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Journal Cover Criminology
  [SJR: 5.142]   [H-I: 96]   [139 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0011-1384 - ISSN (Online) 1745-9125
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • TRACING CHARGE TRAJECTORIES: A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF RACE IN CHARGE
           CHANGES AT CASE SCREENING, ARRAIGNMENT, AND DISPOSITION*
    • Authors: BESIKI LUKA KUTATELADZE
      Abstract: Although social scientists and legal scholars have made valuable headway in identifying and explaining the relationships between myriad demographic, social, and legal factors and case outcomes, a sizable gap in understanding remains with respect to how cases evolve across decision points and how charges change for different racial and ethnic groups at individual decision points and cumulatively. This gap is partially addressed in this study through the examination of charge decreases, increases, and no change at three essential decision points—case screening for prosecution, arraignment, and final disposition. The results show that, overall, screening and disposition were much more dynamic decision points than was arraignment and that one third of cases experienced a charge decrease at some point. Even though racial differences in charge reductions at case screening were not large, at arraignment and disposition, as well as cumulatively, Black and Latino defendants were less likely than White defendants to have charges decreased. Conversely, Asian defendants experienced even more favorable outcomes than White defendants as they were more likely to have charges reduced and less likely to experience an increase. These findings are framed in the context of focal concerns, cumulative disadvantage, and “charge reasonableness” arguments.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T08:45:51.044522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12166
       
  • ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS AND URBAN CRIME: THE STRUCTURE OF SHARED ROUTINE
           ACTIVITY LOCATIONS AND NEIGHBORHOOD-LEVEL INFORMAL CONTROL CAPACITY
    • Authors: CHRISTOPHER R. BROWNING; CATHERINE A. CALDER, BETHANY BOETTNER, ANNA SMITH
      Abstract: By drawing on the work of Jacobs (1961), we hypothesize that public contact among neighborhood residents while engaged in day-to-day routines, captured by the aggregate network structure of shared local exposure, is consequential for crime. Neighborhoods in which residents come into contact more extensively in the course of conventional routines will exhibit higher levels of public familiarity, trust, and collective efficacy with implications for the informal social control of crime. We employ the concept of ecological (“eco-”) networks—networks linking households within neighborhoods through shared activity locations—to formalize the notion of overlapping routines. By using microsimulations of household travel patterns to construct census tract-level eco-networks for Columbus, OH, we examine the hypothesis that eco-network intensity (the probability that households tied through one location in a neighborhood eco-network will also be tied through another visited location) is negatively associated with tract-level crime rates (N = 192). Fitted spatial autoregressive models offer evidence that neighborhoods with higher intensity eco-networks exhibit lower levels of violent and property crime. In contrast, a higher prevalence of nonresident visitors to a given tract is positively associated with property crime. The results of these analyses hold the potential to enrich insight into the ecological processes that shape variation in neighborhood crime.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:25:40.782746-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12152
       
  • DO CELLMATES MATTER' A CAUSAL TEST OF THE SCHOOLS OF CRIME HYPOTHESIS
           WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION AND DETERRENCE THEORIES
    • Authors: HEATHER M. HARRIS; KIMINORI NAKAMURA, KRISTOFER BRET BUCKLEN
      Abstract: In the schools of crime hypothesis, social interactions between inmates are assumed to produce criminogenic rather than deterrent prison peer effects, thus implicating them in the persistence of high recidivism rates and null or criminogenic prison effects. We assess the validity of the schools of crime hypothesis by estimating prison peer effects that result from differential cellmate associations in a male, first-time release cohort from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. To isolate causal prison peer effects in the presence of essential heterogeneity, we use a semiparametric local instrumental variables estimation strategy. Our results do not support the school of crime hypothesis. In our sample, prison peer effects produced in interaction with more criminally experienced cellmates are always null or deterrent rather than criminogenic. Although we do not explicitly test for the operant conditioning mechanisms theorized to underlie social influence in the context of differential association, we argue that, under the assumption that the differential association context relates positively to the direction of peer influence, our universally noncriminogenic estimates exclude direct reinforcement, vicarious reinforcement, and direct punishment as potential drivers of prison peer effects produced in interaction with more criminally experienced cellmates. Our results support the assertion that operant conditioning mechanisms connect differential association and deterrence theories.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04T08:15:27.895524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12155
       
  • DOES THE GENDER GAP IN DELINQUENCY VARY BY LEVEL OF PATRIARCHY' A
           CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
    • Authors: JUKKA SAVOLAINEN; SAMANTHA APPLIN, STEVEN F. MESSNER, LORINE A. HUGHES, ROBERT LYTLE, JANNE KIVIVUORI
      Abstract: We examined cross-national variation in the gender differential in offending, which is often referred to as the gender gap in crime. Analyses were directed toward two empirical questions: 1) Is the gender gap narrower in less patriarchal sociocultural settings, and if so, 2) is this outcome a result of higher levels of offending on the part of girls, lower levels of offending on the part of boys, or some combination thereof' To address these questions, we compiled a multilevel, cross-national data set combining information on self-reported offending from the second International Self Report Delinquency Survey (ISRD-2) with normative and structural indicators of societal levels of patriarchy. The results from regression equations showed the gender gap in delinquency to be narrower at reduced national levels of patriarchy. The predicted probabilities calculated from regression coefficients suggested that this narrowing is a result of increased offending among girls and, to some extent, of decreased offending among boys in less patriarchal nations. Sensitivity checks with alternative model specifications confirmed these patterns but also identified a potential outlier. We discuss the implications of these descriptive findings for etiological research and theory.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04T07:50:26.862061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12161
       
  • AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON DEATH PENALTY ATTITUDES IN THE UNITED
           STATES, 1974–2014
    • Authors: AMY L. ANDERSON; ROBERT LYTLE, PHILIP SCHWADEL
      Abstract: In this article, we further the understanding of both changes in public opinion on capital punishment in the United States and changes in the factors associated with public opinion on the death penalty. Support for the death penalty may be motivated by events happening during specific time periods, and it can vary across birth cohorts as a result of cohort-specific socialization processes, demographic changes, and formative events that are specific to each generation. An explication of the sources of and variation in death penalty attitudes over time would benefit from the accounting for the age of the respondent, the year of the survey response, and the birth cohort of the respondent. We improve on previous research by using multiple approaches including hierarchical age–period–cohort models and data from the General Social Survey (N = 41,474) to examine changes in death penalty attitudes over time and across birth cohorts. The results showed curvilinear age effects, strong period effects, and weak cohort effects on death penalty support. The violent crime rate explained much of the variation in support for the death penalty across periods. The examination of subgroup differences suggests that support for the death penalty is becoming concentrated among Whites, Protestants, and Republicans.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04T07:35:33.741989-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12160
       
  • CRIME, FEAR, AND MENTAL HEALTH IN MEXICO*
    • Authors: ANDRÉS VILLARREAL; WEI-HSIN YU
      Abstract: This article examines the effect of exposure to criminal violence on fear of crime and mental health in Mexico, a country that has experienced a dramatic rise in violent events resulting from the operation of drug trafficking organizations (DTOs). Data are drawn from more than 30,000 respondents to a national longitudinal survey of Mexican households. We use fixed-effects models which allow us to control for time-invariant individual and municipal characteristics affecting both exposure to violence and mental health. The results indicate a substantial increase in fear and psychological distress for individuals living in communities that suffered a rise in the local homicide rate even when exposure to other forms of victimization and more personal experiences with crime are taken into account. Because DTO killings occur in response to factors external to a specific neighborhood, they generate fear and psychological distress at a larger geographical scale. They also seem to create a generalized sense of insecurity, leading to increased fear of other types of crimes. We examine the effect of large surges in homicide and the presence of military and paramilitary groups combatting DTOs as these conditions may approximate those in conflict zones elsewhere in the world. We also explore differences in the relative sensitivity to homicide rates between sociodemographic groups.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:01:02.785118-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12150
       
  • PARENTHOOD AS A TURNING POINT IN THE LIFE COURSE FOR MALE AND FEMALE GANG
           MEMBERS: A STUDY OF WITHIN-INDIVIDUAL CHANGES IN GANG MEMBERSHIP AND
           CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
    • Authors: DAVID C. PYROOZ; JEAN MARIE MCGLOIN, SCOTT H. DECKER
      Abstract: The impact of parenthood on leaving a street gang is not well understood. This is likely because researchers in prior studies have not accounted for multiple dimensions of gang exit, possible gender differences, and potential selection bias. In this study, we use a sample of 466 male and 163 female gang members from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 to consider the within-individual relationship between changes in parenthood and changes in claiming gang membership and offending. These data offer the opportunity to consider gender differences and birth parity (i.e., first or second child). The results from a series of fixed-effects models reveal that motherhood is associated with enduring reductions in both the odds of claiming gang membership and the rate of offending, whereas fatherhood has a temporary beneficial impact on gang membership and offending only for those fathers who reside with their children. In most cases, the beneficial effect of having a child rests in becoming a parent for the first time. On the whole, our study findings demonstrate that parenthood serves as a turning point for a particular group of noteworthy offenders—gang members.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28T03:35:44.770835-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12162
       
  • TOWARD A BIFURCATED THEORY OF EMOTIONAL DETERRENCE
    • Authors: JUSTIN T. PICKETT; SEAN PATRICK ROCHE, GREG POGARSKY
      Abstract: Since Hobbes (1957 [1651] and Beccaria (1963 [1764]), scholars have theorized that the emotion of fear is critical for deterrence. Nevertheless, contemporary deterrence researchers have mostly overlooked the distinction between perceived sanction risk and fear of apprehension. Whereas perceived risk is a cognitive judgment, fear involves visceral feelings of anxiety or dread. Equally important, a theory explicating the influence of deterrence on both criminal propensity and situational offending has remained elusive. We develop a theoretical model in which perceived risk and fear are distinguished at both the general and situational levels. We test this theoretical model with data from a set of survey-based experiments conducted in 2016 with a nationwide sample of adults (N = 965). We find that perceived risk and fear are empirically distinct and that perceived risk is positively related to fear at both the general and situational levels. Certain background and situational factors have indirect effects through perceived risk on fear. In turn, perceived risk has indirect effects through fear on both criminal propensity and situational intentions to offend. Fear's inclusion increases explanatory power for both criminal propensity and situational offending intentions. Fear is a stronger predictor than either self-control or prior offending of situational intentions to offend.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T13:50:22.561114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12153
       
  • TESTING THE TRANSITIVITY OF REPORTED RISK PERCEPTIONS: EVIDENCE OF
           COHERENT ARBITRARINESS
    • Authors: KYLE J. THOMAS; BENJAMIN C. HAMILTON, THOMAS A. LOUGHRAN
      Abstract: An often implicit assumption of perceptual deterrence tests is that the elicited values pertaining to arrest risk reflect stable underlying beliefs. But researchers in other disciplines have found that reported expectations are highly susceptible to exogenous factors (e.g., anchors and question ordering), indicating that such values are somewhat arbitrary responses to probabilistic questions. At the same time, reported expectations are coherent within persons, such that respondents rank order them rationally. For deterrence, then, absolute values reported on arrest risks are likely not stable but individuals still rank order specific crimes in meaningful ways. We examine the interpretability of reported arrest risk for three possibilities: 1) Reported risks are stable probabilistic values; 2) reported risks are arbitrary and uninformative for deterrence research; or 3) reported risks display “coherent arbitrariness” with unstable values between individuals but stable rank ordering of crimes within individuals. Through the use of three random experiments of college students, our results indicate that elicited risk perceptions are arbitrary in that they are influenced by the presentation of anchors and question ordering. Nevertheless, the rank ordering of crimes within and across conditions is unaffected by the presentation of anchors, suggesting that reported risks are locally coherent within persons.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:55:25.444174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12154
       
  • APPLYING A GENERAL STRAIN THEORY FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND SCHOOL WEAPON
           CARRYING AMONG LGBQ AND HETEROSEXUAL YOUTH
    • Authors: DEEANNA M. BUTTON; MEREDITH G. F. WORTHEN
      Abstract: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) youth are at a higher risk for school victimization, social isolation, and school weapon carrying compared with their heterosexual peers, yet few studies have been conducted to investigate their experiences. By using a general strain theory (GST) framework, data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) statewide probability sample of Delaware heterosexual (n = 7,688) and LGBQ (n = 484) youth in grades 9–12 show that there are both similarities and differences in the factors associated with school weapon carrying among LGBQ and heterosexual youth. LGBQ and heterosexual youth's weapon carrying is related to school victimization, but social support does not moderate the relationship between school victimization and school weapon carrying as suggested by GST. Furthermore, being male is significantly related to heterosexual youth's weapon carrying, but sex is not related to weapon carrying among LGBQ youth. Overall, the results highlight a need to reconceptualize GST to help center the experiences of LGBQ youth, a historically marginalized group, within mainstream criminological literature. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T05:30:30.381079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12151
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 721 - 723
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T05:42:20.564114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12121
       
  • EDITORS’ NOTE
    • Authors: D. Wayne Osgood; Eric P. Baumer, Rosemary Gartner
      Pages: 725 - 725
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T05:42:21.41527-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12168
       
  • STREET NETWORK STRUCTURE AND CRIME RISK: AN AGENT-BASED INVESTIGATION OF
           THE ENCOUNTER AND ENCLOSURE HYPOTHESES
    • Authors: DANIEL BIRKS; TOBY DAVIES
      Pages: 900 - 937
      Abstract: Street networks shape day-to-day activities in complex ways, dictating where, when, and in what contexts potential victims, offenders, and crime preventers interact with one another. Identifying generalizable principles of such influence offers considerable utility to theorists, policy makers, and practitioners. Unfortunately, key difficulties associated with the observation of these interactions, and control of the settings within which they take place, limit traditional empirical approaches that aim to uncover mechanisms linking street network structure with crime risk. By drawing on parallel advances in the formal analyses of street networks and the computational modeling of crime events interactions, we present a theoretically informed and empirically validated agent-based model of residential burglary that permits investigation of the relationship between street network structure and crime commission and prevention through guardianship. Through the use of this model, we explore the validity of competing theoretical accounts of street network permeability and crime risk—the encounter (eyes on the street) and enclosure (defensible space) hypotheses. The results of our analyses provide support for both hypotheses, but in doing so, they reveal that the relationship between street network permeability and crime is likely nonlinear. We discuss the ramifications of these findings for both criminological theory and crime prevention practice.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T05:42:22.141692-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12163
       
  • RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, RACIAL SOCIALIZATION, AND CRIME OVER TIME: A SOCIAL
           SCHEMATIC THEORY MODEL
    • Authors: CALLIE H. BURT; MAN KIT LEI, RONALD L. SIMONS
      Pages: 938 - 979
      Abstract: Recent studies evince that interpersonal racial discrimination (IRD) increases the risk of crime among African Americans and familial racial socialization fosters resilience to discrimination's criminogenic effects. Yet, studies have focused on the short-term effects of IRD and racial socialization largely among adolescents. In this study, we seek to advance knowledge by elucidating how racialized experiences—in interactions and socialization—influence crime for African Americans over time. Elaborating Simons and Burt's (2011) social schematic theory, we trace the effects of childhood IRD and familial racial socialization on adult offending through cognitive and social pathways and their interplay. We test this life-course SST model using data from the FACHS, a multisite study of Black youth and their families from ages 10 to 25. Consistent with the model, analyses reveal that the criminogenic consequences of childhood IRD are mediated cognitively by a criminogenic knowledge structure and socially through the nature of social relationships in concert with ongoing offending and discrimination experiences. Specifically, by increasing criminogenic cognitive schemas, IRD decreases embeddedness in supportive romantic, educational, and employment relations, which influence social schemas and later crime. Consonant with expectations, the findings also indicate that racial socialization provides enduring resilience by both compensating for and buffering discrimination's criminogenic effects.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T05:42:20.664445-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12164
       
 
 
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