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Aggression and Violent Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.238
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 441  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Moral domain as a risk and protective factor against bullying. An
           integrating perspective review on the complexity of morality
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): E.M. Romera, J.A. Casas, O. Gómez-Ortiz, R. Ortega-Ruiz Developmental psychology has paid special research attention to explain how certain moral-nature factors influence behavior. Most research on morality and bullying has focused on studying moral disengagement as a risk factor for peer aggression. However, neuroscience has revealed that morality is a complex phenomenon composed of several factors. Thus, it requires the usage of holistic explanatory models that study the complexity of the moral functioning. The purpose of this review is to explore —from an integrative perspective— the moral elements that influence the transgressive behavior that damages other people, and its relation to bullying, a clear example of unjustified and immoral aggressiveness. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of morality including moral sensitivity, reasoning, emotion, motivation and identity, and group norms, analyzing its protective role against bullying. The need for a comprehensive theoretical approach to morality understood as a complex construct is discussed, starting from the articulated analysis of all its dimensions. This work advances knowledge useful for the design of educational interventions aimed to prevent bullying, to stimulate the socially desirable and prosocial behavior, as well as to improve peer relationships.
  • The usefulness of psychopathy in explaining and predicting violence:
           Discussing the utility of competing perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Henriette Bergstrøm, Simon R. Larmour, David P. Farrington The current study is a review of the utility of psychopathy in violence risk assessment. Psychopathy has long been considered one of the most important factors when assessing the risk for future violence in forensic samples. Concerns about tautology have however indicated a need to critically assess the utility of psychopathy measures in risk assessment. We argue that the focus should be as much on the psychopathic personality in the explanation of violent behavior as on the psychopathic personality in the prediction of violent behavior. The main aim of this article is to contrast and discuss the utility of two different ways of conceptualizing and measuring the psychopathic personality, namely through the PCL scales and the CAPP. Existing evidence suggests that the CAPP and PCL are comparably strong predictors of violent behavior, but the CAPP is more dynamic (compared with the static PCL) and aims to measure psychopathic personality rather than past behavior. It is proposed that the CAPP is more useful in explaining violence and should be utilized more in future risk assessments for violence. Implications for future practice are discussed.
  • Legislative response to family violence in South Africa: A family centered
    • Abstract: Publication date: September–October 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 42Author(s): Jill Ryan, Michelle V. Esau, Nicolette V. Roman South Africa has instituted many legislative and constitutional changes since 1994 to combat violence. Regardless of these legislative developments, South Africa has some of the most endemic rates of violence in the world with most of these high rates of violence located within family violence. In response, South African legislation drew from a number of international and regional commitments as well as constitutional amendments to facilitate an enhanced family environment which promoted family well-being and functioning. However, legislatively, family violence is still fragmented in its respective subsets of intimate partner violence, child abuse and elder abuse. Disregarding family violence in the holistic sense, fragmented sectors and efforts to comprehensively and adequately prevent or reduce the rates of family violence. Through a family centered perspective, this paper aimed to review the various legislation used to address family violence within the South African context.
  • Roots of sadistic terrorism crimes: Is it Islam or Arab culture'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Jilani ben Touhami Meftah This research deals with the phenomenon of terrorism and attempts to ascertain the true roots of its sadistic crimes. The research considers two possible hypotheses to explain this phenomenon: The first hypothesis says that since most of the perpetrators of these crimes are Muslim, the roots of these sadistic crimes are religious and based on the texts of the Qur'an and Sunnah. The second hypothesis is that since most of the perpetrators of these crimes are mostly Arabs or some of their neighboring nations, the roots of these sadistic crimes are to be found in Bedouin culture. The methodology used in this research is a combination of a historical approach and a psychoanalytic approach. The most important finding of the research is that there is no link between sadistic terrorist acts and Islam. The true roots of these sadistic crimes are cultural, namely mythology of heroes and revenge. In fact, these crimes also contradict the principles and teachings of Islam. The changes made by Islam in the societies of this region are superficial and skin-deep changes while the deep structures of these societies have remained dominated by their local culture. Arab societies have often exploited religion to justify their cultures.
  • A literature review of protective factors associated with homophobic
           bullying and its consequences among children & adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Dorothy L. Espelage, Alberto Valido, Tyler Hatchel, Katherine M. Ingram, Yuanhong Huang, Cagil Torgal Research has consistently linked homophobic bullying (e.g., teasing, name-calling, use of slurs) with an array of negative outcomes for children and adolescents. While most of the extant research covers risk factors related to homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization, there is a budding literature surrounding protective factors of these behaviors and their associated consequences. This article reviews 32 studies that focused on protective factors associated with homophobic bullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents. The review examines homophobic bullying as it applies to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth and their heterosexual and cisgender peers. Using the social-ecological framework, this paper highlights protections at the individual level (e.g., sexual identity, self-esteem), the family level (e.g., social support at home), the peer level (e.g., positive friendships) and the school level (e.g., school policies against homophobic bullying, positive school climate). With the aim of contributing to the development of the field, directions for future research are also discussed.
  • What we know, what we do not know, and what we should and could have known
           about workplace bullying: An overview of the literature and agenda for
           future research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Morten Birkeland Nielsen, Ståle Einarsen Over the last three decades, the scientific and social interest in workplace bullying has accelerated and our understanding of this pervasive and detrimental social problem has advanced considerably in a relatively short amount of time. Workplace bullying is now a phenomenon of global interest, new topics are steadily emerging within the field, and the methodological quality of the studies has become more sophisticated. Building on findings from the ever increasing number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in this field, the aim of this literature overview was two-folded. In the first part, the aim was to provide a basic overview of what we already know with regard to the nature and content of the bullying phenomenon, its risk-factors and causes, its consequences, and its potential measures and interventions. In the second part, the aim was to address what we do not know and to put forward an agenda for future research within the field. Here, six major knowledge challenges are discussed: a) construct clarification, b) the need for theoretical models, c) causality, d) bullying as a process, e) mediators and moderators, and f) intervention and rehabilitation of victims, perpetrators, and work environments.
  • Animal abuse as an outcome of poor emotion regulation: A preliminary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Charlotte Hannah Parfitt, Emma Alleyne Animal abuse is an under-reported yet prevalent form of both passive and active forms of aggressive behavior. Its severe and upsetting consequences are not only experienced by the victims themselves, but also others in proximity (e.g., pet owners). Despite this, research and theory focusing on the motivations for such behavior appear to be sparse and limited in development when compared to other types of offending behavior, such as interpersonal violence. This article examines the motivations that underlie animal abuse and the maladaptive emotion regulation techniques that facilitate this type of behavior. We focus on two specific emotion regulation styles that have been implicated in existing literature; that is, the mis-regulation and under-regulation of emotions. Based on existing research and theories, we posit that the facilitative role emotion regulation plays in the perpetration of animal abuse is vital in our understanding of how and why this abuse occurs. In this article, we present a preliminary conceptualization of animal abuse behavior that depicts emotion regulation as a pivotal factor in key explanatory pathways.
  • Protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying: A systematic review
           of meta-analyses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi Bullying and cyberbullying are damaging aggressive behaviors in which some children and adolescents intentionally inflict frequent and long term harm on peers who become victimized. The number of studies on bullying is high and a lot of knowledge has already been gathered. Nevertheless, there are still many gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed. Research on protective factors and effective interventions is still in its relatively early stages. This systematic review of meta-analyses on protective factors against bullying and cyberbullying was conducted to synthesize knowledge and discover the most important community, school, family, peer and individual protective factors. After systematic searches and the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 meta-analyses with 128 effect sizes were included and analyzed. Forest plots were constructed and median effect sizes were calculated for each group of protective factors. Self-oriented personal competencies were the strongest protector against victimization. Low frequency of technology use protected from involvement in cyberbullying. Good academic performance and other-oriented social competencies were the strongest protective factors against perpetration. Positive peer interaction was the strongest protective factor against being a bully/victim. These findings can be useful to improve anti-bullying programs, policy and practice.
  • Comparing intrafamilial child sexual abuse and commercial sexual
           exploitation of children: A systematic literature review on research
           methods and consequences
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Kelly Selvius, Miriam D.S. Wijkman, Anne-Marie Slotboom, Jan Hendriks ContextChild sexual abuse is known to have a major negative impact on its victims' lives. Knowledge on the consequences of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), however, is still relatively unexplored and therefore treatment cannot be tailored for these victims.ObjectivesThis review aims to compare research on consequences of CSEC with those of intrafamilial child sexual abuse (ICSA), with particular attention to the research methods that are used.MethodsThe search on seven databases resulted in 1698 studies. Out of these studies, eighteen studies matched the inclusion criteria and were therefore included in this review. Fourteen studies focused on ICSA and four on CSEC.ResultsThe most notable difference in methodologies was the time between the sexual abuse and interviewing of the victims. This led to a variation in focus of consequences. For ICSA, most studies focused on mental health consequences while for CSEC, the majority focused on physical health consequences, in particular sexually transmitted diseases.ConclusionsFurther research on consequences of CSEC is greatly needed. Longitudinal research should focus on comparing the presence of various consequences (mental health, physical health, sexual behavior and daily functioning) in victims of CSEC, victims of ICSA and a non-sexually abused control-group.
  • Examining gender differences in the correlates of psychopathy: A
           systematic review of emotional, cognitive, and morality-related constructs
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Leah M. Efferson, Andrea L. Glenn Previous research examining the correlates of psychopathy has often focused on males. However, research on female psychopathy has increased over the past twenty years, and we are gaining more information about the similarities and differences in psychopathy in males and females. The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the current research on gender differences in the correlates of psychopathy. The research to date largely relies on measures based on the Psychopathy-Checklist-Revised and includes studies examining various types of emotional and cognitive processes, as well as moral judgment, a construct involving both emotional and cognitive processing. Research suggests that both males and females higher in psychopathy show similar deficits in emotional modulation of the startle reflex, but females do not display some of the emotional processing deficits to the same extent as males higher in psychopathy. Because of limited research, it is less clear if there are gender differences in the relationship between psychopathy and cognitive processes. Females with psychopathic traits have not been found to demonstrate response perseveration or passive avoidance errors, but the relationship between psychopathy and other cognitive processes such as error processing seems to be similar in males and females. There also may be differences in how males and females higher in psychopathy process moral information, including how they respond to unfairness and moral violations. More studies directly comparing males and females within the same sample are needed to further examine gender differences in the correlates of psychopathy.
  • The chiral nature of the enhanced interrogation programme
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Myles Balfe The United States suffered a catastrophic attack on September 11th 2001. The response to these killings, by the United States and its allies, was extremely forceful. As part of this response, US security institutions, and the health professionals who worked for them, developed an ‘enhanced interrogation’, or torture, programme to acquire intelligence from detainees in their custody. The enhanced interrogation programme has been described as a ‘conflicted’ phenomenon. This article considers in detail precisely why the enhanced interrogation programme, and the role of health professionals in it, can be said to be conflicted. The article identifies a number of reasons, including: the ambiguous and divided nature of the violence used in it; the dual roles that health professionals played in the enhanced interrogation initiative as healers and interrogators; professional division over the programme's ethics and effectiveness; the serious and negative impacts that the programme had on interrogators as well as detainees; and its split legacies. Underlying these individual reasons is the sense that the enhanced interrogation initiative was ‘doubled’, something that often pulled in two opposing dimensions simultaneously, and could be interpreted in divergent ways. The article concludes with a reiteration of the reasons why torture is ethically and effectively wrong.
  • Sexual abuse and charismatic cults
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Hava Dayan The article explores the enigmatic yet dire phenomenon of sexual abuse in cultic circumstances. Such a quest into the realm of cults is vital since, “sexual exploitation of women in cults of all types is widespread, and, to date, is possibly the least talked about, and certainly the least researched, aspect of cult life” (Lalich, 1997, pp. 7). Sexual abuse of consenting adults has been examined in circumstances of formal authority (workplace, mental institutions, jailing institutions and even academic institutions), however the study of consenting adults in informal circumstances of authority in general, and of cultic spiritual authority in particular, has hardly been addressed.The article attempts to do so, supported by empirical extrapolations from a recent criminal ruling of the Jerusalem District Court. Are women cult members genuinely capable of exercising their sexual autonomy with their charismatic cult leader' If they are unable to do so in cultic circumstances, does this impair their informed consent to the point of rendering their sexual relations with the cult leader legally abusive and criminal' The answers to these questions have dire consequences for both women cult members and cult leaders. Through a comprehensive review of the legal, criminological and sociological aspects of the case, the article sheds much needed light on one of the most enigmatic and elusive fields: sexual abuse of adults by a spiritual authority.
  • Sexual assault interventions may be doing more harm than good with
           high-risk males
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Neil M. Malamuth, Mark Huppin, Daniel Linz Based on legal requirements and other considerations, there have been many well-meaning interventions intended to reduce sexual assault on university campuses throughout the US. There is no legal requirement, however, to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, and few evaluations have been conducted. Those that have suggest that at best only a small number of these interventions have been effective and those involve bystander interventions. More importantly, there has been very little research examining the effects of such interventions on men at high risk for sexual aggression, who presumably are a key target of such interventions. Research on similar campaigns in other domains should have alerted investigators to the possibility of boomerang reactance effects wherein interventions can actually have the opposite of the intended effects for high-risk college males. The few studies that directly have examined this possibility indeed are supportive of the substantial likelihood of such negative effects. Commonly used interventions may fail with high-risk men because they are likely to generate “hostility reactance” — one of the key causes of both sexual violence itself and the unintended adverse effects of the interventions. We address the question of why universities have failed to address this possible effect of interventions and why previous reviews have not highlighted this possible danger.
  • Risk factors for female perpetrators of intimate partner violence within
           criminal justice settings: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Jenny Mackay, Erica Bowen, Kate Walker, Lorna O'Doherty There is a lack of understanding of the risk factors for female-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) relative to men's IPV behaviours. Males can access offence-specific interventions in prison and on probation. However, depending on national criminal justice policies, female IPV perpetrators access general offending behaviour programmes only or offence-specific programmes that have been designed with male perpetrators in mind. The extent to which men's and women's treatment needs are similar or different is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise what is known about the risk factors for IPV perpetration by women located within criminal justice settings to inform appropriate interventions for this group of offenders. Thirty-one studies met inclusion criteria and no factors meeting our definition of risk factor were identified. However, there were associations between IPV perpetration and experience of child abuse, substance use, borderline personality traits, attachment issues and experiencing trauma. It remains unclear what factors need to be targeted in interventions for female IPV perpetrators, although associations have pointed to possible predisposing factors. In order to improve the evidence base for IPV interventions, researchers need to clearly define the term ‘risk factor’, extending beyond reporting on prevalence only, and to increase understanding of the pathways to IPV perpetration among women.
  • Issues in the assessment of bullying: Implications for conceptualizations
           and future directions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Mary Jia, Amori Mikami Bullying, a common type of violent behavior in school-aged youth, is traditionally conceptualized as a particular form of repeated peer aggression that is intentional and that involves a power differential between the bully and the victim. Intentionality and power differentials distinguish bullying from general aggression between peers which may lack these characteristics. Despite the fact that nearly every investigation of bullying references this specific definition, studies infrequently constrain their assessment of bullying to ensure that intentionality and power differentials are present. This review (a) argues for why the existing inconsistency in requiring intentionality and power differentials when assessing bullying is a problem for the field, (b) explores challenges in validly ensuring intentionality and power differentials are present when assessing bullying, and (c) puts forward recommendations for more clearly distinguishing between bullying and general peer aggression in future work.
  • Factors influencing the development of attitudes towards men who sexually
           offend and the impact on their care and treatment: A systematic review of
           literature between 1985 and 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Laura Challinor, Simon Duff BackgroundResearch has investigated the attitudes of a range of professional and paraprofessional staff who are exposed to men who have sexually offended. The evidence emerging from this work suggests that many factors appear to have an effect on the attitudes that staff develop, including the number of years in their job, gender, or parental status.ObjectivesThe aim of this review is to explore these factors to determine the influence they have on the attitudes of care staff and how these attitudes subsequently influence the care and treatment provided to men who sexually offend.MethodAn electronic search of seven bibliographic databases was conducted to identify primary research studies in addition to scanning reference lists of existing studies and contacting experts in the field. The search generated 13,987 hits. After scanning the titles and abstracts, 51 papers were subject to the exclusion criteria. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final synthesis process.ResultsA number of factors appear to be important when exploring the relationship between attitudes and the care and treatment provided to men who sexually offend. These include factors within the domains of cognitive, affective and behavioural attitudes.ConclusionsThe papers highlighted a range of factors that influence attitudes. These factors appear to influence the flavour of attitudes and the nature of attitudes is seen to be an influencing factor in terms of the quality of relationships between men who commit sexual offences and professional staff. However the definition of attitudes needs to be more carefully applied to empirical research. Results collected from the studies provide suggestions regarding the clinical implications.
  • Influence of psychological contract on workplace bullying
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Rajalakshmi M., Naresh B. A few decades back, organizations were very much targeted towards profit, productivity, performance and turnovers. But now some organizations are only concerned about their employee's well-being and satisfaction for better performance in their organization. In this esteem, researchers and organization are considering various factors which improve their employee satisfaction, employee well-being, employee productivity, employee morale, employee performance, employee behavior and attitude in the work environment. To increase this relationship between employee and employer, many scholars and management are focusing on various areas like, organizational justice, career satisfaction, employee Work Performance, employee and employer relationship in workplace, consequences of psychological contract, and effects of psychological contract on job outcomes and violation of psychological contract.Based on the many literature, there is a need for research on workplace bullying especially to know its impact is due to psychological contract violation in industries. Various researchers have undergone to know the behavior outcome of workplace bullying in other sectors like hospitality, service, IT Industry, etc. The purpose of this review research is to look at impact of psychological contract on workplace bullying among employees.
  • “Adding fuel to the fire”' Does exposure to non-consenting adult
           or to child pornography increase risk of sexual aggression'
    • Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018Source: Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 41Author(s): Neil M. Malamuth This article is the first to integrate the vast research literatures on non-consenting adult and on child pornography (also a form of non-consenting pornography) by using the framework of the Confluence Model of sexual aggression. In contrast to the contradictory conclusions reached by various reviewers and commentators who have typically emphasized a particular methodology or parts of the literature, this review finds a great deal of consistency and convergence among the differing methodologies and literatures that have examined the impact of pornography on individuals. It is concluded that pornography use may add to the risk of sexual aggression only for those men already predisposed to aggress sexually due to more primary causes than pornography use.
  • Status of the prenatal androgen hypothesis after two meta-analyses
           reported little support: A commentary
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Lee Ellis, Anthony W. Hoskin Evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory asserts that the main underlying forces behind human criminality is evolutionary (in ultimate terms) and neuroandrogenic (in proximate terms). Neuroandrogenic factors primarily refer to the influence of sex hormones on brain functioning, especially both prenatal and post-pubertal testosterone. We recently reported evidence that supports the theory. Using a rather crude measure of prenatal testosterone exposure (known as the 2D:4D digit ratio), our two studies indicated that even within each sex, prenatal testosterone was significantly correlated with various forms of self-reported offending as theoretically predicted. Since these two studies were published, two meta-analyses have appeared that ostensibly provide little evidence that 2D:4D is actually predictive of criminality and associated behavior. However, we believe that both of these meta-analyses have deficiencies in terms of methodology and theory interpretation that can account for why some of their conclusions are subject to question. The present commentary identifies the deficiencies and shows how the meta-analytic findings most pertinent to criminality actually support the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone is a significant contributor to variations in criminal behavior.
  • Standing up to bullying: A social ecological review of peer defending in
           offline and online contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Laura J. Lambe, Victoria Della Cioppa, Irene K. Hong, Wendy M. Craig Bullying is a relationship problem that most often occurs in the presence of peers. Peers who witness bullying play a critical role in intervening. Peer intervention, or defending, is a complex behavior. Defending a victimized peer can occur offline and online, with many similarities between the two contexts. This paper, guided by the Social Ecological Model, systematically reviewed the correlates associated with defending at different levels including: individual, peer, family, and school. Inclusion criteria retrieved a final sample of 130 original, peer-reviewed research articles on offline defending, and 25 articles for online defending.Consistent results across both contexts reveal that individuals who defend tend to be girls, have high empathy and low moral disengagement, are popular and well-liked by their peers, and perceive supportive relationships with their parents, teachers, and schools. More research is needed to understand interactions that may occur between levels of the model, as defending is a complex behavior that cannot be characterized by isolated correlates.
  • Cyberhate: A review and content analysis of intervention strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Catherine Blaya This paper presents a review of intervention programmes against cyberhate. Over the last decade, the preoccupation over the use of electronic means of communication as a tool to convey hate, racist and xenophobic contents rose tremendously. NGOs, legal professionals, private companies, and civil society have developed interventions but little is known about their impact. For this review we followed the method and protocol from the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook for Systematic Reviews and the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice guidelines. The review identified three key intervention areas: law, technology and education through the empowerment of the individuals under the form of counter-speech. No specific intervention towards aggressors was found and most projects focus on prevention or victims through confidence building and skills learning to speak out, report and potentially react in an appropriate way. We did not find any rigorously assessed interventions, which highlights a gap in research and stresses the need for this type of studies. The evaluation of effectiveness of interventions needs to be included in the near future research agenda. Up to now, although intentions are good, we have no evidence that the steps that are undertaken are effective in preventing and reducing cyberhate.
  • Consistency of gender differences in bullying in cross-cultural surveys
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Peter K. Smith, Leticia López-Castro, Susanne Robinson, Anke Görzig Many studies have reported on gender differences in bully and victim rates, but with the majority of reports from a small number of countries. Here we report on such gender differences from five large cross-national data bases. We report on overall male:female (M:F) ratios, and variations in these by age (or grade), by survey time point, and by offline/online bullying. We also compare consistency of M:F ratios across countries, over the five surveys. The preponderance of male perpetrators of bullying is found consistently across surveys, and survey time point. It is also consistent by age, but HBSC data suggest a curvilinear trend in early adolescence. Males also tend to more frequently be victims of bullying, consistent across age and survey time point, but with variations by survey. There is some indication of a decrease in M:F ratio recently in mid-adolescence, possibly related to online bullying. At least relatively, females are more involved as victims of online than offline bullying. Comparing recent findings on M:F ratio across countries for the five surveys, correlations vary from high to near zero. Implications for the explanation of gender differences in different countries, the comparability of data from different surveys, and for gender-specific interventions, are discussed.
  • Are children involved in cyberbullying low on empathy' A systematic
           review and meta-analysis of research on empathy versus different
           cyberbullying roles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Izabela Zych, Anna C. Baldry, David P. Farrington, Vicente J. Llorent Cyberbullying is a relatively new aggressive behavior in which young people repeatedly and intentionally inflict harm on peers, using electronic devices. Cyberbullying has very damaging consequences and studies on the topic are increasing. Nevertheless, there are still gaps in sound knowledge regarding factors that could protect children from being cyberbullies or cybervictims. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to overcome limitations of previous studies on risk factors to establish if and how empathy is related to the different cyberbullying roles. After exhaustive searches with rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 studies were included. Cyberbullying perpetration was found to be related to low empathy (OR = 1.5) and this relationship held also after controlling for covariates (OR = 1.3) but cybervictimization was not significantly related to empathy (OR = 0.94). There were some indications that cybervictims could have high affective empathy (OR = 0.83), but more research is needed to clarify this relationship. Results are presented also separately for the relationship between affective and cognitive empathy and different cyberbullying roles. There were not enough studies to draw conclusions about the relationship between empathy and being a cyberbully/victim or defender, but some tendencies were found and described. These results have important implications for policy and practice and might be very useful in designing specific tailored programs to prevent cyberbullying.
  • A developmental approach to cyberbullying: Prevalence and protective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Aggression and Violent BehaviorAuthor(s): Robin M. Kowalski, Susan P. Limber, Annie McCord Recent years have witnessed a plethora of research on cyberbullying. However, many of the published studies have yielded mixed findings related to cyberbullying and its relation to demographic variables such as age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Review papers have been published on some of these topics, but comprehensive reviews of the relation between age and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are lacking, particularly with regard to protective factors. Thus, the current paper takes a developmental approach to examine age and cyberbullying. The review focuses specifically on age variations in technology use, prevalence of cyberbullying involvement, risk and protective factors, and outcomes. Directions for future research, including implications for prevention and intervention, are discussed.
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