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Dysphagia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.99
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 206  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0460 - ISSN (Online) 0179-051X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Association Among Age-Related Tongue Muscle Abnormality, Tongue Pressure,
           and Presbyphagia: A 3D MRI Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Muscle aging such as sarcopenia adversely affects motor activities. However, few studies have elucidated the aging physiological mechanism of tongue concerted with the changes muscle composition. The present study aimed to examine the tongue composition changes to detect the effect of tongue fat mass on tongue pressure and swallowing function with aging. Twenty community-dwelling elderly without head and neck cancer, stroke, or neuromuscular disease and 20 healthy young were included. Tongue volume, tongue fat mass, tongue lean muscle mass, and tongue fat percentage were evaluated with 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Dixon MRI. Tongue pressure was also measured. Swallowing function among elderly individuals was assessed via videofluorography, which was evaluated using the penetration–aspiration scale (PAS) and normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS). Tongue fat mass and tongue fat percentage significantly increased with aging. The tongue fat percentage of elderly participants was 20%, which was two times greater than that of young participants. No significant difference was observed in tongue volume and tongue lean muscle mass. A significantly negative correlation was observed between tongue fat mass and tongue fat percentage as well as tongue pressure. Conversely, tongue volume was not significantly correlated with tongue pressure. Tongue muscle composition exhibited no effect in the PAS and NRRS. Increase of fat mass is a major change in tongue composition with aging, which is associated with low tongue pressure. Thus, attention must be paid not only to tongue quantity but also to the quality of tongue muscles.
      PubDate: 2020-08-02
       
  • Letter to the Editor: Notice of Errors in Three Previous Papers Reporting
           Measures of Hyoid and Laryngeal Position
    • PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Clinical Conundrum: Severe Oropharyngeal Dysphagia
    • PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Dysphagia in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
    • Abstract: Abstract Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is the most common Parkinson-Plus syndrome and is associated with early onset of dysphagia relative to Parkinson Disease. The current study contributes to the growing understanding of swallowing dysfunction in PSP by describing oropharyngeal swallowing characteristics in a large prospective cohort of participants with PSP employing a nationally standardized videofluoroscopy protocol and a disease severity scale developed expressly for PSP. Participants were 51 adults diagnosed with PSP. Each participant underwent a clinical interview and standardized videofluorographic assessment. Swallowing function was characterized with the Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Scale (MBSImP) and Penetration–Aspiration Scale (PAS). Variables of interest were participant-reported difficulties with liquids and/or solids; overall impression score for each of the 17 individual MBSImP components, as well as Oral Total Sum and Pharyngeal Total Sum; and PAS. Data were described with median interquartile range, counts, and proportions. Spearman’s rank correlations were calculated between MBSImP scores and participant-reported indices, FOIS, and PSP Rating Scale. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported difficulties with liquids, solids, or both, although fewer than 15% reported modifying consistencies. Videofluorographic findings included predominant oral phase impairments, including back and forth rocking motion of the tongue, delayed initiation of the pharyngeal swallow, and oral residue. Pharyngeal phase impairments were relatively infrequent and comparatively mild, with the exception of reduced tongue base retraction contributing to pharyngeal residue, and mildly disrupted laryngeal vestibule closure. Disease severity correlated significantly with oral (r = .0.42, p = .0.002) and pharyngeal (r = 0.41, p = .0.003) total sum scores as well as with the oral phase components of oral transport (r = .0.33, p = .0.02) and initiation of the pharyngeal swallow (r = .0.38, p = .0.007), and PAS for thin liquids (r = .0.44, p = .0.001). The PSP Rating Scale was not more strongly correlated with swallowing impairment than has been reported for other disease severity rating scales. Dysphagia is a common complaint of patients with PSP. The current findings corroborate and expand upon those reported in the literature, detailing relatively more frequent and more severe oral phase impairments and relatively spared hyolaryngeal excursion. Further research is needed to characterize the progression of dysphagia in PSP and to determine whether dysphagia varies in character or in rate of progression across variants of PSP.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Comparison of 125 Iodine Seed-Loaded Stents with Different Diameters in
           Esophageal Cancer: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, there are no recommendations or guidelines concerning the preferred diameter of esophageal stents for palliative treatment, owing to the lack of adequate evidence. We therefore conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether 18 mm stents would achieve a similar function of dysphagia relief with fewer complications and longer survival compared to 20 mm stents. Esophageal cancer patients who underwent 125 iodine seed-loaded stent placement with a diameter of either 18 mm (n = 103) or 20 mm (n = 54) were included at five hospitals in China. The stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to control potential confounding factors and bias that are inherent in a retrospective study. The primary endpoint was dysphagia relief. Stent-related complications and overall survival were assessed as the secondary endpoints. In the IPTW-adjusted analysis, no significant difference was found in the dysphagia score between the two groups either at 1 week after stent placement or at the last week before death. Despite a comparable rate of overall complications, there was a significantly lower incidence of severe retrosternal pain (15.4% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.013) and a trend toward longer survival (median survival, 176 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 209] vs. 109 days [92 to 126], p = 0.057) in the 18 mm group. An irradiated stent with a diameter of 18 mm showed a similar outcome of dysphagia relief to that achieved with a 20 mm diameter stent, but halved the incidence of retrosternal pain after stent placement.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Use of the Penetration-Aspiration Scale in Dysphagia Research: A
           Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Abstract The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) is an 8-point scale used to characterize the depth and response to airway invasion during videofluoroscopy. Though widely used in the field of deglutition, there is a lack of consensus regarding the statistical properties of the scale. In order to better understand the state of the literature and the statistical use of the PAS, a systematic review was undertaken to descriptively examine trends in statistical and reporting practices of the PAS since its inception. Online databases were searched for studies citing the original PAS article, which yielded 754 unique articles. Of these, 183 studies were included in the review. Results showed inconsistencies in the statistical use of the scale; 79 studies treated the PAS as ordinal, 71 as categorical, and 49 as interval. Ten types of categorizations were identified. Reporting of power analyses (9%), as well as inter- (26%) and intra-rater (17%) reliability, was uncommon. Among studies that administered multiple bolus volumes or consistencies, 55% reported PAS analyses at the participant/group level only. This review confirms the existence of discrepancies in the statistical treatment of the PAS. A lack of consensus among researchers limits comparisons between studies. The approach to handling this scale dictates the statistical tests used, potentially affecting results and interpretations. Consistent application of statistically sound approaches to PAS analyses is vital for the future of deglutition research.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Temporal and Sequential Analysis of the Pharyngeal Phase of Swallowing in
           Poststroke Patients
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of the temporal and sequential events of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in 45 poststroke patients who presented or did not present with supraglottic penetration and/or laryngotracheal aspiration and to compare the groups with each other and to a group of 46 patients with normal swallowing. All individuals were assessed by videofluoroscopy and the temporal and sequential measures for the swallowing of 3 mL and 5 mL of thickened liquid, 3 mL of liquid, and 3 mL and 5 mL of pasty were obtained by analyzing the recorded exams on Virtual Dub software. The following events were measured: time of maximal displacement and sustaining of the hyoid and larynx, duration of velopharyngeal sphincter (VS) and supraglottic closure, total inversion time of the epiglottis, duration of pharyngeal constriction, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. For the analysis of the temporal sequence, the initial time of larynx and hyoid elevation, VS closure, epiglottic inversion, supraglottic closure, pharyngeal constriction, and opening of the UES were obtained. For 5 mL of thickened liquid, the maximum hyoid elevation time was greater for patients with normal swallowing and the time the supraglottis remained closed was higher in the aspirators group. The time of pharyngeal constriction during swallowing of 3 mL of thickened liquid was lower in the aspirators group. During the swallowing of 3 mL of thin liquid, it was observed that in the aspirators group, the larynx took longer to reach its maximum elevation and the epiglottis took longer to complete its total inversion. The analysis of the temporal sequence showed that patients in the aspirators group presented greater disorganization with significant alteration of the time interval between the events.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • A Novel Method Using Kinesiology Taping for the Activation of Suprahyoid
           Muscles in Healthy Adults: A Preliminary Research
    • Abstract: Abstract The suprahyoid muscles play a major role in safe swallowing in the pharyngeal phase. Therefore, it is clinically important to design a therapeutic approach for strengthening the suprahyoid muscles for safe and normal swallowing. This study aimed to investigate the activation of suprahyoid muscles by resistance training using kinesiology taping (KT). We enrolled 23 healthy adults. All participants performed saliva swallowing five times at 5 s intervals in three conditions (without KT, 50% stretch with KT, and 80% stretch with KT). KT in the I and reverse V shapes was pulled vertically from the hyolaryngeal complex to the sternum and medially from the superior surface of the clavicle, respectively. Another KT horizontally covered the hyolaryngeal complex to enhance the movement restriction of the hyolaryngeal complex during swallowing. Activation of the suprahyoid muscles during swallowing in the two conditions was measured using surface electromyography. In addition, a 0–10 numerical rating self-report scale was used to evaluate the required effort and the resistance felt during swallowing. Both KT 50% and 80% were significantly higher in surface electromyography (sEMG) mean value, peak value, required effort, and resistance felt during swallowing compared to normal swallowing (p < 0.05). In addition, KT 80% was significantly higher in sEMG value, peak value, required effort, and resistance felt during swallowing than KT 50% (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that KT applied to the area under the hyolaryngeal complex improves activation of the suprahyoid muscle during swallowing. Therefore, KT applied as resistance during swallowing is considered to have therapeutic potential in dysphagia rehabilitation.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Presbyphagia Diagnostics Using M-Mode Ultrasound: Changes in the Tongue
           Movement Pattern
    • Abstract: Abstract Age-related physiological changes of the swallowing act impair particularly the oral phase and the tongue function, which is very important for bolus preparation and transfer. At present, there are no easily applicable methods for measurement of this phase of swallowing. This study was designed to investigate the deglutitive tongue movement by M-mode ultrasound and to compare the collected parameters of different age groups. In this exploratory prospective study, the tongue and its movements of 20 younger and 30 older women were examined during swallowing by B-mode and M-mode ultrasound. Preexisting dysphagia or malnutrition as well as psychic or neurological deficits were excluded by clinical examination and screening with the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Barthel Index. The data were compared with each other and statistically analyzed. With increasing age, a change in the tongue movement pattern becomes apparent. In the group of older women, the vertical lingual movement had a smaller amplitude (p < 0.001) and a shorter time to the maximum amplitude (p < 0.03) than in the group of younger women. However, there were no differences in the tongue diameter (p > 0.4). The tongue movement pattern appears to be subject to age-specific changes, in contrast to anatomy. The use of M-mode ultrasonography is an easy, radiation-free and cost-effective method for the assessment of the oral phase of swallowing. Limitations are the widely scattered values of the ultrasound findings. Further studies are needed for validation and definition of standard values for this promising method.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Impaired Movement Scaling and Reduced Synchrony with Vestibule Closure
           Characterize Swallowing in Severe Dysphagia
    • Abstract: Abstract The contribution of hyoid and laryngeal movement deficits to penetration or aspiration in dysphagia is unclear, partly due to large variations in normal hyolaryngeal kinematics for swallowing. In healthy volunteers, laryngeal and hyoid kinematics relate to the requirements for laryngeal vestibule closure suggesting a central schematic control of movement magnitude and patterning for airway protection. Our first aim was to determine if patients with severe dysphagia showed evidence of an impaired swallowing schema, by examining if their kinematic measures were related to their hyolaryngeal space before swallow onset, and if hyolaryngeal movement synchrony for vestibule closure was disrupted. Our second aim was to determine the kinematic measures that predicted bolus penetration and aspiration in dysphagia. The methods included two-dimensional measures of the hyoid and laryngeal anterior and superior displacement and velocity, and the change in laryngeal vestibule area made from videofluoroscopic swallow recordings of 21 healthy volunteers and 21 patients with dysphagia on tube feeding secondary to the stroke or head and neck cancer. The results demonstrated that the patients did not adapt their hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing to their initial hyolaryngeal space. Further, none of the patients’ measures of hyoid or laryngeal peak velocity timing were synchronized with vestibule closure, demonstrating a disorganized movement patterning. Laryngeal elevation peak velocity independently predicted penetration and aspiration. In conclusion, the central schema for swallowing patterning was disturbed, impairing the integration of kinematic actions for airway protection in severe dysphagia, while laryngeal peak elevation velocity predicted penetration and aspiration on patient swallows.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • The Swallowing Characteristics of Thickeners, Jellies and Yoghurt Observed
           Using an In Vitro Model
    • Abstract: Abstract Drinks and foods may be thickened to improve swallowing safety for dysphagia patients, but the resultant consistencies are not always palatable. Characterising alternative appetising foods is an important task. The study aims to characterise the in vitro swallowing behaviour of specifically formulated thickened dysphagia fluids containing xanthan gum and/or starch with standard jellies and yoghurt using a validated mechanical model, the “Cambridge Throat”. Observing from the side, the model throat can follow an experimental oral transit time (in vitro-OTT) and a bolus length (BL) at the juncture of the pharynx and larynx, to assess the velocity and cohesion of bolus flow. Our results showed that higher thickener concentration produced longer in vitro-OTT and shorter BL. At high concentration (spoon-thick), fluids thickened with starch-based thickener showed significantly longer in vitro-OTT than when xanthan gum-based thickener was used (84.5 s ± 34.5 s and 5.5 s ± 1.6 s, respectively, p < 0.05). In contrast, at low concentration (nectar-like), fluids containing xanthan gum-based thickener demonstrated shorter BL than those of starch-based thickener (6.4 mm ± 0.5 mm and 8.2 mm ± 0.8 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). The jellies and yoghurt had comparable in vitro-OTT and BL to thickeners at high concentrations (honey-like and spoon-thick), indicating similar swallowing characteristics. The in vitro results showed correlation with published in vivo data though the limitations of applying the in vitro swallowing test for dysphagia studies were noted. These findings contribute useful information for designing new thickening agents and selecting alternative and palatable safe-to-swallow foods.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • The Effects of Different Exercise Trainings on Suprahyoid Muscle
           
    • Abstract: Abstract Suprahyoid muscle activation and tongue pressure force play a critical role for swallowing function. In addition, dysphagia limit is one of most important factors indicating swallowing efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training sessions of three different exercises including chin tuck against resistance (CTAR), Shaker exercises and chin tuck exercise with theraband on suprahyoid muscle activity, anterior tongue pressure and dysphagia limit in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 40 years who scored below 3 points from Turkish version of Eating Assessment Tool (T-EAT-10) were included in the study, and all participants were divided into three groups randomly. Maximal suprahyoid muscle activations and dysphagia limit of participants were assessed by superficial electromyography. CTAR and chin tuck exercise with theraband increased the maximum suprahyoid muscle activation (p1 = 0.004, p2 = 0.018), whereas Shaker exercise did not increase maximal suprahyoid muscle activation (p = 0.507) after exercise training. CTAR and chin tuck exercise with theraband increased tongue pressure (p1 = 0.045, p2 = 0.041), while Shaker exercise did not increase anterior tongue pressure (p = 0.248). There was no statistically significant difference in dysphagia limits in three groups between before and after exercise training (p > 0.05). As a result, although CTAR seems to be the most effective exercise in most parameters, chin tuck exercise with theraband can also be used as an alternative to CTAR to improve suprahyoid muscle activity and tongue pressure.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Corrosive Esophageal Strictures: From Dilatation to Replacement: A
           Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Endoscopic dilatation is the recommended primary therapy for chronic corrosive esophageal strictures (ES), and surgery is reserved for failed dilatation. Through this study, we intend to analyze the efficacy and long-term outcomes of both endoscopic and surgical interventions in corrosive ES. A retrospective cohort analysis of patients with chronic corrosive ES, managed with endoscopic or surgical procedures at a tertiary teaching institute in North India from December 2009 to December 2016, was performed from a prospectively maintained database. The primary outcome measure was the absence of dysphagia following dilatation or surgery. During the study period, 64 patients with ES underwent surgical or endoscopic treatment. Associated gastric strictures and pharyngeal strictures were present in 39 (60%) and 22 patients (28.9%), respectively. The mean age was 28.8 years and mean BMI was 14.2 kg/m2. Acid was the most common corrosive substance. Endoscopic dilatation using Savary-Gilliard (SG) dilators was successful in achieving persistent symptom relief in 46 patients (71.8%) after a total of 358 sessions (mean number of dilatations were 5.2 ± 1.2) of dilatations over 2 years. The dilatation therapy failed in 18 patients (28.1%) including technical failures (15.6%), perforations (3.1%), refractory stricture (1.5%) and recurrent strictures (7.8%). Increasing stricture length (more than 6 cm) was associated with poor outcome of endoscopic dilatation (p < 0.001). Only eleven patients (17%) required esophageal replacement (resection: 0, bypass: 11) for failed dilatations including seven gastric pull-ups and four pharyngo-coloplasty. The stricture rate after surgery was 36.3% (4/11). The median follows up was 32 months. Endoscopic dilatation of corrosive ES is safe and effective therapy and should be the first-line therapy for these patients and surgery should be considered only in patients who have unsuccessful outcome following dilatation therapy.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Factors Contributing to the Preferred Method of Feeding in End-Stage
           Dementia: A Scoping Review
    • Abstract: Abstract Dementia is reported to be the overall fourth leading non-communicable cause of death, and accounted for almost two million deaths worldwide (3.5% of the total number) in 2016. Dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia secondary to dementia are the two most serious comorbidities. As the dementia progresses and the severity of an individual’s dysphagia increases, the question of whether to commence an artificial nutrition or allow a person to continue to eat and drink orally is raised, both having associated risks. The purpose of this study was to establish current perspectives regarding the method(s) of feeding being used or preferred, once an individual with dementia has reached the end stages of the disease and is unable to swallow safely and efficiently, and ascertain the reasons for the choice made. An online search was completed, and articles published in English available up to April 2018 were considered for inclusion. Hand searching inclusive of the grey literature was also completed to obtain the maximum amount of relevant information. The total yield numbered 1888 studies, and following exclusions, full text studies deemed suitable for review amounted to 18. Themes were generated during the review process, relevant information was extracted, and six main themes emerged: feeding method; aspiration pneumonia; mortality; malnutrition; ethical considerations, and religion. The review indicated that the preferred method of feeding in end-stage dementia was artificial nutrition, in most cases via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. However, despite the perceived advantage of providing artificial nutrition, no convincing evidence was found to support the use of tube feeding in end-stage dementia. In fact, initiating tube feeding was considered to have adverse effects such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition and expedited death. Longitudinal research regarding current practice is therefore indicated to establish an optimal procedure for individuals with end-stage dementia and dysphagia.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Patients’ Perspectives on What Makes a Better Care Experience While
           Undergoing Treatment for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Secondary to Head and
           Neck Cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract Patients’ perceptions on what makes a better care experience for head and neck cancer (HNca) have not been widely sought. Patients’ perceptions can play a crucial role in shaping quality care and client involvement. To investigate patients’ perspectives on what makes a better care experience while undergoing rehabilitation for oropharyngeal dysphagia secondary to HNca. Qualitative data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from eight patients after they had undergone rehabilitation for HNca. The data were thematically analysed by two researchers independently. Six themes, plus subthemes, were identified. These themes were Supportive network is essential; Reassurance from staff professionalism; Access to service; Using own motivation and resilience; Receiving the right information and Ongoing shock and adjustment. Results are discussed in context of the literature and clinical implications and future research are recommended. Collation of patients’ perspectives is valuable to increase insight into what makes a better rehabilitative journey for patients with HNca. Rehabilitation that is holistic, specialised and patient-specific is highly valued by patients with HNca.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Concordant Validity of a Digital Peak Cough Flow Meter to Assess Voluntary
           Cough Strength in Individuals with ALS
    • Abstract: Abstract Peak cough flow represents an important metric directly related to the physiologic ability of an individual to defend the airway or expel tracheal aspirate. Given the high prevalence of dysphagia and dystussia in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and recent findings that the expiratory phase of voluntary cough is significantly impaired in ALS individuals, we aimed to determine the reproducibility of an affordable, portable peak cough flow (PCF) meter for the assessment of cough production in individuals with ALS. 109 individuals with ALS completed voluntary cough testing using both the research cough spirometry equipment and a digital peak cough flow meter. Maximum peak expiratory cough flow rates were obtained from each device. Analyses included paired t test, Pearson’s correlation, and Lin’s concordance correlation to determine the degree of agreement and reproducibility between cough measurement devices (alpha = 0.05). Mean differences between peak cough flow test values (L/min) across instruments were not statistically significant (mean difference =  − 2.93; 95% CI − 18.67, 12.82; p = 0.713). PCF values obtained from the digital peak cough flow meter and the research cough spirometry equipment were strongly associated (r = 0.826, p < 0.000) and demonstrated a high level of agreement and reproducibility (ρc = 0.824, 95% CI 0.754, 0.876). These data validate the use of an inexpensive and portable digital peak cough flow device to index peak cough flow strength in individuals with ALS. This assessment could easily be incorporated into a multidisciplinary ALS clinical setting to index the physiologic ability of an individual to protect the airway.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Dysphagia Prevalence, Attitudes, and Related Quality of Life in Patients
           with Multiple Sclerosis
    • Abstract: Abstract Dysphagia in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with significant morbidity and has profound impact on the quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to analyze the dysphagia prevalence, attitudes, and dysphagia-related QoL in patients with MS, not at relapse. A prospective study of 108 consecutively recruited patients. The patients were asked to report dysphagia and completed a general dysphagia questionnaire (the Eating Assessment Tool-10, EAT-10), a disease-specific dysphagia questionnaire (the Dysphagia in Multiple Sclerosis, DYMUS), and a dysphagia-related QoL questionnaire (the Swallowing-Quality of Life). Twenty-six percent of the patients reported dysphagia. Many more were classified as dysphagic by the questionnaires (34.3% by EAT-10 and 44.4% by DYMUS). Overall, one out of four patients reported difficulties or choking while drinking fluids and eating food, cough related to eating, food sticking in the throat, need for food and drink segmentation, and repetitive swallows. The pleasure of eating was found to be moderately affected. The patients seem to cope well with the psychological and social impact of dysphagia. Serious consideration must be given to patients’ perceptions and attitudes towards dysphagia. Our patients reported very little fear associated with their swallowing difficulties and choking. Apparently, they do not perceive the severity of their symptoms as an actual danger, as they have developed coping strategies. Dysphagia is common in MS patients not at relapse, even with mild disease-related impairment. Swallowing should be systematically assessed with validated questionnaires in all patients with MS at the course of the disease.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Impact of Multiple Texture-Modified Diets on Oral Intake and Nutritional
           Status in Older Patients with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Texture-modified diets (TMD) is often used in clinical practices for the treatment and prevention of pneumonia. However, it is unclear how stages of TMD affect the swallowing ability and nutritional status in patients with pneumonia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the various stages of TMD and swallowing ability and nutritional status in older inpatients with pneumonia. In this retrospective cohort study, data for patients aged ≥ 65 years with pneumonia were obtained from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database. We performed coarsened exact matching with Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) on admission. Ultimately, 218 patients (mean age 82.9 ± 9.8 years) were included and divided into two groups based on the stages of TMD in the facility: multiple TMD (M-TMD) group (stages of TMD ≥ 6) and control group (stages of TMD < 6). The main outcome was the rate of improvement in the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) and the maintenance or improvement in the MNA-SF score. We used the within-hospital correction with generalized estimation equations that are commonly used to analyze clustered data while correcting for confounding factors by clustering. Multivariate multiple logistic analysis showed that M-TMD was independently associated with FILS improvement rate and the maintenance or improvement in the MNA-SF score (odds ratio [OR] 3.252; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.602–6.601; p = 0.001 and OR 1.873; 95% CI 1.054–3.330; p = 0.032, respectively). M-TMD in the facility was associated with the maintenance or improvement in swallowing ability and the nutritional status of patients with pneumonia.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Elicitation of the Swallowing Reflex by Esophageal Stimulation in Healthy
           Subjects: An Evaluation Using High-Resolution Manometry
    • Abstract: Abstract The purposes of this human study using high-resolution manometry were to verify whether the swallowing reflex can be evoked by intra-esophageal fluid injection and whether the reflex latency and manometric variables differ depending on the injected location, amount, or speed. Ten healthy individuals participated in this study. The tip of the intranasal catheter for injection was placed at 5 cm (upper), 10 cm (upper-middle), 15 cm (lower-middle), or 20 cm (lower) from the distal end of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). An intra-esophageal injection of 3 mL or 10 mL of thickened water was administered and controlled at 3 mL/s or 10 mL/s. Latencies from the start of the injection to the onset of UES relaxation were compared regarding injection locations, amounts, and rates. Manometric variables of intra-esophageal injection and voluntary swallowing were compared. The latency became shorter when the upper region was injected. Latency after the 10-mL injection was shorter than that after the 3-mL injection (p < 0.01) when faster injection (10 mL/s) was used. Faster injection induced shorter latency (p < 0.01) when a larger volume (10 mL) was injected. Pre-maximum and post-maximum UES pressures during voluntary swallowing or during spontaneous swallowing when injecting the upper esophageal region were significantly higher than spontaneous swallowing at other regions (p < 0.01). Intra-esophageal fluid injection induces the swallowing reflex in humans. The most effective condition for inducing the swallowing reflex involved a larger fluid amount with a faster injection rate in the upper esophagus.
      PubDate: 2020-08-01
       
  • Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Aspiration Pneumonia Following Coronavirus
           Disease 2019: A Case Report
    • Abstract: Abstract Cranial nerve involvement is a finding often observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during the pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To our knowledge, this is the first report of oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with COVID-19. A 70-year-old male developed dysphagia and consequent aspiration pneumonia during recovery from severe COVID-19. He had altered sense of taste and absent gag reflex. Videoendoscopy, videofluorography, and high-resolution manometry revealed impaired pharyngolaryngeal sensation, silent aspiration, and mesopharyngeal contractile dysfunction. These findings suggested that glossopharyngeal and vagal neuropathy might have elicited dysphagia following COVID-19. The current case emphasizes the importance of presuming neurologic involvement and concurrent dysphagia, and that subsequent aspiration pneumonia might be overlooked in severe respiratory infection during COVID-19.
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
       
 
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