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Crime Prevention and Community Safety
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.268
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 165  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1460-3780 - ISSN (Online) 1743-4629
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Reducing abuse in intimate partner relationships: preliminary findings
           from a community-based program for non-court-mandated men
    • Abstract: Abstract This pilot study examines the impact of a community-based domestic violence intervention program in British Columbia, Canada that primarily targets voluntary male participants who have engaged in abusive behaviors toward their intimate partners. Analyses of abusive behaviors were conducted on the sample of 20 participants who completed the Abusive Behavior Inventory (ABI) at both pretest and posttest, as well as the subsample who completed the ABI at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up (n = 10). Additional analyses focused on the 25 participants who completed pretest and posttest questions regarding knowledge and skills learned. Findings suggest that participation in the 15-week Transforming Relationships program contributed to a significant decrease in psychological abuse, and that results held 6 months following program completion. Further, program participants increased in their knowledge of skills and strategies to de-escalate and reduce partner aggression. Implications for domestic violence intervention programs and future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-07-06
  • Resilience in sophisticated financial crime networks: a social network
           analysis of the Madoff Investment Scheme
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite numerous investigations and studies, the resilience of Madoff’s scheme from at least the 1970s until its collapse in 2008 is poorly understood. This study applies social network analysis (SNA) to the Madoff Investment Scheme in order to identify key factors which support resilience in networks that are engaged in a sophisticated criminal enterprise. The SNA identified four clusters of individuals who performed vital functions within the network: a core leadership group, a compliance group, a capital group and a facilitators group. The study then examined the network’s response to exogenous and endogenous shocks, finding that the Madoff network had been resilient to both exogenous shocks, such as Securities and Exchange Commission examinations, and endogenous shocks, such as significant investor withdrawals, prior to its collapse in 2008. These findings suggest that monitoring network responses to exogenous and endogenous shocks could assist investigators in identifying Ponzi schemes in the future.
      PubDate: 2020-05-25
  • Peeling back the layers of organised crime in local communities:
           integrating data and analyses to strengthen the narrative
    • Abstract: Abstract At a national level, the scale and diversity of the threats from organised crime are starting to be understood. Locally, however, police forces remain uncertain how to robustly assess organised crime within their own borders. To address this and contribute to the development of a local ‘narrative’ of organised crime we studied two UK neighbourhoods where organised crime was known to be impacting. Our study brings together data from multiple sources that each offer a distinct perspective: the measurable impact of organised crime as represented in recorded crime, the groups, offenders and activities recorded by the police for the purposes of developing intelligence on organised crime, and finally the qualitative impact on communities as described by local practitioners and community representatives. The implications for developing the perspective of practitioners and their approach to tackling organised crime are discussed. In summary, organised crime groups are responsible for a much wider range of harms than that expressed by the national police intelligence mechanism, much of this harm is local, and this needs to be factored in when considering priority and intervention from police and partners.
      PubDate: 2020-05-21
  • How Swiftly Does Re-Victimisation Occur' Evidence from Surveys of
    • Abstract: Abstract The observation that victimisation raises the probability of subsequent victimisation is well established. That repeat crimes tend to happen quickly is important in the preventive utility of the phenomenon. However, the time decay curve of repeat victimisation is conventionally studied using police recorded crime data, making it susceptible to alternative explanations by confounding actual victimisation with rates of victim report to the police. The present paper reports an attempt to use victimisation survey data to demonstrate decay curves. The analyses show that households experiencing a high frequency of repeat victimisation experience repeats much sooner than households where repeats occur fewer times. Subsequent repeats take place ever more quickly after the preceding one. Quick victimisation is perceived to be increasingly serious the sooner it occurs.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
  • Local government public space CCTV systems in Australia
    • Abstract: Abstract The rapid and sustained growth in use of public space closed-circuit television (CCTV) is well-documented. However, there are mixed findings as to the efficacy of CCTV in public places as a crime prevention or crime control measure. Analysis and exploration of findings from a national online survey of local councils across Australia conducted (by the Australian Institute of Criminology) in mid-2014 was conducted and is reported here. This paper seeks to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the determinative factors in local councils’ decisions to install and maintain CCTV, the corresponding mechanisms of the network, and the prevalence of evaluations of public space CCTV systems across Australia. The findings illustrate a need for greater consideration of the objectives of CCTV which align with the purpose and perceived benefits of the systems, as well as the coverage and operational framework available to support ongoing implementation. Moreover, robust evaluations which assess the benefits of CCTV for deterrence, reduction or investigation of crime in demographically and geographically diverse areas is needed.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
  • Attitudes regarding becoming an engaged bystander for targeted violence
    • Abstract: Abstract The recent increase in mass attacks in the USA has enhanced concerns about how persons in communities might be able to contribute to the prevention of such incidents and other forms of targeted violence. The purpose of this study was to learn about what persons are willing to do regarding individuals exhibiting or vocalizing concerning behaviors, and what factors would impact their actions. This was accomplished through 9 focus groups of 72 persons total, in which participants were asked to provide their perceptions regarding six different behavior-based scenarios involving acquaintances, close friends or family members. The study found that participants were willing to engage someone in a conversation, take some type of action with friends and family, contact law enforcement if there is imminent danger, and use a third-party resource when the behavior viewed was particularly concerning. Implications of these findings for targeted violence prevention efforts are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
  • A winning BID' The effects of a BID-inspired property owner
           collaboration on neighbourhood crime rates in Malmö, Sweden
    • Abstract: Abstract The business improvement district (BID) model has spread rapidly worldwide and has recently caught the eye of Swedish politicians and practitioners as a feasible approach to reduce crime in urban neighbourhoods. Research on the crime-preventive effects of BIDs is, however, limited to a handful of US studies, and there is a lack of research from European contexts. The aim of the present study is to fill gaps in knowledge by examining the crime-preventive effects of a BID-inspired property owner collaboration (BID-Malmö) implemented in a residential neighbourhood in Malmö, Sweden. Based on the use of a difference-in-difference estimator and weighted displacement quotients, our results demonstrate a significant reduction in crimes reported to the police in the intervention neighbourhood relative to control areas, with signs of spatial diffusion of benefits rather than displacement of crime to adjacent areas. This result is, however, mainly driven by a decrease in reported incidents of vandalism, while no effect is observed in regard to violent crime in public places. Implications of the findings and further research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-02-19
  • How Eritreans plan, fund and manage irregular migration, and the extent of
           involvement of ‘organised crime’
    • Abstract: Abstract The increased government, media and public focus on migration from Africa to the EU in the past few years has led to an explosion in reporting from governments, NGOs, academics and quasi-academia. Within this context, there are a number of basic assumptions and discourses in relation to these migratory processes from Africa. The first assumption, often put forward by the media, is that migrants from Africa intend to cross the Mediterranean Sea in an effort to reach Western European countries. The second assumption is that in their effort to cross the Mediterranean, African migrants are facilitated by ‘criminal networks’. The third (and extremely popular in the last few years) assumption is that information and communication technologies have been instrumental in the planning of irregular migration and identifying smugglers to facilitate migration. The final assumption, which has also garnered increasing attention in recent years, is that understanding human smuggling finances can inform policies specifically targeting migrant smuggling. This article, which is based on in-depth interviews with Eritreans, who have migrated illegally in Egypt, aims to add to the understanding about how Eritrean people plan, fund and manage irregular migration journeys. In the process, it will attempt to debunk some of the common assumptions around irregular migration.
      PubDate: 2020-02-15
  • Novice drivers and parents: exploring the feasibility of third-party
           policing in reducing young driver offending
    • Abstract: Abstract Third-party policing involves police partnering with other individuals or organisations in order to prevent or control crime and disorder. Given the high level of young driver crash rates and offences, an intervention based on third-party policing may reduce both. This study explored the feasibility of using this approach with parents, who would be the third party, and young drivers in the Australian Capital Territory. Semistructured interviews with 16 parents and 11 of their children were conducted. The results suggest that given parents are supportive of the formal policing of young drivers and their willingness to impose additional restrictions on their children, that the introduction of an intervention based on a third-party policing framework is feasible. However, the lack of knowledge of GDL restrictions that apply to their child may make it difficult for parents to act as an enforcement authority in partnership with police. There is also the need to introduce a legal lever to support parents in their interactions with children and enable police to coerce parents into taking action.
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
  • Place managers for crime prevention: the theoretical and empirical status
           of a neglected situational crime prevention technique
    • Abstract: Abstract Place managers are individuals who are physically and legally able to prevent crime in proprietary places, in addition to their designated functions within these places. They can be apartment complex owners, store managers, bar owners, parking lot attendants, or other individuals who have ownership claims to a place or are employed by that place. Largely informed by the criminal opportunity perspective and recognized as a situational crime prevention technique, place managers benefit from a rich theoretical development, but only limited evaluation research. In examining the theoretical and empirical status of place managers, we were motivated to develop a greater understanding of the potential for place manager interventions to be implemented and evaluated, as well as to explore a promising mechanism—in the form of regulatory frameworks—to help place managers in performing roles related to the prevention of crime.
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
  • Stability in unstable places: property crime in a campus environment
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, campus crime has become the focus of a growing body of literature; however, spatial analyses only represent a small facet of campus crime research. To date, the majority fails to consider longitudinal aspects of campus crime. To address this gap, this study analyzed geographic similarity between property crime distributions across 3 years of police incident data for a metropolitan university in the southern USA and its surrounding community. Using ArcMap and a spatial test developed by Andresen (Appl Geogr 29(3):333–345, 2009), the degree of similarity between annual, seasonal, and semesterly spatial distributions of property crime were analyzed. The results indicated 41.2% of all property crimes occurred within 5% of locations. Significant levels of similarity for the seasonal and semesterly distributions of on-campus property crime were found, which largely became nonsignificant once zero-crime locations were removed. None of the annual analyses, nor the analyses of the campus and its surrounding community reached a significant level of similarity. The implications of these findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
  • A donnybrook in downtown' Observations of controlling aggression and
           the use of effective place management in a southern entertainment area
    • Abstract: Abstract Much of the research conducted on aggressive behavior outside of bars has been limited to large entertainment districts outside the USA. These studies consistently show that overcrowding and lack of patron control are main contributors to aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if effective place managers and guardians could mitigate acts of aggression in smaller entertainment areas. Based on the work of Townsley and Grimshaw (Crime Prev Community Saf 15(1):23–47, 2013), observations of aggressive behavior were conducted on one street block in downtown Little Rock, Arkansas, on Friday night/Saturday mornings, over a 6-week period, totaling 24 h. Findings show the cities use of effective place mangers and capable guardians (e.g., police, bouncers, door attendants, and barricades) significantly limited the opportunities for aggression to rise to critical levels. Comparing these results to prior literature, the absence of aggressive behavior was attributed to proper place management and environmental design.
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
  • A crime script analysis of the Madoff Investment Scheme
    • Abstract: Abstract The Madoff Investment Scheme was a long-term and large-scale fraud which involved both an affinity fraud and a Ponzi scheme. Numerous studies have examined financial and legal aspects of the case, but relatively few have explored the case from a criminological perspective. This study applies crime script analysis (CSA) to the Madoff case in order to conceptualise the procedural elements of complex fraud offences and to identify crime prevention opportunities for investigators and regulatory bodies. CSA identifies 12 steps in the offence, occurring in three phases which create a relationship between earlier and later victims, with earlier victims providing credibility to the scheme and later victims generating the resources to sustain it. The study finds that crime prevention techniques which harden targets and extend guardianship could reduce criminal opportunities for offenders and techniques which strengthen formal surveillance and assist natural surveillance could control the capabilities required to perpetrate similar offences.
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
  • Property of Fayard Hall: a pilot study on situational theft prevention on
           the university campus
    • Abstract: Abstract For the past three decades, property crime has been the single largest form of victimization reported to campus police and security. While prior research has focused extensively on improving security in high-theft areas around campus, surprisingly little attention has been paid to efforts at fortifying the targets of theft themselves. To address this gap, the present study employed a completely randomized experimental design testing the effect of an anti-theft strategy against a control strategy on property loss among 22 university classrooms. Compared to classrooms receiving property labeled with an anti-theft message, classrooms receiving property without such labels were significantly more likely (OR 20.25; 95% CI 2.32–176.80) to have their property removed. While these results are still in the pilot phase, they suggest that universities and colleges should identify their property, indicating to whom it belongs, if they wish to reduce property loss.
      PubDate: 2019-07-04
  • The business of farm crime: evaluating trust in the police and reporting
           of offences
    • Abstract: Abstract Annual estimates of the total cost of farm crime to the UK economy amount to the region of £45 m (NFU in NFU Rural Crime Report 2018., 2018). The purpose of this study was to assess the extent, effects and responses to farm crime from key stakeholders, principally the police and farming population. Survey responses were collected from farmers (n = 96) in rural Wales. Key findings suggest that the main categories of farm crime including machinery and livestock theft were similar to national patterns. Perceptions of organised crime groups from outside the local area being responsible for criminal activity were also prevalent. Satisfaction and trust in the police was generally healthy, despite awareness that the investigation and prosecution of farm and/or rural crime was often not being adequately resourced. The implications of this research propose that a broad lack of police training/experience, insight into farming issues generally, and wider organisational resource commitment, all hinder effective policing of farm business crime.
      PubDate: 2019-07-04
  • A review of crime prevention activities in an Australian local government
           area since the late 1980s
    • Abstract: Abstract To date, there has been limited analysis of local crime prevention approaches adopted in one council or local government area over time. This article seeks to partially address this gap. By reviewing crime prevention initiatives adopted by a single council in New South Wales (Australia) over time, it was possible to identify some continuities and discontinuities and to reflect on the impact of crime trends and changing demography on local approaches to crime prevention. Through a desktop analysis of the demographic profile of the area, crime trends across time, and crime prevention plans drafted by the council from the late 1980s, it became apparent that the council has adopted a myriad of crime prevention measures, many of which have continued over numerous years, complicating evaluation efforts of whole crime prevention plans and individual crime prevention measures; the cultural and linguistic diversity of the area has greatly affected how crime prevention is conceptualised and delivered and that crime trends have impacted crime prevention planning, but perhaps not in as clear a manner as might be expected. This case study highlights the challenges facing local governments with diverse populations, covering large geographic areas, with limited funding to support crime prevention activities, and raises questions about the roles of higher tiers in government in preventing crime.
      PubDate: 2019-07-04
  • Comparing measures of the concentration of crime at places
    • Abstract: Abstract The primary objectives of this research are (1) to introduce summary measures of concentration that are relatively new to our field; (2) compare four concentration measures to determine whether there are reasons to use one in favor of the others; and (3) apply the measures to a real-case data to further understand the concentration phenomenon. Using the crime data of Cincinnati, we compare four commonly used social science measures of concentration: Gini, Simpson, Shannon, and Decile indices. For some purposes, the measures are interchangeable, while for other purposes the measures may suggest different interpretations for the same set of data. This paper is the first quantitative comparison of multiple measures of crime place concentration. We describe the benefits and limitations of each index and the circumstances for which each is most useful. We also answer the question: is crime within street segments spread along the segment or is it concentrated at a few addresses, as most place-based crime studies have overlooked the interior variability of crime on street segments.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
  • Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Connecticut: a Youth Opportunity
    • Abstract: Abstract Despite containing numerous wealthy geographic areas, the state of Connecticut continues to struggle with social and economic distress, along with gun-related crime. Problem analysis in urban areas revealed a critical need for services aimed at deterring violent and gun-related crime in two target populations: serious juvenile offenders, aged 14–17 years, and at-risk youth, aged 11–13 years. Using a quasi-experimental design, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) on youth in two cities in Connecticut. Implementation resulted in 133 young people receiving a variety of services in New Haven and Bridgeport. Evaluation research assessed intervention efforts designed to (1) build on the strengths and address the challenges of each juvenile offender, (2) expand community outreach and education efforts to reinforce and reward positive attitudes and behaviors surrounding “no-gun policies,” and (3) utilize data-driven decision-making to guide program implementation and evaluate the results. Our findings suggest that youth who participated in Connecticut’s PSN Youth initiative benefited from the services provided and exhibited a decreased involvement in the juvenile justice system following enrollment.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
  • Are victims of crime mostly angry or mostly afraid'
    • Abstract: Abstract Analysis of the Crime Survey for England and Wales identifies anger and annoyance rather than fear as the most common emotional responses to victimisation by crime, despite fear’s pre-eminence in the criminological literature. Whilst the trend since 2003 shows an increase in fear relative to anger, anger remains more common for all crime categories and all levels of victim-rated offence seriousness. The writers contend that the mismatch between the preponderance of anger in victim accounts and the preponderance of fear in the academic literature is convenient for government and police. Subtly setting fear as the default ‘appropriate’ emotion to be evoked by victimisation makes for a populace less inclined to ‘take matters into its own hands’. Plans to develop research on victim anger are outlined.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
  • Advancing responses to mass shootings using a routine activity approach
    • Abstract: Abstract In the aftermath of high-profile mass shootings, such as those in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Sutherland Springs, Texas, there is continued demand for policy responses to such tragedies. Often, these responses are rooted in emotion rather than empirical evidence and a strong theoretical foundation. As a result, there is little progress toward prevention, and the same dialogue is revisited with each new event. In this paper, we propose that Cohen and Felson’s (Am Sociol Rev 44(4):588–608, 1979) routine activity theory can be used as a framework for developing evidence-based responses to mass shootings. Specifically, by considering mass shootings as a function of the theory’s three key elements (motivated offenders, suitable targets, and capable guardianship), we consider how this theory, which overcomes many of the challenges found with typical responses to mass shootings, can be used to develop effective policies.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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