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Journal Cover Criminology
  [SJR: 5.142]   [H-I: 96]   [136 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0011-1384 - ISSN (Online) 1745-9125
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • TOWARD A BIFURCATED THEORY OF EMOTIONAL DETERRENCE
    • Authors: JUSTIN T. PICKETT; SEAN PATRICK ROCHE, GREG POGARSKY
      Abstract: Since Hobbes (1957 [1651] and Beccaria (1963 [1764]), scholars have theorized that the emotion of fear is critical for deterrence. Nevertheless, contemporary deterrence researchers have mostly overlooked the distinction between perceived sanction risk and fear of apprehension. Whereas perceived risk is a cognitive judgment, fear involves visceral feelings of anxiety or dread. Equally important, a theory explicating the influence of deterrence on both criminal propensity and situational offending has remained elusive. We develop a theoretical model in which perceived risk and fear are distinguished at both the general and situational levels. We test this theoretical model with data from a set of survey-based experiments conducted in 2016 with a nationwide sample of adults (N = 965). We find that perceived risk and fear are empirically distinct and that perceived risk is positively related to fear at both the general and situational levels. Certain background and situational factors have indirect effects through perceived risk on fear. In turn, perceived risk has indirect effects through fear on both criminal propensity and situational intentions to offend. Fear's inclusion increases explanatory power for both criminal propensity and situational offending intentions. Fear is a stronger predictor than either self-control or prior offending of situational intentions to offend.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T13:50:22.561114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12153
       
  • TESTING THE TRANSITIVITY OF REPORTED RISK PERCEPTIONS: EVIDENCE OF
           COHERENT ARBITRARINESS
    • Authors: KYLE J. THOMAS; BENJAMIN C. HAMILTON, THOMAS A. LOUGHRAN
      Abstract: An often implicit assumption of perceptual deterrence tests is that the elicited values pertaining to arrest risk reflect stable underlying beliefs. But researchers in other disciplines have found that reported expectations are highly susceptible to exogenous factors (e.g., anchors and question ordering), indicating that such values are somewhat arbitrary responses to probabilistic questions. At the same time, reported expectations are coherent within persons, such that respondents rank order them rationally. For deterrence, then, absolute values reported on arrest risks are likely not stable but individuals still rank order specific crimes in meaningful ways. We examine the interpretability of reported arrest risk for three possibilities: 1) Reported risks are stable probabilistic values; 2) reported risks are arbitrary and uninformative for deterrence research; or 3) reported risks display “coherent arbitrariness” with unstable values between individuals but stable rank ordering of crimes within individuals. Through the use of three random experiments of college students, our results indicate that elicited risk perceptions are arbitrary in that they are influenced by the presentation of anchors and question ordering. Nevertheless, the rank ordering of crimes within and across conditions is unaffected by the presentation of anchors, suggesting that reported risks are locally coherent within persons.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:55:25.444174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12154
       
  • APPLYING A GENERAL STRAIN THEORY FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND SCHOOL WEAPON
           CARRYING AMONG LGBQ AND HETEROSEXUAL YOUTH
    • Authors: DEEANNA M. BUTTON; MEREDITH G. F. WORTHEN
      Abstract: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) youth are at a higher risk for school victimization, social isolation, and school weapon carrying compared with their heterosexual peers, yet few studies have been conducted to investigate their experiences. By using a general strain theory (GST) framework, data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) statewide probability sample of Delaware heterosexual (n = 7,688) and LGBQ (n = 484) youth in grades 9–12 show that there are both similarities and differences in the factors associated with school weapon carrying among LGBQ and heterosexual youth. LGBQ and heterosexual youth's weapon carrying is related to school victimization, but social support does not moderate the relationship between school victimization and school weapon carrying as suggested by GST. Furthermore, being male is significantly related to heterosexual youth's weapon carrying, but sex is not related to weapon carrying among LGBQ youth. Overall, the results highlight a need to reconceptualize GST to help center the experiences of LGBQ youth, a historically marginalized group, within mainstream criminological literature. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T05:30:30.381079-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12151
       
  • TOWARD AN ANALYTICAL CRIMINOLOGY: THE MICRO–MACRO PROBLEM, CAUSAL
           MECHANISMS, AND PUBLIC POLICY
    • Authors: ROSS L. MATSUEDA
      Abstract: In this address, I revisit the micro–macro problem in criminology, arguing for an “analytical criminology” that takes an integrated approach to the micro–macro problem. I begin by contrasting an integrated methodological-individualist approach with traditional holist and individualist approaches. An integrated approach considers the concept of emergence and tackles the difficult problem of specifying causal mechanisms by which interactions among individuals produce social organizational outcomes. After presenting a few examples of micro–macro transitions relevant to criminology, I discuss research programs in sociology and economics that focus on these issues. I then discuss the implications of social interaction effects for making causal inferences about crime and for making crime policy recommendations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T09:00:24.895897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12149
       
  • THE FUNNY SIDE OF DRUG DEALING: RISK, HUMOR, AND NARRATIVE IDENTITY
    • Authors: TIMOTHY DICKINSON; RICHARD WRIGHT
      Abstract: In this study, we explore the role humor plays in the narrated identities of drug dealers, in their negotiation of the threat of formal punishment, and in their cultural membership and authority. By drawing from interview and observation data gathered from 33 active drug dealers residing in St. Louis, Missouri, we find that humor facilitates identity work among illicit drug dealers in several ways. Humor is an important symbolic boundary marker distinguishing dealers from others they consider “stupid” or less circumspect. It also indicates dealers’ identities as “smart” and simultaneously establishes and validates their subcultural authority and membership in the symbolic group of “smart” dealers. Furthermore, drug dealers use denigrating humor in their narratives to distance their former and virtual identities from their present identities. Finally, humor also reduces dealers’ perceptions of the threats posed by police and potential snitches by casting dealers’ present identities and former reactions to the threat of punishment in a positive light. We conclude by discussing implications for narrative criminology, extant humor research, and current understanding of symbolic boundaries, identity work, and deterrence.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T05:36:16.3007-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12148
       
  • STRESS, GENES, AND GENERALIZABILITY ACROSS GENDER: EFFECTS OF MAOA AND
           STRESS SENSITIVITY ON CRIME AND DELINQUENCY*
    • Authors: JESSICA WELLS; TODD ARMSTRONG, DANIELLE BOISVERT, RICHARD LEWIS, DAVID GANGITANO, SHEREE HUGHES-STAMM
      Abstract: In the current study, we extend the gene-by-environment interaction (cGxE) literature by examining how a widely studied polymorphism, the MAOA upstream variable number tandem repeat (MAOA-uVNTR) interacts with distal and proximal stressors to explain variation in crime and delinquency. Prior research findings have revealed that MAOA-uVNTR interacts with single indicators of environmental adversity to explain criminal behavior in general-population and incarcerated samples. Nevertheless, the genetically moderated stress sensitivity hypothesis suggests that increased risk for criminal behavior associated with variation in the MAOA-uVNTR can be best understood in the context of both distal stress during childhood and proximal stress in adulthood. Therefore, we employed Tobit regression analyses to examine a gene–distal–proximal environment (CGxExE) interaction across gender in a sample of university students (n = 267) and with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; n = 1,294). The results across both sets of analyses demonstrate that variation in the MAOA-uVNTR interacts with distal and proximal stress to lead to increased risk for criminal behavior in males. Although proximal life stress is associated with an increase in crime and delinquency, this effect is more pronounced among MAOA-L allele carriers that have experienced distal stress.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T09:35:26.361308-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12147
       
  • NEIGHBORHOOD SOCIAL CONTROL AND PERCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND DISORDER IN
           CONTEMPORARY URBAN CHINA*
    • Authors: LENING ZHANG; STEVEN F. MESSNER, SHELDON ZHANG
      Abstract: By drawing on the two streams of Western literature on “neighborhood effects” and perceptions of neighborhood disorder adapted to the distinctive organizational infrastructure of neighborhoods in contemporary urban China, we examine the contextual effects of different forms of neighborhood social control (i.e., collective efficacy, semipublic control, public control, and market-based control) on different types of perceived disorder (i.e., criminal activity, social disorder, physical disorder, and total disorder) across neighborhoods. The analyses are based on data collected in the year 2013 from a survey of approximately 2,500 households in 50 neighborhoods across the city of Tianjin. Collective efficacy as a form of informal control has a significant effect only for perceived social disorder. Public control as measured by the activities of neighborhood police stations has a significant contextual effect on all forms of perceived disorder, whereas the role of market-based control as represented by contracted community services is limited to perceived physical disorder. Finally, semipublic control as measured by the activities of neighborhood committees significantly affects all forms of perceived disorder, but the direction of the effect is positive. We interpret this positive effect with reference to the complex processes surrounding the “translation” of neighborhood disorderly conditions into perceptions of disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T09:45:22.499339-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12142
       
  • ON THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF SELF-REPORTED ILLEGAL EARNINGS:
           IMPLICATIONS FOR THE STUDY OF CRIMINAL ACHIEVEMENT*
    • Authors: HOLLY NGUYEN; THOMAS A. LOUGHRAN
      Abstract: The study of the monetary returns to criminal activity is a central component in many emerging areas of criminology, including rational choice and offender decision-making, desistance, and criminal achievement. Scholars have been increasingly captivated with specification of the earnings function and with examining how variations in illegal earnings predict important outcomes such as persistence in offending. The potential utility of findings in related empirical studies hinges on the quality of the key measure, self-reported illegal earnings. Yet to date scant attention has been paid by researchers to the measurement properties of this metric. We analyze self-reported illegal earnings generated from a variety of instrumental crimes by using data from the Pathways to Desistance Study (n = 585) and the National Supported Work Project (n = 1,509), which are two longitudinal data sets of active offenders separated by more than 30 years. Findings based on analyses both within and between data sets reveal support for the internal consistency reliability and criterion validity of self-reported illegal earnings. Moreover, the results reveal premiums in terms of higher earnings associated with different crime types, which are persistent both over time and across data sets. Implications and future directions for advancing the theoretical study of criminal achievement are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T09:40:24.701202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12144
       
  • THE LANGUAGE OF STIGMATIZATION AND THE MARK OF VIOLENCE: EXPERIMENTAL
           EVIDENCE ON THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF CRIMINAL RECORD STIGMA
    • Authors: MEGAN DENVER; JUSTIN T. PICKETT, SHAWN D. BUSHWAY
      Abstract: After years of stagnation, labeling theory has recently gained new empirical support. Simultaneously, new policy initiatives have attempted to restructure criminal record stigma to reduce reintegration barriers, and subsequent recidivism, driven by labeling. For example, in a recent Department of Justice (DOJ) language policy, person-first terms (e.g., “person with a conviction”) were substituted for crime-first terms (e.g., “offender”). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has also issued guidelines to structure how decision-makers use criminal records. Unfortunately, little is currently known about the social construction and use of criminal record stigma or the potential effects of such policy changes. In the current study, we provide two unique empirical tests. In study 1, we examine the social construction of stigma by testing DOJ's language policy with experimental data from a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 996). In study 2, we use a separate nationwide experiment (N = 1,540) to examine how the contextualization of criminal records influences social exclusion decisions. Across both studies, we find consistent evidence of a “mark of violence.” The public perceives that individuals with violent convictions are the most likely to commit future crimes, and it is more supportive of excluding these individuals from employment. Crime-first terms exacerbate perceived recidivism risk for individuals with violent convictions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T02:11:10.89782-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12145
       
  • WHEN POLICY COMES TO TOWN: DISCOURSES AND DILEMMAS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF A
           STATEWIDE REENTRY POLICY IN KANSAS
    • Authors: ANDRES F. RENGIFO; DON STEMEN, ETHAN AMIDON
      Abstract: In this case study, we document challenges to reform implementation posed by line staff, supervisors, and managers during a large-scale realignment of the Kansas Department of Corrections (KDOC) in which they sought to replace a traditional approach of “risk containment” focused on surveillance and incarceration with a new model of “risk reduction” focused on service delivery and reintegration. We draw on interviews, observations, and archival research to document the staff's discursive challenges to the rollout of the new policy. More specifically, we describe how varying challenges to the reforms—“denial,” “dismissal,” and “defiance”—reflect actors’ positions within the organization, the local contexts in which they operate, and more general frames of interpretation of the long-term orientation of the KDOC. We integrate these perspectives to contribute to the ongoing expansion of conventional models of penal change that highlight the role of actors and local social and institutional context as moderators of the gap between “law on the books” and “law in action.”
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T01:03:02.451965-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12146
       
  • FACIAL PROFILING: RACE, PHYSICAL APPEARANCE, AND PUNISHMENT*
    • Authors: BRIAN D. JOHNSON; RYAN D. KING
      Abstract: We investigate the associations among physical appearance, threat perceptions, and criminal punishment. Psychological ideas about impression formation are integrated with criminological perspectives on sentencing to generate and test unique hypotheses about the associations among defendant facial characteristics, subjective evaluations of threatening appearance, and judicial imprisonment decisions. We analyze newly collected data that link booking photos, criminal histories, and sentencing information for more than 1,100 convicted felony defendants. Our findings indicate that Black defendants are perceived to be more threatening in appearance. Other facial characteristics, such as physical attractiveness, baby-faced appearance, facial scars, and visible tattoos, also influence perceptions of threat, as do criminal history scores. Furthermore, some physical appearance characteristics are significantly related to imprisonment decisions, even after controlling for other relevant case characteristics. These and other findings are discussed as they relate to psychological research on impression formation, criminological theories of court actor decision-making, and sociological work on race and punishment.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T02:45:22.760567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12143
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 489 - 491
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T08:16:20.952804-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12120
       
 
 
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