for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover Aggression and Violent Behavior
  [SJR: 1.385]   [H-I: 72]   [406 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Coercive control in intimate partner violence
    • Authors: L. Kevin Hamberger; Sadie E. Larsen; Amy Lehrner
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): L. Kevin Hamberger, Sadie E. Larsen, Amy Lehrner
      The construct of coercive control has been central to many conceptualizations of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet there is widespread inconsistency in the literature regarding how this construct is defined and measured. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on coercive control in regards to conceptualizations, definitions, operationalization, and measurement; and attempts to provide a synthesis and recommendations for future research. A summary and critique of measures used to assess coercive control in IPV is provided. At least three facets of coercive control are identified: 1) intentionality or goal orientation in the abuser (versus motivation), 2) a negative perception of the controlling behavior by the victim, and 3) the ability of the abuser to obtain control through the deployment of a credible threat. Measurement challenges and opportunities posed by such a multifaceted definition are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T06:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
  • A systematic review of the current knowledge regarding revenge pornography
           and non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media
    • Authors: Kate Walker; Emma Sleath
      Pages: 9 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kate Walker, Emma Sleath
      The aim of this review was to synthesize the current literature regarding revenge pornography and the non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media. A systematic search was made of five databases using relevant search terms. From these searches, 82 articles were retained for inclusion within the systematic review. The literature spanned areas of research including legal, theory, as well as psychology related empirical papers. The findings show that particularly in the U.S., but in other countries as well, there are significant concerns regarding the implementation of revenge pornography legislation, despite this being recognized as an important endeavor. Non-consensual sharing perpetration and victimization rates can vary considerably according to how the behavior is defined and measured, however, these behaviors were evident for a considerable number of individuals across both genders.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2017)
  • Sexual minorities in conflict zones: A review of the literature
    • Authors: Melinda W. Moore; John R. Barner
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Melinda W. Moore, John R. Barner
      In civil and ethnic conflict, sexual minorities experience a heightened risk for war crimes such as sexual violence, torture, and death. As a result, sexual minorities remain an invisible population in armed conflict out of a need for safety. Further study of sexual minorities in conflict zones confronts matters of human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war. This article reviews the existing research on sexual minorities in conflict zones, examines the findings on human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war and violence on sexual minority populations, and reviews the barriers to effectiveness faced by intervention programs developed specifically to aid post-conflict societies. The article concludes with a summary of findings within the literature and further considerations for research on aggression and violent behavior with sexual minority groups in conflict zones.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • The scope of male rape: A selective review of research, policy and
    • Authors: Michelle Lowe; Paul Rogers
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Michelle Lowe, Paul Rogers
      Much work has been undertaken to publicize the plight of female rape survivors, but until recent years the rape and sexual assault of adult males received little research or public attention. The aim of this paper is to selectively review the literature on male survivors of sexual violence highlighting, where relevant, timely implications for policy and practice. First, changes in UK legislation relating to male rape are discussed, with cross-national comparisons made against United States, Australian and Canadian statute to overview developing definitions and legal good practice. Second, prevalence issues relating to the under-reporting and long-term consequences of male sexual victimization are outlined. Third, the current dearth of UK service provision for male rape survivors is reported. Finally, literature on how male rape myth acceptance, victim blaming and homophobia relate to the secondary victimization of male survivors is considered. Suggestions for continued research in this developing area of work are made.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • Victimization in light of self-compassion: Development towards communal
    • Authors: Moshe Bensimon
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Moshe Bensimon
      The discipline of victimology emerged and continues to develop in response to the need to analyze the phenomenology of victims of crime. In the last decade, a new trend, positive victimology, has emerged; it emphasizes the role of “positive components” in efforts to promote the rehabilitation and recovery of victims. This perspective stresses the role of society and community in acceptance, encouragement, faith, forgiveness, goodness, gratitude, and compassion towards victims. One positive healing concept that has recently been found valuable for victims' well-being is that of self-compassion. The aim of the current paper was to explore the theory of self-compassion, which was first presented by Kristin D. Neff (2003a), as it applies to the lived experience of victimization. A comprehensive review of literature indicated the presence of uncompassionate responses as central in the lived experience of victims. These components include: (a) self-judgment and self-blame; (b) loneliness and alienation; and (c) over-identification and experiential avoidance. Seeing victimization from this perspective can deepen the understanding of victims' needs to increase compassionate and reduce uncompassionate responding. The present exploration also revealed the need, in the case of victimization, to adopt the notion of communal compassion, which expands the focus from self-compassion to compassion in the community.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • Causes and cures XV: Synthesis and integration
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past several years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with renewed attention on the part of many international agencies, but especially the United Nations, with its adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The latter invites the world community to collaborate in an inclusive, long-ranging vision for the future, highlighting our interdependence and collective responsibility for humanity's future. A growing awareness that preventing violence does not just reduce death and disability but promotes creativity, economic growth, and general well-being is at the heart of this “movement”. In the quest for a better understanding of human violence, interest in the issue has swept through multiple fields. An integration of the major disciplines and practical approaches is therefore timely, and for this to occur, we require a broader overview than just the view from within boundaries of existing domains. In this context, this fifteen article series modeled after a Global Health Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” has reviewed the causes, consequences, and cures of the problem of violence. While knowledge has brought recognition of the magnitude and pervasiveness of violence, it has also generated insight into the much greater power that humanity possesses. At a time when we are reaching a decisive juncture in human history, with military and economic faculties achieving the ability to destroy our world many times over, we also face the urgent and sober task of integrating all our intellect and insight to best confront this enormous challenge called violence.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T11:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
  • Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression: The quest for a
           common underlying mechanism
    • Authors: Carlo Garofalo; Aidan G.C. Wright
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Carlo Garofalo, Aidan G.C. Wright
      Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse prognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression. After reviewing the relevant literature on alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and related aggression, we propose that their association could be better understood by acknowledging common underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, we outline different potential avenues that can explain their association. In particular, we focus on impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as possible triggers of alcohol abuse and personality disorders, ultimately leading to self-harm and interpersonal violence. Also, the critical role of contextual influences in exacerbating both subjective and interpersonal dysfunctions is considered. Finally, we argue that emotion dysregulation and impulsivity could serve as useful intervention targets to treat clients with personality disorders and alcohol abuse who engage in aggressive behavior, by tackling these mechanisms underlying their complex pathology. Relevant implications for both clinical and research purposes are also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • The pursuit of homeostasis: Closing the gap between science and practice
           in the treatment of aggression and violence
    • Authors: Kellie Rhodes; Aisland Rhodes
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Kellie Rhodes, Aisland Rhodes
      Youth who demonstrate aggression, violence, and behaviors associated with a diagnosis of conduct disorder have comprised a large population of secure youth corrections for decades. Ameliorative treatment strategies have thus far fallen short. Contemporary neuroscience reveals youths' emotions and behaviors may be limbic adaptations to homeostatic demands. We review interdisciplinary research suggesting a resource-rich environment and strategically shared body-states might be therapeutically implemented to effect adjustments in youth's emotions and behaviors. Thus, a limbically informed treatment modality, invites innovative treatment technology to address youth aggression, violence and behaviors associated with conduct disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T21:31:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • A systematic review of coping among heterosexual female IPV survivors in
           the United States with a focus on the conceptualization and measurement of
    • Authors: Cynthia Fraga Rizo; Ashley Givens; Brianna Lombardi
      Pages: 35 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Ashley Givens, Brianna Lombardi
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant stressor associated with numerous negative consequences. Many IPV researchers have sought to understand survivors' experiences and to identify malleable factors that can enhance survivor well-being by focusing on survivors' coping efforts. To develop a better understanding of how coping has been conceptualized and measured in the context of U.S.-based research with heterosexual female IPV survivors, we conducted a systematic review of 48 research articles examining IPV and coping among this population. Additionally, the review assesses the state of this literature in terms of methodological strengths and limitations as well as what is known about these survivors' coping efforts. Review findings suggest that coping is a complex construct that has been conceptualized and measured in diverse ways. Findings also demonstrate that heterosexual, female survivors engage in various coping strategies and help-seeking behaviors, and some effort has been made to examine: (a) the relationship between coping and mental health, (b) the relationship between coping and other constructs (e.g., decision to leave an abusive partner, revictimization), and (c) differences in coping across diverse groups of survivors. Recommendations for future research are offered in light of review findings.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
  • Traumatic brain injury and aggression: A systematic review and future
           directions using community samples
    • Authors: Lisa Buckley; Sherrie-Anne Kaye; Ryan P. Stork; Justin E. Heinze; James T. Eckner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Lisa Buckley, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ryan P. Stork, Justin E. Heinze, James T. Eckner
      Aggression is widespread and a significant community burden, with violence-related injury deaths representing a significant public health problem. We explore aggression relative to a possible associated factor, traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our focus is on a less well studied population, those recruited through the community who may not have had hospital care or contact with the criminal justice system (e.g. were recruited in schools). This study provides a critical review of the potential relationship between aggression and traumatic brain injury. We undertook a systematic search of published literature of studies recruited through the community and found seven studies examining aggression and TBI. All studies identified a relationship between reports of TBI and aggression, however only two studies were longitudinal in design. The study focuses on the limitations of the current body of research, including in definitions of constructs, the need to understand mediating and moderating factors, and improvements needed in the overall research design of studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.004
  • The effect of academic achievement on aggression and violent behavior: A
    • Authors: Joanne Savage; Christopher J. Ferguson; Lesli Flores
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Joanne Savage, Christopher J. Ferguson, Lesli Flores

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.002
  • Trends and patterns of Boko Haram terrorist and militants' aggression in
    • Authors: Gilbert Enyidah-Okey Ordu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Gilbert Enyidah-Okey Ordu
      This study explores the trends and pattern of Islamic Boko Haram and Niger Delta militancy in Nigeria. The core of the problem was articulate in order to grapple with the complexities of this social problem. The study employed ex post facto research design and generated its data using secondary sources—the data were descriptively analysed. Boko Haram and militant groups have taken up arms against the State [Nigeria] and its defencible and defenceless citizens, resulting from frustration and social discontentment. They have been involved in series of kidnappings, destructions and killings, as predicted by the basic assumptions of our theoretical framework, frustration-aggression theory, which is empirically evidenced in the findings of this study. While Boko Haram engaged the State and members of the public in fierce attacks in the Northern Nigeria, the militants have mounted a deadly combat against the Nigerian government and expatriates, including their infrastructure and basic amenities in the Southern part of the country. The study recommends a total overhauling of the present frustration-ridden social structure and political economy of Nigeria, as well as timely implementation of proactive youth empowerment programmes and forward-looking social, political and economic policies will assist greatly in ameliorating the problem.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.006
  • A critique of the revised conflict tactics scales-2 (CTS-2)
    • Authors: Richard Toby Jones; Shihning Chou; Kevin Browne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Richard Toby Jones, Shihning Chou, Kevin Browne
      The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the Conflict Tactics Scales-2, a measure used worldwide for research and clinical practices. The reliability, validity and normative samples of the CTS-2 are considered and compared with similar psychometric measures. The limitations of the original CTS have been discussed alongside the CTS-2. Reliability is considered to be good to excellent by alpha coefficient and the variance explained by differing samples or methods of administration. Caution is recommended when interpreting the CTS-2 in clinical settings. Researchers point toward a five-factor structure to the CTS-2. The importance of appropriate norms is discussed and considered crucial when using the tool in settings where reporting patterns may differ. Difficulties in comparing CTS-2 scores across samples, cultures and countries are highlighted. Overall, the CTS-2 is a robust psychometric measure, although it holds limited clinical utility if it is used separately from other sources of information gathering (i.e. psychometric measures or interview). In order to enhance clinical utility, it should be administered alongside measures or clinical interviews that can provide added context regarding violence in the family. More research is required in diverse population samples, cultures/countries and languages.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T06:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.005
  • The inter-rater reliability of observing aggression: A systematic
           literature review
    • Authors: Kore G. Lampe; Eva A. Mulder; Olivier F. Colins; Robert R.J.M. Vermeiren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kore G. Lampe, Eva A. Mulder, Olivier F. Colins, Robert R.J.M. Vermeiren
      Introduction Both clinicians and researchers value observation as an important source of diagnostic information, especially in forensic, mental health and school settings. However, it is not well-known how reliable information collected by means of observation is. Methods The present study aimed to systematically review the literature on the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of observation of aggression and impulsivity. Results A total of 37 papers on the observation of aggression that provided information about the IRR was selected and reviewed. Forms of observation ranged from videotaped observation in a lab to participant observation in a naturalistic setting (e.g. with an observer taking part in the situation). Relatively few studies focused on observation of aggression in naturalistic settings. For various reasons, no papers on the observation of impulsivity could be included. Regardless of differences in forms and settings, the IRR of observing aggression was fair to excellent. Conclusion Different forms of observation (e.g. non-participant, direct) taking place in different settings (e.g. naturalistic or lab) can be executed reliably. This finding is encouraging for clinicians who want to make use of systematic observations in naturalistic settings. However, the relatively sparse research on these naturalistic observations underscores the need for research on the topic.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T11:27:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.001
  • Looking for the origins of anorexia nervosa in adolescence - A new
           treatment approach
    • Authors: S. Matt Lacoste
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): S. Matt Lacoste
      Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder, which affects particularly adolescents. The media coverage of feminine thinness is demonstrated as a token of beauty, with diet as a tool to achieve this. However, diets are not enough to explain the numerous cases. This disease is the symptom of a psychological disorder and looking for the origin must coincide with psychotherapeutic treatment. Multifactorial explanations seem dominate within our female patients. For most female patients, family problems and past experience with sexual assault explain this transition to anorexia. It is demonstrated throughout this paper how and why anorexia nervosa is used as a tool for identification and personalization in the assumption of autonomy and independence, and how and why anorexia becomes a defensive response to aggression. We give a clinical confirmation of the diverse origins of anorexia nervosa and of the impact of sexual abuse. This paper proposes a new therapeutic approach to patients with anorexia nervosa, in which the eating disorder is a symptom of an emotional disorder, often triggered by sexual assault or emotional deprivation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T12:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.006
  • Empathy deficits and adolescent sexual offending: A systematic review of
           the evidence base
    • Authors: Andrew Baly; Stephen Butler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Andrew Baly, Stephen Butler
      Although empathy deficits are commonly assumed to contribute to adolescent sex offending, no systematic review of the evidence base has been undertaken. To rectify this omission, this review examines whether current evidence supports the existence of a relationship between empathy and adolescent sexual offending. A systematic search of the evidence base found sixteen relevant empirical studies, which provided evidence that was inconclusive or subject to methodological limitations. The review suggests that further systematic and methodologically-sound research is required to determine the extent and nature of the relationship between empathy and adolescent sex offending, that any relationship between the two is unlikely to be straightforward, and that explanations of the mechanisms involved should be integrated into wider multifactorial explanations for this behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T12:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.007
  • A comprehensive neuroimaging review of PCL-R defined psychopathy
    • Authors: Stephanie Y. Griffiths; Jarkko V. Jalava
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Stephanie Y. Griffiths, Jarkko V. Jalava
      Neurobiological theories of psychopathy typically include abnormalities in paralimbic circuits, and a neurobiological profile of paralimbic dysfunction in increasingly invoked in applied legal settings. The current study systematically evaluated whether sMRI and fMRI findings in PCL-R defined psychopaths suggest paralimbic dysfunction. Our review indicates diffuse and variable neural correlates of psychopathy, with numerous issues complicating the interpretation of these heterogeneous data. Our review also extends previous discussions concerning how this heterogeneity may be related to sample characteristics, methodological variations, and statistical analyses. To elucidate the neural correlates of psychopathy, researchers may need to clarify the relationship between psychopathy and co-occurring conditions (such as substance use disorders) both conceptually and methodologically. Our review also indicates that caution is warranted when introducing these data in applied contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T11:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.002
  • What is the evidence' Preventing psychological violence in the
    • Authors: Emily Schindeler; Danielle M. Reynald
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Emily Schindeler, Danielle M. Reynald
      Although criminology has actively engaged with psychological violence in the context of domestic violence and child abuse, it has been slower coming to the fore when it comes to such violence in the workplace. This is despite the well-documented human, organisational, community and service costs associated with such victimisation. As demonstrated in this review, the bulk of strategies that have been trialled to date has been devised from psychology, management and organisational development perspectives. However, there is a paucity of evidence that any of the interventions that are widely promoted have been subjected to robust evaluations or provided evidence of any long-term reduction in the incidence of violence as a consequence of such interventions. Acknowledging there no easy single recipe, it is timely to consider the potential of alternative approaches including the application of guardianship and related principles from the routine activity approach, which are well-established strategies for prevention of victimisation in a range of contexts as set out in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.004
  • So you want to study bullying' Recommendations to enhance the
           validity, transparency, and compatibility of bullying research
    • Authors: Anthony A. Volk; René Veenstra; Dorothy L. Espelage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anthony A. Volk, René Veenstra, Dorothy L. Espelage
      Bullying is a serious problem that affects millions of individuals worldwide each year. In response to this, thousands of research articles have been published on bullying. Unfortunately, much of bullying research remains largely atheoretical in its approach to defining bullying as a unique form of aggression. Another key problem in bullying research is the proliferation of heterogeneity of bullying measures whose validity is sometimes questionable. Combined, these two problems have made progress difficult as comparisons between studies and results are impeded by a lack of commonality. As a solution to these problems a discussion of the issues surrounding defining and measuring bullying is offered. This paper aims to promote thoughts and insights about the critical issues and concepts facing those who seek to define and measure bullying for research, intervention, or policy work. Although suggestions for best practices are offered, the overriding goal is to promote all practices that enhance the validity, transparency, and compatibility of bullying research. The time seems right for a general call to action for researchers to individually produce data that are both theoretically and empirically more communicable to the broader bullying community.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.003
  • Overt attacks and covert thoughts
    • Authors: Giti Zahedzadeh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Giti Zahedzadeh
      The process in which an individual moves from radical opinion to violent action is of immense interest to law enforcement and counterterrorism agencies. A deep understanding of these processes could help in the complex pursuit to thwart terrorism. Our goal is to gain insight into the thought processes of a lone wolf terrorist prior to an event. Herein, we consider the case of the Army psychiatrist Major Nidal Malik Hasan. Utilizing a novel web-based text analysis environment that helps visualize the distribution of words within a single text corpus, we analyze Hasan's presentation at Walter Reed Medical Center in 2007 and his secret messages to Anwar al-Awlaki in 2009. We show that the analysis of the content of Hasan's speech and his correspondence can reveal his intention and motivation. The use of a case analysis of Nidal Hasan is unique, in that he was directly corresponding with a senior member of al-Qaeda, while he was an active duty Army officer. Thus, this paper contributes to our understanding of intent and thought patterns of some lone wolf terrorists.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.009
  • Social climate in forensic mental health settings: A systematic review of
           qualitative studies
    • Authors: Patrick Doyle; Ethel Quayle; Emily Newman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Patrick Doyle, Ethel Quayle, Emily Newman
      Social climate is a commonly evaluated aspect of inpatient forensic mental health settings. However, there is little clarity in the literature on the components of social climate. To identify these components, qualitative studies of staff and patient experiences of social climate were systematically reviewed using best fit framework synthesis. An a priori framework was developed based on nine existing models of social climate. A systematic search identified twenty studies of sufficient quality to be included in the review. These studies included staff and patient perspectives across all levels of inpatient forensic settings. In all twenty-two themes were identified in the review papers. From these themes, a model of social climate was developed. Seven factors were identified as part of the social climate, including the therapeutic relationship, care and treatment orientation, the secure base and four aspects of the ward environment. The findings indicate that common measures of social climate may not fully represent the construct. Themes related to the patient group, the staff group, the physical environment and system level factors were identified as influencing social climate. The model described allows for consideration of interventions to positively influence social climate.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.008
  • Developmental pathways to serial homicide: A critical review of the
           biological literature
    • Authors: Sasha Reid
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Sasha Reid
      This paper offers a historically grounded review of several biologically based developmental theories for serial homicide. Beginning with a discussion that outlines nineteenth-century etiological theories, this article guides its reader through a series of intellectual and scientific developments – all of which have contributed to our current understanding of the etiology of serial homicide. Embedded within this review is a critical examination of how social, methodological, and other such limitations have stalled and prevented the development of a meaningful etiological account for serial homicide. This author offers some direction to help researchers overcome these limitations, and suggests three additional lines of inquiry that may help to illuminate biologically-based developmental trajectories. This paper concludes by reinforcing the need for a transdisciplinary approach when studying violence risk and prevention within this population specifically.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.003
  • Parenting in a digital age: A review of parents' role in preventing
           adolescent cyberbullying
    • Authors: Caitlin Elsaesser; Beth Russell; Christine McCauley Ohannessian; Desmond Patton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Caitlin Elsaesser, Beth Russell, Christine McCauley Ohannessian, Desmond Patton
      While parents have a critical influence on reducing adolescent risk taking, adolescents' access to online spaces presents significant and novel challenges to parents' ability to reduce their youth's involvement in cyberbullying. The present study reviews the existing literature on parents' influence (i.e., parental warmth and parental monitoring) on adolescent cyberbullying, both as victims and perpetrators. 23 mostly cross sectional articles were identified for this review. Findings indicate that parental warmth is consistently associated with lower cyberbullying, both as victims and perpetrators. For parental monitoring, strategies that are focused on parental control, such as restricting the Internet, appear to be only weakly related to youth's involvement in cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. In contrast, strategies that are more collaborative with in nature (e.g., evaluative mediation and co-use) are more closely connected to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, although evidence suggests that the effectiveness of these practices varies by sex and ethnicity. Results underscore the need for parents to provide emotional warmth that might support adolescent's disclosure of online activity. Implications for practice and future research are reviewed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.004
  • Examining offender, victim and offence characteristics in cases of
           stranger child abduction: An exploratory comparison of attempted and
           completed cases using publicly available data from the UK
    • Authors: Craig John Robert Collie; Karen Shalev Greene
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Craig John Robert Collie, Karen Shalev Greene
      The article examines the demographic features of victims and offenders involved in cases of stranger child abduction in the UK, performing a quantitative, secondary data analysis of a sample of 78 offences that have received a conviction in the UK since 1988. Information was gathered via a study of media and legal databases. The profiles of attempted and completed cases of stranger child abduction are compared to ascertain the relationship between case characteristics and offence outcome. Findings indicated that while females victims are targeted more frequently overall, male victims are at greater risk of being abducted successfully by strangers. Females are more likely to be approached by non-specialist offenders, whereas male victims are more likely to be targeted by chronic child sex offenders. Victims aged 10 were found to be at risk of being victimized successfully, while attempted victimization was even across all victim age groups. Finally, older offenders were found to be more persistent, with younger offenders discontinuing their offence earlier in the behavioural sequence. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations for future research made. The continued analysis of abduction offences utilizing the attempted-completed distinction is also strongly encouraged and endorsed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.005
  • Is Chappell and Di Martino's interactive model of workplace violence
           valid? An article analysing workplace violence towards healthcare
           professionals in Spain
    • Authors: Cristina Vidal-Martí; Carlos Pérez Testor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Cristina Vidal-Martí, Carlos Pérez Testor
      Workplace violence is a phenomenon affecting healthcare professionals. One of its explanatory models is Chappell and Di Martino's interactive model (2006). These authors assert that workplace violence occurs due to the interaction of multiple risk factors and according to these scholars the greater the knowledge of the phenomenon, the greater the likelihood that it can be prevented and, therefore, its incidence diminished. The aim of this article is to analyse the studies on aggression towards healthcare professionals in Spain based on this interactive model and to corroborate whether this model helps explain the phenomenon of workplace violence in Spanish healthcare professionals. For the purpose of this study, 28 studies on workplace violence affecting healthcare professionals were analysed. The obtained results we later compared to Chappel and Di Martino interactive model. The results are not conclusive: they reveal the need to keep studying the phenomenon and to analyse variables related to the model more precisely.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.006
  • You see but you do not observe: A review of bystander intervention and
           sexual assault on university campuses
    • Authors: Danielle Labhardt; Emma Holdsworth; Sarah Brown; Douglas Howat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Danielle Labhardt, Emma Holdsworth, Sarah Brown, Douglas Howat
      Sexual assault on university campuses has garnered increased attention in recent years. A systematic review was conducted to identify the factors associated with bystander intervention regarding sexual assault on university campuses. Currently, no published systematic reviews exist within this area. Twenty-eight studies were reviewed according to four major bystander factors: rape myth and date rape attitudes; bystander efficacy; bystander intent; and bystander behavior. There was a heavy emphasis on bystander intent and behavior throughout. Three important limitations were identified: (1) all empirical research has been conducted in the USA, yet bystander intervention programs exist outside of the USA, in countries such as the UK, (2) a majority of the studies employed quantitative methodologies and so failed to capture important details such as bystanders' perceptions of sexual assault or what other factors influence the likelihood of intervening, and (3) there were limited attempts to control for factors such as social desirability. This area of research is still in its infancy. Future research should examine in greater detail the factors inhibiting and facilitating bystander intervention. Finally, research outside of the USA is important in developing the literature in this area to effectively inform bystander intervention programs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.005
  • The prevalence of sexual aggression in Turkey: A systematic review
    • Authors: Isabell Schuster; Barbara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Isabell Schuster, Barbara Krahé
      Although sexual aggression is recognized as a serious problem worldwide, evidence on the prevalence and impact of sexual aggression is based predominantly on studies from Western countries with a Christian or non-religious majority. Little evidence is available from non-Western countries, especially from Muslim societies. The purpose of the present article was to provide a first systematic review of the studies examining the prevalence of sexual aggression in Turkey, including both victimization and perpetration reports from women and men. Additionally, differences in prevalence rates depending on relationship constellations and characteristics of victims and perpetrators were reviewed. By a two-stage literature search, 56 studies were identified for inclusion. All studies examined sexual aggression victimization of women, only four studies included sexual victimization of men. Data on sexual aggression perpetration were extremely limited, with only two studies providing prevalence rates. Prevalence rates of sexual victimization were found to vary greatly, which may be attributed to a lack of methodological and conceptual consistency across studies. Likewise, no consistent picture was revealed for victims' or perpetrators' sociodemographic or situational characteristics associated with differences in prevalence rates. We discuss reasons for the variability in prevalence rates and outline recommendations for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T06:59:58Z
  • Causes and cures XIV: Nonviolence approaches
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past several years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with renewed attention on the part of many international agencies, but especially the United Nations, with its adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The latter invites the world community to collaborate in an inclusive, long-ranging vision for the future, highlighting our interdependence and collective responsibility for humanity's future. A growing awareness that preventing violence does not just reduce death and disability but promotes creativity, economic growth, and general well-being is at the heart of this “movement”. An integration not only of the major disciplines but of various practical approaches is timely, and for this to occur, we require a broader overview of our existing societal structures. In this context, this fifteen article series modeled after a Global Health Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” reviews the mechanisms that society has used in an attempt to stem violence. Continuing the transition from the “law and order” to the health model, this article examines the power of nonviolence. Contrary to current assumptions, far from being passive or ineffective, nonviolent methods have demonstrated to bring down empires, to topple regimes, and to effectuate long-lasting peace—at greater frequency than violent means. Starting with the personal level, and drawing upon the various spiritual traditions, nonviolence may cover the depths that are necessary for countering our complex tendency for violence. Nonviolence gives us the lesson that peace is possible, not just through stemming destructive forces, but by fostering constructive ones.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T18:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.002
  • Aggressive scripts, violent fantasy and violent behavior: A conceptual
           clarification and review
    • Authors: Flora Gilbert; Michael Daffern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Flora Gilbert, Michael Daffern
      Aggressive scripts are stereotyped aggression-related event sequences typically acquired in early childhood, encoded in memory, rehearsed and elaborated, and then retrieved to guide aggressive behavior. In studies using non clinical and non offender populations, aggressive script rehearsal is commonly reported. Extant research suggests a tendency for aggressive script rehearsal to be activated by perceived personal affronts and constitutes imagined attempts to rebuke wrongdoing by others. Aggressive script rehearsal serves to prepare or rehearse intended acts or stimulate, maintain or regulate emotional or physiological arousal. Despite obvious relevance to violent offender assessment and treatment, research into aggressive script rehearsal is scarce and related terms such as violent fantasy are used interchangeably to describe comparable cognitive processes. Measures designed to assess aggressive scripts and violent fantasy are confounded. Further, few attempts have been made to define and differentiate the terms and there has been little progress in developing treatment procedures addressing these cognitive processes. The current review explores how aggressive scripts and violent fantasy are conceptualised with respect to their key characteristics and proposed acquisition processes and functions, noting commonalities and differences. Their relationship to violent behavior is described. Drawing on knowledge in related areas, including fantasy is likely to assist with the development of insight into the operation and function of aggressive scripts and their relationship to aggressive behavior, with implications for clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.001
  • Potential underpinnings for community maintenance programs for sexual
    • Authors: Carollyne Youssef; Sharon Casey; Astrid Birgden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Carollyne Youssef, Sharon Casey, Astrid Birgden
      The majority of incarcerated sexual offenders will one-day return to the community. While a great proportion are likely to have participated in a custodial offence-specific treatment program, knowing what happens to this ‘acquired’ knowledge and skill once they are released and how this influences the desistance process remains unclear. Research on offender rehabilitation often focuses on the efficacy of custodial treatment interventions for offenders, while studies examining post-release programs for offenders has some untapped potential. Further to this, an understanding of the theoretical underpinnings for any community maintenance-type programs for offenders remains relatively untouched in the offender rehabilitation literature. Thus, this paper attempts to explore some of the potential theoretical underpinnings for community maintenance programs for sexual offenders. Consideration will be given to the definition of such programs, some of the theories that may inform these programs, and the incorporation of desistance theory into maintenance programs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.002
  • Instruments for evaluating pharmacotherapy intervention efficacy in
           violent and aggressive behavior and conduct disorder in youth
    • Authors: Jessica L. Hambly; Sohil Khan; Brett McDermott; William Bor; Alison Haywood
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Jessica L. Hambly, Sohil Khan, Brett McDermott, William Bor, Alison Haywood
      There is a need to identify the most appropriate standardized instruments for research evaluating pharmacotherapy for youth with violent and aggressive behaviors. Youth violence and aggression are heterogeneous behaviors which differ depending on age and gender. Instruments used in randomised controlled trials evaluating efficacy of pharmacotherapy in conduct disorder and its comorbidities were reviewed for psychometric, administrative and practicality evidence. Evidence was rated on a 3-point scale, adapted from the Scientific Advisory Committee's Instrument Review Criteria. Of the nine included instruments, the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF), Conners' 3rd Edition, and Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01) were rated the highest for their psychometric properties. The Children's Aggression Scale (CAS), Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale (DBDRS) were rated moderate, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale (SNAP-IV) were rated lowest. The NCBRF, BPI-01 and CAS were the only instruments that could be used to measure both frequency and severity of aggressive behaviors. The CAS and MOAS featured the most items pertaining to violence and aggression. The broad-band scales, the NCBRF and Conners' 3rd Edition, rated highest for their psychometric properties, however their usefulness in youth violence and aggression research is limited. The heterogeneity of aggressive and violent behaviors, age, gender, functional level, situational context and the type of informant should be taken into account when considering an appropriate instrument. All items in the CAS and the MOAS can be used to measure violent and/or aggressive behaviors. Further research into the psychometric properties of the MOAS in violent and aggressive youth is required before its use can be recommended. The CAS was found to be the most psychometrically sound and useful instrument that exclusively measures aggressive behaviors in youth.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T16:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.004
  • Situational prevention of domestic violence: A review of security-based
    • Authors: Tim Prenzler; Lauren Fardell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Tim Prenzler, Lauren Fardell
      This paper assesses the effectiveness of security-based programs to reduce repeat domestic violence. A systematic search was conducted of the scientific literature, as well as an electronic newspaper database and the Internet, for published reports of domestic violence prevention programs involving security applications. The study was unable to identify cases with full experimental designs showing clear evidence of positive effects. However, five types of applications were identified with promising evidence of reduced violence – Offender GPS tracking, shelter security, home security, personal duress alarms, and combined home security and duress alarms. Within this framework the study identified six specific programs showing evidence of success. An emerging potential model of good practice – which requires further empirical investigation – involves the deployment of home security and mobile duress alarms within a coordinated program of professional support for clients.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T16:30:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.003
  • Sexual offenders, violent offenders, and community reentry: Challenges and
           treatment considerations
    • Authors: Laura M. Grossi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Laura M. Grossi
      Sexual offenders and violent offenders compose two diverse subgroups of the United States' offender population, and individuals in these groups face unique challenges with respect to reentry and reintegration into the community upon release from controlled settings. Successful reintegration is typically defined by a lack of recidivism; however, an offender's quality of life may also be considered a critical consideration when defining success. Of the major challenges faced by sexual offenders and violent offenders, social stigma and barriers to housing and employment are among the most notable. These factors are often interrelated, such that difficulty in one domain may contribute to difficulties in other domains. As public perception of such offenders is largely driven by the media, stereotypes, and public policy, and less by research, offenders also face distinctive social barriers to successful community reentry and reintegration. Moreover, there is limited support for established policies and programs intended to maximize a violent/sexual offender's reentry success, in part due to the low base rate of reoffense. The present study reviews the literature examining factors associated with successful and unsuccessful community reintegration for sexual offenders and violent offenders released from controlled settings. Treatment of sexual offenders and violent offenders, and community-based support programs designed to facilitate reentry and reintegration, are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T16:30:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.005
  • From “real rape” to real justice: A systematic review of police
           officers' rape myth beliefs
    • Authors: Kayleigh A. Parratt; Afroditi Pina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kayleigh A. Parratt, Afroditi Pina
      This systematic review examined 18 documents that contained information about rape myths/cognitions of police officers with the goal of identifying the factors that influence police officers' beliefs of rape. Past research on sexual offence processing decisions has rarely considered the characteristics of police officers as active participants in the legal decision making process (Alderden & Ullman, 2012); meaning that the factors that directly influence police officers' rape myths and the implications these may have on rape victims' experiences when reporting to the police remain unclear. The current review systematically examines the literature on police officers' rape myth beliefs, and evaluates the current available research regarding, decision-making, victim credibility, police training and experiences, and police gender. It concludes by providing recommendations for policy makers in terms of best practice, continual police training and development and improving rape victims' reporting experiences.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.005
  • Rape myth acceptance in convicted rapists: A systematic review of the
    • Authors: Larissa Gabrielle Johnson; Anthony Beech
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Larissa Gabrielle Johnson, Anthony Beech
      Aim The review examines studies on rape myth acceptance (RMA) within populations of convicted sexual offenders, changes in RMA due to interventions, comparisons between sexual offenders and community controls, comparisons within the offending population, and relationships between RMA and other psychological constructs linked to criminogenic need. Method The search employed electronic databases, OvidSP, Web of Science, and Proquest; hand searching reference lists; and contacting 35 experts in the field. Inclusion/exclusion and quality appraisal criteria were applied to each study. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results highlighted differences in subgroups of rapists for different aspects of RMA; while rapists can be distinguished from non-offenders and non-sexual offenders on measures of RMA, they cannot be significantly discriminated from child molesters; rapists and sexual murders cannot be distinguished using RMA scores; RMA was not found to be a significant predictor of sexual or violence recidivism; and significant positive change in RMA was reported after sex offenders completed treatment programs. Conclusions Differences in scores on RMA subscales amongst rapists' typologies were discovered, which may indicate differences in beliefs within each type. Implications for practice are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.004
  • Reducing aggression with martial arts: A meta-analysis of child and youth
    • Authors: Anna Harwood; Michal Lavidor; Yuri Rassovsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anna Harwood, Michal Lavidor, Yuri Rassovsky
      Martial arts are becoming a mainstream sport for energetic youth and their popularity extends globally. Following a comprehensive search of martial arts research, a critical review of the field and the psychological implications was conducted. The resulting meta-analysis examined the effect of martial arts on problematic externalizing behavior (aggression, anger, and violence). The final meta-analysis included twelve studies, with 507 participants (ages 6 to 18), where study type was a moderator. For nine intervention and longitudinal studies, there was a homogenous effect size of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.03) indicating a medium effect, where martial arts improved aggression amongst the practicing youth. The other three one-time comparisons studies did not yield a homogenous effect size. Based on these analyses, it appears that martial arts has a potential to reduce externalizing behaviors in youth, although further research is needed to determine the mechanisms of change and specify the most relevant population groups for targeted interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T07:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.001
  • Gun violence and substance abuse
    • Authors: Gina Banks; Kyla Hadenfeldt; Madeline Janoch; Carol Manning; Karen Ramos; David A. Patterson Silver Wolf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Gina Banks, Kyla Hadenfeldt, Madeline Janoch, Carol Manning, Karen Ramos, David A. Patterson Silver Wolf
      Gun violence and substance abuse are prevalent, widespread public health issues that have recently received a great deal of media and political attention. In order to better understand how these phenomena are linked, this paper aims to explore the relationship between the two. First, it will describe the phenomena of gun violence and substance abuse individually. Next, this paper will detail the intersection of gun violence and substance abuse, including shared antecedents, the effect of intoxication on gun violence, and the effect of criminalization of drug use on gun violence. Finally, it will address treatment and policy recommendations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.002
  • A note on workplace psychopathic bullying – Measuring its frequency
           and severity
    • Authors: Clive Boddy; Ross Taplin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Clive Boddy, Ross Taplin
      In this short paper we discuss methods of measurement for investigating bullying under workplace psychopaths. We find that past estimates of bullying under workplace psychopaths may be too low due to the use of inadequate scales. We conclude that the use of actual numerical values is preferential for measuring psychopathic bullying due to the highly skewed nature of the results. Further, non-numerical measures of the severity of bullying may also need to adopt extreme end point descriptors in order to capture the severe violence of the threats that may be made by a psychopathic manager.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T15:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.001
  • Studying partner violence to understand gender motivations - or
    • Authors: Zeev Winstok; Michael Weinberg; Ronit Smadar-Dror
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Zeev Winstok, Michael Weinberg, Ronit Smadar-Dror
      This article critically reviews the literature on gender differences in intimate partner violence. The review reveals that many researchers view partner violence as an opportunity to learn about gender. This approach is examined and its limitations are pointed out. A reverse approach is proposed which views the study of gender as an opportunity to learn about partner violence. This alternative approach identifies gender motives in general and moves on to explore the expressions of these motives in violent and non-violent intimate relationships. Theoretical and practical implications for this alternative approach are suggested. An important implication is the moderating effect of the proposed approach on the ongoing controversy over the role of gender in partner violence.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.022
  • The unique needs of pregnant, violence-exposed women: A systematic review
           of current interventions and directions for translational research
    • Authors: Kathryn H. Howell; Laura E. Miller-Graff; Amanda J. Hasselle; Kathryn E. Scrafford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kathryn H. Howell, Laura E. Miller-Graff, Amanda J. Hasselle, Kathryn E. Scrafford
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is, unfortunately, a common lifetime experience for women, with heightened risk of exposure during pregnancy. IPV exposure in pregnancy is associated with serious physical and mental health problems in the perinatal period, as well as detrimental effects on the health and well-being of the developing infant. The objectives of the current review are to: (1) present representative literature on the effects of IPV in pregnancy, (2) conduct a systematic review of existing interventions for IPV-exposed pregnant women and (3) provide recommendations for future translational research in this area. The review indicated that despite the broad range of negative effects associated with IPV exposure during pregnancy, interventions are scarce and largely limited to crisis intervention approaches. Available interventions seeking to address broader or intergenerational effects of violence are limited in scope, and effectiveness data are preliminary in nature. As such, there is a great need for theory-based interventions that address women's complex needs, including specific developmental necessities of both the pregnant woman and her child (e.g., breastfeeding, early parenting, infant care). Incorporating these elements within a strengths-based paradigm may also decrease stigma related to IPV and facilitate empowerment and self-efficacy for this at-risk group.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.021
  • Evaluation of seclusion and restraint reduction programs in mental health:
           A systematic review
    • Authors: Marie-Hélène Goulet; Caroline Larue; Alexandre Dumais
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Marie-Hélène Goulet, Caroline Larue, Alexandre Dumais
      Context The effectiveness of seclusion and restraint (SR) reduction programs has not been well established. Objective To examine the effectiveness of SR reduction programs in mental health settings. Data sources A systematic review of English and French articles, using CINALH, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Additional studies were added by searching the references of identified papers. Study selection All evaluative studies on SR reduction programs in mental health were included based on predefined criteria (n =23 articles). Data extraction Data extraction of articles was performed using predefined data fields. The three authors conducted quality assessments independently. Data synthesis In the 23 articles analyzed, six key components were predominant in SR reduction programs: 1) leadership, 2) training, 3) post-seclusion and/or restraint review, 4) patient involvement, 5) prevention tools, and 6) the therapeutic environment. Conclusion Despite wide variability in SR indicators and methodological rigor, it remains that the outcomes argue in favor of SR reduction program implementation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.019
  • Emotion dysregulation as an underlying mechanism of impulsive aggression:
           Reviewing empirical data to inform treatments for veterans who perpetrate
    • Authors: Shannon R. Miles; Carla Sharp; Andra Teten Tharp; Matthew Stanford; Melinda Stanley; Karin E. Thompson; Thomas A. Kent
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Shannon R. Miles, Carla Sharp, Andra Teten Tharp, Matthew Stanford, Melinda Stanley, Karin E. Thompson, Thomas A. Kent
      Violence can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which in turn is related to perpetration of aggression. Importantly, not all aggression is motivated by the same mechanisms, and understanding the driving force behind the aggression is imperative in order to select treatments that will assist the individual in decreasing the behavior. PTSD is specifically related to impulsive aggression, or aggression that is emotionally charged and uncontrolled, rather than premeditated aggression, which is planned, unemotional, and goal-directed. Emotion regulation, or the ability to recognize emotions, accept them, and control emotion-related behaviors, is related to both PTSD and impulsive aggression. This conceptual paper uses the Catalyst Model to review the literature on PTSD, impulsive aggression, and emotion regulation. Because of their high rates of PTSD, veterans are presented as a demonstration of the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsive aggression. The integrative model can be viewed as an alternative to the traditional model that proposes anger is the primary underlying mechanism of impulsive aggression in adults. Treatment recommendations, such as helping clients develop emotion regulation skills, are offered for providers who are working with individuals who have experienced trauma and who are now perpetrating impulsive aggression.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.017
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016