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Актуальні питання фармацевтичної та медичної науки та практики
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2306-8094 - ISSN (Online) 2409-2932
Published by Zaporozhye State Medical University Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Synthesis and analgesic activity of new pyrazole-containing derivatives of

    • Authors: S. O. Fedotov, A. S. Hotsulia, Yu. V. Karpenko
      Pages: 205 - 212
      Abstract: Pain represents a primary symptom of numerous diseases and conditions, affecting millions of people worldwide. Effective analgesic medications can alleviate or eliminate pain, thereby enhancing patients’ quality of life and assisting them in resuming normal physical and social activities. However, several existing analgesics may carry unwanted side effects, such as ulcers, blood clotting issues, drowsiness, and more. The development of new analgesics is focused on creating drugs that are both effective and associated with fewer adverse effects. Considering the continuous rise in the number of patients dealing with neurological, oncological, and other conditions accompanied by chronic pain, there is a growing demand for innovative methods of treatment and pain management. The combination of two different heterocyclic fragments within one molecule makes it possible to use the possibilities of influencing such a molecule on various mechanisms of occurrence and development of various pathological conditions, including those accompanied by pain. Chemical modifications of pyrazole and 1,2,4-triazole structures, involving their incorporation into a single molecule, have the potential, as suggested by in silico predictions, to yield biologically active compounds with analgesic properties. The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the chemical transformation and properties of 4-amino-5-(3-methylpyrazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol, 4-amino-5-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)pyrazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and their derivatives for the preparation of bioactive systems with analgesic activity. Materials and methods. The creation of a target series of compounds was implemented by consistently using well-known methods of organic synthesis. 4-Amino-5-(3-methylpyrazole-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 4-amino-5-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)pyrazole-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol were resynthesized as starting materials using acetone or 1-(3-fluorophenyl)ethane-1-one, diethyloxalate, and sodium methylate using step-by-step hydrazinolysis and carbon disulfide involvement in an alkaline medium. Further targeted functionalization involved the introduction of a 2,6-dichlorophenyl substitute, alkane acid residues, and esters based on them into the structure of the target compounds. The structure of all synthesized substances was determined by IR spectrophotometry, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The individuality of the compounds was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analgesic properties were studied on two models: the “acetic acid-induced writhing test” and a formalin model of pain inflammation. Pharmacokinetic parameters were predictably calculated using the SwissADME online platform. Results. Based on the results of the synthetic part of the work, the structure of 4-amino-5-(3-methylpyrazole-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 4-amino-5-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)pyrazole-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol, as well as their derivatives, was successfully recreated. The presence of a beneficial effect of 2,6-dichlorophenyl substitute, as well as fragments of saturated carboxylic acids and their esters on the formation of antinociceptive activity has been proven. The quantitative indicators of pharmacokinetic parameters, as determined during ADME analysis, fall within acceptable ranges in nearly all instances. Conclusions. The optimal conditions for the synthesis and structural modification of 4-amino-5-(3-methylpyrazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol, 4-amino-5-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)pyrazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol were established, which allowed the preparation of 2-((4-amino-5-(3-methylpyrazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)thio)alkanoic acids and their esters, as well as [1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazine systems. It has been shown that the combination of pyrazole derivatives of 1,2,4-triazol-3-thiol with 2,6-dichlorophenyl substituent and fragments of saturated carboxylic acids and their esters creates conditions for the formation of compounds with antinociceptive activity, which was confirmed in vivo by experimental data acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin inflammation model.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.288364
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal activity of the obtained
           “Cachisept” tablets for resorption in the oral cavity for the
           treatment and prevention of dental caries

    • Authors: O. Yu. Maslov, M. A. Komisarenko, S. V. Ponomarenko, S. V. Kolisnyk, T. P. Osolodchenko, T. A. Kostina, Yu. S. Kolisnyk, V. P. Moroz
      Pages: 213 - 216
      Abstract: Dental caries stands as a highly common chronic ailment affecting individuals globally, with susceptibility to this condition spanning their entire lifespan. Consequently, the search for novel medications aimed at treating and preventing dental caries holds significant importance in the field of pharmacy. The aim of the work was to study the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activity of the obtained oral tablets “Сaсhisept” for resorption in the oral cavity for the treatment and prevention of dental caries. Materials and methods. The obtained tablets “Сaсhisept” with green tea leaf extract were the object of investigation. Antioxidant activity was established by the potentiometric method, and antimicrobial and antifungal activity was assessed by the agar well diffusion method. Results. The level of antioxidant activity for tablets “Сaсhisept” was 110.00 ± 2.20 mmol-eqv./mdry res, the obtained tablets had a high level of antioxidant activity according to Maslov’s conditional classification. Staphylococcus aureus (25.33 ± 0.50 mm), Baсillus subtilis (25.33 ± 0.50 mm) and Streptococcus mutans (25.33 ± 0.50 mm) were the most sensitive to the obtained “Сaсhisept” tablets, and the least – Proteus vulgaris (20.67 ± 0.50 mm), and it was observed strong growth inhibition in relation to the fungus Candida albicans (20.00 ± 0.50 mm). Conclusions. The presented study has found that “Сaсhisept” tablets have a high level of antioxidant activity, and also have a high antimicrobial and antifungal effect against all investigated Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and the Candida albicans fungus. Thus, “Сaсhisept” tablets can be recommended for the treatment and prevention of dental caries.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.285425
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • The influence of new 1,2,3-triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives on the
           muscle tone of rodents

    • Authors: I. V. Botsula, I. V. Kireyev, O. M. Koshovyi, V. A. Chebanov
      Pages: 217 - 222
      Abstract: Anxiety disorders represent one of the most prevalent categories of psychiatric illnesses, affecting individuals regardless of gender, age, or social standing. They result in substantial personal and societal costs. The pursuit of novel pharmacological approaches for treating these disorders is driven by the increasing medical necessity to enhance the effectiveness and safety profiles of anxiolytic medications. Due to the fact that benzodiazepines and their derivatives have anti-anxiety, hypnotic-sedative, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties, they occupy a leading place in the treatment of anxiety disorders. An essential aspect of investigating the pharmacological activity of new triazolobenziazepine derivatives is assessing their impact on rodent muscle tone and coordination of movements. The aim of the work is to find out the influence of new 1,2,3-triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives on the muscle tone of rodents in the “vertical grid” test and coordination of movements using the rotarod test. Materials and methods. The objects of the study were 5 new derivatives of 1,2,3-triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepines. Before conducting in vivo experiments, these derivatives were mixed with lactose at a ratio of 1:1000. The “vertical grid” test and rotarod test (rotating rod test) were used to reproduce the model of motor behavior of rodents. Results. The presence of a tendency to the manifestation of a myorelaxant effect in the “vertical grid” test was established. The indicator of the total duration of detention at the facilities was similar and did not differ significantly in the control and experimental groups at doses of 0.50 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg. Derivatives MA-252, MA-253 and MA-254 at a dose of 1 mg/kg reduced the total duration of retention on the vertical grid, which indicates their mild muscle relaxant effect. In the rotating rod test, MA-253 derivative at a dose of 1 mg/kg increased the retention time on the rotarod, which demonstrates greater physical endurance of the animals of these experimental groups. Conclusions. The study’s findings indicated that the 1,2,3-triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives did not exhibit an adverse impact on movement coordination. Some of these derivatives demonstrated a mild muscle relaxant effect. These results support the need for further research into their influence on spontaneous motor activity. Additionally, there’s a necessity to determine the dosage regimen, establish an effective dose, and adapt it for human use.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.287999
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • In silico evaluation of the pharmacodynamic component of the interaction
           of S-alkyl derivatives of 5-methyl-4-(p-tolyl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with
           some biological targets

    • Authors: O. I. Panasenko, V. M. Odyntsova, A. S. Hotsulia
      Pages: 223 - 230
      Abstract: Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole open wide opportunities for modern and progressive scientists in the development of innovative medicines. These compounds are known for their variability and structural flexibility, which allows scientists to experiment and create new molecules with unique properties. The use of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives in the creation of drugs is based on their ability to interact with biological systems and molecular targets. These compounds can be aimed at regulating physiological processes, reducing manifestations of pathological conditions or enhancing necessary biological reactions. Directed modification of the structure of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives allows to create biologically active compounds with improved properties. The aim of the work was to study in silico and to evaluate the possible interaction of a virtual series of S-alkyl derivatives of 5-methyl-4-(p-tolyl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with some enzyme systems. Materials and methods. A computer method (molecular docking) for predicting and evaluating the interaction between a ligand molecule and a target protein structure. Ligand preparation was performed using MarvinSketch 6.3.0, Hyper Chem 8, and AutoDockTools-1.5.6 programs. Enzyme preparation involved the use of Discovery Studio 4.0 and AutoDockTools-1.5.6 software packages. Direct molecular docking was performed using the Vina program. Results. A virtual series of S-alkyl derivatives of 5-methyl-4-(p-tolyl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with the potential possibility of creating a biologically active substance has been constructed. Using the Vina software tool, the nature and number of amino acid residues of the active centers of model enzymes, with which the proposed ligands coordinate and bind, were determined. According to the results of docking studies, the predicted affinity for lanosterol-14α-demethylase was determined. The effect on the receptor tyrosine kinase of anaplastic lymphoma is somewhat inferior in terms of qualitative and quantitative indicators. Conclusions. Using the method of molecular docking, it was established that S-alkyl derivatives of 5-methyl-4-(p-tolyl)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol have a fairly significant potential for the manifestation of antifungal activity, which justifies the further synthesis of these compounds and more in-depth study of fungistatic and fungicidal properties. Docking results for anaplastic lymphoma kinase show little promise in the development of anticancer agents.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.287510
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Development of a method of quantitative determination of the active
           substance in Angiolin eye drops by the method of high-performance liquid

    • Authors: L. I. Kucherenko, R. R. Akopian, O. O. Portna, O. V. Khromylova, I. V. Pavliuk
      Pages: 231 - 235
      Abstract: One of the most common eye diseases is a burn injury. Hence, one of the pressing challenges in the field of pharmacy today is the development of new ophthalmic medications, specifically eye drops. Researchers from the Department of Pharmaceutical, Organic, and Bioorganic Chemistry at Zaporizhzhia State Medical and Pharmaceutical University, led by Professor I. A. Mazur, have successfully synthesized a novel compound. This compound is a derivative of 1,2,4-triazole, specifically (S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-5-thioacetate. Notably, this compound demonstrates anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, and reparative activities. The aim of the work is to develop a method of quantitative determination of the active substance in Angiolin eye drops by the method of high-performance liquid chromatography. Materials and methods. The research employed a liquid chromatograph equipped with a UV detector. A column Hypersil ODS C-18 measuring 250 by 4.6 millimeters with a particle size of 5 microns was used. Results. It was determined that the angiolin content in the 1 % eye drops in series 1 falls within the range of 0.985 to 1.010 grams. This indicates that, in terms of the active substance content, the studied series complies with the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. Conclusions. As a result of the conducted research, a method for quantitatively determining the active substance in Angiolin eye drops using high-performance liquid chromatography was developed.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.288356
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Justification of the choice of excipients during the development of the
           composition of “Pastinocard” tablets

    • Authors: N. А. Symonenko, O. S. Shpychak, O. S. Kukhtenko, Ye. A. Bezrukavyi, H. B. Yurieva
      Pages: 236 - 243
      Abstract: The aim of the work is to justify the choice of excipients as components for the cardioprotective medicine “Pastinocard” tablets based on the domestic raw material of cultivated parsnip herb thick extract (CPHTE). Materials and methods. Experimental test samples of mixtures of the plant substance of domestic origin CPHTE with groups of excipients, approved for medical use, were used as the object of research. Results. We conducted experimental research by a mathematical planning method called the Greek–Latin square. In this study, we investigated how 16 different auxiliary substances affected the pharmacotechnological properties of tableting masses and tablets made from PPTEG with cardioprotective properties. Our goal was to determine the optimal composition and manufacturing process for a medication, specifically “Pastinocard” tablets. We also developed project plans for manufacturing regulations and quality control methods, which we successfully tested in the industrial production setting at Pharmaceutical Company “Zdorovye”, LTD in Kharkiv. Conclusions. The formulation for cardioprotective tablets, designated as “Pastinocard”, has been both theoretically justified and experimentally developed by domestic CPHTE raw materials. These research findings have been instrumental in crafting the regulatory documentation for quality control and the production processes of the resulting tablet medication.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.287001
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Age dynamics of strain differences in the morphofunctional state of
           pancreatic beta- and amylin-producing cells in SHR and Wistar rats

    • Authors: T. A. Hrekova, O. V. Melnikova, Ye. V. Kadzharian
      Pages: 244 - 248
      Abstract: Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that cardiac pathology and progressive atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus occurred already at the stage of prediabetes. Obesity and insulin resistance affect cardiometabolic health due to pleiotropic effects of insulin. Despite the vast range of research, some aspects remain hidden links in the overall pathogenesis of metabolic and hemodynamic disorders. The aim of the work was to study the morphofunctional state of pancreatic islets (PIs), beta- and amylin-producing cells in male rats of Wistar strain (normotensive) and SHR (with spontaneous development of hypertension) in age dynamics. Materials and methods. The study was carried out using 38 male Wistar rats and SHRs aged 7 and 24 months. Non-invasive blood pressure (BP) detection procedures were done using the BP-2000 Blood Pressure Analysis System. The morphofunctional state of PIs was examined in serial 5-μm thick pancreatic tissue sections. Beta- and amylin-producing cells were detected after histological preprocessing and the use of monoclonal FITC-conjugated antibodies. Image file processing was done via ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, USA). Levels of glycemia were monitored with a SUPER GLUCOCARD-II glucometer. Results. SHRs were hyperglycemic both at 7 and at 24 months, 8.41 ± 0.15 mmol/l and 8.90 ± 0.14 mmol/l, respectively, with elevated BP, 155 ± 5 / 80 ± 5 mm Hg and 165 ± 5 / 90 ± 5 mm, respectively. Old SHRs developed PI hypertrophy mainly associated with the increased number and percentage of beta-cells, apparently in response to hyperglycemia. Both in the PIs of adult and old SHRs, the number of amylin-producing cells was lower while the content of amylin was higher than those in the age-matched Wistar rats. Conclusions. Male SHRs are characterized by a persistent increase in blood pressure and abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism already at adult age, one of the manifestations of which is hyperglycemia worsening with age. Chronic hyperglycemia in SHRs due to the higher insulin requirement finds its expression in low content of this hormone in the islets at adult age and decreased its content in beta-cells in old animals.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.286820
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Analysis of molecular mechanisms of the development of experimental
           diabetes in Wistar rats under conditions of intermittent hypoxia

    • Authors: T. V. Ivanenko
      Pages: 249 - 253
      Abstract: There is strong evidence that hypoxic training, within the context of diabetes, constitutes a specialized form of exercise performed under conditions of intermittent hypoxia. This approach holds promise for effectively managing and enhancing diabetes outcomes, as it has the potential to influence metabolism and physiological processes within the body significantly. The key elements of hypoxic training in diabetes encompass activities geared toward activating metabolic pathways, enhancing mitochondrial function, and regulating blood glucose levels. Such interventions can potentially lead to improvements in insulin resistance, a reduction in glycemia, and an overall enhancement of cardiorespiratory function. Hypoxic training achieves these benefits by heightening insulin sensitivity and reducing blood glucose levels, which can be particularly advantageous for individuals with diabetes. The aim of the work is to determine changes in the expression of genes associated with the course of diabetes under conditions of exposure to intermittent hypoxia in pancreatic tissue samples of Wistar rats. Materials and methods. Analysis of gene expression was used by the polymerase chain reaction method with reverse transcription in real-time using the RT2 Profiler™ PCR Array Rat Diabetes kit (QIAGEN, Germany), where the pancreas of experimental animals was studied. Results. According to the results of the PCR study of animals with experimental diabetes and the influence of hypoxic training on its course, the activity of the studied genes can be divided as follows: genes with low expression compared to the control group of animals, where ∆∆Cт <30 (Ace; Cd28; Ctla4; Dusp4 ; Enpp1; Foxp3; G6pc; Gcgr; Glp1r; Gpd1; Gsk3b; Hmox1; Ide; Ikbkb; Il10; Il6; Ins1; Nfkb1; Nkx2-1; Parp1; Pdx1; Pik3cd; Pik3r1; Ppargc1a; Ptpn1; Rab4a; Retn; Slc14a2 ; Snap25; Sod2; Stx4; Stxbp1; Stxbp2; Tnf; Tnfrsf1a; Tnfrsf1b; Ucp2; Vamp2; Vegfa); genes in which no significant changes were detected in the samples in relation to the control group (Acly; Adra1a; Adrb3; Agt; Akt2; Aqp2; Ccl5; Ccr2; Ceacam1; Cebpa; Dpp4; Fbp1; Foxc2; Foxg1; Gcg; Gck; Hnf1b; Hnf4a ; Icam1; Ifng; Igfbp5; Il12b; Il4r; Inppl1; Irs1; Irs2; Mapk14; Mapk8; Neurod1; Nos3; Nrf1; Nsf; Ppara; Pparg; Pygl; Sell; Serpine1; Slc2a4; Snap23; Srebf1; Stxbp4; Tgfb1; Trib3 ; Vamp3; Vapa); there are no genes with high expression compared to the control group. Conclusions. The Nkx2-1 genes, Pik3r1, and Slc14a2 in rats subjected to experimental diabetes displayed notably reduced protein expression activity. Hypoxic training demonstrated an impact on mitigating the expression of the Nkx2-1 protein, which suggests that it might affect the mitochondrial muscle respiratory chain, modulate insulin signaling, and potentially rectify molecular deficiencies associated with diabetic nephropathy. Expression of Dpp4 genes, Gck, Ifng, Mapk8, Nsf and Sell in rats with experimental diabetes and the effect of hypoxic training on it were reduced to the level of control (intact) rats. As a result of the normalization of Dpp4 gene expression, Gck, Ifng, Mapk8, Nsf and Sell may be the influence of the effects of hypoxic training on molecular mechanisms of regulation of hormones and signals related to metabolism and the endocrine system, effects on the immune system and inflammatory processes, as well as insulin resistance.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.287633
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Results of a clinical trial of humeral neck osteosynthesis with carbon –
           carbon composite material

    • Authors: M. L. Golovakha, V. V. Chornyi
      Pages: 254 - 259
      Abstract: The metals utilized in the production of various implants in traumatology possess all the required mechanical properties. However, these materials are susceptible to oxidation. Carbon-carbon composites, on the other hand, exhibit X-ray transparency and are easily machinable. Thanks to their intricate yet essential physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, they find effective application in osteosynthesis and endoprosthesis procedures for bone structures. The aim of this study is to comparative view of the treatment outcomes for patients with fractures of the proximal part of the humerus by carbon-carbon composite material plates and titanium plates. Materials and methods. In this study, a carbon-carbon composite material plate was conducted osteosynthesis of the proximal part of the shoulder. In the comparison group, a titanium plate was employed. The study group comprised 20 patients, while the comparison group included 15 patients. The analysis of the results was carried out utilizing the Constant–Murley scale and the Quick DASH questionnaire. Results. A comparative study of treatment outcomes between the main and comparison groups revealed a more significant positive treatment effect in the group that underwent osteosynthesis of the humeral neck by a carbon-carbon composite material plate. This effect was observed at the 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month evaluation points. It was characterized by reduced shoulder pain, alleviated dysfunction manifestations, enhanced daily activities, and improved overall quality of life among patients in this group. Conclusions. The analysis of long-term treatment outcomes for proximal humerus fractures, utilizing both carbon-carbon composite material plates and titanium plates, by the Constant–Murley scale and the Quick DASH questionnaire, demonstrated statistically confirmed improvements in shoulder joint function for both treatment methods.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.286567
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Epidemical process and aetiological structure of salmonelloses in the
           Zaporizhzhia region

    • Authors: N. M. Polishchuck, N. L. Kolycheva, A. S. Dehen, O. V. Melnikova, N. P. Kryazheva
      Pages: 260 - 264
      Abstract: The aim of the work is to conduct a comparative analysis of the salmonellosis epidemic process caused by non-typhoidal salmonellae in the Zaporizhzhia region for improving the system of epidemiological surveillance. Materials and methods. The retrospective epidemiological analysis of salmonellosis incidence in the Zaporizhzhia region was conducted using the annual reports from 2018 to 2022. The data sources included the “Report on Individual Infections and Parasitic Diseases” and “Infectious Morbidity of the Population in Ukraine”. The analysis employed standard statistical methods commonly used in medical research to evaluate the gathered results. Results. The findings suggest that the Zaporizhzhia region recorded a total of 1392 cases of salmonellosis between 2018 and 2022. Notably, the incidence rates for 2020 and 2021 significantly exceeded the national averages in Ukraine, while in 2022, there was a notable decrease of almost 2 times in the region’s salmonellosis incidence rates. Although adults accounted for the majority of cases (53.4 %), the prevalence of salmonellosis among children was alarmingly high. Among the pathogens causing salmonellosis, Enteritidis, Blegdam, and Typhimurium serovars were the most dominant. Notably, the region harbors salmonella strains that exhibit resistance to cephalosporins, ampicillin, and fluoroquinolones, reflecting concerns over antibiotic resistance patterns. Conclusions. The elevated prevalence of salmonellosis infection rates within the population of the Zaporizhzhia region underscores the pressing nature of the epidemic disease control challenge, particularly considering the heightened vulnerability of children. An additional threat to the epidemic’s well-being is the circulation of antibiotic-resistant salmonella.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.285476
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • On the issue of criminal liability in the national pharmaceutical sector:
           theoretical foundations and practical aspects

    • Authors: O. H. Aleksieiev
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: A separate segment in the activity of streamlining, stability, and protection of relations arising in the pharmaceutical sphere should be noted the state’s reaction to criminal offenses and, accordingly, the assessment of the actions of persons who commit such offenses. The aim of the work – is to study the current issues of regulatory and legal support of criminal liability in the pharmaceutical sector. Results. The theoretical nature of the criminal responsibility of pharmaceutical workers is revealed from not only legal but also social and moral positions. The legal basis for the status of pharmaceutical workers as distinct subjects of criminal activity is underscored. It has been proven that the object of crimes committed by pharmaceutical workers as a special subject is, first of all, social relations arising in the sphere of human life and health protection; public health (public health); relations arising during the circulation of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, and precursors. Differences in terminology defining the object of pharmaceutical crimes are emphasized. Conclusions. The main aspects determining the problem of the qualification of crimes committed in the pharmaceutical sector of the healthcare industry were analyzed. From the standpoint of criminal law theory, the object, subject, objective, and subjective sides of pharmaceutical crimes were characterized.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.285957
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • External reference pricing for medicines in Ukraine: latest trends

    • Authors: L. I. Kucherenko, I. V. Nizhenkovska, N. V. Sholoiko, L. O. Hala, N. O. Datsiuk
      Pages: 272 - 276
      Abstract: Compared to the previous year, the share of healthcare expenditure in the state budget of Ukraine has decreased, which is associated with increased funding for the security and defense sector. In terms of gross domestic product, healthcare spending has reduced to 2.8 %, which corresponds to the figures for 2019. These circumstances indicate the importance of proper budget utilization, including effectively regulating medicine prices. One of the key elements of rational healthcare budget usage is the development and implementation of external reference pricing (ERP). A well-formulated and implemented ERP policy for pharmaceuticals contributes to improving patient access to essential medicines (EMs). The aim of this study is to analyze the current status of ERP implementation in Ukraine and provide recommendations for improving this policy. Materials and methods. During the research process, an analysis of the ERP’s current regulatory framework was conducted, and ERP implementation in Ukraine was assessed according to adherence to the 14 best practice principles of ERP proposed by Sullivan, Kanavos & Kalo in 2015. Results. In Ukraine, ERP has been introduced for medicines from the National Essential Medicine Lists (NEML) and the “Affordable Medicines” program. The Ministry of Health (MoH) of Ukraine has approved a Register of marginal wholesale prices for medicines purchased with state budget funds and subject to price regulation. Currently, the register includes 1239 medicinal products, of which 1233 are from NEML and 6 have undergone Health Technology Assessment (HTA). Approximately 58 % of medicines have a set price through ERP, 24 % are regulated by internal reference pricing (IRP), and nearly 18 % have declared prices. This indicates a lack of uniformity in approaches to price regulation for medicines and requires further improvements. According to the latest update of the Register of medicines for reimbursement under the state medical guarantees program, there are 486 medicines, including 72 insulins and 21 immunosuppressive medicines (184 medicines are provided with co-payment). Different approaches, including different reference countries and price calculation algorithms, are applied for the price regulation of medicines in NEML and the “Affordable Medicines” program. An assessment of the implementation of the ERP system in Ukraine based on the 14 best practice principles of ERP proposed by Sullivan, Kanavos & Kalo in 2015 showed that the current policy does not adhere to all principles. Conclusions. The analysis revealed different approaches to pricing for medicines NEML and the “Affordable Medicines” program, indicating the need for harmonizing pricing policies for different lists. The adoption of a unified positive list can contribute to improving pricing policies and efficient resource utilization. Collecting, disseminating, and exchanging data on drug prices is crucial to support transparency in pricing and its control. Regular monitoring of prices in the market will help ensure compliance with pricing policies and take appropriate measures in case of violations. The implementation of a unified pricing regulation policy for medicines in Ukraine is an important step towards European integration and compliance with international standards.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.287758
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • The role and place of the pharmacist-cosmetologist in the choosing and
           implementation of a cosmetology procedure for hair removal

    • Authors: N. O. Tkachenko, T. V. Mahanova, H. I. Makurina, N. V. Hrinivetska
      Pages: 277 - 283
      Abstract: In modern cosmetology, the issue of the availability of highly qualified specialists in accordance with the needs of the industry and the implementation of effective cosmetology procedures is acute, which actualizes research on the formation of a patient-centered model of providing medical and pharmaceutical assistance of aesthetic cosmetology. The aim of the work is to substantiate the role and place of the pharmacist-cosmetologist in the selection and provision of a cosmetology procedure for hair removal (CPHR) based on a conjoint analysis of consumer preferences for the specified service. Materials and methods. The main research material for this study included publications by both domestic and foreign scientists concerning aesthetic cosmetology services, consumer behavior regarding cosmetology procedures, professional competencies expected of a pharmacist-cosmetologist, as well as the results of a sociological survey conducted by the CPHR. The research methods employed in this study encompassed information search, synthesis, generalization, formalization, modeling, questionnaires, and regular conjoint analysis. Results. The most attractive methods of epilation were determined – electro epilation, elos epilation and laser epilation. It was established that the majority of consumers do not need a preliminary cosmetologist consultation, but want a consultation after. An algorithm for accompanying CPHR by a pharmacist-cosmetologist was developed. The relevant aspects of pharmaceutical care of CPHR were defined. Conclusions. The conducted conjoint analysis indicates that women are primarily focused on the effectiveness of CPHR (electro epilation, elos epilation, and laser epilation are considered the most effective) and its cost, and then – on the supporting component of the service. The specialist can offer the client (patient) the choice of a method and directly carry out the procedure, having knowledge and experience in diagnosing the condition of the skin and its appendages and understanding the specifics of CPHR against the background of the pharmacoeconomic analysis. The modern Ukrainian model of pharmacist-cosmetologist training allows marketing requirements and accompanying the customer at CPHR. Prospects for further research – formation of an information array and development of pharmaceutical care (assistance) protocols for a pharmacist-cosmetologist in various cosmetic procedures.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.286688
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
  • Mental health: current trends in pharmacy and new concepts

    • Authors: N. A. Bilousova, A. V. Kabachna
      Pages: 284 - 290
      Abstract: The implementation of the National Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP), which aims to broaden the management of patients with mental disorders in primary care, should involve not only primary care physicians but also pharmacists. Pharmacists play a crucial role by providing medications within the expanded Medical Guarantee Program for drug reimbursement in outpatient treatment of mental and behavioral disorders. Additionally, they offer pharmaceutical care for patients dealing with stress disorders and insomnia, adhering to the Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) standards. The aim of the work is the study of national information, scientific databases, and scientometric databases of Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library in order to identify, generalize, and systematize the source based on providing pharmaceutical care in the field of mental health care of patients and predicting the future vector of research on the specified topic. Materials and methods. General scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, and data generalization from domestic information and scientific databases were employed in this study. To search for scientific publications, the VOS viewer visualization program, the PubMed search engine, and the Cochrane Library were used. The keywords “mental health” and “pharmacy” were used for the search within the scientometric databases of Scopus and Web of Science. Results. The analysis of the main strategies for the development of pharmaceutical care for mental health care in pharmaceutical practice was carried out. The most researched clusters of mental health care were singled out. Modern trends in the development of pharmaceutical care for mental health care were summarized. Conclusions. The initiative for enhancing mental health care for the country’s population hinges on the principles of a novel, sustainable, patient-centered pharmacy model. This approach necessitates the realization of an expanded role for pharmacists, aligning with the standards outlined in Good Pharmacy Practice.
      PubDate: 2023-11-03
      DOI: 10.14739/2409-2932.2023.3.285412
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 3 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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