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Journal Cover Journal of Criminal Psychology
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2009-3829
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Guest editorial
    • Pages: 153 - 154
      Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 153-154, August 2017.

      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T06:57:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-06-2017-0026
  • The development of the active risk management system
    • Pages: 155 - 167
      Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 155-167, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to detail the development and implementation process of a risk management tool that includes the assessment of static and dynamic factors, as well as factors that are both risk related and protective. Design/methodology/approach Active Risk Assessment System (ARMS) is a tool used to help criminal justice practitioners as they work to support the safe reintegration of those with sexual convictions back into the community. Findings The tool was developed for use by the police, probation and prison services across England and Wales and this paper outlines the following: the process adopted by the development team in designing the tool, the theoretical principles considered and adopted by the team, and a summary of the early evaluation and recommendations made. Originality/value This paper includes some further recommendations for both the developers of the tool and for the police service in England and Wales.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T06:57:45Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-10-2016-0034
  • Policing people with sexual convictions using strengths-based approaches
    • Pages: 168 - 182
      Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 168-182, August 2017.
      Purpose Effective risk management planning ought to include strategies that help control and mitigate risk, as well as develop and strengthen client’s protective factors. The active risk management system (ARMS) is a structured risk assessment and management planning tool designed to assess both dynamic factors known to be related to sexual recidivism, along with protective factors that might support the desistance process. The tool was recently implemented across all police forces in England and Wales. The purpose of this paper is to examine police practitioner’s experience of the tool, their attitudes towards risk assessment, risk management planning, interviewing clients for the assessment and their perspective on strengths-based approaches in general. Design/methodology/approach A mixed method approach is adopted including one attitudinal measure: community attitudes towards sexual offender-revised (CATSO-R); and four focus groups, analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Findings CATSO-R results indicate that when compared to other populations, police officers appear to perceive sex offenders as dangerous, requiring severe punishment. These findings are supported in the IPA analysis where three themes highlight the following: principles and practices of the ARMS tool are incongruent with traditional policing; the negative values officers hold conflicts with a role that supports a process of reintegration and Training and supervision is insufficient to equip management of sexual offenders and violent offender’s with the skills and knowledge needed. Originality/value Only one study exists in which ARMS training and its pilot test were examined, this is the first empirical examination of its application in practice. Findings are therefore, of relevance to practitioners and academics alike.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T06:57:39Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-09-2016-0026
  • Strength-based approaches to online child sexual abuse: using
           self-management strategies to enhance desistance behaviour in users of
           child sexual exploitation material
    • Pages: 182 - 191
      Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 182-191, August 2017.
      Purpose Increasing numbers of convictions for the use of child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) call for enhanced measures to prevent this type of offending. Strength-based approaches such as the good lives model have made significant contributions to the management of offenders who have sexually abused against children. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The present study explored the application of these models to the rehabilitation and desistance behaviour of CSEM users, based on a thematic analysis of the self-managed desistance strategies employed by 26 offenders. Findings The findings confirmed the value of strength-based approaches in understanding self-management strategies used to enhance desistance behaviour in CSEM users. Research limitations/implications The empirical and theoretical findings were then combined into a conceptual framework aimed to enhance preventative efforts and interventions targeted at undetected CSEM users. Originality/value This paper provides the first conceptual and empirical model of prevention and desistance behaviour specific to CSEM offending.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T06:57:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-10-2016-0035
  • Evaluating the responsivity principle in prison-based programs for sexual
           offending behavior
    • Pages: 192 - 205
      Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 192-205, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the degree to which a US prison-based sexual offender treatment program adheres to the best practice responsivity principle and to shed light on why prison-based programs tend to have worse recidivism outcomes than community programs. Results will facilitate program development efforts as they transition from programming developed prior to the risk-needs-responsivity knowledge about what works in treatment. Design/methodology/approach A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods assessed treatment methods, therapeutic climate, group therapy environment, therapist style, and staff and participants’ perceptions. Findings Overall, the analyses revealed insufficient adherence to the responsivity principle. The program used methods known to be effective with sexual offenders, but with deficient implementation. In group therapy sessions, therapeutic style deficiencies were demonstrated for stimulating growth, nurturance, and direction and control. Treatment program advancement was associated with group environment declines in cohesion, leader support, expressiveness, independence, and task orientation. Originality/value Results suggest that improved treatment response can be achieved by modifying methods and style to foster participant internal control, eliminate unnecessary external control and fear-based compliance, maximize participant autonomy; implement strengths-based approaches and fewer deficit-based interventions; monitor and minimize participant shame, and create a transparent and consistent program milieu, with clear communication, individualization, and adequate resources. Study limitations include a lack of recidivism outcomes; that it is a single prison sample, excludes female and juvenile offenders, and lacks a community-based control group. Nonetheless, despite inherent responsivity vulnerabilities compared to community-based programs, this study indicates several ways that program developers can enhance adherence to the responsivity principle in institutional-based programs.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T06:57:35Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-12-2016-0045
  • The importance of the therapeutic alliance when working with men who have
           committed a sexual offence
    • Pages: 206 - 220
      Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 206-220, August 2017.
      Purpose While there is general agreement in the literature regarding the importance of the therapeutic alliance (TA) in psychological interventions with people, the forensic context raises some unique challenges. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these challenges are managed within a therapeutic context. Design/methodology/approach This paper consists of a literature review examining the following: the significance of the TA in interventions with forensic clients, especially men who have committed a sexual offence and the impact on treatment efficacy and change; therapist characteristics as well as some of the obstacles and challenges present in a correctional setting, which can impact on the TA and; the role of transference and countertransference in relation to these forensic clients. Findings Through the literature review, there is a discussion regarding how some of the common obstacles within correctional settings can be overcome, and how certain therapist qualities should be interpreted. Originality/value This paper will discuss some of the practical applications of certain recommended therapeutic factors within a correctional setting, challenging some of the common misconceptions and limitations. Furthermore, transference and countertransference, topics which are seldom discussed, will be considered in this paper.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T06:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-09-2016-0027
  • An evaluation of strength-based approaches to the treatment of sex
           offenders: a review
    • Pages: 221 - 228
      Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Volume 7, Issue 3, Page 221-228, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to note the basis for the emergence of strength-based approaches (SBA) to the treatment of sex offenders and point to Tony Ward’s Good Lives Model (GLM) as the impetus for these developments. Design/methodology/approach Next, the authors outline the elements of the GLM and of other SBAs. The features of various ways to evaluate treatment programs are discussed and this is followed by an examination of the evidence bearing on the value of the GLM and other SBAs. Findings The authors note that the effects of the GLM are limited to within treatment indices as, to date, there are no long-term outcome evaluations of the model on reducing recidivism. Indeed, there appears to be only one such study of an alternative SBA program. Originality/value The authors conclude that additional outcome studies are needed to evaluate the utility of the switch away from deficit-focused approaches to strength-based models of treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T06:57:37Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-04-2017-0021
  • Negotiating barriers: prisoner and staff perspectives on mental wellbeing
           in the open prison setting
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the perspectives of prisoners and prison staff in relation to mental wellbeing and the negotiation of barriers to accessing and providing support. This small-scale study includes the experiences of 11 prison staff and 9 prisoners within a Category D male prison. Design/methodology/approach A focus group was conducted with the prisoners and interviews with prison staff. Thematic analysis identified three core themes: “context enabling factors”, “barriers to accessing support for mental wellbeing” and “peer support roles”. Findings Prisoners conveyed a reluctance in reporting mental health issues due to the fear of being transferred to closed conditions. All staff indicated the benefits of peer support roles. Research limitations/implications Further research is required on a wider scale, as it is acknowledged that the findings of this study are from one prison and may not apply to other settings. Although there are barriers that may impact the reporting of mental wellbeing issues, there may be small relational steps that can be taken to address these. Originality/value Few studies exist that explore the nuances and barriers within open prisons, perhaps due to the overwhelming need within closed conditions. A context-specific approach considering early prevention strategies to support a safer prison system and successful rehabilitation is explored. The combination of prisoner and staff experiences is of value to both academia and policymakers.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T01:42:32Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-03-2017-0016
  • Revenge pornography: the influence of perpetrator-victim sex, observer sex
           and observer sexting experience on perceptions of seriousness and
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Drawing on gender-role stereotypes and defensive attribution theory, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of perpetrator-victim sex, observer sex and observer sexting experience on perceptions of seriousness and responsibility in the context of revenge pornography. Design/methodology/approach In total, 239 university students read one of two versions of a hypothetical scenario, responded to items concerning their perceptions of the situation described, and responded to items concerning their sexting experience. Findings Men were more likely to believe the situation was serious when it involved a male perpetrator and a female victim rather than vice versa. However, perpetrator-victim sex did not influence women’s perceptions. Participants without sexting experience were more likely than participants with sexting experience to believe the situation was serious, and to hold the victim responsible. Originality/value Whilst there is a growing body of literature regarding revenge pornography from a legal perspective, there is little research on perceptions of revenge pornography situations. As the use of intimate images in relationships continues to rise, it is important to understand people’s attitudes and the extra-legal factors that shape them.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T02:08:47Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-05-2017-0024
  • Parental influences on youth delinquency
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader about the currently employed theories, research, and interventions in developmental criminology, with a particular emphasis on parental influences. Design/methodology/approach As well as evoking the classical theories and relevant research in psychology and developmental criminology fields, some of the significant recent contributions are also evaluated to reveal how parenting is linked to youngsters’ delinquency in the extant literature. Findings While parental factors do not directly affect delinquency of children and adolescents, it is an effectual mediator. Research limitations Not a systematic (statistical) review, rather a hermeneutic one with righteous justifications. Practical implications Evidence-based suggestions, regarding the allocation of time and resources for the modification of implicated parenting factors in planning preventative and interventional programs, are made. Originality/value This review is an up-to-date instructional source that presents the major developmental criminology theories including the recent ones.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T02:05:05Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-03-2017-0018
  • Sounding out d/Deafness: the experiences of d/Deaf prisoners
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the lived realities of d/Deaf prisoners in England and Wales, and to explore previous claims that they suffer disproportionately during their time in custody. Design/methodology/approach For the purposes of this study, a qualitative approach was taken. As part of this, 28 semi-structured interviews were carried out at seven adult male prisons in England with a sample of male hard of hearing/d/Deaf prisoners, and staff members who had worked with them. The interviews were recorded using a Dictaphone, and then transcribed as close to verbatim as possible. From this, the transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. In addition to interviews, observations were made at each establishment, and later recorded in a fieldwork journal. Findings Findings from the study showed that the way a d/Deaf person experiences prison depends strongly on the way in which they identify with their d/Deafness. However, it was also shown that there is little room for either deafness or Deafness in prison, with severely deaf and culturally and linguistically Deaf prisoners commonly experiencing the pains of imprisonment more severely than their hearing peers as a result of the Prison Service’s inability to accommodate such difference. Originality/value This study fused together the fields of Deaf Studies and Prison Studies in a way that had not been done before, considering d/Deafness in prison on both an audiological and cultural level. Moreover, excluding small-scale unpublished undergraduate dissertations, it was the first empirical study about d/Deaf prisoners in England and Wales to carry out face-to-face interviews with these prisoners. Finally, as the most in-depth research is yet to be carried out about these particular prisoners in England and Wales, a greater level of insight was provided than previously available.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:34:43Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-03-2017-0015
  • What is the pattern of self-harm and prison rule-breaking behaviour in
           personality disordered offenders in a high secure prison'
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the pattern of self-harm (SH) and proven prison rule-breaking (PRB) behaviour in prisoners receiving treatment for personality disorders (PDs) within a high security prison. Design/methodology/approach A comparative quantitative case study design supported the understanding of the frequency and pattern of SH and PRB behaviour across two stages of a PD treatment programme for 74 male prisoners. Data obtained from the prison’s records were analysed using dependent t-tests, χ2 test of independence and time-frequency analyses. Findings Inferential statistics showed that the frequency of SH and PRB behaviour statistically increased across two phases of the PD treatment programme; however, the method of SH or type of PRB behaviour engaged in did not change. Mapping the frequencies of incidents using a time-frequency analysis shows the patterns of both behaviours to be erratic, peaking in the latter phase of treatment, yet the frequency of incidents tended to decline over time. Originality/value This is the first study to explore SH and PRB behaviours in men across two phases of a PD treatment programme. This study highlights the need for continued psychological support alongside the PD treatment programme with a focus on supporting men in treatment to effectively manage their SH and PRB behaviour.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T09:02:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-01-2017-0004
  • Striving for a “good” family visit: the facilitative role of a prison
           visitors’ centre
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions that create a “good” prison visit, focussing on the role that a dedicated third sector-run prison visitors’ centre plays in creating a supportive environment. Design/methodology/approach This paper draws on a synthesis of empirical data gathering conducted over a decade at a voluntary sector-managed prison visitors’ centre based at a male prison in Northern England. The paper draws specifically on qualitative data gathered through four independent evaluations of the centre over a ten-year period. Findings An important point to emerge from the research is the unwavering importance of the prison visit in the life, well-being and regime of a prisoner. Prison visitors’ centres are shown to be an important part of creating positive visits experiences offering a space for composure and for support for families. Originality/value Many voluntary sector organisations are unable to commission large research and evaluation studies, but are often able to fund smaller pieces of work. Pooling qualitative evidence from smaller studies is a viable way to potentially strengthen commissioning decisions in this sector.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T09:59:50Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-03-2017-0011
  • Anger following provocation in individuals with psychopathic traits
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the attenuated-anger and heightened-anger hypotheses of psychopathy by assessing the physiological, behavioral, and subjective measures of anger in individuals with and without psychopathic traits. Design/methodology/approach In all, 62 male college students were assigned to one of three groups based on evidence of elevated affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) and antisocial lifestyle (Factor 2) traits associated with psychopathy (the IF1+F2 group), evidence of only Factor 2 traits (the F2 only group), or based on the absence of psychopathic traits (the control group), using Gough’s (1957) Socialization scale and a modified, interview only form of Hare’s (1991) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. To induce anger, participants received unjust criticism about their performance on a computer-based affective lexical decision task and were denied a performance bonus they had reason to expect. Findings Following provocation, the three groups displayed similar increases in blood pressure, pulse, and self-reported anger. The control and IF1+F2 groups also displayed similar retaliation toward the confederate. However, the IF1+F2 group displayed smaller increases on two of three measures of facial muscle activity associated with anger. Originality/value This study is one of the first to assess anger responsiveness in individuals with psychopathic traits using a powerful anger induction and using physiological, behavioral, and subjective indices of anger. It is also the first to assess both the attenuated-anger and the heightened-anger hypotheses of psychopathy. The findings appear largely inconsistent with both perspectives.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T12:14:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-02-2017-0007
  • Common and distinguishing historical, criminal and current environmental
           and psychological characteristics in male inmates with a history of
           suicidal and/or non-suicidal self-injury
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is distinguishable from suicide attempts (SAs) on a number of psychological and motivational factors. However, in corrective services settings, NSSI and SA are not clearly distinguished in assessment impacting on intervention. The purpose of this paper is to examine if any attributes differentiate lifetime history of SA+NSSI, NSSI and SA presentations in inmates who had recently been assessed in custody by a risk intervention team. Design/methodology/approach A comprehensive clinical assessment and file review was conducted with 87 male inmates (including a no self-injury control group) in two large correctional centres in New South Wales, Australia, to determine if three self-injury groups differ from the control group and if the three self-injury groups differ from each other across a range of static, trait, environmental and clinical characteristics. Findings The SA+NSSI group was most different from the control group (27/59 variables), and from the SA group (10/59 variables), predominantly across trait and clinical correlates. The SA group was least different from the control group (2/59 variables: suicide ideation, childhood physical abuse). Originality/value It was found that the presence of SA+NSSI history is an indicator of increased psychopathology. A history of SA only appears not readily associated with psychopathology. The self-injury subgroups reflected different clinical profiles with implications for risk assessment and treatment planning.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T03:19:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-03-2017-0012
  • Inmates’ empathy in relation to perceived parenting and attachment
           working models
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine criminal offenders’ dispositional empathy and relate it to perceived parenting characteristics of primary caregivers (measured as care and overprotection) and inmates’ internal working models of the self and others (measured as attachment anxiety and avoidance, respectively). Design/methodology/approach Compared to a group of 110 college students, the group of 102 inmates indicated lower levels of cognitive and emotional empathy (measured as perspective taking (PT) and empathic concern (EC), respectively). Among inmates, perceived parental care was related to PT; parental overprotection was related to EC. Findings The inmates’ data fit a model suggesting a mediational role of attachment anxiety in the relation between perceived parental overprotection and EC. Also, inmates’ attachment avoidance moderated the relation between attachment anxiety and EC, so that the relation only occurred when attachment avoidance was not high. The findings suggested potential protective roles of early parental bonding and positive views of social others in enhancing empathy for justice-involved populations. Originality/value The findings shed light on how inmates’ perception of parenting related to both aspects of empathy and how cognitive representations of the self and others potentially underlie the association between perceived parenting and their disposition for EC. To cultivate dispositional empathy as a means of preventing delinquency, it is important to advocate not only parenting characterized as caring and warm, but also cognitive interventions on framing positive working models of social others, particularly for those who perceive their primary caregivers as overprotective and are highly avoidant to social closeness.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T12:34:27Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-09-2016-0024
  • Multidimensional scaling analysis of psychopathy in male juveniles using
           the PCL: YV
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the structure of juvenile psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV). Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 2,042 male youths from the USA, Canada, and the UK, the study was a conceptual replication of Bishopp and Hare’s (2008) multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of adult male offenders assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Findings The scaling analyses generally replicated those obtained by Bishopp and Hare, providing support for a multidimensional, four-factor model of juvenile psychopathy similar to that obtained with adults. However, a small number of items fell outside their predicted regions. Slight differences in the structure of juvenile psychopathy were found for incarcerated and supervised samples of youth, with the four-factor model breaking down slightly for the supervised sample. Item misplacements may indicate that certain items on the PCL: YV are being misinterpreted, reflect different dimensions for different samples, or cannot be reliably measured. Future research should examine these possibilities, with special attention being paid to supervised samples. Originality/value To the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first known attempts to use MDS analysis to examine the psychopathy structures that emerge for male juvenile offenders. The greater nuances afforded by using MDS offer a more comprehensive understanding of psychopathy between incarcerated and supervised youth using the PCL: YV.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T12:34:21Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-03-2017-0019
  • Does facial width-to-height ratio predict male offender aggression'
    • Abstract: Journal of Criminal Psychology, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose Based on the previously observed link between greater facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) and interpersonal aggression in men (see Haselhuhn et al., 2015), the purpose of this paper is to test whether fWHR could differentiate among male offenders as a function of the relative aggressiveness of the crime for which they had been convicted. Design/methodology/approach fWHR measurements (n=550) were computed based on a large subset of male offenders available on a public domain database. Each offender’s index offense and possible confounding variables such as age, ethnicity, and body mass index were also recorded. Findings Multiple analyses yielded no evidence of a relationship between male fWHR and the comparative level of violence of their conviction offense. Originality/value Establishing an empirical basis for probable parameters of an unknown offender’s facial structure could have a considerable practical value for criminal profiling purposes. fWHR – at least as it has been most frequently assessed – does not appear to be a facial parameter that is useful for this purpose, however.
      Citation: Journal of Criminal Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T08:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1108/JCP-03-2017-0013
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