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   ISSN (Online) 2161-4296
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Issue information - TOC
    • Pages: 377 - 377
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:34.52132-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.104
  • Verification of an Optimal Adaptive Filtering Algorithm for GNSS Antenna
    • Authors: Matthew Buchanan; Ying Chieh Chuang, Andrew J. O'brien, Inder J. Gupta
      Pages: 393 - 404
      Abstract: This paper presents experimental verification of an optimal adaptive filtering algorithm with zero antenna-induced biases for Global Navigation Satellite Systems adaptive antenna arrays utilizing Space Time Adaptive Processing. GPS L1 C/A-coded signals and unencrypted P-coded signals for multiple satellites were generated by a signal generator and transmitted inside an anechoic chamber along with strong narrowband and wideband interferers. The signals received by a six-element antenna were digitized and recorded for multiple interference scenarios and post-processed using antenna electronics and a GPS receiver implemented in software. The delay and carrier phase measurements made by the receiver for different interference scenarios using the optimal adaptive algorithm are compared to a reference solution to examine the antenna-induced biases of the algorithms. The results show that the optimal adaptive algorithm successfully prevented the array from introducing significant bias errors, even in the presence of harsh interference. Modifications and improvements to the original algorithm are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:34.228915-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.170
  • Performance of Two-satellite Aircraft Positioning using Passive Bistatic
           Altimetry and a Stable Frequency Reference
    • Authors: Shih-Wei Yen; Frank Graas, Maarten Uijt de Haag, Kuangmin Li
      Pages: 415 - 428
      Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) surface reflected signals have previously been studied for aircraft passive bistatic altimetry and remote sensing. In this research, GPS reflected measurements from a software-defined receiver (SDR) are used for aircraft passive bistatic altimetry and coasting with a Stable Frequency Reference (SFR) to continue navigation when only two GPS satellites are available. The research in this paper focuses on flights over water, a scenario in which the water causes strong reflected signals while alternate terrestrial radio navigation signals are generally not available. Theoretical clock and position error covariances are derived as a function of measurement error, satellite geometry, SFR stability, and GPS bistatic altimetry performance. This is followed by computer simulations and evaluations using flight test data to characterize the positioning performance. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:36.095686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.159
  • A Robust GNSS LOS/NLOS Signal Classifier
    • Authors: Roi Yozevitch; Boaz Ben Moshe, Ayal Weissman
      Pages: 429 - 442
      Abstract: GNSS signal classification to LOS and NLOS signals is of great value for conventional ranging-based and shadow matching algorithms. The most common attribute for performing this classification is the signal strength. Alas, such classification is often insufficient, in particular, in urban environments. In this paper, we present a novel approach for LOS/NLOS classification utilizing supervised machine learning algorithms. Provided with a sufficiently large labeled training set, the proposed approach is able to predict with high certainty (>85 percent) the satellites' visibility status in dense urban regions. This achievement was possible due to the vast raw measurements supplied for the algorithm and using sophisticated feature-selection techniques. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Navigation.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:32.606272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.166
  • The Effect of Correlator and Front-End Design on GNSS Pseudorange Biases
           for Geodetic Receivers
    • Authors: AndrÉ Hauschild; Oliver Montenbruck
      Pages: 443 - 453
      Abstract: GNSS satellite signal deformations cause individual biases in the pseudorange observable. These biases are typically mitigated by using external correction values. However, the biases are the result of the correlator's tracking response and thus depend on correlator and front-end design of the receiver. As a result, different receivers are likely to exhibit inconsistent biases, for which the available corrections may not be applicable. The residual errors lead to adverse effects for SPP and PPP applications with pseudoranges and can also hinder carrier-phase ambiguity resolution. Bias inconsistencies of modern GNSS receivers are studied in a zero-baseline test. Differential pseudorange biases between receivers are computed for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou satellites for all commonly tracked signals. The effects on pseudorange-based positioning applications and carrier-phase ambiguity resolution are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:33.515102-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.165
  • Overbounding False-Alarm Probability for a Chi-Square Monitor with Natural
    • Authors: Jason H. Rife
      Pages: 455 - 467
      Abstract: This paper presents methods for overbounding the false-alarm probability of chi-square monitors with natural biases. A significant example in navigation is the signal deformation monitor (SDM), which is a critical component of ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS) and satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) for GPS. The key contribution of the paper is a proof that a simple analytical bound for false-alarm risk can be guaranteed conservative, even in realistic circumstances, when the mean and covariance of the monitor's inputs are poorly characterized. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:33.081201-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.164
  • A Comparative Analysis of Adaptive Notch Filtering and Wavelet Mitigation
           against Jammers Interference
    • Authors: Luciano Musumeci; James T. Curran, Fabio Dovis
      Pages: 533 - 550
      Abstract: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers are vulnerable to the threats of unintentional interference generated by other communication systems and intentional interference known also as jamming. In particular, the intentional transmission of Radio Frequency (RF) interference with the goal of disrupting one or more of the received GNSS frequency bands can disrupt the operation of GNSS receivers over a wide target area. This paper provides a comparison between two interference mitigation techniques at the digital signal processing level. The traditional adaptive notch filtering has been compared with a more innovative technique based on the use of the Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD). Using simulated GNSS jammed scenarios and a software-defined GNSS receiver, results indicate the benefits of WPD relative to notch filtering. Further tests using love interference signals, and both a software and commercial hardware receiver, demonstrate the benefits of WPD in terms of signal quality and position domain metrics. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Navigation Copyright © 2017 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:34.562514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.167
  • Autonomous Vehicle Dynamic Model-Based Navigation for Small UAVs
    • Authors: Mehran Khaghani; Jan Skaloud
      Pages: 551 - 552
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:36.496014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.158
  • Sharpen the Correlation Peak: A Novel GNSS Receiver Architecture with
           Variable IF Correlation
    • Authors: Chun Yang
      Pages: 553 - 554
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:34.987885-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.171
  • Fast Precise Point Positioning: A System to Provide Corrections for Single
           and Multi-Frequency Navigation
    • Authors: A. Rovira-Garcia; J.M. Juan, J. Sanz, G. González-Casado, E. Bertran
      Pages: 555 - 555
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:36.012603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.172
  • Issue information - Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation
    • Pages: 557 - 557
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:36.058619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.105
  • Issue information - Individual Membership application
    • Pages: 559 - 559
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:36.572447-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.108
  • Issue information - Corporate Membership application
    • Pages: 560 - 560
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:35.674348-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.109
  • Issue information - Ion section officers
    • Pages: 561 - 561
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:35.078677-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.107
  • Issue information - Statement of Ownership
    • Pages: 563 - 563
      Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T03:28:33.014245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.88
  • Dependence of GLONASS Pseudorange Inter-frequency Bias on
           Receiver–Antenna Combination and Impact on Precise Point Positioning
    • Authors: John Aggrey; Sunil Bisnath
      Pages: 379 - 391
      Abstract: GLONASS pseudorange observations are affected by inter-frequency channel biases (ICBs) due to the frequency division multiple access (FDMA) satellite signal structure. This research estimated the GLONASS pseudorange inter-frequency channel biases using 350 IGS stations, based on 32 receiver types and over 11 antenna types over a period of 1 week, DOY 195 to 201 in 2013. An improvement of 19% and 1% was observed after calibrating out the pseudorange ICBs, in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, considering a 20-min convergence period. Two major contributions are presented. The first contribution is the presentation of the four different scenarios involving varying different receiver and antenna types and how that variability affects the characteristics of ICBs. Attention is also drawn to the characteristics of the Analysis Center (AC) satellite common mean errors. In relation to the antipodal nature of the GLONASS satellites, the correlation of the GLONASS frequency numbers with the AC-satellite common mean errors is addressed. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Navigation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T19:36:00.593595-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.168
  • GBAS Availability Assessment and Modeling of Ionospheric Scintillation
    • Authors: Takeshi Fujiwara; Toshiaki Tsujii
      Pages: 405 - 413
      Abstract: The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is promoting a research and development program named DREAMS (Distributed and Revolutionary Efficient Air-safety Management System) to contribute to the realization of next-generation air transportation systems. One of the most important targets of this program is a reliable, high-precision navigation system. This paper describes an investigation into the effects of ionospheric plasma bubbles on the availability of Ground-based Augmentation Systems (GBAS). Although the effects of ionospheric anomalies on GBAS integrity have been well researched, their effects on GBAS availability have not received much attention. Since ionospheric plasma bubbles occur much more frequently than the Storm-enhanced Density (SED) phenomenon in regions at low magnetic latitude, their effects on availability as well as on integrity should be investigated. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T18:40:59.031822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.160
  • GNSS Integrity in The Arctic
    • Authors: Tyler Reid; Todd Walter, Juan Blanch, Per Enge
      Pages: 469 - 492
      Abstract: Growing activity in the Arctic calls for high integrity navigation in this region. This can be achieved using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in conjunction with Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) or Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM). Single frequency GPS-only SBAS is in service in some regions today and is reliant on ground and space infrastructure. ARAIM will be more autonomous and will rely on the multitude of signals and core constellations coming in the future. Here, we examine both SBAS and ARAIM in the context of aviation and maritime requirements in the Arctic. Results demonstrate that the introduction of multi-frequency and multi-constellation to these systems enables navigation safety in the Arctic. SBAS brings aircraft precision approach as well as precise maritime operations such as mapping. ARAIM also supports precision approach in addition to autonomous ice navigation at sea but falls short of precision maritime requirements. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T08:32:39.386769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.169
  • Slant Range Analysis and Inflight Compensation of Radar Altimeter Flight
           Test Data
    • Authors: Philip Spiegel; Johann Dambeck, Florian Holzapfel
      Pages: 493 - 509
      Abstract: This paper introduces a highly detailed radar altimeter simulation model, considering geometric and signal processing aspects. The simulation model is deployed in a simulation environment for a better understanding of the different error sources of radar altimeters. To characterize the strengths and weaknesses of the altimeter simulation model, the simulation results are compared to recorded altimeter flight test data. A slant range compensation algorithm is introduced applying the altimeter simulation model inflight. The performance of the slant range compensation algorithm is shown on recorded flight test data of an octocopter trajectory as well as on a fixed-wing aircraft trajectory. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T19:15:48.073993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.163
  • Robust Unambiguous Estimation of High-Order BOC Signals: The DOME Approach
    • Authors: J.A. Garcia-Molina; M. Navarro-Gallardo, G. Lopez-Risueño, M. Crisci
      Pages: 511 - 520
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel unambiguous estimation technique of high-order BOC signals, dubbed the Double Optimization Multi-correlator-based Estimator (DOME). The DOME is a robust alternative to other unambiguous BOC estimation techniques found in the literature, being able to operate in harsh propagation conditions typical of urban environments, while fully exploiting the BOC signal properties. The approach followed consists of the solution of two parallel and dependent optimization problems in which N samples of the correlation function are exploited, solving the ambiguity problem at the same time that the high-order BOC accuracy is preserved. The preliminary performance assessment of the DOME in both controlled and realistic propagation conditions is presented, demonstrating the robustness and accuracy of the approach proposed. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2016-12-15T04:36:58.829393-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.162
  • Operational Scenarios for Maritime Safety in the Baltic Sea
    • Authors: Sarang Thombre; Heidi Kuusniemi, Stefan Söderholm, Liang Chen, Robert Guinness, Zbigniew Pietrzykowski, Piotr Wołejsza
      Pages: 521 - 531
      Abstract: The project Enhanced Situational Awareness to Improve Maritime Safety in the Baltic (BONUS ESABALT) studies the feasibility of data crowdsourcing among marine stakeholders in the Baltic Sea for enhancing maritime safety. This paper describes the system architecture, and by use of practical maritime scenarios demonstrates the system utility. These scenarios are categorized under maritime safety, intelligent navigation, and environmental monitoring with cross-border cross-sector operability. The paper also summarizes the validation campaign performed onboard Viking Line's cruise ship M/S Amorella, operating between Turku and Stockholm. Analysis of the vessel-generated data and end-user requirements recorded during this voyage is expected to enable distillation of the most critical information for crowdsourcing in the maritime scenario. Finally, the paper compares the BONUS ESABALT project with the state-of-the-art and provides the estimated economic and policy impact of the proposed system in the Baltic Sea Region. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Navigation
      PubDate: 2016-12-19T14:10:29.738964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/navi.161
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