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Journal Cover Advances in Space Research
  [SJR: 0.606]   [H-I: 65]   [363 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0273-1177
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Satellite thermal IR and atmospheric radon anomalies associated with the
           Haripur earthquake (Oct 2010; Mw 5.2), Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Awais; Adnan Barkat; Aamir Ali; Khaista Rehman; Waqar Ali Zafar; Talat Iqbal
      Pages: 2333 - 2344
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Muhammad Awais, Adnan Barkat, Aamir Ali, Khaista Rehman, Waqar Ali Zafar, Talat Iqbal
      The recent scientific progress in the context of earthquake forecasting reveals some key physical processes related to seismic activity. The lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling model provides a comprehensive mechanism to understand the underlying key physical processes. In this study, a precursory analysis was conducted for the shallow, moderate-magnitude Haripur earthquake (Oct 2010; Mw 5.2) bounded by two major water reservoirs, highlighting its significance. This precursory analysis was performed using the land surface temperature (LST) extracted from satellite (MODIS) thermal infrared data and atmospheric radon concentration recorded at Islamabad and Murree stations using radon monitors. A significant change in LST (4–8°C) was observed in the epicentral region 6 days prior to this event. In addition, a comparison was made between daily and five-year-averaged LST that further supports our results. The radon concentration also showed anomalous behavior 3–4 days prior to this particular event with crucial meteorological indicators in the safe limit. This abnormal behavior of both precursors prior to this event proposes a possible correlation with the local seismic activity. Moreover, the higher amplitude of radon anomaly at the nearest station (Islamabad) is also validating its local cause. The results presented in this study are very encouraging and stimulate the idea of earthquake forecasting using multi-precursory approach.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.034
  • Mapping diffuse photosynthetically active radiation from satellite data in
    • Authors: P. Choosri; S. Janjai; M. Nunez; S. Buntoung; D. Charuchittipan
      Pages: 2345 - 2354
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): P. Choosri, S. Janjai, M. Nunez, S. Buntoung, D. Charuchittipan
      In this paper, calculation of monthly average hourly diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using satellite data is proposed. Diffuse PAR was analyzed at four stations in Thailand. A radiative transfer model was used for calculating the diffuse PAR for cloudless sky conditions. Differences between the diffuse PAR under all sky conditions obtained from the ground-based measurements and those from the model are representative of cloud effects. Two models are developed, one describing diffuse PAR only asa function of solar zenith angle, and the second one asa multiple linear regression with solar zenith angle and satellite reflectivity acting linearly and aerosol optical depth acting in logarithmic functions. When tested with an independent data set, the multiple regression model performed best with a higher coefficient of variance R2 (0.78 vs. 0.70), lower root mean square difference (RMSD) (12.92% vs. 13.05%) and the same mean bias difference (MBD) of −2.20%. Results from the multiple regression model are used to map diffuse PAR throughout the country as monthly averages of hourly data.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.001
  • Comparison of Landsat-8, ASTER and Sentinel 1 satellite remote sensing
           data in automatic lineaments extraction: A case study of Sidi
           Flah-Bouskour inlier, Moroccan Anti Atlas
    • Authors: Zakaria Adiri; Abderrazak El Harti; Amine Jellouli; Rachid Lhissou; Lhou Maacha; Mohamed Azmi; Mohamed Zouhair; El Mostafa Bachaoui
      Pages: 2355 - 2367
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Zakaria Adiri, Abderrazak El Harti, Amine Jellouli, Rachid Lhissou, Lhou Maacha, Mohamed Azmi, Mohamed Zouhair, El Mostafa Bachaoui
      Certainly, lineament mapping occupies an important place in several studies, including geology, hydrogeology and topography etc. With the help of remote sensing techniques, lineaments can be better identified due to strong advances in used data and methods. This allowed exceeding the usual classical procedures and achieving more precise results. The aim of this work is the comparison of ASTER, Landsat-8 and Sentinel 1 data sensors in automatic lineament extraction. In addition to image data, the followed approach includes the use of the pre-existing geological map, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as well as the ground truth. Through a fully automatic approach consisting of a combination of edge detection algorithm and line-linking algorithm, we have found the optimal parameters for automatic lineament extraction in the study area. Thereafter, the comparison and the validation of the obtained results showed that the Sentinel 1 data are more efficient in restitution of lineaments. This indicates the performance of the radar data compared to those optical in this kind of study.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.006
  • Precipitable water vapor characterization in the coastal regions of China
           based on ground-based GPS
    • Authors: Zhaoyang Wang; Xinghua Zhou; Yanxiong Liu; Dongxu Zhou; Huayi Zhang; Weikang Sun
      Pages: 2368 - 2378
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Zhaoyang Wang, Xinghua Zhou, Yanxiong Liu, Dongxu Zhou, Huayi Zhang, Weikang Sun
      Water vapor plays an important role in climate change; thus, studying the spatial distribution and temporal variation of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in the coastal regions of China would help researchers to understand the climate characteristics of those regions. In this paper, 6-year 1-h interval PWV were derived from 27 Global Positioning System stations observations of Chinese coastal GPS observation network, surface meteorological data and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-Interim) reanalysis products. The present study provides the use of these data to investigate the spatial-temporal variability of water vapor throughout the coastal regions of China. Latitude is the main factor affecting the spatial distribution of GPS-derived PWV; that is, PWV decreased by about 1.5mm for each 1° increase of latitude. For regions at the same latitude, a region that is relatively close to the ocean will have a higher content of PWV. The PWV in the southeastern and southwestern coastal regions of China is significantly higher in summer; this may be influenced by the southeastern and southwestern water vapor inflow corridors. The PWV obviously varies monthly, reaching a minimum in January; however, the timing of the maximum varied but usually appeared in June, July or August and was affected by the monsoons. The PWV varies largely between summer and winter with a larger gradient of change in PWV with latitude in winter than in summer. The positive correlation coefficient between PWV and the surface temperature varied in different seasons; this is related to the changes of temperature and the horizontal motion of water vapor. Use of the Fast Fourier Transform method showed that the PWV time series data have multi-scale characteristics. The amplitude and phase of the PWV time series in annual, semiannual, four month and seasonal cycles were extracted through harmonic wave analysis. The amplitude of four month and seasonal cycles did not pass significance testing. The maximum amplitude of the annual PWV cycle is located in mid-latitudes with 22.09mm, which gradually decreases towards high latitude and equator area. The peak time of annual PWV cycle occurs in July, which does not agree with the timing of the maximum monthly average PWV. The semiannual cycle amplitudes is between 0.42 and 6.32mm, with no significant correlation between their distribution and latitude. The peak time of semiannual PWV cycles is during about January–March and July–September, and the peak time gradually becomes late from north to south.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.017
  • A further contribution to the seasonal variation of weighted mean
    • Authors: Maohua Ding; Wusheng Hu
      Pages: 2414 - 2422
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Maohua Ding, Wusheng Hu
      The weighted mean temperature Tm is a variable parameter in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology and the Askne-Nordius zenith wet delay (ZWD) model. Some parameters about the Tm seasonal variation (e.g. the annual mean value, the annual range, the annual and semi-annual amplitudes, and the long-term trend) were discussed before. In this study, some additional results about the Tm seasonal variation on a global scale were found by using the Tm time series at 309 global radiosonde sites. Periodic signals of the annual and semi-annual variations were detected in these Tm time series by using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. The annual variation is the main component of the periodic Tm in non-tropical regions, while the annual variation or the semiannual variation can be the main component of the periodic Tm in tropics. The mean annual Tm almost keeps constant with the increasing latitude in tropics, while it decreases with the increasing latitude in non-tropical regions. From a global perspective, Tm has an increasing trend of 0.22K/decade on average, which may be caused by the global warming effects. The annual phase is almost found in about January for the non-tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere and in about July for the non-tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but it has no clear symmetry in tropics. Unlike the annual phase, the geographical distributions of semi-annual phase do not follow obvious rules. In non-tropical regions, the maximum and minimum Tm of the seasonal model are usually found in respective summer and winter days while the maximum and minimum Tm are distributed over a whole year but not in any fixed seasons for tropical regions. The seasonal model errors increase with the increasing value of annual amplitude. A primary reason for the irregular seasonal variation in tropics is that Tm has rather small variations in this region.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.025
  • A novel constrained ambiguity resolution approach for Beidou attitude
    • Authors: Qingsong Li; Liang Zhang; Jie Wu; Dingjie Wang; Yi Dong
      Pages: 2423 - 2436
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Qingsong Li, Liang Zhang, Jie Wu, Dingjie Wang, Yi Dong
      This paper develops a novel approach to obtain the fixed ambiguity solution with orthonormal constraints for Beidou attitude determination. The approach extends the traditional attitude model by taking the attitude matrix elements as unknown parameters directly. The orthonormal property of the attitude matrix is used as constraints to assist in calculating the float ambiguity solution and its corresponding variance–covariance matrix. An iteration algorithm with the linearization of orthonormal constraints is developed to solve the nonlinear conditional extremum problem and a sequential filtering multi-epoch ambiguity resolution method is derived for real-time applications. Long-time static experiments with three antennas tracing Beidou signals are employed to demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that, compared to unconstrained ambiguity resolution, the proposed approach can improve the reliability of the integer ambiguity vectors for single epochs and can also decrease the time to fix for multiple epochs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.027
  • Ionospheric parameters as the precursors of disturbed geomagnetic
    • Authors: D.V. Blagoveshchensky; M.A. Sergeeva; A. Kozlovsky
      Pages: 2437 - 2451
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): D.V. Blagoveshchensky, M.A. Sergeeva, A. Kozlovsky
      Geomagnetic storms and substorms are the principal elements of the disturbed Space Weather conditions. The aim of the study was to reveal the ionospheric precursors that can be used to forecast geomagnetic disturbance beginning. To study the ionospheric processes before, during and after magnetic storms and substorms data from Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory was used (geomagnetic coordinates: 64.1oN, 119.2oE). In earlier works the Main Effect (ME) was revealed for substorms. It consists of the following steps: (a) the increase of critical frequency foF2 from its quiet median before and during the substorm growth phase, four-five hours before To moment that is the moment of the expansion phase onset, (b) the foF2 decrease to the level lower than its median just after To and until Te that is the moment of the end of the expansion phase, (c) the issue “a” repeated during the recovery phase (d) two bell-shape spikes in the cutoff frequency values foEs: first spike occurs three hours before To, second spike – during the expansion phase within the interval between To and Te. In the present work it is shown that ME manifestations can be used as precursors of magnetic substorms at high-latitudes (geomagnetic latitudes 50oN–65oN). In particular, the foF2 growth some hours before To can be used asa precursor of substorm development. The first foEs bell-shaped spike also can be used for short-term forecasting, two–three hours in advance of a substorm. Furthermore, the storms between 2008 and 2012 were studied. It was revealed that the similar ME also takes place in the case of magnetic storms but within the different time scale. More specifically, the first ME maximum in foF2 values occurs one-two days before the storm beginning and can be used as its precursor. In addition, the foEs spike takes place approximately ten hours before a storm and also can be used for the prediction of the storm beginning.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.013
  • Constrained optimal multi-phase lunar landing trajectory with minimum fuel
    • Authors: S. Mathavaraj; R. Pandiyan; R. Padhi
      Pages: 2477 - 2490
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): S. Mathavaraj, R. Pandiyan, R. Padhi
      A Legendre pseudo spectral philosophy based multi-phase constrained fuel-optimal trajectory design approach is presented in this paper. The objective here is to find an optimal approach to successfully guide a lunar lander from perilune ( 18 km altitude) of a transfer orbit to a height of 100 m over a specific landing site. After attaining 100 m altitude, there is a mission critical re-targeting phase, which has very different objective (but is not critical for fuel optimization) and hence is not considered in this paper. The proposed approach takes into account various mission constraints in different phases from perilune to the landing site. These constraints include phase-1 (‘braking with rough navigation’) from 18 km altitude to 7 km altitude where navigation accuracy is poor, phase-2 (‘attitude hold’) to hold the lander attitude for 35 sec for vision camera processing for obtaining navigation error, and phase-3 (‘braking with precise navigation’) from end of phase-2 to 100 m altitude over the landing site, where navigation accuracy is good (due to vision camera navigation inputs). At the end of phase-1, there are constraints on position and attitude. In Phase-2, the attitude must be held throughout. At the end of phase-3, the constraints include accuracy in position, velocity as well as attitude orientation. The proposed optimal trajectory technique satisfies the mission constraints in each phase and provides an overall fuel-minimizing guidance command history.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.016
  • Uncertainty analysis of reachable set for planetary entry using polynomial
    • Authors: Yuechen Huang; Haiyang Li; Jin Zhang
      Pages: 2491 - 2504
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Yuechen Huang, Haiyang Li, Jin Zhang
      Reachable set (RS) is a useful tool in assessing the flight capability of the entry vehicle with the given initial entry state and the required control and path constraints. The evolution of the RS under the effects of uncertainties of some important entry parameters is also beneficial to the mission design and analysis. The objective of this paper is to investigate the RS evolution under parameter uncertainties. It would be computationally intensive to compute all the elements of the RS, and therefore only the RS boundary (RSB) extreme points, which well characterize the RS, are considered. The method of tracking drag profile is employed to generate each point of the RSB. By parameterizing the random uncertainties and introducing random parameters in uncertainties, the uncertainty analysis problem of the RSB is converted to a stochastic trajectory approximation problem, which can be solved by the polynomial chaos expansion-based method. The evolutions of the RSB under uncertainties of initial flight path angle, lift-to-drag ratio and atmospheric density are illustrated by a specific Mars entry mission. With uncertainty analysis of the RSB, the robustness of deployment site selection and the satisfaction of path constraints under uncertainties can be quantified in the entry mission design, thus enhancing the safety, reliability and accuracy of entry missions.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.028
  • Trajectory design for a rendezvous mission to Earth’s Trojan
           asteroid 2010 TK7
    • Authors: Hanlun Lei; Bo Xu; Lei Zhang
      Pages: 2505 - 2517
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Hanlun Lei, Bo Xu, Lei Zhang
      In this paper a rendezvous mission to the Earth’s Trojan asteroid 2010 TK 7 is proposed, and preliminary transfer trajectories are designed. Due to the high inclination ( ∼ 20.9°) of the target asteroid relative to the ecliptic plane, direct transfers usually require large amounts of fuel consumption, which is beyond the capacity of current technology. As gravity assist technique could effectively change the inclination of spacecraft’s trajectory, it is adopted to reduce the launch energy and rendezvous velocity maneuver. In practical computation, impulsive and low-thrust, gravity-assisted trajectories are considered. Among all the trajectories computed, the low-thrust gravity-assisted trajectory with Venus–Earth–Venus (V–E–V) swingby sequence performs the best in terms of propellant mass. For a spacecraft with initial mass of 800 kg , propellant mass of the best trajectory is 36.74 kg . Numerical results indicate that both the impulsive and low-thrust, gravity-assisted trajectories corresponding to V–E–V sequence could satisfy mission constraints, and can be applied to practical rendezvous mission.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.09.020
  • Tube dynamics and low energy Earth–Moon transfers in the 4-body
    • Authors: Kaori Onozaki; Hiroaki Yoshimura; Shane D. Ross
      Pages: 2117 - 2132
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Kaori Onozaki, Hiroaki Yoshimura, Shane D. Ross
      In this paper, we show a low energy Earth–Moon transfer in the context of the Sun–Earth–Moon–spacecraft 4-body system. We consider the 4-body system as the coupled system of the Sun–Earth–spacecraft 3-body system perturbed by the Moon (which we call the Moon-perturbed system) and the Earth–Moon–spacecraft 3-body system perturbed by the Sun (which we call the Sun-perturbed system). In both perturbed systems, analogs of the stable and unstable manifolds are computed numerically by using the notion of Lagrangian coherent structures, wherein the stable and unstable manifolds play the role of separating orbits into transit and non-transit orbits. We obtain a family of non-transit orbits departing from a low Earth orbit in the Moon-perturbed system, and a family of transit orbits arriving into a low lunar orbit in the Sun-perturbed system. Finally, we show that we can construct a low energy transfer from the Earth to the Moon by choosing appropriate trajectories from both families and patching these trajectories with a maneuver.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.07.046
  • The motion and control of a complex three-body space tethered system
    • Authors: Gefei Shi; Zhanxia Zhu; Shiyu Chen; Jianping Yuan; Biwei Tang
      Pages: 2133 - 2145
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Gefei Shi, Zhanxia Zhu, Shiyu Chen, Jianping Yuan, Biwei Tang
      This paper is mainly devoted to investigating the dynamics and stability control of a three body-tethered satellite system which contains a main satellite and two subsatellites connected by two straight, massless and inextensible tethers. Firstly, a detailed mathematical model is established in the central gravitational field. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the established system are investigated and analyzed. Based on the dynamic analysis, a novel sliding mode prediction model (SMPM) control strategy is proposed to suppress the motion of the built tethered system. The numerical results show that the proposed underactuated control law is highly effective in suppressing the attitude/libration motion of the underactuated three-body tethered system. Furthermore, cases of different target angles are also examined and analyzed. The simulation results reveal that even if the final equilibrium states differ from different selections of the target angles, the whole system can still be maintained in acceptable areas.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.004
  • Modified empirical Solar Radiation Pressure model for IRNSS constellation
    • Authors: K. Rajaiah; K. Manamohan; S. Nirmala; S.C. Ratnakara
      Pages: 2146 - 2154
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): K. Rajaiah, K. Manamohan, S. Nirmala, S.C. Ratnakara
      Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC) also known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is India’s regional navigation system designed to provide position accuracy better than 20m over India and the region extending to 1500km around India. The reduced dynamic precise orbit estimation is utilized to determine the orbit broadcast parameters for IRNSS constellation. The estimation is mainly affected by the parameterization of dynamic models especially Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) model which is a non-gravitational force depending on shape and attitude dynamics of the spacecraft. An empirical nine parameter solar radiation pressure model is developed for IRNSS constellation, using two-way range measurements from IRNSS C-band ranging system. The paper addresses the development of modified SRP empirical model for IRNSS (IRNSS SRP Empirical Model, ISEM). The performance of the ISEM was assessed based on overlap consistency, long term prediction, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) residuals and compared with ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 models developed by Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). For IRNSS Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites, ISEM has shown promising results with overlap RMS error better than 5.3m and 3.5m respectively. Long term orbit prediction using numerical integration has improved with error better than 80%, 26% and 7.8% in comparison to ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 respectively. Further, SLR based orbit determination with ISEM shows 70%, 47% and 39% improvement over 10days orbit prediction in comparison to ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 respectively and also highlights the importance of wide baseline tracking network.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.020
  • Orbit determination of the Next-Generation Beidou satellites with
           Intersatellite link measurements and a priori orbit constraints
    • Authors: Xia Ren; Yuanxi Yang; Jun Zhu; Tianhe Xu
      Pages: 2155 - 2165
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Xia Ren, Yuanxi Yang, Jun Zhu, Tianhe Xu
      Intersatellite Link (ISL) technology helps to realize the auto update of broadcast ephemeris and clock error parameters for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ISL constitutes an important approach with which to both improve the observation geometry and extend the tracking coverage of China’s Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). However, ISL-only orbit determination might lead to the constellation drift, rotation, and even lead to the divergence in orbit determination. Fortunately, predicted orbits with good precision can be used as a priori information with which to constrain the estimated satellite orbit parameters. Therefore, the precision of satellite autonomous orbit determination can be improved by consideration of a priori orbit information, and vice versa. However, the errors of rotation and translation in a priori orbit will remain in the ultimate result. This paper proposes a constrained precise orbit determination (POD) method for a sub-constellation of the new Beidou satellite constellation with only a few ISLs. The observation model of dual one-way measurements eliminating satellite clock errors is presented, and the orbit determination precision is analyzed with different data processing backgrounds. The conclusions are as follows. (1) With ISLs, the estimated parameters are strongly correlated, especially the positions and velocities of satellites. (2) The performance of determined BDS orbits will be improved by the constraints with more precise priori orbits. The POD precision is better than 45m with a priori orbit constrain of 100m precision (e.g., predicted orbits by telemetry tracking and control system), and is better than 6m with precise priori orbit constraints of 10m precision (e.g., predicted orbits by international GNSS monitoring & Assessment System (iGMAS)). (3) The POD precision is improved by additional ISLs. Constrained by a priori iGMAS orbits, the POD precision with two, three, and four ISLs is better than 6, 3, and 2m, respectively. (4) The in-plane link and out-of-plane link have different contributions to observation configuration and system observability. The POD with weak observation configuration (e.g., one in-plane link and one out-of-plane link) should be tightly constrained with a priori orbits.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.024
  • The secular analytical solution of the orbital plane using
           Lindstedt-Poincaré method
    • Authors: Shengxian Yu; Changyin Zhao; Wei Zhang
      Pages: 2166 - 2180
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Shengxian Yu, Changyin Zhao, Wei Zhang
      Nowadays, the increasing amount of space objects makes the space so crowded that the satellites in orbit endure severe environment. Hence how to efficiently search and catalog these space objects becomes an urgent problem to be solved. In the paper, in order to contribute to this problem, the secular analytical solution of the orbital plane for medium and high orbit objects is studied. For medium and high orbit objects, the Earth’s oblateness and the lunisolar gravitational perturbations are considered. The double averaging method is used to first average the system. For small to medium orbit inclinations and small eccentricities, and then the differential equations can be rewritten in an expansion form. Combining the Lindstedt-Poincaré procedure and the solution for differential equations with special coefficients, the third-order analytical solutions can be derived step by step. Finally, two kinds of comparisons are carried out. One is the comparison between the analytical solution and the results derived by integrating the simplified model. It aims to verify the validity of these methods. The other one is the comparison with the integration results of the normal model to show the accuracy of the analytical solution. Both of the two comparisons results work well. The accuracy of the analytical solution can be maintained at the order of O ( 10 - 3 ) for the duration of 200yrs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.032
  • Electric field computation analysis for the Electric Field Detector (EFD)
           on board the China Seismic-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES)
    • Authors: P. Diego; I. Bertello; M. Candidi; A. Mura; I. Coco; G. Vannaroni; P. Ubertini; D. Badoni
      Pages: 2206 - 2216
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): P. Diego, I. Bertello, M. Candidi, A. Mura, I. Coco, G. Vannaroni, P. Ubertini, D. Badoni
      The floating potential variability of the Electric Field Detector (EFD) probes, on board the Chinese Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), has been modeled, and the effects of several structural and environmental elements have been determined. The expected floating potentials of the probes are computed considering the ambient ionospheric plasma parameter variations. In addition, the ion collection variability, due to the different probe attitudes along the orbit, and its effect on each floating potential, are considered. Particular attention is given to the analysis of the shadow produced by the stubs, in order to determine the artificial electric field introduced by instrumental effects which has to be subtracted from the real measurements. The modulation of the altered electric field, due to the effect on shadowing of the ion drift, as measured by the ESA satellite Swarm A in a similar orbit, is also modeled. Such simulations are made in preparation of real EFD data analysis performed during the upcoming flight of CSES.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.005
  • An electric field penetration model for seismo-ionospheric research
    • Authors: Chen Zhou; Yi Liu; Shufan Zhao; Jing Liu; Xuemin Zhang; Jianping Huang; Xuhui Shen; Binbin Ni; Zhengyu Zhao
      Pages: 2217 - 2232
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Chen Zhou, Yi Liu, Shufan Zhao, Jing Liu, Xuemin Zhang, Jianping Huang, Xuhui Shen, Binbin Ni, Zhengyu Zhao
      We investigate the electric field penetration of the lithosphere–atmosphere–ionosphere coupling (LAIC) problem to study abnormal seismo-ionospheric disturbance. By directly solving the LAIC electric field penetration model at the high-latitude region, we find that the additional current induced at the ground surface flows into the ionosphere completely and further generates an abnormal ionospheric electric field. Therefore, we reasonably suggest that the electric field penetration of LAIC at middle- and low-latitude regions can be solved from the perspective of the ionospheric electric field model. The current from the downward atmosphere is treated as the source term. The simulation results demonstrate the following principal findings: (a) for the high-latitude region, the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere does not change with height and the vertical electric field can be neglected; (b) for the middle- and low-latitude regions, the intensity of the total horizontal electric field increases with the latitude and the vertical electric field is more obvious at low latitudes; and (c) the penetration height of the LAIC electric field in the ionosphere is lower at low latitudes than at high latitudes. We also find that according to the diurnal change of the ionospheric conductivity, the most efficient time for electric field penetration is between 00:00 and 04:00 local time.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.007
  • Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection effects on thermospheric density as
           inferred from International Space Station orbital data
    • Authors: T. Mendaza; J.J. Blanco-Ávalos; J. Martín-Torres
      Pages: 2233 - 2251
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): T. Mendaza, J.J. Blanco-Ávalos, J. Martín-Torres
      The solar activity induces long term and short term periodical variations in the dynamics and composition of Earth’s atmosphere. The Sun also shows non periodical (i.e., impulsive) activity that reaches the planets orbiting around it. In particular, Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) reach Earth and interact with its magnetosphere and upper neutral atmosphere. Nevertheless, the interaction with the upper atmosphere is not well characterized because of the absence of regular and dedicated in situ measurements at high altitudes; thus, current descriptions of the thermosphere are based on semi empirical models. In this paper, we present the total neutral mass densities of the thermosphere retrieved from the orbital data of the International Space Station (ISS) using the General Perturbation Method, and we applied these densities to routinely compiled trajectories of the ISS in low Earth orbit (LEO). These data are explicitly independent of any atmospheric model. Our density values are consistent with atmospheric models, which demonstrates that our method is reliable for the inference of thermospheric density. We have inferred the thermospheric total neutral density response to impulsive solar activity forcing from 2001 to the end of 2006 and determined how solar events affect this response. Our results reveal that the ISS orbital parameters can be used to infer the thermospheric density and analyze solar effects on the thermosphere.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.016
  • Application of the IRI model to the HF propagation model with optimization
           of the ionosphere parameters to day-to-day variation
    • Authors: N.Y. Zaalov; E.V. Moskaleva; T.S. Burmakina
      Pages: 2252 - 2267
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): N.Y. Zaalov, E.V. Moskaleva, T.S. Burmakina
      The HF propagation model, North Ionospheric Model and Ray Tracing (NIM-RT) was developed and tested for a number of years by comparing measured vertical and oblique ionograms over a number of radio links (especially in high latitude area) with the simulated ionograms. The present paper extends the model in order to include: (a) Implementation of the data retrieved from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model into the software for radio channel modeling. (b) The algorithm for IRI data optimization to the real time condition. (c) Results of comparison between simulated and measured ionograms. Based on these updates, a new software tool called North Ionospheric Model with IRI and Ray Tracing (NIMIRI-RT) was developed, and a number of vertical ionograms corresponding to multiple ionospheric reflections was simulated. The vertical ionograms observed at various ionosondes were compared with the synthesized ionograms, generated by applying NIM-RT in conjunction with initial and optimized IRI data. The ionogram structure simulated by NIMIRI-RT based on the data retrieved from optimized IRI is more reminiscent to the observations than ionograms synthesized with the initial NIMIRI-RT without parameters optimization.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.018
  • Satellite remote sensing of fine particulate air pollutants over Indian
           mega cities
    • Authors: V. Sreekanth; B. Mahesh; K. Niranjan
      Pages: 2268 - 2276
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): V. Sreekanth, B. Mahesh, K. Niranjan
      In the backdrop of the need for high spatio-temporal resolution data on PM2.5 mass concentrations for health and epidemiological studies over India, empirical relations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and PM2.5 mass concentrations are established over five Indian mega cities. These relations are sought to predict the surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from high resolution columnar AOD datasets. Current study utilizes multi-city public domain PM2.5 data (from US Consulate and Embassy’s air monitoring program) and MODIS AOD, spanning for almost four years. PM2.5 is found to be positively correlated with AOD. Station-wise linear regression analysis has shown spatially varying regression coefficients. Similar analysis has been repeated by eliminating data from the elevated aerosol prone seasons, which has improved the correlation coefficient. The impact of the day to day variability in the local meteorological conditions on the AOD-PM2.5 relationship has been explored by performing a multiple regression analysis. A cross-validation approach for the multiple regression analysis considering three years of data as training dataset and one-year data as validation dataset yielded an R value of ∼0.63. The study was concluded by discussing the factors which can improve the relationship.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.008
  • Acceleration estimation using a single GPS receiver for airborne scalar
    • Authors: Xiaohong Zhang; Kai Zheng; Cuixian Lu; Jiakuan Wan; Zhanke Liu; Xiaodong Ren
      Pages: 2277 - 2288
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Xiaohong Zhang, Kai Zheng, Cuixian Lu, Jiakuan Wan, Zhanke Liu, Xiaodong Ren
      Kinematic acceleration estimated using the global positioning system (GPS) is significant for airborne scalar gravimetry. As the conventional approach based on the differential global positioning system (DGPS) presents several drawbacks, including additional cost or the impracticality of setting up nearby base stations in challenging environments, we introduce an alternative approach, Modified Kin-VADASE (MKin-VADASE), based on a modified Kin-VADASE approach without the requirement to have ground-base stations. In this approach, the aircraft velocities are first estimated with the modified Kin-VADASE. Then the accelerations are obtained from velocity estimates using the Taylor approximation differentiator. The impact of carrier-phase measurement noise and satellite ephemeris errors on acceleration estimates are investigated carefully in the frequency domain with the Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm (FFT). The results show that the satellite clock products have a significant impact on the acceleration estimates. Then, the performance of MKin-VADASE, PPP, and DGPS are validated using flight tests carried out in Shanxi Province, China. The accelerations are estimated using the three approaches, then used to calculate the gravity disturbances. Finally, the analysis of crossover difference and the terrestrial gravity data are used to evaluate the accuracy of gravity disturbance estimates. The results show that the performances of MKin-VADASE, PPP and DGPS are comparable, but the computational complexity of MKin-VADASE is greatly reduced with regard to PPP and DGPS. For the results of the three approaches, the RMS of crossover differences of gravity disturbance estimates is approximately 1–1.5mGal at a spatial resolution of 3.5km (half wavelength) after crossover adjustment, and the accuracy is approximately 3–4mGal with respect to terrestrial gravity data.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.038
  • Observations of Phobos by the Mars Express radar MARSIS: Description of
           the detection techniques and preliminary results
    • Authors: A. Cicchetti; C. Nenna; J.J. Plaut; D. Plettemeier; R. Noschese; M. Cartacci; R. Orosei
      Pages: 2289 - 2302
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): A. Cicchetti, C. Nenna, J.J. Plaut, D. Plettemeier, R. Noschese, M. Cartacci, R. Orosei
      The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005) is a synthetic aperture low frequency radar altimeter, onboard the ESA Mars Express orbiter, launched in June 2003. It is the first and so far the only spaceborne radar that has observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were collected on different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of sounding Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into its subsurface. MARSIS is optimized for deep penetration investigations and is capable of transmitting at four different bands between 1.3MHz and 5.5MHz with a 1MHz bandwidth. Unfortunately the instrument was originally designed to operate exclusively on Mars, assuming that Phobos would not be observed. Following this assumption, a protection mechanism was implemented in the hardware (HW) to maintain a minimum time separation between transmission and reception phases of the radar. This limitation does not have any impact on Mars observation but it prevented the observation of Phobos. In order to successfully operate the instrument at Phobos, a particular configuration of the MARSIS onboard software (SW) parameters, called “Range Ambiguity,” was implemented to override the HW protection zone, ensuring at the same time a high level of safety of the instrument. This paper describes the principles of MARSIS onboard processing, and the procedure through which the parameters of the processing software were tuned to observe targets below the minimum distance allowed by hardware. Some preliminary results of data analysis will be shown, with the support of radar echo simulations. A qualitative comparison between the simulated results and the actual data, does not support the detection of subsurface reflectors.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.013
  • The analytical and numerical approaches to the theory of the Moon’s
           librations: Modern analysis and results
    • Authors: N. Petrova; A. Zagidullin; Y. Nefedyev; V. Kosulin; A. Andreev
      Pages: 2303 - 2313
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): N. Petrova, A. Zagidullin, Y. Nefedyev, V. Kosulin, A. Andreev
      Observing physical librations of celestial bodies and the Moon represents one of the astronomical methods of remotely assessing the internal structure of a celestial body without conducting expensive space experiments. The paper contains a review of recent advances in studying the Moon’s structure using various methods of obtaining and applying the lunar physical librations (LPhL) data. In this article LPhL simulation methods of assessing viscoelastic and dissipative properties of the lunar body and lunar core parameters, whose existence has been recently confirmed during the seismic data reprocessing of “Apollo” space mission, are described. Much attention is paid to physical interpretation of the free librations phenomenon and the methods for its determination. In the paper the practical application of the most accurate analytical LPhL tables (Rambaux and Williams, 2011) is discussed. The tables were built on the basis of complex analytical processing of the residual differences obtained when comparing long-term series of laser observations with the numerical ephemeris DE421. In the paper an efficiency analysis of two approaches to LPhL theory is conducted: the numerical and the analytical ones. It has been shown that in lunar investigation both approaches complement each other in various aspects: the numerical approach provides high accuracy of the theory, which is required for the proper processing of modern observations, the analytical approach allows to comprehend the essence of the phenomena in the lunar rotation, predict and interpret new effects in the observations of lunar body and lunar core parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.014
  • Non-randomness of exponential distance relation in the planetary system:
           An answer to Lecar
    • Authors: Vladimir Pletser
      Pages: 2314 - 2318
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Vladimir Pletser
      One of the usual main objections against attempts in finding a physical cause for the planet distance distribution is based on the assumption that similar distance distribution could be obtained by sequences of random numbers. This assumption was stated by Lecar in a short article of 1973 that is still referred to nowadays. We show here how this assumption is incorrect.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.021
  • An innovative navigation scheme for Mars entry using dynamic pressure
    • Authors: Jianfeng Deng; Ai Gao; Hua Zong; Pingyuan Cui
      Pages: 2319 - 2331
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Jianfeng Deng, Ai Gao, Hua Zong, Pingyuan Cui
      Complete observability of dynamic system is a major concern of navigation in Mars precision landing exploration missions. It is demonstrated that, however, the current measurements used for navigation during Mars entry cannot guarantee the complete observability of the dynamic system. This paper proposes an integrated navigation scheme for Mars entry phase using the dynamic pressure and accelerations from inertial measurement unit (IMU). The dynamic pressure derived from the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), and the triaxle accelerations from IMU are integrated in a filter as navigation measurements to increase the dynamic system observability and perform state estimation on-board. Afterward, the perturbation of the dynamic caused by parameter uncertainties is built. In order to address the impact of perturbation on state estimation, an adaptive estimator based on modified mixture-of-expert framework is given. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed integrated navigation scheme can ensure the complete observability of the dynamic system, and the state estimation are converged with entry time after the dynamic pressure has built up.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.08.033
  • Concurrent Image-based Visual Servoing with Adaptive Zooming for
           Non-cooperative Rendezvous Maneuvers
    • Authors: Jorge Pomares; Leonard Felicetti; Javier Pérez; M. Reza Emami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Jorge Pomares, Leonard Felicetti, Javier Pérez, M. Reza Emami
      An image-based servo controller for the guidance of a spacecraft during non-cooperative rendezvous is presented in this paper. The controller directly utilizes the visual features from image frames of a target spacecraft for computing both attitude and orbital maneuvers concurrently. The utilization of adaptive optics, such as zooming cameras, is also addressed through developing an invariant-image servo controller. The controller allows for performing rendezvous maneuvers independently from the adjustments of the camera focal length, improving the performance and versatility of maneuvers. The stability of the proposed control scheme is proven analytically in the invariant space, and its viability is explored through numerical simulations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.054
  • An analytical model of prominence dynamics
    • Authors: Swati Routh; Snehanshu Saha; Atul Bhat; M.N. Sundar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Swati Routh, Snehanshu Saha, Atul Bhat, M.N. Sundar
      Solar prominences are magnetic structures incarcerating cool and dense gas in an otherwise hot solar corona. Prominences can be categorized as quiescent and active. Their origin and the presence of cool gas ( ∼ 10 4 K) within the hot ( ∼ 10 6 K ) solar corona remains poorly understood. The structure and dynamics of solar prominences was investigated in a large number of observational and theoretical (both analytical and numerical) studies. In this paper, an analytic model of quiescent solar prominence is developed and used to demonstrate that the prominence velocity increases exponentially, which means that some gas falls downward towards the solar surface, and that Alfvén waves are naturally present in the solar prominences. These theoretical predictions are consistent with the current observational data of solar quiescent prominences.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.035
  • Near-infrared study of open clusters Teutsch 10 and Teutsch 25.
    • Authors: D. Bisht; Shashikiran Ganesh; R. K.S. Yadav; Alok Durgapal; Geeta Rangwal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): D. Bisht, Shashikiran Ganesh, R. K.S. Yadav, Alok Durgapal, Geeta Rangwal
      The astrophysical parameters have been estimated for two unstudied open star clusters Teutsch 10 and Teutsch 25 using the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2 MASS ) database. Radius is estimated as 4.5 arcmin for both clusters using radial density profiles. We have estimated proper motion values in both RA and DEC directions as 2.28 ± 0.3 and - 0.38 ± 0.11 mas yr−1 for Teutsch 10 and 0.48 ± 0.3 and 3.35 ± 0.16 mas yr−1 for Teutsch 25 using PPMXL 1'-source=I/317 1 catalog. By estimating the stellar membership probabilities, we have identified 30 and 28 most likely members for Teutsch 10 and Teutsch 25 respectively. We have estimated the reddening as E ( B - V ) = 0.96 ± 0.3 mag for Teutsch 10 and 0.58 ± 0.2 mag for Teutsch 25, while the corresponding distances are 2.4 ± 0.2 and 1.9 ± 0.1 kpc. Ages of 70 ± 10 Myr for Teutsch 10 and 900 ± 100 Myr for Teutsch 25 are estimated using the theoretical isochrones of metallicity Z=0.019. The mass function slopes are derived as 1.23 ± 0.30 and 1.09 ± 0.35 for Teutsch 10 and Teutsch 25 respectively. Estimated mass function slope for both the clusters are close to the Salpeter value ( x = 1.35 ) within the errors. Estimated values of dynamical relaxation time are found to be less than cluster’s age for these objects. This concludes that both objects are dynamically relaxed. The possible reason for relaxation may be due to dynamical evolution or imprint of star formation or both.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.055
  • Radio Sounding of the Solar Wind Acceleration Region with Spacecraft
    • Authors: Oleg I. Yakovlev; Yuri V. Pisanko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Oleg I. Yakovlev, Yuri V. Pisanko
      Data from coronal radio-sounding experiments carried out on various interplanetary spacecraft are used to derive the empirical radial dependence of solar wind velocity and density at heliocentric distances from 3 to 60 solar radii for heliolatitudes below 60o and for low solar activity. The radial dependencies of solar wind power and acceleration are derived from these results. Summaries of the radial behavior of characteristic parameters of the solar wind turbulence (e.g., the spectral index and the inner and outer turbulence scales), as well as the fractional density fluctuation, are also presented. These radio-sounding results provide a benchmark for models of the solar wind in its acceleration region.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.052
  • Mission planning optimization of video satellite for ground multi-object
           staring imaging
    • Authors: Kaikai Cui; Junhua Xiang; Yulin Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Kaikai Cui, Junhua Xiang, Yulin Zhang
      This study investigates the emergency scheduling problem of ground multi-object staring imaging for a single video satellite. In the proposed mission scenario, the ground objects require a specified duration of staring imaging by the video satellite. The planning horizon is not long, i.e., it is usually shorter than one orbit period. A binary decision variable and the imaging order are used as the design variables, and the total observation revenue combined with the influence of the total attitude maneuvering time is regarded as the optimization objective. Based on the constraints of the observation time windows, satellite attitude adjustment time, and satellite maneuverability, a constraint satisfaction mission planning model is established for ground object staring imaging by a single video satellite. Further, a modified ant colony optimization algorithm with tabu lists (Tabu-ACO) is designed to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm can fully exploit the intelligence and local search ability of ACO. Based on full consideration of the mission characteristics, the design of the tabu lists can reduce the search range of ACO and improve the algorithm efficiency significantly. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithm in terms of optimization performance, and it can obtain satisfactory scheduling results for the mission planning problem.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.056
  • Estimating Arctic sea ice thickness and volume using CryoSat-2 radar
           altimeter data
    • Authors: Rachel.L. Tilling; Andy Ridout; Andrew Shepherd
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Rachel.L. Tilling, Andy Ridout, Andrew Shepherd
      Arctic sea ice is a major element of the Earth’s climate system. It acts to regulate regional heat and freshwater budgets and subsequent atmospheric and oceanic circulation across the Arctic and at lower latitudes. Satellites have observed a decline in Arctic sea ice extent for all months since 1979. However, to fully understand how changes in the Arctic sea ice cover impact on our global weather and climate, long-term and accurate observations of its thickness distribution are also required. Such observations were made possible with the launch of the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) CryoSat-2 satellite in April 2010, which provides unparalleled coverage of the Arctic Ocean up to 88°N. Here we provide an end-to-end, comprehensive description of the data processing steps employed to estimate Northern Hemisphere sea ice thickness and subsequent volume using CryoSat-2 radar altimeter data and complementary observations. This is a sea ice processor that has been under constant development at the Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM) since the early 1990s. We show that there is no significant bias in our satellite sea ice thickness retrievals when compared with independent measurements. We also provide a detailed analysis of the uncertainties associated with our sea ice thickness and volume estimates by considering the independent sources of error in the retrieval. Each month, the main contributors to the uncertainty are snow depth and snow density, which suggests that a crucial next step in Arctic sea ice research is to develop improved estimates of snow loading. In this paper we apply our theory and methods solely to CryoSat-2 data in the Northern Hemisphere. However, they may act as a guide to developing a sea ice processing system for satellite radar altimeter data over the Southern Hemisphere, and from other Polar orbiting missions.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.051
  • Study of seasonal and long-term vertical deformation in Nepal based on GPS
           and GRACE observations
    • Authors: Tengxu Zhang; WenBin Shen; Yuanjin Pan; Wei Luan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Tengxu Zhang, WenBin Shen, Yuanjin Pan, Wei Luan
      Lithospheric deformation signal can be detected by combining data from continuous global positioning system (CGPS) and satellite observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). In this paper, we use 2.5- to 19-year-long time series from 35 CGPS stations to estimate vertical deformation rates in Nepal, which is located in the southern side of the Himalaya. GPS results were compared with GRACE observations. Principal component analysis was conducted to decompose the time series into three-dimensional principal components (PCs) and spatial eigenvectors. The top three high-order PCs were calculated to correct common mode errors. Both GPS and GRACE observations showed significant seasonal variations. The observed seasonal GPS vertical variations are in good agreement with those from the GRACE-derived results, particularly for changes in surface pressure, non-tidal oceanic mass loading, and hydrologic loading. The GPS-observed rates of vertical deformation obtained for the region suggest both tectonic impact and mass decrease. The rates of vertical crustal deformation were estimated by removing the GRACE-derived hydrological vertical rates from the GPS measurements. Most of the sites located in the southern part of the Main Himalayan Thrust subsided, whereas the northern part mostly showed an uplift. These results may contribute to the understanding of secular vertical crustal deformation in Nepal.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.049
  • Statistical analysis of the ionospheric ion density recorded by DEMETER in
           the epicenter areas of earthquakes as well as in their magnetically
           conjugate point areas
    • Authors: Mei Li; Michel Parrot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Mei Li, Michel Parrot
      Results of a statistical variation of total ion density observed in the vicinity of epicenters as well as around magnetically conjugated points of earthquakes are presented in this paper. Two data sets are used: the ion density measured by DEMETER during about 6.5 years and the list of strong earthquakes (M W≥4.8) occurring globally during this period (14764 earthquakes in total). First of all, ionospheric perturbations with 23∼120s observation time corresponding to spatial scales of 160-840 km are automatically detected by a software (64287 anomalies in total). Second, it is checked if a perturbation could be associated either with the epicenter of an earthquake or with its magnetically conjugated point (distance < 1500 km and time < 15 days before the earthquake). The index Kp<3 is also considered in order to reduce the effect of the geomagnetic activity on the ionosphere during this period. The results show that it is possible to detect variations of the ionospheric parameters above the epicentre areas as well as above their conjugated points. About one third of the earthquakes are detected with ionospheric influence on both sides of the Earth. There is a trend showing that the perturbation length increases as the magnitude of the detected EQs but it is more obvious for large magnitude. The probability that a perturbation appears is higher on the day of the earthquake and then gradually decreases when the time before the earthquake increases. The spatial distribution of perturbations shows that the probability of perturbations appearing southeast of the epicenter before an earthquake is a little bit higher and that there is an obvious trend because perturbations appear west of the conjugated point of an earthquake.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.047
  • VLBI Observations to the APOD Satellite
    • Authors: Jing Sun; Geshi Tang; Fengchun Shu; Xie Li; Shushi Liu; Jianfeng Cao; Andreas Hellerschmied; Johannes Böhm; Lucia McCallum; Jamie McCallum; Jim Lovell; Rüdiger Haas; Alexander Neidhardt; Weitao Lu; Songtao Han; Tianpeng Ren; Lue Chen; Mei Wang; Jinsong Ping
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Jing Sun, Geshi Tang, Fengchun Shu, Xie Li, Shushi Liu, Jianfeng Cao, Andreas Hellerschmied, Johannes Böhm, Lucia McCallum, Jamie McCallum, Jim Lovell, Rüdiger Haas, Alexander Neidhardt, Weitao Lu, Songtao Han, Tianpeng Ren, Lue Chen, Mei Wang, Jinsong Ping
      The APOD (Atmospheric density detection and Precise Orbit Determination) is the first LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite in orbit co-located with a dual-frequency GNSS (GPS/BD) receiver, an SLR reflector, and a VLBI X/S dual band beacon. From the overlap statistics between consecutive solution arcs and the independent validation by SLR measurements, the orbit position deviation was below 10 cm before the on-board GNSS receiver got partially operational. In this paper, the focus is on the VLBI observations to the LEO satellite from multiple geodetic VLBI radio telescopes, since this is the first implementation of a dedicated VLBI transmitter in low Earth orbit. The practical problems of tracking a fast moving spacecraft with current VLBI ground infrastructure were solved and strong interferometric fringes were obtained by cross-correlation of APOD carrier and DOR (Differential One-way Ranging) signals. The precision in X-band time delay derived from 0.1 second integration time of the correlator output is on the level of 0.1 nanosecond. The APOD observations demonstrate encouraging prospects of co-location of multiple space geodetic techniques in space, as a first prototype.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.046
  • Formation of Polymer Micro-Agglomerations in Ultralow-Binder-Content
           Composite based on Lunar Soil Simulant
    • Authors: Tzehan Chen; Brian J. Chow; Ying Zhong; Meng Wang; Rui Kou; Yu Qiao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Tzehan Chen, Brian J. Chow, Ying Zhong, Meng Wang, Rui Kou, Yu Qiao
      We report results from an experiment on high-pressure compaction of lunar soil simulant (LSS) mixed with 2-5 wt% polymer binder. The LSS grains can be strongly held together, forming an inorganic-organic monolith (IOM) with the flexural strength around 30-40 MPa. The compaction pressure, the number of loadings, the binder content, and the compaction duration are important factors. The LSS-based IOM remains strong from -200 °C to 130 °C, and is quite gas permeable.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.050
  • A holistic approach to SIM platform and its application to early-warning
           satellite system
    • Authors: Fuyu Sun; Jianping Zhou; Zheyao Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): Fuyu Sun, Jianping Zhou, Zheyao Xu
      This study proposes a new simulation platform named Simulation Integrated Management (SIM) for the analysis of parallel and distributed systems. The platform eases the process of designing and testing both applications and architectures. The main characteristics of SIM are flexibility, scalability, and expandability. To improve the efficiency of project development, new models of early-warning satellite system were designed based on the SIM platform. Finally, through a series of experiments, the correctness of SIM platform and the aforementioned early-warning satellite models was validated, and the systematical analyses for the orbital determination precision of the ballistic missile during its entire flight process were presented, as well as the deviation of the launch/landing point. Furthermore, the causes of deviation and prevention methods will be fully explained. The simulation platform and the models will lay the foundations for further validations of autonomy technology in space attack-defense architecture research.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T04:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.019
  • Ion production and ionization effect in the atmosphere during the Bastille
           day GLE 59 due to high energy SEPs
    • Authors: A.L. Mishev; P.I.Y. Velinov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research
      Author(s): A.L. Mishev, P.I.Y. Velinov
      The influence of high energy particles, specifically cosmic rays, on atmospheric physics and chemistry is highly discussed. In most of the proposed models the role of ionization in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays is not negligible. Moreover, effect(s) on minor constituents and aerosols are recently observed, specifically over the polar regions during strong solar particle events. According to the recent findings for such effects it is necessary an essential increase of ion production, specifically during the winter period. The galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the Earth’s stratosphere and troposphere. Occasionally, the atmospheric ionization is significantly enhanced during strong solar energetic particles events, specifically over the polar caps. During the solar cycle 23 several strong ground level enhancements were observed. One of the strongest was the Bastille day event occurred on 14 July 2000. Using a full Monte Carlo 3-D model, we compute the atmospheric ionization, considering explicitly the contribution of cosmic rays with galactic and solar origin, focusing on high energy particles. The model is based on atmospheric cascade simulation with the PLANETOCOSMICS code. The ion production rate is computed as a function of the altitude above the sea level. The ion production rate is computed on a step ranging from 10 to 30 min throughout the event, considering explicitly the spectral and angular characteristics of the high energy part of solar protons as well as their time evolution. The corresponding event averaged ionization effect relative to the average due to galactic cosmic rays is computed in lower stratosphere and upper troposphere at various altitudes, namely 20 km, 15 km, 12 km and 8 km above the sea level in a sub-polar and polar regions. The 24 h and the weekly ionization effects are also computed in the troposphere and low stratosphere. Several applications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T03:48:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2017.10.023
  • Examining the importance of endmember class and spectra variability in
           unmixing analysis for mapping urban impervious surfaces
    • Authors: Wenliang
      Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11
      Author(s): Wenliang Li
      Impervious surface is considered asa key indicator for evaluating urbanization intensity and environmental quality. For mapping impervious surfaces, spectral mixture analysis has been widely applied because of its effectiveness in addressing the mixed pixel problem. For spectral mixture analysis, endmember class and spectra variability have been recognized as profound error sources. In order to address these challenging problems, many techniques have been developed in recent years. While the proposed methods have proven valuable for mapping impervious surface fractions, the importance of endmember class and spectra variability in unmixing analysis is still not clear yet. In this study, I implemented five typical temporal mixture analysis models with different considerations of endmember class and endmember spectra variability. In particular, I evaluated the modelling performance of all five temporal mixture analysis models through visual examination and quantitative analysis. Furthermore, a detailed modelling performance comparison has been conducted for the overall area and both developed and less developed areas to examine the importance of endmember class and endmember spectral variability in unmixing analysis for mapping impervious surfaces. Analysis results suggest that all five proposed temporal mixture analysis models have achieved a promising performance for mapping impervious surfaces. Moreover, the performance comparison results show that the endmember class variability is more important for less developed areas and the endmember spectra variability is more important for developed areas.

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
  • List of Referees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 December 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 11

      PubDate: 2017-10-29T09:56:27Z
  • Revisiting the fuel-optimal four-impulse rendezvous problem near circular
    • Authors: Jing
      Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10
      Author(s): Jing Li
      This paper takes a revisit of the fuel-optimal four-impulse rendezvous problem near circular orbits. For coplanar impulsive rendezvous based on the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire (HCW) equations, the primer vector hodograph for an optimal four-impulse rendezvous is symmetric about the rendezvous time halfway and can be expressed as an analytical function of the third impulse time. By utilizing the associated necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality, the third and fourth impulse times are numerically determined. For practical applications, relations between the third and fourth impulse times can be well approximated as polynomial functions, which enable analytical formulas to obtain fuel-optimal four-impulse solutions. It is shown that analysis and derivations based on the HCW equations can be directly extended to the J 2 -perturbed fuel-optimal four-impulse rendezvous. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate and validate the obtained results.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
  • List of Referees
    • Abstract: Publication date: 15 November 2017
      Source:Advances in Space Research, Volume 60, Issue 10

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T12:49:22Z
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