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Computers & Education
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.626
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 156  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0360-1315
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • An in-depth analysis of adult students in blended environments: Do they
           regulate their learning in an ‘old school’ way'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Silke Vanslambrouck, Chang Zhu, Bram Pynoo, Valerie Thomas, Koen Lombaerts, Jo TondeurAbstractSeparation in time and place during the learning process reduces the ability of teachers to observe their students' learning behaviours and provide tailored support. This occurs in blended adult education, which challenges students to learn independently. Possessing self-regulation skills is crucial for success in this context. Therefore, the current study aims to address the self-regulation strategies used by adult students in blended environments. A qualitative study that included framework analysis with 16 semi-structured interviews was conducted to explore how students regulated their cognition, behaviour, context and motivation. Results show that they 1) learn by using organising and rehearsal strategies; 2) are flexible regarding time, effort and environment and; 3) report diverse help-seeking strategies. Nevertheless, they preferred offline learning materials and applied few self-motivation strategies. The findings provide tips for teachers to support and promote the students' self-regulation skills and includes tactics such as being an involved role model on forums to facilitate help-seeking processes.
       
  • The technology acceptance model (TAM): A meta-analytic structural equation
           modeling approach to explaining teachers’ adoption of digital technology
           in education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ronny Scherer, Fazilat Siddiq, Jo TondeurAbstractThe extent to which teachers adopt technology in their teaching practice has long been in the focus of research. Indeed, a plethora of models exist explaining influential factors and mechanisms of technology use in classrooms, one of which—the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and versions thereof—has dominated the field. Although consensus exists about which factors in the TAM might predict teachers’ technology adoption, the current field abounds in some controversies and inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis seeks to clarify some of these issues by combining meta-analysis with structural equation modeling approaches. Specifically, we synthesized 124 correlation matrices from 114 empirical TAM studies (N = 34,357 teachers) and tested the fit of the TAM and its versions. Overall, the TAM explains technology acceptance well; yet, the role of certain key constructs and the importance of external variables contrast some existing beliefs about the TAM. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
       
  • Effects of a mathematics game-based learning environment on primary school
           students' adaptive number knowledge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Boglárka Brezovszky, Jake McMullen, Koen Veermans, Minna M. Hannula-Sormunen, Gabriela Rodríguez-Aflecht, Nonmanut Pongsakdi, Eero Laakkonen, Erno LehtinenAbstractDeveloping adaptive expertise with arithmetic problem solving is a much desired aim of primary school mathematics education. However, there are very few practical tools for teachers that would aid reaching this complex mathematical learning goal. The aim of the present study was to test the effects of a game-based learning environment in supporting primary school students' adaptive number knowledge and related arithmetic skills. Participants were 1168 students in grades four, five, and six. Classes were randomized in two conditions: in the experimental group regular mathematics teaching was enriched with gameplay using the Number Navigation Game (NNG), and in the control group students continued according to their regular math curriculum. An experimental design with pre- and post-test was used to measure students' adaptive number knowledge, arithmetic fluency, and pre-algebra knowledge. Overall, results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group on adaptive number knowledge and math fluency. Results showed varying effects of the training in different grade levels, with more pronounced improvement of students' adaptive number knowledge in grade five. Game performance was related to the experimental group's post-test scores even after controlling for pre-test scores and grade. Results suggest that the NNG is effective in enhancing different types of arithmetic skills and knowledge in different grades of primary school education and can provide teachers with a practical and flexible tool to extend their regular classroom practice.
       
  • Learning to code via tablet applications: An evaluation of Daisy the
           Dinosaur and Kodable as learning tools for young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Sarah Pila, Fashina Aladé, Kelly J. Sheehan, Alexis R. Lauricella, Ellen A. WartellaAbstractDespite the growing number of digital apps designed to teach coding skills to young children, we know little about their effectiveness. To formally explore this question, we conducted a naturalistic observation of a one-week program designed to teach foundational coding skills (i.e., sequencing, conditions, loops) to young children (N = 28, Mage = 5.15 years) using two tablet applications: Daisy the Dinosaur and Kodable. Pre- and post-assessments measured familiarity with technology, appeal of coding apps, knowledge of Daisy commands, ability to play Kodable, and conceptual understanding of coding. Participants improved in their knowledge of Daisy commands (i.e., move, grow, jump) and Kodable gameplay (i.e., placing arrows in the correct sequence to move a character through a maze), but did not improve in their ability to verbally explain what coding is. Appeal of the games was significantly related to children's learning of Daisy commands, but child gender was not related to either Daisy or Kodable learning outcomes. Results suggest that young children can learn foundational coding skills via apps, especially when the apps are appealing to children.
       
  • A systematic review on teaching and learning robotics content knowledge in
           K-12
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Liying Xia, Baichang ZhongAbstractThis paper aims to review high-qualified empirical studies on teaching and learning robotics content knowledge in K-12 and explore future research perspectives of robotics education (RE) based on the reviewed papers. After a systematic search in online database via keyword search and snowballing approach, 22 SSCI journal papers are included in this review. Nine major factors are examined for each paper: sample groups, duration, robot types, robotics content knowledge, study type, intervention approaches, measurement instruments, major findings and instructional suggestions. The results indicate that: (1) most empirical studies were endured less than two months with a small sample size, the largest sample group was elementary school students, and most studies used LEGO robots; (2) more than half of the studies conducted a non-experimental research design, and observation, questionnaire, interview and evaluation of artifacts are commonly-used measurement instruments; and (3) instructional suggestions proposed in the 22 papers can be clustered into four themes: open environment, targeted design, appropriate pedagogy and timely support. Overall, the 22 papers suggest that RE shows great educational potential in K-12, however, there are indeed situations in which RE did not bring significant improvement in student learning. In view of this, we prospect the future research directions of RE and propose that more intervention studies with rigorous research design could be conducted in K-12.
       
  • Facilitating professional mobile learning communities with instant
           messaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Christoph Pimmer, Florian Brühlmann, Titilayo Dorothy Odetola, Deborah Olusola Oluwasola, Oluwafemi Dipeolu, Ademola J. AjuwonAbstractAlthough Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) is a massive communication phenomenon and its educational use can be seen as a genuine form of mobile learning, it has been studied to a limited extent to date. The present study examined the use of MIM to engage young professionals in mobile learning communities during their school-to-work transition. This transition is one of the most central but also challenging developmental phases marked by the experience of knowledge gaps and a lack of belonging.To assess knowledge and socio-professional learning effects associated with the use of MIM, this study adopted a quasi-experimental, survey-based approach with an intervention and control condition (n = 114) in the setting of an international research project. In the intervention condition, newly graduated nurses from Nigeria participated in WhatsApp groups in which moderators shared knowledge and stimulated professional discussions over a period of 6 months. Data were collected via online surveys and knowledge tests.The findings show that participants in the moderated WhatsApp groups had significantly higher knowledge and exhibited fewer feelings of professional isolation compared with the control group, which was not subject of any treatment. The effects were even more pronounced when controlling for active contributions (writing vs reading messages), which also amounted to significantly higher levels of professional identification. In addition, across intervention and control groups, the self-reported general active use of WhatsApp (outside of the intervention) was positively associated with the measures of professional social capital maintained with school connections, professional identity, (lower) professional isolation, job satisfaction, and the perceived transfer of school knowledge to work practice.Whereas knowledge and socio-professional effects can be triggered through moderated WhatsApp interventions yet the general (and thus informal) use of WhatsApp is associated with socio-professional connectedness. The findings are of particular relevance in the developing context under investigation, which is marked by a lack of alternative support structures.
       
  • Differences in serious game-aided and traditional English vocabulary
           acquisition
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 127Author(s): Yu ZhonggenAbstractA number of studies have been devoted to the effectiveness of serious gaming in English vocabulary learning, which has reported different results. Some studies support serious gaming in vocabulary learning, while others oppose. This study used a mixed-design research method through two experiments and two interviews to explore serious gaming in English (English as a foreign language) vocabulary learning. Data were collected from randomly selected participants, who were randomly assigned to three cohorts in both experiments: (1) Cohort A, where they learned English vocabulary through the more interactivity-prone serious games-Hujiang Fun Vocabulary in the first experiment and New Oriental Fun Vocabulary in the second experiment; (2) Cohort B, where they learned English vocabulary aided with the less interactivity-prone serious games-Baicizhan in the first experiment and Kingsoft Vocabulary in the second experiment; (3) Cohort C, where they learned English vocabulary through traditional approaches in both experiments. It is concluded that (1) the interactivity-prone serious gaming is significantly more effective than the less interactivity-prone serious gaming in English vocabulary learning at the significance level p=.05; (2) the less interactivity-prone serious gaming is significantly more effective than the traditional approach in English vocabulary learning at the significance level p=.05; (3) males significantly outperformed females in serious game-aided English vocabulary learning at the significance level p=.05. We also discussed the features that should be considered when a serious game is designed to assist English vocabulary learning. Future research directions were suggested that serious gaming in English vocabulary learning be integrated into interdisciplinary research such as cooperation between computer science, education, psychology, applied linguistics and statistics.
       
  • Immersive virtual reality serious games for evacuation training and
           research: A systematic literature review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Zhenan Feng, Vicente Gonzalez, Robert Amor, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Guillermo Cabrera-GuerreroAbstractAn appropriate and safe behavior for exiting a facility is key to reducing injuries and increasing survival when facing an emergency evacuation in a building. Knowledge on the best evacuation practice is commonly delivered by traditional training approaches such as videos, posters, or evacuation drills, but they may become ineffective in terms of knowledge acquisition and retention. Serious games (SGs) are an innovative approach devoted to training and educating people in a gaming environment. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to immersive virtual reality (IVR)-based SGs for evacuation knowledge delivery and behavior assessment because they are highly engaging and promote greater cognitive learning.This paper aims to understand the development and implementation of IVR SGs in the context of building evacuation training and research, applied to various indoor emergencies such as fire and earthquake. Thus, a conceptual framework for effective design and implementation through the systematic literature review method was developed. As a result, this framework integrates critical aspects and provides connections between them, including pedagogical and behavioral impacts, gaming environment development, and outcome and participation experience measures.
       
  • An intelligent diagnostic framework: A scaffolding tool to resolve
           academic reading problems of Thai first-year university students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chayaporn Kaoropthai, Onjaree Natakuatoong, Nagul CooharojananoneAbstractTo accommodate teaching an English class with varied language abilities, an intelligent diagnostic framework (IDF) employing the twostep clustering (TSC) of data mining technique was proposed. A tailormade diagnostic test on the 10 underlying academic reading skills was constructed. Each skill was measured by four test items using a pass criterion of 75% (≥ 3 out of 4). The TSC was performed on the skill scores and ten personal attributes of 297 first-year university students. The precluster step generated three subclusters. Further analysis (N= 221) created a predictive solution of five clusters with 95.5% accuracy. A final analysis using Pearson's correlation revealed four groups of positive relationships. Lead users from each type were then assigned self-tutoring lessons to learn for two weeks. The results revealed that 56% of lead users had equal or higher scores and 68% of them passed an equal or higher number of skills than in the pretest. Students' types disclosed by the TSC were thus able to predict and the IDF was able to diagnose and scaffold most of the students in academic reading skills. Because the IDF was not so powerful for lower-proficiency students, future research should focus more on those students.
       
  • A study of primary school students' interest, collaboration attitude, and
           programming empowerment in computational thinking education
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Siu-Cheung Kong, Ming Ming Chiu, Ming LaiAbstractBuilding on Seymour Papert's view of empowering students by mastering programming, this study conceptualized programming empowerment as consisting of four components: meaningfulness, impact, creative self-efficacy, and programming self-efficacy. A sample of 287 primary school students in grades four to six completed a corresponding survey. Confirmatory factor analysis validated the proposed components of the programming empowerment instrument. A structural equation model indicated that students with greater interest in programming perceived it as more meaningful, had greater impact, had greater creative self-efficacy, and had greater programming self-efficacy. Also, students with attitudes toward collaboration that were more positive than others had greater creative self-efficacy. Boys showed more interest in programming than girls did. Students in higher grade levels than others viewed programming as less meaningful and had lower programming self-efficacy. These results support future studies that evaluate the impacts of interest-driven computational thinking and programming curricula with ample collaboration opportunities.
       
  • Optimum input mode in the modality and redundancy principles for
           university ESL students' multimedia learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yinan Liu, Bong Gee Jang, Zaline Roy-CampbellAbstractRichard Mayer's cognitive theory of multimedia learning and multimedia learning principles provide theoretical and empirical foundations for multimedia instruction. However, the theory and the principles were developed based on empirical studies of native English-speaking students and may not apply to English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students. Specifically, the modality and redundancy principles that involve text and audio could become compromised in the ESL context, since ESL students have difficulty fully comprehending L2 (second language) English text and audio. This study sought to identify ESL students' optimum input mode (among graphics + audio, graphics + text, and graphics + audio + text, addressed in the modality and redundancy principles) and to test whether the modality and redundancy principles also apply to their multimedia learning. Empirical studies comparing the input modes for ESL students' learning were reviewed and common limitations were identified. When it came to knowledge retention, no statistically significant differences were found in ESL students' learning outcomes from the three input modes. The findings also indicated that Mayer's modality and redundancy principles had not applied to the learning of ESL students. Explanations for the results and implications for future research were discussed.
       
  • A meta-analysis of Social Network Site use and social support
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Dong Liu, Kevin B. Wright, Baijing HuAbstractCurrent scholarship knows little about what forms of social support are the major benefits of Social Network Sites (SNSs) use. To solve this problem, this study examined the association of SNSs use and social support by meta-analyzing 73 effects from 31 studies. We also examined several important moderators such as age, gender, and culture. The findings revealed that generic SNS use may be helpful for informational and emotional support, but not for tangible and esteem support. Further moderation analysis demonstrated that SNSs are better set up for online social support, but it also provides offline support benefits. The analyses also showed differences between users who engage in active SNS activities and those who passive consume online content. Moreover, Asians were found to receive more social support via SNS presentation than Europeans and Americans. Older and female students were found to be able to acquire more social support from SNS use.
       
  • Learning analytics to support self-regulated learning in asynchronous
           online courses: A case study at a women's university in South Korea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Dongho Kim, Meehyun Yoon, Il-Hyun Jo, Robert Maribe BranchAbstractWith the recognition of the importance of self-regulated learning (SRL) in asynchronous online courses, recent research has explored how SRL strategies impact student learning in these learning environments. However, little has been done to examine different patterns of students with different SRL profiles over time, which precludes providing optimal on-going instructional support for individual students. To address the gap in research, we applied learning analytics to analyze log data from 284 undergraduate students enrolled in an asynchronous online statistics course. Specifically, we identified student SRL profiles, and examined the actual student SRL learning patterns.The k-medoids clustering identified three self-regulated learning profiles: self-regulation, partial self-regulation, and non-self-regulation. Self-regulated students showed more study regularity and help-seeking, than did the other two groups of students. The partially self-regulated students showed high study regularity but inactive help-seeking, while the non-self-regulated students exhibited less study regularity and less frequent help-seeking than the other two groups; their self-reported time management scores were significantly lower. The analysis of each week's log variables using the random forest algorithm revealed that self-regulated students studied course content early before exams and sought help during the general exam period, whereas non-self-regulated students studied the course content during the general exam period. Based on our findings, we provide instructional strategies that can be used to support student SRL. We also discuss implications of this study for advanced learning analytics research, and the design of effective asynchronous online courses.
       
  • App clusters: Exploring patterns of multiple app use in primary learning
           contexts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Sarah K. Howard, Jie Yang, Jun Ma, Karl Maton, Ellie RennieAbstractThere has been a continuous and rapid increase in the volume of apps in recent years since tablets became widely available in schools. Tablets contain a wide variety of apps, which are used for a large range of activities and tasks, and they are used in different combinations over time. Yet, there is limited research on young children's real and varied use of apps. The variety and volume of apps accessed by young children contributes to difficulty understanding there use and the consequences of that use. This has limited understanding of how apps contribute to students' learning. Given the importance of high quality early learning experiences, it is essential that the use of apps in schools is better understood. This paper explores young children's real varied app use through a large aggregated Australian dataset of app usage in primary schools, which has been collected automatically from approximately 15,000 Android devices over three years. The data mining methods of clustering and association rules analysis have been used to identify patterns of app use. Results show five distinct patterns of app use. Findings provide important insights into the complexity of multiple app use in the classroom. Implications of different use patterns in relation to learning and teaching are discussed.
       
  • Blood from a stone: Where teachers report finding time for computer-based
           instruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Andrea Kunze, Teomara RutherfordAbstractIn an era of accountability, implementation of computer-based instruction (CBI) may be attractive to personalize learning and raise test scores. Although prior work has examined how CBI may serve these purposes, we demonstrate that it also has an unintentional impact on how teachers allocate time in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential collateral damage of implementing CBI in elementary classrooms. Using the implementation of the supplemental CBI, Spatial Temporal (ST) Math as a case study, we analyze how 468 teachers report spending instructional minutes in each subject per week, and which subjects are reported as being limited to accommodate the program. Results reveal teachers vary in time spent across subjects and from where they draw time for ST Math. Most time for ST Math comes from a reduction of non-math core subject time with some variation according to grade. We provide initial evidence of teacher autonomy in subject time allocation within the context of CBI implementation; further study is needed to illuminate drivers of teacher's decisions.
       
  • Need-supporting gamification in education: An assessment of motivational
           effects over time
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Rob van Roy, Bieke ZamanAbstractAlthough many studies have focused on the potential of implementing gamification in education, the existing literature remains inconclusive about its effectiveness. In order to make sense of the contradictory findings regarding the effectiveness of implementing game design elements in an online learning environment, this paper complements the available body of research by addressing three holes. We have (1) analysed gamification's underlying motivational processes from a Self-Determination Theory-perspective, thereby accounting for the motivational effects of various game design implementations; (2) empirically assessed subtle motivational changes over time, and (3) accounted for the potential individual differences in motivational effects of gamification. Over a period of 15 weeks, we administered four surveys to measure the possible evolution in students' (N = 40) motivational levels in response to interacting with need-supporting game elements that were implemented in Google + Communities used in a university course. Participants' autonomous and controlled motivation was curve linear, showing an initial downward trend that surprisingly shifted to an upward tendency towards the end of the semester. Their controlled motivation stayed stable throughout. The results illustrated the significance of the individual nature of motivational processes, the importance of sensitive longitudinal motivation measurements, and the relevance of the implemented game elements' design characteristics. We end this article by opening the debate on using theoretical lenses when designing gamification, and by providing avenues for future research.
       
  • Listen to the models: Sonified learning models for people who are blind
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Orly Lahav, Nuha Hagab, Sewar Abed El Kader, Sharona T. Levy, Vadim TalisAbstractStudents who are blind need access to learning materials. This study looks at the learning of science by people who are blind using a curriculum-based textbook compared to their learning using an identical curriculum integrated with the Listening-to-Complexity (L2C), an agent-based model created on NetLogo. The L2C system employs sonified feedback that provides auditory streams synchronically. This study examines acquisition of scientific conceptual knowledge and systems reasoning for the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) of gas and Gas Laws in chemistry. Twenty persons who are blind participated in this research; they were divided into two experimental groups: those using an accessible curriculum-based textbook and those using the same curriculum integrated with L2C agent-based models. Results showed that all research participants gained scientific knowledge; statistically significant differences were found for both experimental research groups between pre-and posttest. Those who learned through the L2C models performed with higher accuracy in the posttest; furthermore, learning using the NetLogo L2C models predicted their success at the posttest. A comparison of learning task accuracy between the two experimental groups showed that the participants who studied using the NetLogo L2C models performed with statistically significant differences in the five learning activities with integrated L2C models, but no differences were found for the learning activities without integrated L2C models. These research results are likely to have a beneficial impact on integrating sonified models in science education as a compensatory aid, allowing hands-on learning experience for students who are blind. Integrating sonified models will support their inclusion in the K–12 academic curriculum on an equal basis.
       
  • Privacy behavior profiles of underage facebook users
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hui-Lien Chou, Yih-Lan Liu, Chien ChouAbstractSocial network sites (SNSs) provide users many mechanisms to share personal information and to restrict access to disclosure. In this regard, users' privacy-protective and -precarious practices often occur simultaneously. However, past research on SNS privacy issues has often focused on one side of these privacy practices. Additionally, underage students (aged 9–17) constitute a population of SNS users that is less investigated. Many ineligible students (aged less than 13) are in the habit of using Facebook. Their reckless online behaviors sometimes land them in trouble. To investigate underage students' privacy-protective and -precarious practices simultaneously, cross-sectional surveys were given to students in the primary, middle and high schools around Taiwan. We employed cluster analysis and discovered four clusters as a result. The relationships between memberships and demographical variables as well as other variables such as parental mediation or Internet use were explored as a validation of the clustering results. It was found that membership was related to age, gender, network size and parental mediation. Different interventions are suggested based on these profiles.
       
  • Who is better adapted in learning online within the personal learning
           environment' Relating gender differences in cognitive attention
           networks to digital distraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jiun-Yu Wu, Tzuying ChengAbstractIn response to increasing concerns about digital distraction, we bridged people's cognitive attention to digital distraction within the personal learning environment (PLE). Gender differences were investigated in college students' media-related perceived attention problems (PAP) and their attention self-regulatory strategies (SRS). Also examined were the gender moderating effects on the correlations of attention problems and regulatory strategies with six dimensions of social media usage and four cognitive- and adjustment-related criteria: online search strategies, media-multitasking self-efficacy (MMSE), positive/negative self-esteems, and academic achievement. Participants were 771 undergraduate and graduate students from 10 universities in Taiwan. Gender measurement invariance was established in the research instrument. Males exhibited higher PAP than females. Females demonstrated more versatile strategy use to regulate their attention with increased social media use, while males applied more behavioral strategies over social media use as disorientation increased during online searches. Higher MMSE was associated with higher executive and orienting problems for females, and higher alerting problems for males. Higher orienting problems was associated with more negative self-esteem for males. Females with higher PAP reported poorer academic achievement. Implications for practical intervention of PAPs are discussed for each gender group to promote college students' psychological well-being with regard to social media use and learning performance.
       
  • Designing productively negative experiences with serious game mechanics
           qualitative analysis of game-play and game design in a randomized trial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Andrea Gauthier, Jodie JenkinsonDesign, rather than medium, ultimately predicts learning outcomes, but the game-based learning literature has had difficulty successfully linking game design decisions to learning behaviours and outcomes. The current research investigates how explicit game design strategies can promote productive negativity (i.e. learning from failure), which has been identified as an important mechanism in both gaming and learning. We performed a randomized controlled trial with undergraduate biology students to investigate how game design might facilitate misconception resolution about random molecular behaviour through productive negativity. Students engaged with either a computer-based interactive simulation (n = 20) or serious game (n = 20) for 30 min, while their computer screens were recorded and click-stream data collected. We described in detail the theoretical framework underpinning our serious game and simulation using the Activity Theory Model of Serious Games (ATMSG); qualitatively coded and analysed video recordings of gameplay; and visually overlaid this data with the ATMSG models to draw conclusions about how game-design decisions influence learning-related behaviours. We found that the serious game resulted in significantly more productively negative experiences, while the interactive simulation allowed for greater exploratory or experimental behaviours. Based on our analyses of the qualitative gameplay data, we were able to recommend three game design strategies to enhance the occurrence of desired game-flow loops (e.g. productive negativity) with respect to an ATMSG framework: 1) including additional game mechanics on the primary game-flow axis of the ATMSG framework (i.e. mandatory interactions) limits the exploratory nature of the application; 2) integrating two or more primary-axis mechanics in a game-flow loop increases the frequency of interaction with this loop; and 3) gameplay loops that involve mechanics that fall off the primary-axis (i.e. non-mandatory mechanics) occur less frequently than those which involve primary-axis (i.e. mandatory) mechanics. This study is one of the first to successfully make direct comparisons between students' interactions in a game and a non-game application to provide concrete and actionable serious game design recommendations.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Examining student characteristics, goals, and engagement in Massive Open
           Online Courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Kyle M. Williams, Rose E. Stafford, Stephanie B. Corliss, Erin D. ReillyAbstractMassive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have emerged with much popularity in the last five years, yet many questions remain about whom MOOCs best serve and what constitutes learner success. Completion rates, a common metric of student success, remain low, averaging less than 8%, and may be a misleading measure of success unless learner intentions are considered. This research addresses the relationships among learner characteristics and goals for enrolling in MOOCs, and the impacts on student persistence and completion in varying disciplines. We examined learner self-reported goals for taking a MOOC, characteristics, and rate of completion of 15,655 participants in eight MOOC courses. Results revealed that while age was positively associated with MOOC participation, motivation differed across course disciplines. The relationship between learner goals and engagement differed between those enrolled in Humanities/Liberal Arts (HLA) and STEM courses. Most notably, while taking the course due to personal interest or usefulness to a participant's career held a positive relationship with engagement in HLA courses, the endorsement of these same goals was predictive of less engagement in STEM courses. Our findings indicate that learner goals impact engagement and success, and that there are differences in engagement and goals between course disciplines. Suggestions for future MOOC research and potential course improvement to better align with learner goals are also provided.
       
  • A systematic review of design and technology components of educational
           digital resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Kui Xie, Gennaro Di Tosto, Sheng-Bo Chen, Vanessa W. VongkulluksnAbstractWith the rise of the Internet and the proliferation of online content, the design and evaluation of educational digital resources (EDRs) are pressing and challenging issues. They warrant an investigation of what exactly are the features that increase the quality of EDRs. In a previous professional development program, we trained and supported teachers in evaluating and selecting EDRs with the support of a scientifically validated rubric. In this present study, through quantitative, qualitative, and text-mining methods, we analyzed the review data of 1200 resources produced that professional development program in order to provide a big picture of the quality of currently available products, and to identify the features that characterize quality digital resources. Our findings suggest the need for digital repositories to reflect or make visible how resources fit particular instructional design models.
       
  • Exploring the relationship between online discourse and commitment in
           Twitter professional learning communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Wanli Xing, Fei GaoAbstractEducators show great interest in participating in social-media communities, such as Twitter, to support their professional development and learning. The majority of the research into Twitter-based professional learning communities has investigated why educators choose to use Twitter for professional development and learning and what they actually do in these communities. However, few studies have examined why certain community members remain committed and others gradually drop out. To fill this gap in the research, this study investigated how some key features of online discourse influenced the continued participation of the members of a Twitter-based professional learning community. More than 600,000 tweets generated over six years under the hashtag #edchat were gathered. Online discourse was deconstructed to the cognitive dimension, the interactive dimension, and the social dimension. Text-mining methods were then used to automatically identify these dimensions in the tweets. Finally, survival analysis was used to quantify the influences of these dimensions on users' commitment time to the Twitter community. The implications of the results and findings are then discussed.Wanli Xing is an Assistant Professor in Instructional Technology at Texas Tech University, USA with background in learning sciences, statistics, computer science and mathematical modeling. His research interests are educational data mining, learning analytics, and CSCL.Gao Fei is an Associate Professor at Bowling Green State University. Her current research involves examining the types of interaction and learning enabled by online social technologies, designing technology-mediated environments that encourage meaningful social interaction, and exploring pedagogical methods that promote deep learning in such environments.
       
  • Networked learning with professionals boosts students' self-efficacy for
           social networking for professional development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Abram D. AndersAbstractPrevious research has recognized that networked learning—including the use of social media, blogs, and learning communities—offers unique affordances for supporting the development of self-efficacy. However, additional research is needed to examine applications of networked learning that integrate professional contexts into academic learning experiences. The present study reports on an intervention in which networked learning was used to promote student self-efficacy for social networking and professional development. The learning design integrates three techniques: a focus on developing personal learning networks, a blog-based learning community, and mastery experiences for networking with professionals. The hypothesis was that networked learning among peers in the learning community would help support the gradual development of skills and confidence for social networking, while networking to learn with professionals would amplify the impact of mastery experiences on student self-efficacy. A study of 72 undergraduate business students found that the intervention led to significant gains in self-efficacy for social networking and professional development activities. Students also reported a greater likelihood of engaging in these activities in the following year. Finally, students perceived the learning experience as relevant for their lifelong learning and professional success.
       
  • The effects of an ARCS based e-book on student's achievement, motivation
           and anxiety
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yalin kiliç Türel, Seda Özer ŞanalAbstractThis study investigates how a digital book – or e-book – based on Keller's ARCS model of Motivational Design influenced undergraduate students' sense of achievement, motivation, and anxiety. In the study, we used a mixed methods design to examine the effects of using an e-book versus a printed book or static PDF. Participants in the study were 94 students who were enrolled in a Mathematics-I course at Firat University Technology Faculty in Turkey. Forty-eight of these student volunteers were enrolled in the experimental group and 46 others enrolled in a control group. Data was collected from several sources: students' motivation surveys, mathematics anxiety surveys, mathematics achievement tests, and interviews. Results indicated that students using the e-book based on the ARCS motivation model performed significantly better on the mathematics achievement test and motivation survey. The findings also revealed that the e-book based on ARCS motivation model had a significant effect on reducing students' mathematics anxiety levels. The article also considers numerous digital and e-book empirical studies published in the literature, many of which have reported that the effect of digital books on a variety of different learning outcomes has produced mostly positive results. We hope the findings of this present study will contribute to the future design and implementation of digital books and how they are used in learning environments.
       
  • Cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted
           learning: From word meaning to inferential comprehension
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): You-Hsuan Chang, Tzu-Chien Liu, Fred PaasAbstractComputer-mediated dictionaries have been important and widely used aids in the comprehension of, and learning from online texts. However, despite the convenience of computer-mediated dictionaries in retrieving word meaning, its use may reduce the time that readers spend reading each word and negatively affect word retention. In addition, readers' vocabulary size is a key factor influencing the lookup process, and its effectiveness. Therefore, in this study, we propose a new ‘checking-meaning’ function to optimize word retention and to explain readers' cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted learning. We conducted a 2 (checking meaning function: with vs. without) × 2 (vocabulary size: large vs. small) between-subjects design to explore the effectiveness of vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension performance in computer-mediated dictionary-assisted reading. In line with the hypotheses, results revealed that the computer-mediated dictionary with checking-meaning function enhanced small vocabulary size learners' vocabulary acquisition, but negatively influenced large vocabulary size learners' reading comprehension performance. Based on these results, we propose the competition-cooperation relationship to explain readers' cognitive resources allocation in computer-mediated dictionary assisted learning.
       
  • Learning through intuitive interface: A case study on preschool learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ngan Kuen Lai, Tan Fong Ang, Lip Yee Por, Chee Sun LiewAbstractFor a child, playing is not only an act of fun, but also a way of learning. Long hours of study in a classroom without playing only serve to make the children detest learning. A current interest of research is to integrate the learning process with the latest technology to engage children with learning and playing. Game-based learning (GBL) is one of the approaches that utilises the gaming environment to attract the student's attention and increase participation throughout the process of learning. We proposed an intervention program that used voice and gesture-based interactive virtual learning environment (VGVLE) based on GBL framework to teach colour and shape to preschool children. The program with quasi-experimental design (N = 84) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in promoting preschool learning when compared with the traditional classroom teaching approach. Our findings show that pre-schoolers who learnt with the proposed approach surpassed those who learnt with the classroom approach. Besides that, the gap in learning performance was also reduced.
       
  • The different relationships between engagement and outcomes across
           participant subgroups in Massive Open Online Courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Qiujie Li, Rachel BakerAbstractPrevious research has found that early engagement in MOOCs (e.g., watching lectures, contributing to discussion forums, and submitting assignments) can be used to predict course completion and course grade, which may help instructors and administrators to identify at-risk participants and to target interventions. However, most of these analyses have only focused on the average relationships between engagement and achievement, which may mask important heterogeneity among participant subgroups in MOOCs. This study examines how the relationship between engagement and achievement may vary across the four common behaviorally identified participant subgroups (“disengagers,” “auditors,” “quiz-takers,” and “all-rounders”) in three MOOC courses offered on the Coursera platform. For each of these subgroups, we used measures of behavioral and cognitive engagement from the first half of the ten-week courses to predict two outcomes: course grade and overall lecture coverage. Results indicate that the same engagement measure may be oppositely associated with achievement for different subgroups and that some engagement measures predict achievement for one subgroup but not another. These findings provide insight into both the benefits and the complexity of studying patterns of engagement from behavioral data and provide suggestions on the improvement of identification of at-risk participants in MOOCs.
       
  • E-learning critical success factors: Comparing perspectives from academic
           staff and students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Abdullah Alhabeeb, Jennifer RowleyAbstractThis article advances knowledge on the factors that lead to successful e-learning in universities, through a comparative study of the perspectives of academic staff and students. In particular, it contributes to the limited knowledge bases on the effectiveness of e-learning in Saudi Arabia, and on the differences in perspectives of different groups of stakeholders in e-learning. Based on previous research, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to convenience samples of academic staff and students at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Respondents were invited to express their opinion regarding the importance of a number of factors to the success of e-learning. Principal Component Analysis was conducted on each dataset, in turn, to assess the loading of items onto factors, and the variance explained. The most important finding from this study is that the perspectives of students and academic staff differ, with there being nine factors for academic staff and seven for students. Categories that are common to both groups are: student characteristics, instructor characteristics, ease of access, and support and training. The order for academics is: student characteristics, ease of access, instructor characteristics, and support and training; and, the order foe students is: instructor characteristics, student characteristics, support and training, and ease of access.
       
  • Investigating the effect of learning method and motivation on learning
           performance in a business simulation system context: An experimental study
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Hsin-Hui Lin, Wan-Chu Yen, Yi-Shun WangAbstractWith the proliferation of business simulation systems used in business education, an understanding of the factors of a simulation-based learning environment that contribute to learning performance within instructional settings is essential. This study aims to explore the effect of learning method (individual mode vs. collaborative mode) and learning motivation (low vs. high) on learning performance in a simulation-based business learning context by conducting an experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Virtual Business-Retailing (VBR) software, a business simulation system for convenience store operation, is adopted to build a retailer simulation-based learning environment. Our results reveal that the difference in students' learning performance between individual mode and collaborative mode is significant. However, learning motivation does not have a significant impact on learning performance. Further, learning motivation is an important moderator for the effect of learning method on learning performance. These findings provide several important theoretical and practical implications for the educational use of business simulation systems.
       
  • The role of planning in complex problem solving
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Beate Eichmann, Frank Goldhammer, Samuel Greiff, Liene Pucite, Johannes NaumannAbstractComplex problem solving (CPS) is a highly transversal competence needed in educational and vocational settings as well as everyday life. The assessment of CPS is often computer-based, and therefore provides data regarding not only the outcome but also the process of CPS. However, research addressing this issue is scarce. In this article we investigated planning activities in the process of complex problem solving. We operationalized planning through three behavioral measures indicating the duration of the longest planning interval, the delay of the longest planning interval and the variance of intervals between each two successive interactions. We found a significant negative average effect for our delay indicator, indicating that early planning in CPS is more beneficial. However, we also found effects depending on task and interaction effects for all three indicators, suggesting that the effects of different planning behaviors on CPS are highly intertwined.
       
  • Does teaching with PowerPoint increase students' learning' A
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): James P. Baker, Alan K. Goodboy, Nicholas D. Bowman, Alyssa A. WrightAbstractPowerPoint has become a ubiquitous tool for instructors who teach college students. Almost two decades of student learning research has examined the impact of traditional instruction (i.e., chalk and talk) versus instruction aided by PowerPoint. This research has revealed inconsistent and contrasting results. To probe this inconsistency, a meta-analysis of 48 studies was conducted to determine if students learn more when taught the same material using PowerPoint compared to traditional instruction. Results revealed that on average, there was no difference in students' learning based on the type of instruction they received (Hedges' g = 0.067; 95% CI: −0.103 to 0.236). Moderation analyses revealed that the sampling frame, such as a focus on K-12 versus college students, explained heterogeneity in the findings. Specifically, K-12 students' cognitive learning increased as a result of PowerPoint instruction, but this effect did not emerge for college students. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that researchers should move past strictly comparing the absence or presence of this instructional tool, to instead examine how instructors are integrating features of PowerPoint in ways that help students learn.
       
  • The role of teacher capacity and instructional practice in the integration
           of educational technology for emergent bilingual students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Jennifer Darling-Aduana, Carolyn J. HeinrichAbstractThis mixed methods study examines the extent to which the use, and intensity of use, of educational technology is associated with improved academic outcomes for English language learners (ELLs) in both English/Spanish bilingual and traditional English-only classrooms. We also explore the role of teacher capacity and practice in integrating educational technology by student population and instructional setting across six schools serving a student population of predominately low-income ELLs. Building on limited prior work on technology integration with elementary school ELLs, the analysis draws on district administrative data, teacher surveys, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. In econometric analyses of academic outcomes associated with exposure to varying intensities of technology use, we identified positive associations of technology use in reading, starting at around 40 min of weekly use in bilingual classrooms versus 1 h of weekly use in traditional classrooms. While the average reading effect size topped out at 0.20 for students with 2 h of weekly technology use in reading in traditional classrooms, the reading effect size continued to rise in bilingual classrooms to over 0.50 for students in classrooms using technology for 3 h a week in reading. We also found that technology use in reading—where teachers were observed more frequently using blended instructional strategies—was more effective for students in bilingual classes than technology use in math. Our findings suggest that alignment of technology with constructivist teaching strategies, which connect student learning to culturally relevant experiences and provide opportunities for interactivity and collaboration, is key to transforming the learning process and outcomes of emergent bilingual students.
       
  • The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Gökçe Akçayır, Murat AkçayırAbstractThis study presents a large-scale systematic review of the literature on the flipped classroom, with the goals of examining its reported advantages and challenges for both students and instructors, and to note potentially useful areas of future research on the flipped model's in and out-of-class activities. The full range of Social Sciences Citation Indexed journals was surveyed through the Web of Science site, and a total of 71 research articles were selected for the review. The findings reveal that the most frequently reported advantage of the flipped classroom is the improvement of student learning performance. We also found a number of challenges in this model. The majority of these are related to out-of-class activities, such as much reported inadequate student preparation prior to class. Several other challenges and the numerous advantages of the flipped classroom are discussed in detail. We then offer suggestions for future research on flipped model activities.
       
  • The essential applications of educational robot: Requirement analysis from
           the perspectives of experts, researchers and instructors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Ya-Wen Cheng, Pei-Chen Sun, Nian-Shing ChenAbstractRobots can benefit education in many ways, and robotics holds great promise as a learning technology. However, the use of robots in education remains largely unknown to both researchers and educators. Many educators and developers have questions regarding the essential applications for robots used in education. Thus, this study aims to identify the essential applications of educational robots. To gain insight from the perspectives of researchers, experts and educators, we investigate the requirements of educational robots in all levels of education through 3 approaches: systematic literature review, expert interviews and instructor surveys. We review the extant literature that addresses the use of robots in education and adopted data from one of them, and conduct interviews with industry experts, scholars and instructors. We also conduct an online survey that invites instructors from six different levels of education to respond. We find the following to be the top five essential applications for educational robots: language education, robotics education, teaching assistance, social skill development and special education, and guided learning through feedback.
       
  • A peer assessment method to provide feedback, consistent grading and
           reduce students' burden in massive teaching settings
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Oscar Luaces, Jorge Díez, Antonio BahamondeAbstractTo grade open-response answers in a massive course is an important task that cannot be handled without the assistance of an intelligent system able to extend the abilities of experts. A peer assessment method may be used for this. The students who wrote the answers also play the role of graders for a reduced set of answers provided by other students. The grades thus obtained should be aggregated to provide a reasonable overall grade for each answer. However, these systems present two clear disadvantages for students: they increase their already heavy workload, and the grades that students finally receive lack feedback explaining the reasons for their scores. The contribution of this paper comprises a proposal to overcome these shortcomings. The students acting as graders are asked to evaluate a number of different aspects. One of them is the overall grade, but there are other annotations that can be included to explain the overall grade. Moreover, we represent the responses given by the students (text documents) as the inputs in a learning task, in which the outputs are the aspects to be assessed (labels with an ordinal level). Our proposal is to learn all these labels at once employing a multitask approach that uses matrix factorization. The method presented in this paper shows that peer assessment can provide feedback and can additionally be extended to grade the responses of students not involved in the peer assessment loop, thus significantly reducing the burden on students. We present the details of the method, as well as a number of experiments carried out using three data sets obtained from courses belonging to different fields at our university.
       
  • Statistical semi-supervised system for grading multiple peer-reviewed
           open-ended works
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Juan Ramón Rico-Juan, Antonio-Javier Gallego, Jose J. Valero-Mas, Jorge Calvo-ZaragozaAbstractIn the education context, open-ended works generally entail a series of benefits as the possibility of develop original ideas and a more productive learning process to the student rather than closed-answer activities. Nevertheless, such works suppose a significant correction workload to the teacher in contrast to the latter ones that can be self-corrected. Furthermore, such workload turns to be intractable with large groups of students. In order to maintain the advantages of open-ended works with a reasonable amount of correction effort, this article proposes a novel methodology: students perform the corrections using a rubric (closed Likert scale) as a guideline in a peer-review fashion; then, their markings are automatically analyzed with statistical tools to detect possible biased scorings; finally, in the event the statistical analysis detects a biased case, the teacher is required to intervene to manually correct the assignment. This methodology has been tested on two different assignments with two heterogeneous groups of people to assess the robustness and reliability of the proposal. As a result, we obtain values over 95% in the confidence of the intra-class correlation test (ICC) between the grades computed by our proposal and those directly resulting from the manual correction of the teacher. These figures confirm that the evaluation obtained with the proposed methodology is statistically similar to that of the manual correction of the teacher with a remarkable decrease in terms of effort.
       
  • Understanding mobile English-learning gaming adopters in the self-learning
           market: The Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Chih-Ping ChenAbstractInnovative technology potentially offers new opportunities for booming self-learning markets in Taiwan. The advancement of mobile English-learning games has expedited the idea of self-learning by reducing time, space limitations, and anxiety (e.g., Technology phobia, English anxiety) that come with knowledge acquisition. This study offers a Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model (UGEM) to fill the gap of knowledge between mobile gaming and self-learning by investigating the potential variables (perceived mobile anxiety, perceived second language anxiety, perceived usefulness, and perceived playfulness) and examining how confirmation and gratification both affect adopters' continuance intention toward using mobile English-learning games. The study gathered data from Taiwanese university students after their adoption and practice with mobile English-learning games via a self-reporting survey questionnaire. Data collected from 1121 respondents in Taiwan was used to examine the research UGEM model using a variance analysis approach to provide new insights to the self-learning taking place when mobile English-learning games are adopted. Theoretical and practical implications are also offered.
       
  • How digital environments in schools might be used to boost social skills:
           Developing a conditional augmentation hypothesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Stuart McNaughton, Naomi Rosedale, Rebecca Ngaire Jesson, Rashina Hoda, Lin Sophie TengAbstractThe use of online devices, tools and technologies in schools are seen as being able to promote ‘21st century’ skills, specifically inter personal (e.g., being empathetic, taking others' perspectives, cooperation and collaboration) and intra personal skills (e.g., persistence and self-control). We review theoretical rationales for and, where available, research evidence about the impact of digital tools and technologies on the development of these skills under two conditions. One is where there are direct effects of access to and use of digital technologies relatively independently from other influences of the teacher. The evidence suggests powerful mechanisms are afforded directly, such as feedback, social learning, agentive learning and play (game-based learning), but that effects are variable and there are both positive and negative influences on skills. The second condition is when the digital environments are mediated by teaching. The evidence is that both effectiveness and the consistency of effects of digital environments depend on the deliberate design and management of the tools and their functions. Explanations relate to the mediating effects of the activity structures and how they are designed, the role of the teacher in both that design and specific instructional acts, and the guided actions of interlocutors through digital devices. We propose a teacher ‘conditional augmentation’ hypothesis: teachers' augmentation adds instructional power to the direct effects of digital technologies.
       
  • Students' exploration strategies in computer-simulated complex problem
           Environments:A latent class approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Samuel Greiff, Gyöngyvér Molnár, Romain Martin, Johannes Zimmermann, Benő CsapóAbstractComplex problem solving (CPS) is considered an important educational achievement indicator. Previous research has indicated that CPS performance depends to a substantial extent on the way students explore problem environments. In this study, we investigated qualitative differences in the way students interact with such environments. In a sample of N = 2226 Hungarian students in Grades 6 to 8, we applied a latent class approach to investigate the use of the principle of isolated variation as an exploration strategy across six CPS tasks that were developed within the MicroDYN approach. Six qualitatively different class profiles emerged: proficient explorers, intermediate explorers, low-performing explorers, rapid learners, emerging explorers, and nonpersisting explorers. We further validated the profiles by comparing the latent classes with regard to students' overall CPS performance and additional indicators of task exploration. In analyzing age-related and gender differences on a cross-sectional level, there was only a small progression toward better performing class profiles from Grade 6 to Grade 8 (e.g., 14.6% of students in Grade 6 were proficient explorers vs. 24.6% in Grade 8; 27.1% of students in Grade 6 were low-performing explorers vs. 25.8% in Grade 8), and there were no substantial gender differences. This study contributes to the understanding of how students interact with complex problems and is the first to address whether variations in these behaviors indicate qualitatively different levels of strategic behavior. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings and potential of identifying class profiles of students' exploration behavior in the field of educational psychology.
       
  • A negotiation-based adaptive learning system for regulating help-seeking
           behaviors
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Chih-Yueh Chou, K. Robert Lai, Po-Yao Chao, Shu-Fen Tseng, Ting-Yi LiaoAbstractHelp-seeking is an important aspect of self-regulated learning (SRL), but students may have ineffective help-seeking behaviors. For example, some students are unaware of their need to seek help, and some often seek executive help merely to obtain the correct answer. This study proposes a negotiation-based adaptive learning system with a help-seeking negotiation mechanism to form the co-regulation of help-seeking between a student and the system. The system provides external feedback on SRL as scaffolding for help-seeking by prompting students to seek help or even actively offering help when they need it and reminding students not to seek too much help. An experiment was conducted with student participants divided into control and experimental groups. Students in the control group were allowed to seek help at will, whereas the help-seeking of students in the experimental group was regulated by the system. The results indicated that the students in the experimental group had better help-seeking behaviors (a higher ratio of steps solved by themselves and a lower ratio of steps solved with executive help) than the students in the control group.
       
  • Students' learning performance and perceived motivation in gamified
           flipped-class instruction
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Zamzami ZainuddinAbstractThis is a pilot study aimed at examining students' learning performance and perceived motivation between a gamified flipped classroom and a non-gamified flipped classroom instructional model, based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). This study employed a mixed-method research approach, using three formative assessments or a post-test only design to examine students' learning achievement. Questionnaires and personal interviews were employed to support the data collection process in terms of students' perceived motivation. Fifty-six students were the respondents involved in a non-randomized experiment with a control group design. The results reveal that assessment 1 showed no significant difference between the two groups of the gamified flipped and non-gamified flipped classroom instruction (t = 1.68, p.474), while assessment 2 and 3 were significantly different (t = 5.54, p = .007 
       
  • Integrating self-regulation principles with flipped classroom pedagogy for
           first year university students
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Eugenia M.W. NgAbstractFlipped classroom is a new blended type of pedagogy. This study attempts to examine whether flipped classroom, with reference to self-regulation principles, is a good pedagogy for enhancing formative learning outcomes for first year university students. A total of 73 students, enrolled on a teacher education program, participated in this study. Data were collected from different sources in three phases. In the first phase, data were collected from pre- and post-tests, and the number of viewings of the assigned online videos were logged. Techniques in editing images applied by the group and the individual were examined in the second phase. Finally, opinions related to flipped classroom were collected from focus group interviews in the third phase. The results suggest that students are able to apply their self-learned knowledge to editing images both together and individually. They were very positive about flipped classroom activities and all 7 self-regulated (SR) learning principles were achieved. While students embraced the flexibility of learning online, they missed the face-to-face interaction with the teacher and their learning peers. This was especially the case when they did not understand the content of the online videos. This study provides an additional lens of SR principles.
       
  • Investigation of community of inquiry framework in regard to
           self-regulation, metacognition and motivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Selcan Kilis, Zahide YıldırımAbstractFollowing theoretical frameworks including social-cognitive theory, constructivism and creating collaborative learning community, this correlational study elucidates the community of inquiry framework in regard to self-regulation, metacognition, and motivation in an online learning setting. Data were collected from 1535 students enrolled to an online Information and Communication Technology-I course offered by the Department of Informatics at a well-known public university. The data were collected online through Survey Monkey and then analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics using multiple linear regression analysis through SPSS version 23 statistical software. The findings notably revealed that self-regulation, metacognition, and motivation significantly contributed to the prediction of community of inquiry and its three presence types. The findings highlighted the importance of self-regulation for overall community of inquiry and its three presence types due to its significantly valuable contribution. This study resulted in a new tentative model, adding a new construct of regulatory presence, addressing learners' self-regulation. Further research could concentrate on this new tentative model in addition to the new construct.
       
  • The influences of self-regulated learning support and prior knowledge on
           improving learning performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Tzu-Chi Yang, Meng Chang Chen, Sherry Y. ChenAbstractSelf-regulated learning (SRL) is helpful to students. On the other hand, prior knowledge has great effects on students' self-regulation and learning performance. To this end, this study aimed to examine how high prior knowledge students (HPKs) and low prior knowledge students (LPKs) behaved differently when interacting with a SRL environment. To achieve this aim, we proposed a self-regulated learning support system (SRLSS) for a mathematical course. The results showed that the gap of learning performance between the HPKs and LPKs was removed after a long-term learning process. Moreover, the LPKs and HPKs behaved similarly in the forethought and self-reflection phases but some behavior differences were found in the performance phase, where the LPKs relied on the notes and sought support the dashboard and quiz records while the HPKs did not demonstrate such a tendency. Our results' theoretical and methodological implications and possible applications for further research are also discussed.
       
  • Measuring digital literacies: Junior high-school students' perceived
           competencies versus actual performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Erez Porat, Ina Blau, Azy BarakAbstractThe widespread belief is that youth, "digital natives", who live their entire lives in media-rich digital environments and are ubiquitously connected through social networks, naturally develop digital competencies. This study investigated digital literacies among 280 junior-high-school students with the aim of comparing participants' perceived digital literacy competencies and their actual performance in relevant digital tasks. The findings showed that only a few of participants' perceived skills were related to their actual performance. Generally, participants displayed high confidence in their digital literacies and significantly over-estimated their actual competencies. This gap was most evident in social-emotional skills, which were, on average, perceived by students as their strongest skills, while their actual level of performance was very low. Positive strong correlations were found between participants' self-reported evaluations of different digital skills, indicating their perception as a single factor, while actual performance tests revealed low-to medium-size correlations between different literacies. For educational decision-makers, the findings highlight the importance of designing training programs aimed to develop students' digital literacies, with a special emphasis on social-emotional competencies. Such training may enhance important competencies needed, reduce unfounded self-perceptions, and thus, develop efficient digital functioning in contemporary society.
       
  • Does self-generating a graphic organizer while reading improve students'
           learning'
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Tiphaine Colliot, Éric JametAbstractTo understand a document, learners must select the relevant information, organize this information into a coherent representation, and integrate it with their prior knowledge. One way of facilitating these cognitive processes is to display a graphic organizer alongside the document, showing the main items of information contained in the text and the links between them. To ensure students' active engagement in these processes, they can also be asked to self-generate an organizer (generative processing). However, this kind of task can be too demanding and overload their cognitive capacity (extraneous processing). We therefore compared the learning of students who were instructed to study an illustrated text either on its own or accompanied by a readymade graphic organizer (displayed statically or step-by-step). In another group, students had to self-generate the organizer while reading. As predicted, providing a graphic organizer improved students' recall compared with that of the control group. Contrary to the generative hypothesis and consistent with the cognitive load hypothesis, the self-generated organizer group 1) performed more poorly on the recall test than the readymade organizer groups, and 2) achieved lower transfer scores.
       
  • Profiling of English language teachers as trainees in an online course and
           ensuing implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Anna Mavroudi, Dina TsagariAbstractThe main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of profiling English Language Teachers' preferences and experiences of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in order to inform the design of an online teacher training programme in Language Testing and Assessment and the relevant teacher training research. The findings revealed that the participant teachers received very well a variety of formats and also, they indicated methods as well as types of tasks and activities they would find most favourable in an online training course. Teachers were diverse but mediocre on average with regard to the level of confidence of their competencies in using ICT in their classrooms. Small differences were also revealed between teachers with regard to their ICT competency levels on the basis of their previous participation in online training courses but strong correlations among the different ICT competencies investigated. The findings point to the need to incorporate scaffolds in the design of online training environments that will help teachers feel confident in the online training environment and especially empower those that have not participated in such training courses before. Overall the study advocates for good practices that can be relevant and informative for higher education authorities and teacher training institutions responsible for designing (blended or online) professional training schemes for pre- and in-service English language teachers.
       
  • Females in computing: Understanding stereotypes through collaborative
           picturing
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2018Source: Computers & Education, Volume 126Author(s): Tessa Berg, Alexander Sharpe, Emma AitkinThis study investigates attitudes and perceived stereotypes that children have towards female computer scientists. Research was conducted within 2 high schools in Scotland across 7 workshops including 96 participants. Stereotype patterns and social expectations were identified giving insight into gendered world views. Data was derived through picturing. Collaborative picture drawing, as a means to investigate multiple opinions, is a powerful activity that has the capacity to break down barriers of education, language and culture. By use of content analysis on 24 workshop pictures three key areas were identified as significant when determining attitudes towards computing as a career choice for females; gender stereotypes, role models, and media influence. The conclusion determines there are stereotype misconceptions regarding physical appearance, personality type, and digital ability projected onto young females. These can influence their academic decisions resulting in poor uptake of computing science as a career choice. We determine that Computing Science is seen as a male gendered subject with females who select to work or study in this field having low self-worth, a sense of being different, a sense of being atypical, and a sense of being unattractive We further determine that positive role models and positive gender balanced media influences can broaden identities in computing.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Does Gen Z's emotional intelligence promote iCheating (cheating with
           iPhone) yet curb iCheating through reduced nomophobia'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Elodie Gentina, Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Pierre-François DancoineAbstractDue to the popularity of smartphone (mobile phone) technology and new consumer products, parents, teachers, and researchers have grave concerns over adolescents' iPhone overuse and many iDisorders, including the decrease of self-esteem and social interactions and the increase of depression, sleep disturbances, nomophobia, and iCheating—academic cheating using iPhone. Little research has addressed these issues. Although emotional intelligence can help individuals achieve success in interpersonal relationships and performance, we ask two provocative questions: Does Generation Z (Gen Z) adolescents' emotional intelligence (EI) provoke iCheating' Can emotional intelligence curb nomophobia and thereby mitigate academic iCheating' We propose a formative SEM theoretical model, empirically test the relationships between emotional intelligence and iCheating, treat nomophobia as a mediator, and simultaneously investigate both direct and indirect paths. Data collected from 472 teenagers in three middle schools (grades 10–12, average age = 16.21) of an urban region in northern France reveal two innovative findings. Emotional intelligence (framed in the context of positive self-esteem)—directly fosters iCheating (the dark side). However, EI powerfully reduces nomophobia, the mediator—framed in the context of sleep disturbances, and indirectly curbs iCheating (the bright side). The combination of the dark and bright sides of emotional intelligence leads to a slight overall increase of iCheating. Emotional intelligence has its limits. Business executives, policy makers, and parents may identify strategies to promote the bright side and reduce the dark side of emotional intelligence, help Gen Z teenagers avoid nomophobia and reduce unethical behaviors/dishonesty—iCheating.
       
  • Impact of a remote lab on teaching practices and students learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Clara Viegas, Ana Pavani, Natércia Lima, Arcelina Marques, Isabel Pozzo, Elsa Dobboletta, Vanessa Atencia, Daniel Barreto, Felipe Calliari, André Fidalgo, Guilherme Temporão, Gustavo AlvesAbstractRemote Laboratories have become part of current teaching and learning, particularly in engineering. Their potential to aid students beyond their hands-on lab classes has been a matter of discussion in literature. Teachers and researchers are aware that the thorough analysis of both strengths and shortcomings of remote labs in didactical implementations may not only lead to the improvement of these resources but also of the pedagogical implications in engineering classes. The present study was carried out in a Higher Education Institution in Brazil in two different courses during three consecutive semesters where a remote lab (VISIR) addressing electric and electronic topics was implemented, yielding 471 students' academic results and opinions. These students' results (while using VISIR) cross-analysed with the course characteristics, reveal some factors teachers may tackle to foster student learning and motivation. The conclusions point to the need for VISIR interface modernization and showed it is more useful in basic courses than in more advanced ones, when dealing with classic lab experiments. Results also show that teachers' involvement plus their ability to brief students on VISIR's usefulness have a significant influence not only on students' performance but also on their perception of learning and satisfaction with the tool. In the analysed cases, the students with more learning needs seemed to be the ones who could benefit more from VISIR.
       
  • The impact of a forfeit-or-prize gamified teaching on e-learners’
           learning performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Zi-Gang GeAbstractThe present study aims to explore the impact of three reward strategies on adult e-learners’ learning performance in a gamified teaching process. One hundred and eighty participants who were recruited for the experiment were evenly assigned to three groups, with Group A adopting the forfeit-or-prize reward strategy, Group B employing the prize-only reward strategy, and Group C applying the no-prize-no-forfeit strategy. A pretest, an immediate posttest, a delayed posttest and two questionnaires were adopted as instruments for the study. The results showed that the forfeit-or-prize pattern and the prize-only pattern could exert a significantly better impact on the e-learners’ learning than the no-prize-no-forfeit pattern. Additionally, the forfeit-or-prize pattern elicited better knowledge retention than the prize-only pattern. The two questionnaires revealed that the forfeit-or-prize pattern and the prize-only pattern could stimulate students' motivation in learning, although a high-level anxiety was perceived by the subjects assigned to the forfeit-or-prize pattern. Possible explanations and implications are discussed.
       
  • To ban or not to ban' The effect of permissive versus restrictive
           laptop policies on student outcomes and teaching evaluations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Lauren R. Elliott-DoransAbstractAs technologies have become more portable, scholars have turned their attention to whether the use of electronic devices during lecture positively or negatively affects student performance in the class. In this study, I investigate the effects of banning laptops in the classroom through an experiment conducted over two semesters in an introductory American politics course at a large, public four-year university. Overall, I find that banning laptops is more likely to hinder student performance in the class than help. Although students find many elements of the course to be more helpful to their learning in the laptop-free sections, this does not translate to greater student achievement or lead to significantly different evaluations on the official university teaching evaluations. Overall, these findings suggest that although instructors are not penalized for banning laptops from their classrooms, they ought to carefully consider the extent to which such policies are helpful to student progress in large lecture classes.
       
  • The influence of learners' perceptions of virtual humans on learning
           transfer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Noah L. Schroeder, Fan Yang, Tanvi Banerjee, William L. Romine, Scotty D. CraigAbstractVirtual humans are often integrated into novel multimedia learning environments. However, little is known about learner's perceptions of the agents or the relationship between the perceptions and learning. In this study, the authors revise the Agent Persona Instrument, a measurement tool designed to examine how learners perceive pedagogical agents. The factor structure of the revised instrument was evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis. Next, k-means clustering was used to examine how participants' ratings on the instrument cluster into groups based on their perceptions of the virtual human. After describing the qualities of the clusters within the data, linear regression was used to examine to what extent the cluster membership influenced participant's scores on a transfer test of learning. The results indicated that cluster membership only explained a small amount of variance in transfer test scores. This study provides a revised instrument for measuring pedagogical agent persona. It implemented a novel method for investigating perceptions of pedagogical agents using k-means clustering which was able to identify two unique groups of participants based on their perceptions of the agent. Finally, it presents empirical results indicating that learner's perceptions of the agent had a small influence on their learning outcome scores.
       
  • Developing meta-discourse through reflective assessment in knowledge
           building environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chunlin Lei, Carol K.K. ChanAbstractThis study examined how reflective assessment supported by principles facilitated metadiscourse for knowledge advances mediated by Knowledge Forum® (KF). Participants were 60 tertiary students in two classes engaging in knowledge building and reflecting on their collaborative knowledge building using e-portfolios; one class was a principle-based knowledge-building environment (KBP, n = 30), and the other a regular knowledge-building environment (KBR, n = 30). The KF embedded assessment tools, the Analytical Toolkit and Applet, showed increased KF participation and connectedness during the year. Regression analysis showed that KF participation predicted conceptual understanding for both classes. Analyses of e-portfolios revealed that the students adopted nine reflective strategies in knowledge building, and that reflective metadiscourse strategies involving metacognitive and collective processes were related with deeper conceptual understanding. Analyses of online discourse threads further showed that metadiscourse involving collective processes was associated with higher levels of knowledge advances. Both classes showed improvement and the KBP class outperformed the KBR class on KF participation, metadiscourse processes and conceptual understanding. This study has theoretical implications advancing the idea of metadiscourse, discourse about discourse, for enriching research on knowledge building and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). There are also design implications for using principle-based e-portfolios to facilitate collective reflection and metadiscourse to address issues of fragmented online discussion, and for promoting sustained inquiry.
       
  • Virtual learning environment engagement and learning outcomes at a
           ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Chris A. Boulton, Carmel Kent, Hywel T.P. WilliamsAbstractIn this study, we analyse the relationship between engagement in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and module grades at a ‘bricks-and-mortar’ university in the United Kingdom. We measure VLE activity for students enrolled in 38 different credit-bearing modules, each of which are compulsory components of six degree programmes. Overall we find that high VLE activity is associated with high grades, but low activity does not necessarily imply low grades. Analysis of individual modules shows a wide range of relationships between the two quantities. Grouping module-level relationships by programme suggests that science-based subjects have a higher dependency on VLE activity. Considering learning design (LD), we find that VLE usage is more important in modules that adopt an instruction-based learning style. We also test the predictive power of VLE usage in determining grades, again finding variation between degree programmes and potential for predicting a student's final grade weeks in advance of assessment. Our findings suggest that student engagement with learning at a bricks-and-mortar university is in general hard to determine by VLE usage alone, due to the predominance of other “offline” learning activities, but that VLE usage can nonetheless help to predict performance for some disciplines.
       
  • Using design-based research methodology to develop a pedagogy for teaching
           and learning of Chinese writing with wiki among Chinese upper primary
           school students
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Xuanxi Li, Samuel K.W. ChuAbstractIn this research, a conceptual model of a wiki-based collaborative process writing pedagogy (WCPWP) is developed using a design-based research (DBR) methodology. The intention is to help the teaching and learning of Chinese writing among mainland Chinese upper primary school students. The wiki-based learning environment Joyous Writing Club (JWC) (www.joyouswriting.com) was designed and developed. The study was conducted in a primary school in Shenzhen, China, and divided into three iterative research phases spanning one and a half years (three semesters). Over this time the WCPWP was developed and refined. In this study, both quantitative and qualitative methods, including online wiki documents, a course feedback questionnaire, observations, interviews, and a teacher's questionnaire, were used to collect data. The results indicated that the Chinese language teachers and most of the students had positive attitudes and perceptions toward WCPWP. They perceived that the WCPWP had positive effects on students' writing ability, writing attitudes, collaboration, reading, and oral expression. This study illustrates in detail the process of improving the WCPWP, and is a good example of how DBR can be used to design and develop pedagogy. The resulting development of a conceptual model of a high-grade WCPWP may help primary school teachers enrich the pedagogical knowledge related to wikis and Chinese writing.
       
  • Predictors of Academic Dishonesty among undergraduate students in online
           and face-to-face courses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Computers & EducationAuthor(s): Yehuda Peled, Yovav Eshet, Casimir Barczyk, Keren GrinautskiAbstractUnethical behaviors within the academic environment, academic dishonesty (AD), is a well-researched phenomenon. Various factors explain this phenomenon. This study investigates and presents a new structural model for determinants of AD, linking types of motivation, students' attitudes, personality traits, and cultural backgrounds (presented by country according to Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory) as predictors of AD in the context of traditional and distance-learning courses in higher education. This study was conducted using a survey method of 2475 students in six different academic institutes. Using structural equation modeling (SAM) the results indicate that, contrary to the traditional views and the research literature, the surveyed students tend to engage less in AD in online courses than in face-to-face courses. Accordingly, this research has substantial, practical implications for educators, institution and researchers dealing with course design development and institutional policy concerning pedagogical uses of digital technology.
       
 
 
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