Journal Cover Aggression and Violent Behavior
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Coercive control in intimate partner violence
    • Authors: L. Kevin Hamberger; Sadie E. Larsen; Amy Lehrner
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): L. Kevin Hamberger, Sadie E. Larsen, Amy Lehrner
      The construct of coercive control has been central to many conceptualizations of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet there is widespread inconsistency in the literature regarding how this construct is defined and measured. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on coercive control in regards to conceptualizations, definitions, operationalization, and measurement; and attempts to provide a synthesis and recommendations for future research. A summary and critique of measures used to assess coercive control in IPV is provided. At least three facets of coercive control are identified: 1) intentionality or goal orientation in the abuser (versus motivation), 2) a negative perception of the controlling behavior by the victim, and 3) the ability of the abuser to obtain control through the deployment of a credible threat. Measurement challenges and opportunities posed by such a multifaceted definition are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T06:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • The role of values in forensic and correctional rehabilitation
    • Authors: Tony Ward; Roxanne Heffernan
      Pages: 42 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): Tony Ward, Roxanne Heffernan
      The principles of forensic and correctional rehabilitation inquiry, key forensic and correctional concepts, and their translation into practice are shot through with normative commitments of one type or another. The degree to which values pervade every level and aspect of research and practice is rarely, if ever, acknowledged. This is a problem, as it means that there may be a tendency to adopt research and practice positions that are ideological in nature and insufficiently justified. In this paper we examine how values of various types guide and shape action at the level of scientific inquiry, influence the construction of rehabilitation theories, and shape the concepts of dynamic risk and protective factors. For each class of normative issues, we propose ways in which researchers and practitioners can acknowledge these challenges while also respecting the factual basis of science.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T19:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • Rape myth acceptance, victim blame attribution and Just World Beliefs: A
           rapid evidence assessment
    • Authors: Kirsten J. Russell; Christopher J. Hand
      Pages: 153 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): Kirsten J. Russell, Christopher J. Hand
      Background Rape is underreported, potentially because individuals self-blame and/or are blamed by others. Research predominantly illustrates male-perpetrated stranger-rape of females; thus, there may be a perception that rape myth acceptance (RMA) and victim-blaming are most prevalent in males. The purpose of this rapid evidence assessment was to investigate the availability of high-quality research into the effects of Just World Beliefs, perpetrator/victim gender, and stranger- and acquaintance/marital-rape scenarios on victim-blaming and RMA. Methods Several electronic databases were searched for empirical papers using terms including: ‘victim blame’, ‘rape myth acceptance’, ‘Just World Beliefs’, ‘type of rape’ and ‘gender’. Gough's (2007) weight of evidence framework was used to assess quality prior to inclusion. Findings Studies retained after filtering and quality assessment suggested that RMA was predictive of victim-blaming with both male and female ‘victims’. Rape myth acceptance is more prevalent in males even in male ‘victim’ scenarios, and Just World Belief was positively associated with RMA. Greater victim-blaming was attributed in stranger- vs. acquaintance-rape scenarios. Discussion There are no absolute conclusions regarding the role of gender or situational factors and rape-supportive/victim-blaming attitudes. Further empirical research is required to understand the prevalence of RMA in perceptions of marital rape and, particularly, homosexual marital rape.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T22:55:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of the intergenerational
           transmission of criminal behavior
    • Authors: Sytske Besemer; Shaikh I. Ahmad; Stephen P. Hinshaw; David P. Farrington
      Pages: 161 - 178
      Abstract: Publication date: November–December 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 37
      Author(s): Sytske Besemer, Shaikh I. Ahmad, Stephen P. Hinshaw, David P. Farrington
      Children whose parents exhibit criminal behavior (CB) appear to have an increased risk of displaying CB themselves. We conducted a systematic review and pooled results from 23 samples in 25 publications (including 3,423,483 children) in this meta-analysis of intergenerational transmission of CB. On average, children with criminal parents were at significantly higher risk for CB compared with children without criminal parents (pooled OR =2.4). Studies taking into account covariates also showed increased risk for CB (pooled OR =1.8). Transmission was strongest from mothers to daughters, followed by mothers to sons, fathers to daughters, and fathers to sons. Moreover, transmission appeared stronger for cohorts born after 1981. When we examined methodological quality and other characteristics of studies, response rates, sample size, or use of official records vs. self- or other-reports of parental CB did not moderate outcomes. However, we found stronger transmission for samples that used convenience or case-control sampling, and in studies in which parental CB clearly preceded offspring CB. We discuss mechanisms underlying intergenerational transmission, including social learning, criminogenic environments, biological proneness, and criminal justice bias. Finally, we consider limitations and directions for future research as well as policy implications for breaking the cycle of intergenerational crime.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T22:55:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 37 (2017)
       
  • A systematic review of the current knowledge regarding revenge pornography
           and non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media
    • Authors: Kate Walker; Emma Sleath
      Pages: 9 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kate Walker, Emma Sleath
      The aim of this review was to synthesize the current literature regarding revenge pornography and the non-consensual sharing of sexually explicit media. A systematic search was made of five databases using relevant search terms. From these searches, 82 articles were retained for inclusion within the systematic review. The literature spanned areas of research including legal, theory, as well as psychology related empirical papers. The findings show that particularly in the U.S., but in other countries as well, there are significant concerns regarding the implementation of revenge pornography legislation, despite this being recognized as an important endeavor. Non-consensual sharing perpetration and victimization rates can vary considerably according to how the behavior is defined and measured, however, these behaviors were evident for a considerable number of individuals across both genders.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 36 (2017)
       
  • Sexual minorities in conflict zones: A review of the literature
    • Authors: Melinda W. Moore; John R. Barner
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Melinda W. Moore, John R. Barner
      In civil and ethnic conflict, sexual minorities experience a heightened risk for war crimes such as sexual violence, torture, and death. As a result, sexual minorities remain an invisible population in armed conflict out of a need for safety. Further study of sexual minorities in conflict zones confronts matters of human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war. This article reviews the existing research on sexual minorities in conflict zones, examines the findings on human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war and violence on sexual minority populations, and reviews the barriers to effectiveness faced by intervention programs developed specifically to aid post-conflict societies. The article concludes with a summary of findings within the literature and further considerations for research on aggression and violent behavior with sexual minority groups in conflict zones.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
       
  • The scope of male rape: A selective review of research, policy and
           practice
    • Authors: Michelle Lowe; Paul Rogers
      Pages: 38 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Michelle Lowe, Paul Rogers
      Much work has been undertaken to publicize the plight of female rape survivors, but until recent years the rape and sexual assault of adult males received little research or public attention. The aim of this paper is to selectively review the literature on male survivors of sexual violence highlighting, where relevant, timely implications for policy and practice. First, changes in UK legislation relating to male rape are discussed, with cross-national comparisons made against United States, Australian and Canadian statute to overview developing definitions and legal good practice. Second, prevalence issues relating to the under-reporting and long-term consequences of male sexual victimization are outlined. Third, the current dearth of UK service provision for male rape survivors is reported. Finally, literature on how male rape myth acceptance, victim blaming and homophobia relate to the secondary victimization of male survivors is considered. Suggestions for continued research in this developing area of work are made.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.007
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
       
  • Victimization in light of self-compassion: Development towards communal
           compassion
    • Authors: Moshe Bensimon
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Moshe Bensimon
      The discipline of victimology emerged and continues to develop in response to the need to analyze the phenomenology of victims of crime. In the last decade, a new trend, positive victimology, has emerged; it emphasizes the role of “positive components” in efforts to promote the rehabilitation and recovery of victims. This perspective stresses the role of society and community in acceptance, encouragement, faith, forgiveness, goodness, gratitude, and compassion towards victims. One positive healing concept that has recently been found valuable for victims' well-being is that of self-compassion. The aim of the current paper was to explore the theory of self-compassion, which was first presented by Kristin D. Neff (2003a), as it applies to the lived experience of victimization. A comprehensive review of literature indicated the presence of uncompassionate responses as central in the lived experience of victims. These components include: (a) self-judgment and self-blame; (b) loneliness and alienation; and (c) over-identification and experiential avoidance. Seeing victimization from this perspective can deepen the understanding of victims' needs to increase compassionate and reduce uncompassionate responding. The present exploration also revealed the need, in the case of victimization, to adopt the notion of communal compassion, which expands the focus from self-compassion to compassion in the community.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
       
  • Causes and cures XV: Synthesis and integration
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 35
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past several years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with renewed attention on the part of many international agencies, but especially the United Nations, with its adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The latter invites the world community to collaborate in an inclusive, long-ranging vision for the future, highlighting our interdependence and collective responsibility for humanity's future. A growing awareness that preventing violence does not just reduce death and disability but promotes creativity, economic growth, and general well-being is at the heart of this “movement”. In the quest for a better understanding of human violence, interest in the issue has swept through multiple fields. An integration of the major disciplines and practical approaches is therefore timely, and for this to occur, we require a broader overview than just the view from within boundaries of existing domains. In this context, this fifteen article series modeled after a Global Health Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” has reviewed the causes, consequences, and cures of the problem of violence. While knowledge has brought recognition of the magnitude and pervasiveness of violence, it has also generated insight into the much greater power that humanity possesses. At a time when we are reaching a decisive juncture in human history, with military and economic faculties achieving the ability to destroy our world many times over, we also face the urgent and sober task of integrating all our intellect and insight to best confront this enormous challenge called violence.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T11:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 35 (2017)
       
  • Criminal energetics: A theory of antisocial enhancement and criminal
           attenuation
    • Authors: Michael G. Vaughn; Matt DeLisi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Michael G. Vaughn, Matt DeLisi
      Although energy is the currency of all life forms and energy is an underlying factor for physical and mental performance, its role in antisocial behavior has yet to be articulated. In this paper, we consider the role of energy in shaping antisocial and criminal careers and suggest that much like other forms of performance/productivity some criminal offenders are more energetic and therefore more virulent than others over the life-course. Specifically, we argue that energy is an enhancement and attenuator to an antisocial career and draw upon a diverse literature merging basic research on aging and energy production in human physiology and merge these findings with principles from the career criminal paradigm in criminology. Finally, we lay forth a set of research pathways, especially ways in which energy can be assessed, that can forge stronger links between the science of energetics and criminality.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T13:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.11.002
       
  • School bullying from a sociocultural perspective
    • Authors: Rachel E. Maunder; Sarah Crafter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Rachel E. Maunder, Sarah Crafter
      School bullying is an important concern. Whilst there is growing knowledge about the nature, extent and effects of school bullying, areas of complexity in research findings remain. In this paper we develop our thinking on school bullying using a sociocultural theoretical framework. We review existing literature around three main themes: 1) The conceptualisation and interpretation of bullying; 2) The relational aspects of bullying 3) Bullying as part of someone's life trajectory. For each theme, empirical findings are discussed to highlight key issues, and arguments presented from relevant sociocultural theories to provide insight in each case. During the paper, we show how varying strands of research into bullying can be integrated, and how areas of complexity can be explained. Adopting a sociocultural view of school bullying presents implications for both research and practice. Bullying is contextual, and attention should be given to the situated relationships and multiple settings surrounding the behaviour.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T02:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.010
       
  • Facial affect processing in incarcerated violent males: A systematic
           review
    • Authors: Harriet Chapman; Steven M. Gillespie; Ian J. Mitchell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Harriet Chapman, Steven M. Gillespie, Ian J. Mitchell
      Previous reviews exploring facial affect processing among forensic samples have focused on the presence of psychopathy and/or have not distinguished on the basis of offence type. In order to develop understandings about etiological processes implicated in different types of antisocial behavior, the principle aim of this review was to systematically explore facial affect processing in incarcerated violent offenders, relative to other non-violent offenders, sexual offenders, and non-offenders. Following a systematic search of electronic databases and subsequent manual search, eight studies were assessed as meeting inclusion criteria, of which seven obtained a quality score deemed acceptable for review. These studies examined recognition accuracy, sensitivity and response bias for seven emotion categories (including neutral) in incarcerated male offenders with a history of violence. Findings supported the presence of generally impaired facial affect processing among violent offenders, including deficits in fear, anger, and disgust. Overall the findings of the review did not support the presence of a hostile attribution bias among violent offenders. The review also highlights differences in sample composition, stimuli, and study designs in emotion recognition research. Recommendations are made for future work on facial affect processing in clinically relevant groups.

      PubDate: 2017-10-28T22:55:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.006
       
  • A comprehensive theory of dynamic risk and protective factors
    • Authors: Roxanne Heffernan; Tony Ward
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Roxanne Heffernan, Tony Ward
      The current conceptualization of “dynamic risk factors” (DRF) for criminal offending is problematic. It is generally accepted that there are significant conceptual issues in this domain, however, until recently addressing these have not been prioritized. Instead the majority of research and literature has focused on the success of DRF in predicting reoffending, and the effectiveness of treatment programmes that target DRF. Similar conceptual issues apply to “protective factors” (PF), which are frequently defined as the opposite of DRF; factors that reduce rather than increase risk of reoffending. In addition to the vagueness of these broad definitions, problems arise when researchers attempt to explain the theoretical and practical relationship between the two. Two important and challenging questions arise: 1) what exactly are these risk-related features' And 2) how do they relate to each other and criminal behavior' In this paper we argue that by building a comprehensive model of predictive agency we may be able to understand the causes of crime and desistence, and that this is crucial in improving outcomes for both those who have committed offences and the societies they live within.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.003
       
  • The Good Lives Model among detained female adolescents
    • Authors: Lore Van Damme; Clare-Ann Fortune; Stijn Vandevelde; Wouter Vanderplasschen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Lore Van Damme, Clare-Ann Fortune, Stijn Vandevelde, Wouter Vanderplasschen
      Female adolescents constitute a very vulnerable and challenging, yet understudied, minority within the criminal justice system. Up to now, problem-oriented risk management approaches, such as the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model, are still the most widely used rehabilitation frameworks. More recently, strength-based rehabilitation frameworks, such as the Good Lives Model (GLM), have received increased attention in guiding treatment of detained female adolescents. In the current paper, we explore the relevance and applicability of the GLM in the particular population of detained female adolescents, based on a critical reflection on the theoretical, empirical and clinical evidence available in the scientific literature. First, we argue that the GLM can help to overcome the RNR model's ethical, etiological and clinical limitations, thereby improving rehabilitation theory and effective practice for detained female adolescents. Second, we believe this model, given its holistic and person-centred approach, can be easily extended to this population, however not without taking into account particular developmental and gender issues. Third, we believe the GLM, as a rehabilitation framework, can easily “wrap around” existing evidence-based treatment programs for detained female adolescents, which, overall, are recommended to include a multidimensional, systemic and gender-responsive component. In addition, we think that the different phases of GLM-informed rehabilitation can be easily applied to this particular population. Finally, the application of the GLM among detained female adolescents entails some important research-related, practice-related and normative challenges.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.002
       
  • General causes of violent crime: Homicides, income inequality and the heat
           hypothesis
    • Authors: Mario Coccia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Mario Coccia
      This paper has two goals. The first is to show that the heat hypothesis provides a partial explanation of violent crime in society. The second is to suggest an alternative hypothesis that intentional homicides can be explained by the level of income inequality, even when controlling thermal climate and other factors. The vast literature in these research fields has suggested several approaches to explain aggression and violent behavior in society, such as the heat hypothesis and the model of Climate, Aggression, and Self-control in Humans (CLASH). However, there are at least some factors about aggression and violent behavior that current theories have trouble explaining. This study proposes income inequality, latitude and their interaction as predictors of intentional homicides. Statistical evidence based on country-level analyses (N =191 countries) reveals that controlling thermal climate and other factors, socioeconomic inequality is positively associated to violent crime. In particular, the findings here seem in general to support the hypothesis that differences between countries in intentional homicides (per 100,000 people) can be explained by the level of income inequality alone, and not thermal climate as a second predictor or the interaction of income inequality and thermal climate. These results suggest that income inequality may overpower the role of hot weather and seasonal variation of temperature to explain the level of violent crime in human society. A prediction of this theory here is that societies with low socioeconomic inequality, independently of thermal climate and other factors, are not likely to produce high levels of intentional homicides and violent crime. This finding can be useful for bringing a new perspective to explain and generalize one of the determinants that generates violent crime in human society. Some policy implications are suggested to preempt these social issues.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.005
       
  • Affect regulation as a factor in sex offenders
    • Authors: E. Gunst; J.C. Watson; M. Desmet; J. Willemsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): E. Gunst, J.C. Watson, M. Desmet, J. Willemsen
      Research and theory over the past 15years indicate that affect regulation problems may play a role in the onset of sexual abuse. Affect regulation is often described as a developmental task that can be disturbed by attachment problems or traumatic experiences, potentially leading up to different psychological and behavioral problems. This review intends to integrate conceptual and empirical literature on affect regulation difficulties in adult male sex offenders. Specific attention is devoted to the role of affect regulation in the development of sexual offending and it's link with other criminogenic factors, such as intimacy deficits and sex as coping. Furthermore, implications for psychotherapeutic practice are discussed. Most current treatment programs focus highly on cognitions and behavior and consider affect and emotion as being of secondary importance. Based on this review, recommendations for future research are made and important target areas for treatment are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.007
       
  • The lives of female gang members: A review of the literature
    • Authors: Tara E. Sutton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Tara E. Sutton
      Although female gang membership was overlooked for several years, recent work by feminist criminologists has provided a much more complex picture of female youth involved in gang life. This literature demonstrates that gender shapes the risk factors and consequences of gang involvement for female youth in several ways. In the current review, four main areas are discussed: 1) risk factors for female youths' gang involvement, 2) the extent and characteristics of female gang members' violence and crime, 3) the influence of gender on victimization experiences resulting from gang membership, and 4) female gang members' desistance from gang life. In each section, work specifically focusing on female gang members as well as work comparing the experiences of male and female gang members are presented. Finally, directions for future research are offered.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:46:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.10.001
       
  • Unfinished stories: From juvenile sex offenders to juvenile sex offending
           through a developmental life course perspective
    • Authors: Evan C. McCuish; Patrick Lussier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Evan C. McCuish, Patrick Lussier
      The developmental context in which adolescent sexually abusive or aggressive behaviors arise is not fully considered by current policies. The perception of adolescents as sexual predators on a life-course persistent pattern of sexual offending has largely contributed to the current, more punitive, sociolegal context. We suggest that myths, misconceptions, and unsubstantiated claims about adolescents involved in sexually abusive behaviors have persisted due to the abundance of research focusing on the “offender”, neglecting the “offense”, and the two being confused as one: the juvenile sex offender. We describe the current state of knowledge on the characteristics of adolescents involved in sexually abusive or aggressive behavior and present the developmental life course criminology perspective as a framework for organizing research on the course of juvenile sexual offending, including the process leading up to the behavior and what happens in adulthood. Important research questions and the associated research design and measurement tools necessary to address these questions are presented to better understand the dynamic aspect of juvenile sex offending, its onset, course, and termination.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T19:35:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.004
       
  • Method of homicide and severe mental illness: A systematic review
    • Authors: Valeria Abreu Minero; Edward Barker; Rachael Bedford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Valeria Abreu Minero, Edward Barker, Rachael Bedford
      There is limited research that has examined offense characteristics in homicides committed by individuals with mental illness and with differing psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize previous findings of studies analyzing homicide behavior by mentally ill individuals, and reporting any associations between mental illness and method of homicide. We searched four databases (MedLine, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Embase), and identified 52 relevant articles for analysis. Of these 52 articles, nine reported specific information on mental illness and method of homicide. Five out of nine articles revealed an association between schizophrenia/delusional disorder and the use of sharp instruments as a method of homicide. Four out of nine studies revealed an association between mood disorders (bipolar disorder/major depression) and strangulation/asphyxiation/suffocation/drowning. Our review confirms consistency across studies reporting a significant association between close contact methods and schizophrenia/mood disorders. Also identified as possible influential factors concerning weapon choice are illness duration, victim characteristics and planning/lack of planning of the homicide. Additionally, studies revealed up to 96% of severely mentally ill offenders experienced psychiatric symptoms at the time of the homicide. Future research may examine the presence of specific psychiatric symptoms when a mentally ill offender commits a homicide and whether these may be more influential in the method of homicide used than the psychiatric diagnosis of the offender.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T19:35:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.007
       
  • Developmental risk factors of juvenile sex offenders by victim age: An
           implication for specialized treatment programs
    • Authors: Momoko Ueda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Momoko Ueda
      Specialized treatment programs exist for juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) on the basis that JSOs are a homogeneous group. However, several studies have shown support for the heterogeneity of JSOs on the observed differences in victim age preferences within this group; those that offend against children (child molesters), and those that offend against peers or adults (peer abusers). To better meet the individual needs of treatment and rehabilitation, there must be an understanding of the developmental risk factors associated with each sub-type of JSOs. This paper reviewed 13 published studies on the differences in developmental risk factors between juvenile child molesters and peer abusers. The review found that child abusers were more likely to be submissive, have lower self-esteem and to show internalizing behaviour problems, whereas peer abusers were more aggressive, antisocial and were more likely to show externalizing behaviour problems. Although inconsistencies in results were observed across some studies, the results from this review suggest the need to separate JSO treatment approaches depending on victim age preference. Child molesters may benefit more from individual-based treatment programs (i.e. cognitive behavioural therapy) whereas peer abusers may benefit from a community-based approach to treatment such as multi-systematic therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-30T19:35:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.006
       
  • Cultural and moral dimensions of sexual aggression: The role of moral
           disengagement in men's likelihood to sexually aggress
    • Authors: Arielle Sagrillo Scarpati; Afroditi Pina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Arielle Sagrillo Scarpati, Afroditi Pina
      Social norms inform individuals in a given society about what is right and wrong, and it is through their environment (and its symbolic elements) that people learn how to behave morally. These norms help shape not only people's behaviors, but also the way in which society in general, works: they are not, however, sufficient to compel all individuals to refrain from detrimental conduct. In fact, according to Paciello (2008), in some cases, these same norms may serve to legitimize harmful behavior towards others. In societies plagued by gender inequality, for example, some forms of violence (e.g. marital rape, domestic violence, homophobia) might be tolerated and/or justified as a result of individuals' adherence to traditional gender norms. As a result, detrimental behavior becomes socially and morally acceptable, and any conflicting moral beliefs and behaviors are experienced largely without self-reproach. Drawing from that, the primary goal of this narrative review is to explore the idea that some social norms may influence the acceptability of perpetration of sexual violence. Building on the findings from our review, we address existing gaps in the literature, and present a different approach to individuals' likelihood to engage in sexually aggressive behavior, via consideration of moral values and moral disengagement strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-23T19:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.09.001
       
  • Traumatic brain injury and aggression: A systematic review and future
           directions using community samples
    • Authors: Lisa Buckley; Sherrie-Anne Kaye; Ryan P. Stork; Justin E. Heinze; James T. Eckner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Lisa Buckley, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Ryan P. Stork, Justin E. Heinze, James T. Eckner
      Aggression is widespread and a significant community burden, with violence-related injury deaths representing a significant public health problem. We explore aggression relative to a possible associated factor, traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our focus is on a less well studied population, those recruited through the community who may not have had hospital care or contact with the criminal justice system (e.g. were recruited in schools). This study provides a critical review of the potential relationship between aggression and traumatic brain injury. We undertook a systematic search of published literature of studies recruited through the community and found seven studies examining aggression and TBI. All studies identified a relationship between reports of TBI and aggression, however only two studies were longitudinal in design. The study focuses on the limitations of the current body of research, including in definitions of constructs, the need to understand mediating and moderating factors, and improvements needed in the overall research design of studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.004
       
  • The effect of academic achievement on aggression and violent behavior: A
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Joanne Savage; Christopher J. Ferguson; Lesli Flores
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Joanne Savage, Christopher J. Ferguson, Lesli Flores


      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.002
       
  • Trends and patterns of Boko Haram terrorist and militants' aggression in
           Nigeria
    • Authors: Gilbert Enyidah-Okey Ordu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Gilbert Enyidah-Okey Ordu
      This study explores the trends and pattern of Islamic Boko Haram and Niger Delta militancy in Nigeria. The core of the problem was articulate in order to grapple with the complexities of this social problem. The study employed ex post facto research design and generated its data using secondary sources—the data were descriptively analysed. Boko Haram and militant groups have taken up arms against the State [Nigeria] and its defencible and defenceless citizens, resulting from frustration and social discontentment. They have been involved in series of kidnappings, destructions and killings, as predicted by the basic assumptions of our theoretical framework, frustration-aggression theory, which is empirically evidenced in the findings of this study. While Boko Haram engaged the State and members of the public in fierce attacks in the Northern Nigeria, the militants have mounted a deadly combat against the Nigerian government and expatriates, including their infrastructure and basic amenities in the Southern part of the country. The study recommends a total overhauling of the present frustration-ridden social structure and political economy of Nigeria, as well as timely implementation of proactive youth empowerment programmes and forward-looking social, political and economic policies will assist greatly in ameliorating the problem.

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T07:09:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.006
       
  • A critique of the revised conflict tactics scales-2 (CTS-2)
    • Authors: Richard Toby Jones; Shihning Chou; Kevin Browne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Richard Toby Jones, Shihning Chou, Kevin Browne
      The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the Conflict Tactics Scales-2, a measure used worldwide for research and clinical practices. The reliability, validity and normative samples of the CTS-2 are considered and compared with similar psychometric measures. The limitations of the original CTS have been discussed alongside the CTS-2. Reliability is considered to be good to excellent by alpha coefficient and the variance explained by differing samples or methods of administration. Caution is recommended when interpreting the CTS-2 in clinical settings. Researchers point toward a five-factor structure to the CTS-2. The importance of appropriate norms is discussed and considered crucial when using the tool in settings where reporting patterns may differ. Difficulties in comparing CTS-2 scores across samples, cultures and countries are highlighted. Overall, the CTS-2 is a robust psychometric measure, although it holds limited clinical utility if it is used separately from other sources of information gathering (i.e. psychometric measures or interview). In order to enhance clinical utility, it should be administered alongside measures or clinical interviews that can provide added context regarding violence in the family. More research is required in diverse population samples, cultures/countries and languages.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T06:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.005
       
  • The inter-rater reliability of observing aggression: A systematic
           literature review
    • Authors: Kore G. Lampe; Eva A. Mulder; Olivier F. Colins; Robert R.J.M. Vermeiren
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kore G. Lampe, Eva A. Mulder, Olivier F. Colins, Robert R.J.M. Vermeiren
      Introduction Both clinicians and researchers value observation as an important source of diagnostic information, especially in forensic, mental health and school settings. However, it is not well-known how reliable information collected by means of observation is. Methods The present study aimed to systematically review the literature on the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of observation of aggression and impulsivity. Results A total of 37 papers on the observation of aggression that provided information about the IRR was selected and reviewed. Forms of observation ranged from videotaped observation in a lab to participant observation in a naturalistic setting (e.g. with an observer taking part in the situation). Relatively few studies focused on observation of aggression in naturalistic settings. For various reasons, no papers on the observation of impulsivity could be included. Regardless of differences in forms and settings, the IRR of observing aggression was fair to excellent. Conclusion Different forms of observation (e.g. non-participant, direct) taking place in different settings (e.g. naturalistic or lab) can be executed reliably. This finding is encouraging for clinicians who want to make use of systematic observations in naturalistic settings. However, the relatively sparse research on these naturalistic observations underscores the need for research on the topic.

      PubDate: 2017-08-26T11:27:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.001
       
  • Looking for the origins of anorexia nervosa in adolescence - A new
           treatment approach
    • Authors: S. Matt Lacoste
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): S. Matt Lacoste
      Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder, which affects particularly adolescents. The media coverage of feminine thinness is demonstrated as a token of beauty, with diet as a tool to achieve this. However, diets are not enough to explain the numerous cases. This disease is the symptom of a psychological disorder and looking for the origin must coincide with psychotherapeutic treatment. Multifactorial explanations seem dominate within our female patients. For most female patients, family problems and past experience with sexual assault explain this transition to anorexia. It is demonstrated throughout this paper how and why anorexia nervosa is used as a tool for identification and personalization in the assumption of autonomy and independence, and how and why anorexia becomes a defensive response to aggression. We give a clinical confirmation of the diverse origins of anorexia nervosa and of the impact of sexual abuse. This paper proposes a new therapeutic approach to patients with anorexia nervosa, in which the eating disorder is a symptom of an emotional disorder, often triggered by sexual assault or emotional deprivation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T12:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.006
       
  • Empathy deficits and adolescent sexual offending: A systematic review of
           the evidence base
    • Authors: Andrew Baly; Stephen Butler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Andrew Baly, Stephen Butler
      Although empathy deficits are commonly assumed to contribute to adolescent sex offending, no systematic review of the evidence base has been undertaken. To rectify this omission, this review examines whether current evidence supports the existence of a relationship between empathy and adolescent sexual offending. A systematic search of the evidence base found sixteen relevant empirical studies, which provided evidence that was inconclusive or subject to methodological limitations. The review suggests that further systematic and methodologically-sound research is required to determine the extent and nature of the relationship between empathy and adolescent sex offending, that any relationship between the two is unlikely to be straightforward, and that explanations of the mechanisms involved should be integrated into wider multifactorial explanations for this behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-08-05T12:56:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.007
       
  • A comprehensive neuroimaging review of PCL-R defined psychopathy
    • Authors: Stephanie Y. Griffiths; Jarkko V. Jalava
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Stephanie Y. Griffiths, Jarkko V. Jalava
      Neurobiological theories of psychopathy typically include abnormalities in paralimbic circuits, and a neurobiological profile of paralimbic dysfunction in increasingly invoked in applied legal settings. The current study systematically evaluated whether sMRI and fMRI findings in PCL-R defined psychopaths suggest paralimbic dysfunction. Our review indicates diffuse and variable neural correlates of psychopathy, with numerous issues complicating the interpretation of these heterogeneous data. Our review also extends previous discussions concerning how this heterogeneity may be related to sample characteristics, methodological variations, and statistical analyses. To elucidate the neural correlates of psychopathy, researchers may need to clarify the relationship between psychopathy and co-occurring conditions (such as substance use disorders) both conceptually and methodologically. Our review also indicates that caution is warranted when introducing these data in applied contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-07-21T11:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.002
       
  • What is the evidence' Preventing psychological violence in the
           workplace
    • Authors: Emily Schindeler; Danielle M. Reynald
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Emily Schindeler, Danielle M. Reynald
      Although criminology has actively engaged with psychological violence in the context of domestic violence and child abuse, it has been slower coming to the fore when it comes to such violence in the workplace. This is despite the well-documented human, organisational, community and service costs associated with such victimisation. As demonstrated in this review, the bulk of strategies that have been trialled to date has been devised from psychology, management and organisational development perspectives. However, there is a paucity of evidence that any of the interventions that are widely promoted have been subjected to robust evaluations or provided evidence of any long-term reduction in the incidence of violence as a consequence of such interventions. Acknowledging there no easy single recipe, it is timely to consider the potential of alternative approaches including the application of guardianship and related principles from the routine activity approach, which are well-established strategies for prevention of victimisation in a range of contexts as set out in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.004
       
  • So you want to study bullying' Recommendations to enhance the
           validity, transparency, and compatibility of bullying research
    • Authors: Anthony A. Volk; René Veenstra; Dorothy L. Espelage
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anthony A. Volk, René Veenstra, Dorothy L. Espelage
      Bullying is a serious problem that affects millions of individuals worldwide each year. In response to this, thousands of research articles have been published on bullying. Unfortunately, much of bullying research remains largely atheoretical in its approach to defining bullying as a unique form of aggression. Another key problem in bullying research is the proliferation of heterogeneity of bullying measures whose validity is sometimes questionable. Combined, these two problems have made progress difficult as comparisons between studies and results are impeded by a lack of commonality. As a solution to these problems a discussion of the issues surrounding defining and measuring bullying is offered. This paper aims to promote thoughts and insights about the critical issues and concepts facing those who seek to define and measure bullying for research, intervention, or policy work. Although suggestions for best practices are offered, the overriding goal is to promote all practices that enhance the validity, transparency, and compatibility of bullying research. The time seems right for a general call to action for researchers to individually produce data that are both theoretically and empirically more communicable to the broader bullying community.

      PubDate: 2017-07-10T19:54:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.07.003
       
  • Overt attacks and covert thoughts
    • Authors: Giti Zahedzadeh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Giti Zahedzadeh
      The process in which an individual moves from radical opinion to violent action is of immense interest to law enforcement and counterterrorism agencies. A deep understanding of these processes could help in the complex pursuit to thwart terrorism. Our goal is to gain insight into the thought processes of a lone wolf terrorist prior to an event. Herein, we consider the case of the Army psychiatrist Major Nidal Malik Hasan. Utilizing a novel web-based text analysis environment that helps visualize the distribution of words within a single text corpus, we analyze Hasan's presentation at Walter Reed Medical Center in 2007 and his secret messages to Anwar al-Awlaki in 2009. We show that the analysis of the content of Hasan's speech and his correspondence can reveal his intention and motivation. The use of a case analysis of Nidal Hasan is unique, in that he was directly corresponding with a senior member of al-Qaeda, while he was an active duty Army officer. Thus, this paper contributes to our understanding of intent and thought patterns of some lone wolf terrorists.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.009
       
  • Social climate in forensic mental health settings: A systematic review of
           qualitative studies
    • Authors: Patrick Doyle; Ethel Quayle; Emily Newman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Patrick Doyle, Ethel Quayle, Emily Newman
      Social climate is a commonly evaluated aspect of inpatient forensic mental health settings. However, there is little clarity in the literature on the components of social climate. To identify these components, qualitative studies of staff and patient experiences of social climate were systematically reviewed using best fit framework synthesis. An a priori framework was developed based on nine existing models of social climate. A systematic search identified twenty studies of sufficient quality to be included in the review. These studies included staff and patient perspectives across all levels of inpatient forensic settings. In all twenty-two themes were identified in the review papers. From these themes, a model of social climate was developed. Seven factors were identified as part of the social climate, including the therapeutic relationship, care and treatment orientation, the secure base and four aspects of the ward environment. The findings indicate that common measures of social climate may not fully represent the construct. Themes related to the patient group, the staff group, the physical environment and system level factors were identified as influencing social climate. The model described allows for consideration of interventions to positively influence social climate.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T16:59:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.008
       
  • Developmental pathways to serial homicide: A critical review of the
           biological literature
    • Authors: Sasha Reid
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Sasha Reid
      This paper offers a historically grounded review of several biologically based developmental theories for serial homicide. Beginning with a discussion that outlines nineteenth-century etiological theories, this article guides its reader through a series of intellectual and scientific developments – all of which have contributed to our current understanding of the etiology of serial homicide. Embedded within this review is a critical examination of how social, methodological, and other such limitations have stalled and prevented the development of a meaningful etiological account for serial homicide. This author offers some direction to help researchers overcome these limitations, and suggests three additional lines of inquiry that may help to illuminate biologically-based developmental trajectories. This paper concludes by reinforcing the need for a transdisciplinary approach when studying violence risk and prevention within this population specifically.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.003
       
  • Parenting in a digital age: A review of parents' role in preventing
           adolescent cyberbullying
    • Authors: Caitlin Elsaesser; Beth Russell; Christine McCauley Ohannessian; Desmond Patton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Caitlin Elsaesser, Beth Russell, Christine McCauley Ohannessian, Desmond Patton
      While parents have a critical influence on reducing adolescent risk taking, adolescents' access to online spaces presents significant and novel challenges to parents' ability to reduce their youth's involvement in cyberbullying. The present study reviews the existing literature on parents' influence (i.e., parental warmth and parental monitoring) on adolescent cyberbullying, both as victims and perpetrators. 23 mostly cross sectional articles were identified for this review. Findings indicate that parental warmth is consistently associated with lower cyberbullying, both as victims and perpetrators. For parental monitoring, strategies that are focused on parental control, such as restricting the Internet, appear to be only weakly related to youth's involvement in cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. In contrast, strategies that are more collaborative with in nature (e.g., evaluative mediation and co-use) are more closely connected to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, although evidence suggests that the effectiveness of these practices varies by sex and ethnicity. Results underscore the need for parents to provide emotional warmth that might support adolescent's disclosure of online activity. Implications for practice and future research are reviewed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.004
       
  • Examining offender, victim and offence characteristics in cases of
           stranger child abduction: An exploratory comparison of attempted and
           completed cases using publicly available data from the UK
    • Authors: Craig John Robert Collie; Karen Shalev Greene
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Craig John Robert Collie, Karen Shalev Greene
      The article examines the demographic features of victims and offenders involved in cases of stranger child abduction in the UK, performing a quantitative, secondary data analysis of a sample of 78 offences that have received a conviction in the UK since 1988. Information was gathered via a study of media and legal databases. The profiles of attempted and completed cases of stranger child abduction are compared to ascertain the relationship between case characteristics and offence outcome. Findings indicated that while females victims are targeted more frequently overall, male victims are at greater risk of being abducted successfully by strangers. Females are more likely to be approached by non-specialist offenders, whereas male victims are more likely to be targeted by chronic child sex offenders. Victims aged 10 were found to be at risk of being victimized successfully, while attempted victimization was even across all victim age groups. Finally, older offenders were found to be more persistent, with younger offenders discontinuing their offence earlier in the behavioural sequence. The implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations for future research made. The continued analysis of abduction offences utilizing the attempted-completed distinction is also strongly encouraged and endorsed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T17:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.06.005
       
  • Is Chappell and Di Martino's interactive model of workplace violence
           valid? An article analysing workplace violence towards healthcare
           professionals in Spain
    • Authors: Cristina Vidal-Martí; Carlos Pérez Testor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Cristina Vidal-Martí, Carlos Pérez Testor
      Workplace violence is a phenomenon affecting healthcare professionals. One of its explanatory models is Chappell and Di Martino's interactive model (2006). These authors assert that workplace violence occurs due to the interaction of multiple risk factors and according to these scholars the greater the knowledge of the phenomenon, the greater the likelihood that it can be prevented and, therefore, its incidence diminished. The aim of this article is to analyse the studies on aggression towards healthcare professionals in Spain based on this interactive model and to corroborate whether this model helps explain the phenomenon of workplace violence in Spanish healthcare professionals. For the purpose of this study, 28 studies on workplace violence affecting healthcare professionals were analysed. The obtained results we later compared to Chappel and Di Martino interactive model. The results are not conclusive: they reveal the need to keep studying the phenomenon and to analyse variables related to the model more precisely.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T20:11:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.006
       
  • You see but you do not observe: A review of bystander intervention and
           sexual assault on university campuses
    • Authors: Danielle Labhardt; Emma Holdsworth; Sarah Brown; Douglas Howat
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Danielle Labhardt, Emma Holdsworth, Sarah Brown, Douglas Howat
      Sexual assault on university campuses has garnered increased attention in recent years. A systematic review was conducted to identify the factors associated with bystander intervention regarding sexual assault on university campuses. Currently, no published systematic reviews exist within this area. Twenty-eight studies were reviewed according to four major bystander factors: rape myth and date rape attitudes; bystander efficacy; bystander intent; and bystander behavior. There was a heavy emphasis on bystander intent and behavior throughout. Three important limitations were identified: (1) all empirical research has been conducted in the USA, yet bystander intervention programs exist outside of the USA, in countries such as the UK, (2) a majority of the studies employed quantitative methodologies and so failed to capture important details such as bystanders' perceptions of sexual assault or what other factors influence the likelihood of intervening, and (3) there were limited attempts to control for factors such as social desirability. This area of research is still in its infancy. Future research should examine in greater detail the factors inhibiting and facilitating bystander intervention. Finally, research outside of the USA is important in developing the literature in this area to effectively inform bystander intervention programs.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T08:20:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.005
       
  • Causes and cures XIV: Nonviolence approaches
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past several years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with renewed attention on the part of many international agencies, but especially the United Nations, with its adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The latter invites the world community to collaborate in an inclusive, long-ranging vision for the future, highlighting our interdependence and collective responsibility for humanity's future. A growing awareness that preventing violence does not just reduce death and disability but promotes creativity, economic growth, and general well-being is at the heart of this “movement”. An integration not only of the major disciplines but of various practical approaches is timely, and for this to occur, we require a broader overview of our existing societal structures. In this context, this fifteen article series modeled after a Global Health Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” reviews the mechanisms that society has used in an attempt to stem violence. Continuing the transition from the “law and order” to the health model, this article examines the power of nonviolence. Contrary to current assumptions, far from being passive or ineffective, nonviolent methods have demonstrated to bring down empires, to topple regimes, and to effectuate long-lasting peace—at greater frequency than violent means. Starting with the personal level, and drawing upon the various spiritual traditions, nonviolence may cover the depths that are necessary for countering our complex tendency for violence. Nonviolence gives us the lesson that peace is possible, not just through stemming destructive forces, but by fostering constructive ones.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12T18:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.002
       
  • Aggressive scripts, violent fantasy and violent behavior: A conceptual
           clarification and review
    • Authors: Flora Gilbert; Michael Daffern
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Flora Gilbert, Michael Daffern
      Aggressive scripts are stereotyped aggression-related event sequences typically acquired in early childhood, encoded in memory, rehearsed and elaborated, and then retrieved to guide aggressive behavior. In studies using non clinical and non offender populations, aggressive script rehearsal is commonly reported. Extant research suggests a tendency for aggressive script rehearsal to be activated by perceived personal affronts and constitutes imagined attempts to rebuke wrongdoing by others. Aggressive script rehearsal serves to prepare or rehearse intended acts or stimulate, maintain or regulate emotional or physiological arousal. Despite obvious relevance to violent offender assessment and treatment, research into aggressive script rehearsal is scarce and related terms such as violent fantasy are used interchangeably to describe comparable cognitive processes. Measures designed to assess aggressive scripts and violent fantasy are confounded. Further, few attempts have been made to define and differentiate the terms and there has been little progress in developing treatment procedures addressing these cognitive processes. The current review explores how aggressive scripts and violent fantasy are conceptualised with respect to their key characteristics and proposed acquisition processes and functions, noting commonalities and differences. Their relationship to violent behavior is described. Drawing on knowledge in related areas, including fantasy is likely to assist with the development of insight into the operation and function of aggressive scripts and their relationship to aggressive behavior, with implications for clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.001
       
  • Potential underpinnings for community maintenance programs for sexual
           offenders
    • Authors: Carollyne Youssef; Sharon Casey; Astrid Birgden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Carollyne Youssef, Sharon Casey, Astrid Birgden
      The majority of incarcerated sexual offenders will one-day return to the community. While a great proportion are likely to have participated in a custodial offence-specific treatment program, knowing what happens to this ‘acquired’ knowledge and skill once they are released and how this influences the desistance process remains unclear. Research on offender rehabilitation often focuses on the efficacy of custodial treatment interventions for offenders, while studies examining post-release programs for offenders has some untapped potential. Further to this, an understanding of the theoretical underpinnings for any community maintenance-type programs for offenders remains relatively untouched in the offender rehabilitation literature. Thus, this paper attempts to explore some of the potential theoretical underpinnings for community maintenance programs for sexual offenders. Consideration will be given to the definition of such programs, some of the theories that may inform these programs, and the incorporation of desistance theory into maintenance programs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-07T22:51:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.05.002
       
 
 
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