divorce. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 38 (2017)
  • Coercive control in intimate partner violence
    • Authors: L. Kevin Hamberger; Sadie E. Larsen; Amy Lehrner
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): L. Kevin Hamberger, Sadie E. Larsen, Amy Lehrner
      The construct of coercive control has been central to many conceptualizations of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet there is widespread inconsistency in the literature regarding how this construct is defined and measured. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on coercive control in regards to conceptualizations, definitions, operationalization, and measurement; and attempts to provide a synthesis and recommendations for future research. A summary and critique of measures used to assess coercive control in IPV is provided. At least three facets of coercive control are identified: 1) intentionality or goal orientation in the abuser (versus motivation), 2) a negative perception of the controlling behavior by the victim, and 3) the ability of the abuser to obtain control through the deployment of a credible threat. Measurement challenges and opportunities posed by such a multifaceted definition are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T06:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • The role of values in forensic and correctional rehabilitation
    • Authors: Tony Ward; Roxanne Heffernan
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): Tony Ward, Roxanne Heffernan
      The principles of forensic and correctional rehabilitation inquiry, key forensic and correctional concepts, and their translation into practice are shot through with normative commitments of one type or another. The degree to which values pervade every level and aspect of research and practice is rarely, if ever, acknowledged. This is a problem, as it means that there may be a tendency to adopt research and practice positions that are ideological in nature and insufficiently justified. In this paper we examine how values of various types guide and shape action at the level of scientific inquiry, influence the construction of rehabilitation theories, and shape the concepts of dynamic risk and protective factors. For each class of normative issues, we propose ways in which researchers and practitioners can acknowledge these challenges while also respecting the factual basis of science.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T19:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • The prevalence of sexual aggression in Turkey: A systematic review
    • Authors: Isabell Schuster; Barbara Krahé
      Pages: 102 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): Isabell Schuster, Barbara Krahé
      Although sexual aggression is recognized as a serious problem worldwide, evidence on the prevalence and impact of sexual aggression is based predominantly on studies from Western countries with a Christian or non-religious majority. Little evidence is available from non-Western countries, especially from Muslim societies. The purpose of the present article was to provide a first systematic review of the studies examining the prevalence of sexual aggression in Turkey, including both victimization and perpetration reports from women and men. Additionally, differences in prevalence rates depending on relationship constellations and characteristics of victims and perpetrators were reviewed. By a two-stage literature search, 56 studies were identified for inclusion. All studies examined sexual victimization of women, only four studies included sexual victimization of men. Data on sexual aggression perpetration were extremely limited, with only two studies providing prevalence rates. Prevalence rates of sexual victimization were found to vary greatly, which may be attributed to a lack of methodological and conceptual consistency across studies. Likewise, no consistent picture was revealed for victims' or perpetrators' sociodemographic or situational characteristics associated with differences in prevalence rates. We discuss reasons for the variability in prevalence rates and outline recommendations for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T05:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • Bullying and peer violence among children and adolescents in residential
           care settings: A review of the literature
    • Authors: Angela Mazzone; Annalaura Nocentini; Ersilia Menesini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Angela Mazzone, Annalaura Nocentini, Ersilia Menesini
      The present paper offers a review of the phenomena of bullying and peer violence among children and adolescents living in residential care settings (RCS). The review was conducted on four databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC). Findings of the 31 full-text papers included in the present work showed that bullying and peer violence involve various forms of direct and indirect attacks. While bullying in RCS involves severe and repeated aggressive actions, peer violence seems to be characterized by distinct levels of severity; i.e., low-level attacks are infrequent and isolated, whereas high level attacks may be severe and frequent. Several individual factors, such as age, gender, and length of stay in RCS were found to be associated with both bullying and peer violence. Contextual risk factors such as activities, structure and facility size, along with a residential peer culture characterized by a high level of hierarchy and a poor emotional bond between children and staff, contributed to bullying and peer violence. Furthermore, findings of the studies included in the present review showed that both perpetrators and victims manifest a number of behavioral and psychological problems. Overall, the present study offers a picture of bullying and peer violence among institutionalized children. However, distinct operationalization of constructs among studies, together with the use of different methods and measures, made comparisons among studies difficult. Future research should overcome these limitations in order to promote validity and compatibility of research in this field of study.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T23:00:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.12.004
  • Comparative efficacy and safety of carbamazepine in adults without severe
           mental illness, with aggressive and violent interpersonal behavior: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Elias Ghossoub; Paul Noufi; Omar Ghosn; Rita Khoury; Farid Talih; Elie A. Akl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Elias Ghossoub, Paul Noufi, Omar Ghosn, Rita Khoury, Farid Talih, Elie A. Akl
      Background Violent and aggressive interpersonal behavior is a serious public health concern. Evidence for management approaches of violence in non-psychiatric populations is limited. Although it is widely used as an off-label treatment to manage aggression and impulsivity, there is a lack of systematically collected evidence on the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine for this indication. Aim Determine the efficacy and safety of carbamazepine in non-institutionalized adults without severe mental illness, with aggressive and violent interpersonal behavior. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CENTRAL, OpenGrey and We included randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of carbamazepine in adults without severe mental illness in reducing violent interpersonal behavior, compared to no carbamazepine or other pharmacological treatment modalities. We extracted data from published reports and planned to conduct meta-analyses. Results We reviewed 3447 citations, retrieved 17 full-texts and identified 2 eligible studies. Carbamazepine significantly reduced interpersonal aggression among women with borderline personality disorder but not so among men with impulsive aggression. Given the paucity of results, we could not perform a quantitative analysis. Conclusions Quality evidence supporting the use of carbamazepine in the management of aggressive interpersonal behavior in adults without severe mental illness is lacking. Further studies are warranted.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.12.005
  • A systematic review of group work interventions in UK high secure
    • Authors: Michaela Sturgeon; Nichola Tyler; Theresa A. Gannon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Michaela Sturgeon, Nichola Tyler, Theresa A. Gannon
      Background Rehabilitating high secure hospital patients poses significant challenges. Group work is thought to play a key role in patient recovery; however, there have been no reviews conducted specifically assessing group work interventions for high secure hospital patients. Objectives To review the focus of group work interventions that are being implemented and evaluated with high secure hospital patients in the UK and to examine the effectiveness of these interventions and the methods used to assess intervention effectiveness. Method A systematic literature search combined with reference screening was conducted examining group work interventions with high secure hospital patients in the UK. Results In total, 29 manuscripts were identified for review inclusion. Across these, ten focuses of group work intervention emerged: anger/aggression, offence-specific, enhancing insight and understanding of mental illness, thinking skills/problem solving, substance misuse, self-harm, relationships, self-esteem and well-being, relapse prevention, and moving on. Positive outcomes were generally reported across all ten areas. Conclusions Studies assessing the impact of group work interventions could be improved by increasing sample sizes, reducing sole reliance on self-report measures, employing clear statistical and clinical significance testing, and increasing the use of follow-up assessments and control groups.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T05:56:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.11.004
  • The Good Lives Model: A strength-based approach for youth offenders
    • Authors: Clare-Ann Fortune
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Clare-Ann Fortune
      There is increasing interest in the use of strength-based approaches, such as the Good Lives Model (GLM), in the field of offender rehabilitation to complement primarily risk management models. To date, theoretical work has focused on the application of the GLM to adult offenders, and primarily sexual offenders at that. This paper explores the theoretical application of the Good Lives Model (GLM) to the rehabilitation of youth offenders. Practitioners often struggle to engage young people in treatment as working towards the goal of avoiding further offending does not directly speak to their core concerns and, as such, is not very motivating. The GLM is a rehabilitation framework that focuses on approach goals, which encourages individuals to identify and formulate ways of achieving personally meaningful goals in prosocial ways. It is argued that as a rehabilitation framework the GLM has the flexibility and breadth to accommodate the variety of risk factors and complex needs youth offenders present with, and also provides a natural fit with a dynamic systems (e.g., family and educational systems) framework, and evidence based interventions in the youth offender field.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T13:30:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.11.003
  • Criminal energetics: A theory of antisocial enhancement and criminal
    • Authors: Michael G. Vaughn; Matt DeLisi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Michael G. Vaughn, Matt DeLisi
      Although energy is the currency of all life forms and energy is an underlying factor for physical and mental performance, its role in antisocial behavior has yet to be articulated. In this paper, we consider the role of energy in shaping antisocial and criminal careers and suggest that much like other forms of performance/productivity some criminal offenders are more energetic and therefore more virulent than others over the life-course. Specifically, we argue that energy is an enhancement and attenuator to an antisocial career and draw upon a diverse literature merging basic research on aging and energy production in human physiology and merge these findings with principles from the career criminal paradigm in criminology. Finally, we lay forth a set of research pathways, especially ways in which energy can be assessed, that can forge stronger links between the science of energetics and criminality.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T13:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.11.002
  • School bullying from a sociocultural perspective
    • Authors: Rachel E. Maunder; Sarah Crafter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Rachel E. Maunder, Sarah Crafter
      School bullying is an important concern. Whilst there is growing knowledge about the nature, extent and effects of school bullying, areas of complexity in research findings remain. In this paper we develop our thinking on school bullying using a sociocultural theoretical framework. We review existing literature around three main themes: 1) The conceptualisation and interpretation of bullying; 2) The relational aspects of bullying 3) Bullying as part of someone's life trajectory. For each theme, empirical findings are discussed to highlight key issues, and arguments presented from relevant sociocultural theories to provide insight in each case. During the paper, we show how varying strands of research into bullying can be integrated, and how areas of complexity can be explained. Adopting a sociocultural view of school bullying presents implications for both research and practice. Bullying is contextual, and attention should be given to the situated relationships and multiple settings surrounding the behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T02:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.010
  • Facial affect processing in incarcerated violent males: A systematic
    • Authors: Harriet Chapman; Steven M. Gillespie; Ian J. Mitchell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Harriet Chapman, Steven M. Gillespie, Ian J. Mitchell
      Previous reviews exploring facial affect processing among forensic samples have focused on the presence of psychopathy and/or have not distinguished on the basis of offence type. In order to develop understandings about etiological processes implicated in different types of antisocial behavior, the principle aim of this review was to systematically explore facial affect processing in incarcerated violent offenders, relative to other non-violent offenders, sexual offenders, and non-offenders. Following a systematic search of electronic databases and subsequent manual search, eight studies were assessed as meeting inclusion criteria, of which seven obtained a quality score deemed acceptable for review. These studies examined recognition accuracy, sensitivity and response bias for seven emotion categories (including neutral) in incarcerated male offenders with a history of violence. Findings supported the presence of generally impaired facial affect processing among violent offenders, including deficits in fear, anger, and disgust. Overall the findings of the review did not support the presence of a hostile attribution bias among violent offenders. The review also highlights differences in sample composition, stimuli, and study designs in emotion recognition research. Recommendations are made for future work on facial affect processing in clinically relevant groups.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T22:55:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.006
  • A comprehensive theory of dynamic risk and protective factors
    • Authors: Roxanne Heffernan; Tony Ward
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Roxanne Heffernan, Tony Ward
      The current conceptualization of “dynamic risk factors” (DRF) for criminal offending is problematic. It is generally accepted that there are significant conceptual issues in this domain, however, until recently addressing these have not been prioritized. Instead the majority of research and literature has focused on the success of DRF in predicting reoffending, and the effectiveness of treatment programmes that target DRF. Similar conceptual issues apply to “protective factors” (PF), which are frequently defined as the opposite of DRF; factors that reduce rather than increase risk of reoffending. In addition to the vagueness of these broad definitions, problems arise when researchers attempt to explain the theoretical and practical relationship between the two. Two important and challenging questions arise: 1) what exactly are these risk-related features' And 2) how do they relate to each other and criminal behavior' In this paper we argue that by building a comprehensive model of predictive agency we may be able to understand the causes of crime and desistence, and that this is crucial in improving outcomes for both those who have committed offences and the societies they live within.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.003
  • The lives of female gang members: A review of the literature
    • Authors: Tara E. Sutton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Tara E. Sutton
      Although female gang membership was overlooked for several years, recent work by feminist criminologists has provided a much more complex picture of female youth involved in gang life. This literature demonstrates that gender shapes the risk factors and consequences of gang involvement for female youth in several ways. In the current review, four main areas are discussed: 1) risk factors for female youths' gang involvement, 2) the extent and characteristics of female gang members' violence and crime, 3) the influence of gender on victimization experiences resulting from gang membership, and 4) female gang members' desistance from gang life. In each section, work specifically focusing on female gang members as well as work comparing the experiences of male and female gang members are presented. Finally, directions for future research are offered.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.001
  • Unfinished stories: From juvenile sex offenders to juvenile sex offending
           through a developmental life course perspective
    • Authors: Evan C. McCuish; Patrick Lussier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Evan C. McCuish, Patrick Lussier
      The developmental context in which adolescent sexually abusive or aggressive behaviors arise is not fully considered by current policies. The perception of adolescents as sexual predators on a life-course persistent pattern of sexual offending has largely contributed to the current, more punitive, sociolegal context. We suggest that myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims about adolescents involved in sexually abusive behaviors have persisted due to the abundance of research focusing on the “offender”, neglecting the “offense”, and the two being confused as one: the juvenile sex offender. We describe the current state of knowledge on the characteristics of adolescents involved in sexually abusive or aggressive behavior and present the developmental life course criminology perspective as a framework for organizing research on the course of juvenile sexual offending, including the process leading up to the behavior and what happens in adulthood. Important research questions and the associated research design and measurement tools necessary to address these questions are presented to better understand the dynamic aspect of juvenile sex offending, its onset, course, and termination.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T19:35:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.004
  • Method of homicide and severe mental illness: A systematic review
    • Authors: Valeria Abreu Minero; Edward Barker; Rachael Bedford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Valeria Abreu Minero, Edward Barker, Rachael Bedford
      There is limited research that has examined offense characteristics in homicides committed by individuals with mental illness and with differing psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize previous findings of studies analyzing homicide behavior by mentally ill individuals, and reporting any associations between mental illness and method of homicide. We searched four databases (MedLine, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Embase), and identified 52 relevant articles for analysis. Of these 52 articles, nine reported specific information on mental illness and method of homicide. Five out of nine articles revealed an association between schizophrenia/delusional disorder and the use of sharp instruments as a method of homicide. Four out of nine studies revealed an association between mood disorders (bipolar disorder/major depression) and strangulation/asphyxiation/suffocation/drowning. Our review confirms consistency across studies reporting a significant association between close contact methods and schizophrenia/mood disorders. Also identified as possible influential factors concerning weapon choice are illness duration, victim characteristics and planning/lack of planning of the homicide. Additionally, studies revealed up to 96% of severely mentally ill offenders experienced psychiatric symptoms at the time of the homicide. Future research may examine the presence of specific psychiatric symptoms when a mentally ill offender commits a homicide and whether these may be more influential in the method of homicide used than the psychiatric diagnosis of the offender.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T19:35:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.007
  • Developmental risk factors of juvenile sex offenders by victim age: An
           implication for specialized treatment programs
    • Authors: Momoko Ueda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Momoko Ueda
      Specialized treatment programs exist for juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) on the basis that JSOs are a homogeneous group. However, several studies have shown support for the heterogeneity of JSOs on the observed differences in victim age preferences within this group; those that offend against children (child molesters), and those that offend against peers or adults (peer abusers). To better meet the individual needs of treatment and rehabilitation, there must be an understanding of the developmental risk factors associated with each sub-type of JSOs. This paper reviewed 13 published studies on the differences in developmental risk factors between juvenile child molesters and peer abusers. The review found that child abusers were more likely to be submissive, have lower self-esteem and to show internalizing behaviour problems, whereas peer abusers were more aggressive, antisocial and were more likely to show externalizing behaviour problems. Although inconsistencies in results were observed across some studies, the results from this review suggest the need to separate JSO treatment approaches depending on victim age preference. Child molesters may benefit more from individual-based treatment programs (i.e. cognitive behavioural therapy) whereas peer abusers may benefit from a community-based approach to treatment such as multi-systematic therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T19:35:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.006
  • Cultural and moral dimensions of sexual aggression: The role of moral
           disengagement in men's likelihood to sexually aggress
    • Authors: Arielle Sagrillo Scarpati; Afroditi Pina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Arielle Sagrillo Scarpati, Afroditi Pina
      Social norms inform individuals in a given society about what is right and wrong, and it is through their environment (and its symbolic elements) that people learn how to behave morally. These norms help shape not only people's behaviors, but also the way in which society in general, works: they are not, however, sufficient to compel all individuals to refrain from detrimental conduct. In fact, according to Paciello (2008), in some cases, these same norms may serve to legitimize harmful behavior towards others. In societies plagued by gender inequality, for example, some forms of violence (e.g. marital rape, domestic violence, homophobia) might be tolerated and/or justified as a result of individuals' adherence to traditional gender norms. As a result, detrimental behavior becomes socially and morally acceptable, and any conflicting moral beliefs and behaviors are experienced largely without self-reproach. Drawing from that, the primary goal of this narrative review is to explore the idea that some social norms may influence the acceptability of perpetration of sexual violence. Building on the findings from our review, we address existing gaps in the literature, and present a different approach to individuals' likelihood to engage in sexually aggressive behavior, via consideration of moral values and moral disengagement strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T19:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.001
  • Traumatic brain injury and aggression: A systematic review and future
           directions using community samples
    • Authors: Lisa Buckley; Sherrie-Anne Kaye; Ryan P. Stork; Justin E. Heinze; James T. Eckner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Lisa Buckley, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ryan P. Stork, Justin E. Heinze, James T. Eckner
      Aggression is widespread and a significant community burden, with violence-related injury deaths representing a significant public health problem. We explore aggression relative to a possible associated factor, traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our focus is on a less well studied population, those recruited through the community who may not have had hospital care or contact with the criminal justice system (e.g. were recruited in schools). This study provides a critical review of the potential relationship between aggression and traumatic brain injury. We undertook a systematic search of published literature of studies recruited through the community and found seven studies examining aggression and TBI. All studies identified a relationship between reports of TBI and aggression, however only two studies were longitudinal in design. The study focuses on the limitations of the current body of research, including in definitions of constructs, the need to understand mediating and moderating factors, and improvements needed in the overall research design of studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.004
  • The effect of academic achievement on aggression and violent behavior: A
    • Authors: Joanne Savage; Christopher J. Ferguson; Lesli Flores
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Joanne Savage, Christopher J. Ferguson, Lesli Flores

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.002
  • Trends and patterns of Boko Haram terrorist and militants' aggression in
    • Authors: Gilbert Enyidah-Okey Ordu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Gilbert Enyidah-Okey Ordu
      This study explores the trends and pattern of Islamic Boko Haram and Niger Delta militancy in Nigeria. The core of the problem was articulate in order to grapple with the complexities of this social problem. The study employed ex post facto research design and generated its data using secondary sources—the data were descriptively analysed. Boko Haram and militant groups have taken up arms against the State [Nigeria] and its defencible and defenceless citizens, resulting from frustration and social discontentment. They have been involved in series of kidnappings, destructions and killings, as predicted by the basic assumptions of our theoretical framework, frustration-aggression theory, which is empirically evidenced in the findings of this study. While Boko Haram engaged the State and members of the public in fierce attacks in the Northern Nigeria, the militants have mounted a deadly combat against the Nigerian government and expatriates, including their infrastructure and basic amenities in the Southern part of the country. The study recommends a total overhauling of the present frustration-ridden social structure and political economy of Nigeria, as well as timely implementation of proactive youth empowerment programmes and forward-looking social, political and economic policies will assist greatly in ameliorating the problem.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.006
  • A critique of the revised conflict tactics scales-2 (CTS-2)
    • Authors: Richard Toby Jones; Shihning Chou; Kevin Browne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Richard Toby Jones, Shihning Chou, Kevin Browne
      The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the Conflict Tactics Scales-2, a measure used worldwide for research and clinical practices. The reliability, validity and normative samples of the CTS-2 are considered and compared with similar psychometric measures. The limitations of the original CTS have been discussed alongside the CTS-2. Reliability is considered to be good to excellent by alpha coefficient and the variance explained by differing samples or methods of administration. Caution is recommended when interpreting the CTS-2 in clinical settings. Researchers point toward a five-factor structure to the CTS-2. The importance of appropriate norms is discussed and considered crucial when using the tool in settings where reporting patterns may differ. Difficulties in comparing CTS-2 scores across samples, cultures and countries are highlighted. Overall, the CTS-2 is a robust psychometric measure, although it holds limited clinical utility if it is used separately from other sources of information gathering (i.e. psychometric measures or interview). In order to enhance clinical utility, it should be administered alongside measures or clinical interviews that can provide added context regarding violence in the family. More research is required in diverse population samples, cultures/countries and languages.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T06:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.005
  • The inter-rater reliability of observing aggression: A systematic
           literature review
    • Authors: Kore G. Lampe; Eva A. Mulder; Olivier F. Colins; Robert R.J.M. Vermeiren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kore G. Lampe, Eva A. Mulder, Olivier F. Colins, Robert R.J.M. Vermeiren
      Introduction Both clinicians and researchers value observation as an important source of diagnostic information, especially in forensic, mental health and school settings. However, it is not well-known how reliable information collected by means of observation is. Methods The present study aimed to systematically review the literature on the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of observation of aggression and impulsivity. Results A total of 37 papers on the observation of aggression that provided information about the IRR was selected and reviewed. Forms of observation ranged from videotaped observation in a lab to participant observation in a naturalistic setting (e.g. with an observer taking part in the situation). Relatively few studies focused on observation of aggression in naturalistic settings. For various reasons, no papers on the observation of impulsivity could be included. Regardless of differences in forms and settings, the IRR of observing aggression was fair to excellent. Conclusion Different forms of observation (e.g. non-participant, direct) taking place in different settings (e.g. naturalistic or lab) can be executed reliably. This finding is encouraging for clinicians who want to make use of systematic observations in naturalistic settings. However, the relatively sparse research on these naturalistic observations underscores the need for research on the topic.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T11:27:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.001
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