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Journal Cover Child Development
  [SJR: 3.116]   [H-I: 189]   [144 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0009-3920 - ISSN (Online) 1467-8624
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Creepiness Creeps In: Uncanny Valley Feelings Are Acquired in Childhood
    • Authors: Kimberly A. Brink; Kurt Gray, Henry M. Wellman
      Abstract: The uncanny valley posits that very human-like robots are unsettling, a phenomenon amply demonstrated in adults but unexplored in children. Two hundred forty 3- to 18-year-olds viewed one of two robots (machine-like or very human-like) and rated their feelings toward (e.g., “Does the robot make you feel weird or happy'”) and perceptions of the robot's capacities (e.g., “Does the robot think for itself'”). Like adults, children older than 9 judged the human-like robot as creepier than the machine-like robot—but younger children did not. Children's perceptions of robots’ mental capacities predicted uncanny feelings: children judge robots to be creepy depending on whether they have human-like minds. The uncanny valley is therefore acquired over development and relates to changing conceptions about robot minds.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T08:07:08.302077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12999
  • Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well-Being:
           Evidence From a Population-Based Study
    • Authors: Andrew K. Przybylski; Netta Weinstein
      Abstract: There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well-being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2- to 5-year-olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well-being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T08:06:58.606344-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13007
  • Shyness and Trajectories of Functional Network Connectivity Over Early
    • Authors: Chad M. Sylvester; Diana J. Whalen, Andy C. Belden, Shana L. Sanchez, Joan L. Luby, Deanna M. Barch
      Abstract: High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7.8–13.0), 11.7 (range = 9.3–14.1), and 12.9 years (range = 10.1–15.2). Multilevel linear modeling indicated that high shyness was associated with a less steep negative slope of default mode network (DMN) rs-fc over early adolescence relative to low shyness. Less steep decreases in DMN rs-fc may relate to increased self-focus in adolescents with high shyness.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T23:46:31.550036-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13005
  • Learning to Individuate: The Specificity of Labels Differentially Impacts
           Infant Visual Attention
    • Authors: Charisse B. Pickron; Arjun Iyer, Eswen Fava, Lisa S. Scott
      Abstract: This study examined differences in visual attention as a function of label learning from 6 to 9 months of age. Before and after 3 months of parent-directed storybook training with computer-generated novel objects, event-related potentials and visual fixations were recorded while infants viewed trained and untrained images (n = 23). Relative to a pretraining, a no-training control group (n = 11), and to infants trained with category-level labels (e.g., all labeled “Hitchel”), infants trained with individual-level labels (e.g., “Boris,” “Jamar”) displayed increased visual attention and neural differentiation of objects after training.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T07:28:04.970784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13004
  • Development of Episodic Prospection: Factors Underlying Improvements in
           Middle and Late Childhood
    • Authors: Christine Coughlin; Richard W. Robins, Simona Ghetti
      Abstract: Episodic prospection is the mental simulation of a personal future event in rich contextual detail. This study examined age-related differences in episodic prospection in 5- to 11-year-olds and adults (N = 157), as well as factors that may contribute to developmental improvements. Participants’ narratives of past, future, and make-believe events were coded for episodic content, and self-concept coherence (i.e., how coherently an individual sees himself or herself) and narrative ability were tested as predictors of episodic prospection. Although all ages provided less episodic content for future event narratives, age-related improvements were observed across childhood, suggesting future event generation is particularly difficult for children. Self-concept coherence and narrative ability each independently predicted the episodic content of 5- and 7-year-olds’ future event narratives.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T02:20:33.881192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13001
  • Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Privacy Invasion and Adolescent
           Secrecy: An Illustration of Simpson's Paradox
    • Authors: Evelien Dietvorst; Marieke Hiemstra, Manon H.J. Hillegers, Loes Keijsers
      Abstract: Adolescents’ secrecy is intertwined with perception of parents’ behaviors as acts of privacy invasion. It is currently untested, however, how this transactional process operates at the within-person level—where these causal processes take place. Dutch adolescents (n = 244, Mage = 13.84, 38.50% boys) reported three times on perceived parental privacy invasion and secrecy. Cross-lagged panel models (CLPM) confirmed earlier findings. Privacy invasion predicted increased secrecy, but a reverse effect was found from increased secrecy to increased privacy invasion. Controlling for confounding positive group-level associations with a novel random intercept CLPM, negative within-person associations were found. Higher levels of secrecy predicted lower levels of privacy invasive behaviors at the within-person level. These opposing findings within- versus between-persons illustrate a Simpson's paradox.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:25:53.702259-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13002
  • Multiracial in Middle School: The Influence of Classmates and Friends on
           Changes in Racial Self-Identification
    • Authors: Leslie Echols; Jerreed Ivanich, Sandra Graham
      Abstract: In the present research, the influence of racial diversity among classmates and friends on changes in racial self-identification among multiracial youth was examined (n = 5,209; Mage = 10.56 years at the beginning of sixth grade). A novel individual-level measure of diversity among classmates based on participants’ course schedules was utilized. The findings revealed that although there was some fluidity in multiracial identification at the beginning of middle school, changes in multiracial identification were more evident later in middle school. In addition, although diversity among classmates and friends both increased the likelihood of multiracial identification in the beginning of middle school, only diversity among friends mattered later in middle school, when fluidity in multiracial identification was at its peak.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:25:25.784784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13000
  • A Within-Family Examination of Interparental Conflict, Cognitive
           Appraisals, and Adolescent Mood and Well-Being
    • Authors: Gregory M. Fosco; David M. Lydon-Staley
      Abstract: Interparental conflict (IPC) is a well-established risk factor across child and adolescent development. This study disentangled situational (within-family) and global (between-family) appraisal processes to better map hypothesized processes to adolescents’ experiences in the family. This 21-day daily dairy study sampled 151 caregivers and their adolescents (61.5% female). Using multilevel mediation analyses indicated that, on days when IPC was elevated, adolescents experienced more threat and self-blame. In turn, when adolescents experienced more threat appraisals, they experienced diminished positive well-being; whereas days when adolescents felt more self-blame, they experienced increased negative mood and diminished positive well-being. Statistically significant indirect effects were found for threat as a mediator of IPC and positive outcomes. Daily blame appraisals mediated IPC and adolescent angry mood.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:40:36.910962-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12997
  • Exposure to Parental Depression in Adolescence and Risk for Metabolic
           Syndrome in Adulthood
    • Authors: Katherine B. Ehrlich; Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gregory E. Miller, Gene H. Brody
      Abstract: The psychosocial consequences of living with a depressed parent have been well characterized. Less well known, however, is how this exposure is predictive of later physical health problems. The present study evaluated how parental depression across youths’ adolescence (ages 11–18) was associated with youth metabolic syndrome at age 25 (n = 391). Youth self-regulation and health behaviors were considered as possible moderators of the link between parental depression and youth metabolic syndrome. Analyses revealed that parental depression in adolescence was associated with a composite score reflecting metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood. Furthermore, self-regulation and health behaviors moderated this link, such that links between parental depression and the metabolic syndrome existed only for youth with low self-regulation or unhealthy behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:40:28.350271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13003
  • Is There a Downside to Anticipating the Upside' Children's and
           Adults’ Reasoning About How Prior Expectations Shape Future Emotions
    • Authors: Karen Hjortsvang Lara; Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J. Kramer
      Abstract: Four- to 10-year-olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters’ pre-outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high-expectation characters more negatively than low-expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6–7 years for negative outcomes, 8–10 years for attenuated, and never for positive. Comparison to baseline (no expectation) indicated that understanding the costs of high expectations emerges first and remains more robust across age than recognition that low expectations carry benefits. Explanation analyses further clarified this developing awareness about the relation between thoughts and emotions over time.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T00:00:41.289809-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12994
  • High-Ability Grouping: Benefits for Gifted Students’ Achievement
           Development Without Costs in Academic Self-Concept
    • Authors: Franzis Preckel; Isabelle Schmidt, Eva Stumpf, Monika Motschenbacher, Katharina Vogl, Vsevolod Scherrer, Wolfgang Schneider
      Abstract: Effects of full-time ability grouping on students’ academic self-concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students’ average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. The study sample comprised 148 (60% male) students from 14 gifted classes and 148 (57% male) students from 25 regular classes (matched by propensity score matching). Data analyses involved multilevel and latent growth curve analyses. Findings revealed no evidence for contrast effects of class-average achievement or assimilation effects of class type on students’ ASC. ASC remained stable over time. Students in gifted classes showed higher achievement gains than students in regular classes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T23:50:34.652099-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12996
  • The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Universal Preschool: Evidence From
           a Spanish Reform
    • Authors: Thomas Huizen; Lisa Dumhs, Janneke Plantenga
      Abstract: This study provides a cost–benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit–cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. The results show that the child development effects are the major determinant of the cost–benefit ratio; the employment gains for parents appear to play a relatively minor role. Overall, the cost–benefit analysis provides support for investing in high-quality preschool education.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T07:05:26.963147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12993
  • Promoting Resilience Among African American Girls: Racial Identity as a
           Protective Factor
    • Authors: Sheretta T. Butler-Barnes; Seanna Leath, Amber Williams, Christy Byrd, Rona Carter, Tabbye M. Chavous
      Abstract: This study examines school climate, racial identity beliefs, and achievement motivation beliefs within a cultural-ecological and risk and resilience framework. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 733 (Mage = 14.49) African American adolescent girls. A linear mixed effects model was used to determine if racial identity dimensions moderated the relationship between school climate and achievement motivation beliefs across four waves. Results revealed that racial identity (private regard and racial centrality) and ideology (nationalist) beliefs were associated with higher achievement motivation beliefs over time, while racial centrality and private regard, and a sense of belonging served as protective factors. The findings contribute to the importance of racial identity beliefs and increase the visibility of African American girls.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T07:05:22.474515-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12995
  • Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and
           North African French Adolescents
    • Authors: Adam J. Hoffman; Florence Dumas, Florence Loose, Annique Smeding, Beth Kurtz-Costes, Isabelle Régner
      Abstract: Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (Mage = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:15:45.15027-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12959
  • Seeing Iconic Gestures While Encoding Events Facilitates Children's Memory
           of These Events
    • Authors: Suzanne Aussems; Sotaro Kita
      Abstract: An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control conditions. Iconic gestures were categorized based on how much of the actors was represented by the hands (feet, legs, or body). Only iconic hand-as-body gestures boosted actor memory. Thus, seeing iconic gestures while encoding events facilitates children's memory of those aspects of events that are schematically highlighted by gesture.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:47.426757-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12988
  • Examining Children's Implicit Racial Attitudes Using Exemplar and
           Category-Based Measures
    • Authors: Amanda Williams; Jennifer R. Steele
      Abstract: The goal of this research was to examine children's implicit racial attitudes. Across three studies, a total of 359 White 5- to 12-year-olds completed child-friendly exemplar (Affective Priming Task; Affect Misattribution Procedure) and category-based (Implicit Association Test) implicit measures of racial attitudes. Younger children (5- to 8-year-olds) showed automatic ingroup positivity toward White child exemplars, whereas older children (9- to 12-year-olds) did not. Children also showed no evidence of automatic negativity toward Black exemplars, despite demonstrating consistent pro-White versus Black bias on the category-based measure. Together, the results suggest that (a) implicit ingroup and outgroup attitudes can follow distinct developmental trajectories, and (b) the spontaneous activation of implicit intergroup attitudes can depend on the salience of race.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:40.976538-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12991
  • Peer Problems Among Postinstitutionalized, Internationally Adopted
           Children: Relations to Hypocortisolism, Parenting Quality, and ADHD
    • Authors: Clio E. Pitula; Carrie E. DePasquale, Shanna B. Mliner, Megan R. Gunnar
      Abstract: Seventy-eight postinstitutionalized (PI) children adopted at ages 17–36 months were assessed 2, 8, 16, and 24 months postadoption on measures of cortisol and parenting quality, and compared to same-aged children adopted from foster care (FC, n = 45) and nonadopted children (NA, n = 45). In kindergarten (Mage = 6.0 years), teachers, parents, and trained observers completed measures of peer relationships and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. PI children had more peer problems and ADHD symptoms according to teachers and observers than NA children with FC children in between, whereas both PI and FC children were at significantly greater risk of hypocortisolism (i.e., blunted cortisol diurnal rhythm and reactivity). Hypocortisolism and ADHD symptoms mediated the association between preadoption adversity and peer difficulties. Higher postadoption parenting quality was protective.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:37.512797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12986
  • Let's Talk: Parents’ Mental Talk (Not Mind-Mindedness or Mindreading
           Capacity) Predicts Children's False Belief Understanding
    • Authors: Rory T. Devine; Claire Hughes
      Abstract: Although one might expect parents’ mind-mindedness (MM; the propensity to view children as mental agents) to relate to everyday mental-state talk (MST) and theory-of-mind capacity, evidence to support this view is lacking. In addition, both the uniqueness and the specificity of relations between parental MM, parental MST, and children's false belief understanding (FBU) are open to question. To address these three gaps, this study tracked 117 preschoolers (60 boys) and their parents across a 13-month period (Mage = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53, at Time 1). Parental MM, MST, and theory-of-mind capacity showed little overlap. Both MM and MST were weakly associated with children's concurrent FBU, but in line with social constructivist accounts, only MST predicted later FBU.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T08:25:33.386777-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12990
  • Parental Sexual Orientation and Children's Psychological Well-Being:
           2013–2015 National Health Interview Survey
    • Authors: Jerel P. Calzo; Vickie M. Mays, Charlotte Björkenstam, Emma Björkenstam, Kyriaki Kosidou, Susan D. Cochran
      Abstract: Debate persists about whether parental sexual orientation affects children's well-being. This study utilized information from the 2013 to 2015 U.S., population-based National Health Interview Survey to examine associations between parental sexual orientation and children's well-being. Parents reported their children's (aged 4–17 years old, N = 21,103) emotional and mental health difficulties using the short form Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of bisexual parents had higher SDQ scores than children of heterosexual parents. Adjusting for parental psychological distress (a minority stress indicator) eliminated this difference. Children of lesbian and gay parents did not differ from children of heterosexual parents in emotional and mental health difficulties, yet, the results among children of bisexual parents warrant more research examining the impact of minority stress on families.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T02:35:41.937661-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12989
  • Can Bilingualism Mitigate Set-Shifting Difficulties in Children With
           Autism Spectrum Disorders'
    • Authors: Ana Maria Gonzalez-Barrero; Aparna S. Nadig
      Abstract: This study investigated the effects of bilingualism on set-shifting and working memory in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Bilinguals with ASD were predicted to display a specific bilingual advantage in set-shifting, but not working memory, relative to monolinguals with ASD. Forty 6- to 9-year-old children participated (20 ASD, 20 typically-developing). Set-shifting was measured using a computerized dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, and by parent report of executive functioning in daily life. Results showed an advantage for bilingual relative to monolingual children with ASD on the DCCS task, but not for set-shifting in daily life. Working memory was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals with ASD. These findings suggest that bilingualism may mitigate some set-shifting difficulties in children with ASD.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T08:15:29.135673-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12979
  • Sometimes It's Good to be Short: The Serotonin Transporter Gene, Positive
           Parenting, and Adolescent Depression
    • Authors: Keriann Little; Craig A. Olsson, Sarah Whittle, Jacqui A. Macdonald, Lisa B. Sheeber, George J. Youssef, Julian G. Simmons, Ann V. Sanson, Debra L. Foley, Nicholas B. Allen
      Abstract: In threatening environments, the short (S) allele of 5-HTTLPR is proposed to augment risk for depression. However, it is unknown whether 5-HTTLPR variation increases risk for depression in environments of deprivation, lacking positive or nurturant features. Two independent longitudinal studies (n = 681 and 176, respectively) examined whether 5-HTTLPR moderated associations between low levels of positive parenting at 11–13 years and subsequent depression at 17–19 years. In both studies only LL homozygous adolescents were at greater risk for depression with decreasing levels of positive parenting. Thus, while the S allele has previously been identified as a susceptible genotype, these findings suggest that the L allele may also confer sensitivity to depression in the face of specific environmental challenges.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T06:55:38.425998-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12987
  • Child-Directed Speech Is Infrequent in a Forager-Farmer Population: A Time
           Allocation Study
    • Authors: Alejandrina Cristia; Emmanuel Dupoux, Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz
      Abstract: This article provides an estimation of how frequently, and from whom, children aged 0–11 years (Ns between 9 and 24) receive one-on-one verbal input among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia. Analyses of systematic daytime behavioral observations reveal
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T01:15:33.955377-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12974
  • An Experimental Investigation of Antisocial Lie-Telling Among Children
           With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Typically Developing Children
    • Authors: Allison P. Mugno, Lindsay C. Malloy, Daniel A. Waschbusch, William E. Pelham Jr; Victoria Talwar
      Abstract: Children's lie-telling is surprisingly understudied among children with significant behavioral problems. In the present study, experimental paradigms were used to examine antisocial lie-telling among ethnically diverse 5- to 10-year-old children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; n = 71) and a typically developing (TD) comparison sample (n = 50) recruited from a southeastern state from 2013 to 2014. Children completed two games that measured the prevalence and skill of their lies: (a) for personal gain and (b) to conceal wrongdoing. Children with DBD were more likely to lie for personal gain than TD children. With age, children were more likely to lie to conceal wrongdoing, but the reverse was true regarding lies for personal gain. Results advance knowledge concerning individual differences in children's lie-telling.
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T06:00:30.450811-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12985
  • Parental Autonomy Support in Two Cultures: The Moderating Effects of
           Adolescents’ Self-Construals
    • Authors: Kristine N. Marbell-Pierre; Wendy S. Grolnick, Andrew L. Stewart, Jacquelyn N. Raftery-Helmer
      Abstract: Parental autonomy support has been related to positive adolescent outcomes, however, its relation to outcomes in collectivist cultural groups is unclear. This study examined relations of specific autonomy supportive behaviors and outcomes among 401 adolescents (Mage = 12.87) from the United States (N = 245) and collectivist-oriented Ghana (N = 156). It also examined whether adolescents’ self-construals moderated the relations of specific types of autonomy support with outcomes. Factor analyses indicated two types of autonomy support: perspective taking/open exchange and allowance of decision making/choice. In both countries, perspective taking/open exchange predicted positive outcomes, but decision making/choice only did so in the United States. With regard to moderation, the more independent adolescents’ self-construals, the stronger the relations of decision making/choice to parental controllingness and school engagement.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T23:40:31.147084-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12947
  • Practicing for the Future: Deliberate Practice in Early Childhood
    • Authors: Melissa Brinums; Kana Imuta, Thomas Suddendorf
      Abstract: Deliberate practice is essential for acquiring a wide range of skills that have been central to humans’ adaptive success, yet little is known about when and how children develop this capability. The current study examined 4- to 7-year-olds’ (N = 120) ability to selectively practice a skill that would be useful in the near future, as well as their broader understanding of the role of deliberate practice in skill acquisition. Six- and 7-year-olds demonstrated both an explicit understanding of deliberate practice and the capacity to practice without being prompted. Five-year-olds showed an understanding of deliberate practice and some capacity to practice, whereas 4-year-olds showed neither of these capabilities. Findings reveal important developments in children's future-directed behavior beyond the preschool years.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T23:40:24.998618-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12938
  • The Relation Between Walking and Language in Infant Siblings of Children
           With Autism Spectrum Disorder
    • Authors: Kelsey L. West; Nina B. Leezenbaum, Jessie B. Northrup, Jana M. Iverson
      Abstract: In typical development, walk onset is accompanied by increased language growth (e.g., Walle & Campos, 2014). The present study explored whether this relation may be disrupted in the infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; heightened risk of receiving an ASD diagnosis; HR), a population exhibiting substantial variability in motor and language development (e.g., Gamliel, Yirmiya, & Sigman, 2007; Landa & Garrett-Mayer, 2006). Receptive and expressive language were examined across the transition to walking in three groups of HR infants (no diagnosis, language delay, and ASD; N = 91, 8–18 months) and in infants with no family history of ASD (N = 25; 9–15 months). Only infants with an eventual ASD diagnosis did not show increased language growth following walk onset.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T07:40:27.026748-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12980
  • Infant Visual Attention and Stimulus Repetition Effects on Object
    • Authors: Greg D. Reynolds; John E. Richards
      Abstract: This study examined behavioral, heart rate (HR), and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of attention and recognition memory for 4.5-, 6-, and 7.5-month-old infants (N = 45) during stimulus encoding. Attention was utilized as an independent variable using HR measures. The Nc ERP component associated with attention and the late slow wave (LSW) associated with recognition memory were analyzed. The 7.5-month-olds demonstrated a significant reduction in Nc amplitude with stimulus repetition. This reduction in Nc was not found for younger infants. Additionally, infants only demonstrated differential LSW amplitude based on stimulus type on attentive trials as defined by HR changes. These findings indicate that from 4.5 to 7.5 months, infants’ attentional engagement is influenced by an increasingly broader range of stimulus characteristics.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T07:57:02.92876-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12982
  • The Development of Regional Dialect Locality Judgments and Language
           Attitudes Across the Life Span
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. McCullough; Cynthia G. Clopper, Laura Wagner
      Abstract: The development of language attitudes and perception of talker regional background was investigated across the life span (N = 240, age range = 4–75 years). Participants rated 12 talkers on dimensions of geographic locality, status, and solidarity. Children could classify some dialects by locality by age 6–7 years and showed adult-like patterns by age 8 years. Children showed adult-like status ratings for some dialects by age 4–5 years but were not fully adult-like until age 12 years. Solidarity ratings were more variable and did not exhibit a clear developmental trajectory, although some adult-like patterns were in place by age 6–7 years. Locality ratings were a significant but modest predictor of attitude ratings, suggesting that geographic knowledge is one contributor to language attitudes throughout development.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T07:56:18.842229-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12984
  • Does the Effect of Justice System Attitudes on Adolescent Crime Vary Based
           on Psychosocial Maturity'
    • Authors: Adam Fine; Kevin T. Wolff, Michael T. Baglivio, Alex R. Piquero, Paul J. Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
      Abstract: Adolescents who view the justice system negatively are prone to commit crime. Simultaneously, youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior are likely to commit crime. Using a longitudinal sample of 1,216 male adolescents (ages 13–17) who had been arrested for the first time, were racially/ethnically diverse, and were drawn from three U.S. states, this study incorporated a developmental perspective into the procedural justice framework to examine whether psychosocial immaturity moderated the effect of justice system attitudes on youth crime. Attitudes toward the justice system were associated with reoffending among psychosocially mature youth, but not among psychosocially immature youth. This developmental perspective indicates that psychosocially immature youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior may be at risk of engaging in crime regardless of how they perceive the justice system.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T07:26:03.282478-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12983
  • A Long-Term Effect of Perceptual Individuation Training on Reducing
           Implicit Racial Bias in Preschool Children
    • Authors: Miao K. Qian; Paul C. Quinn, Gail D. Heyman, Olivier Pascalis, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
      Abstract: This study tracked the long-term effect of perceptual individuation training on reducing 5-year-old Chinese children's (N = 95, Mage = 5.64 years) implicit pro-Asian/anti-Black racial bias. Initial training to individuate other-race Black faces, followed by supplementary training occurring 1 week later, resulted in a long-term reduction of pro-Asian/anti-Black bias (70 days). In contrast, training Chinese children to recognize White or Asian faces had no effect on pro-Asian/anti-Black bias. Theoretically, the finding that individuation training can have a long-term effect on reducing implicit racial bias in preschoolers suggests that a developmentally early causal linkage between perceptual and social processing of faces is not a transitory phenomenon. Practically, the data point to an effective intervention method for reducing implicit racism in young children.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T09:00:01.651043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12971
  • Discrimination and Ethnic–Racial Identity: Understanding Direction of
           Effects Using Within- and Between-Person Analyses
    • Authors: Katharine H. Zeiders; Sara D. Bayless, Chelsea L. Derlan, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Laudan B. Jahromi
      Abstract: Ethnic–racial identity (ERI) development and ethnic–racial discrimination are two salient experiences among adolescents in the United States. Despite growing awareness of the costs and benefits of these experiences individually, we know little about how they may influence one another. The current study examined competing hypotheses relating discrimination and components of ERI (i.e., exploration, resolution, affirmation) among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 181; Mage at Wave 1 = 16.83, SD = 1.01) across six waves of data. Findings revealed that within-person changes in discrimination predicted subsequent ERI resolution and affirmation; however, ERI did not predict subsequent discrimination. Between-person effects of discrimination on affirmation were significant. Our findings underscore the importance of discrimination experiences in shaping Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ normative developmental competencies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T06:41:17.944065-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12978
  • Expecting the Unexpected' Expectations for Future Success Among
           Adolescent First-Time Offenders
    • Authors: Alissa Mahler; Adam Fine, Paul J. Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
      Abstract: Adolescent first-time offenders demonstrate greater risk of continued offending, justice system contact, and high school dropout. The current study evaluates if optimistic expectations protect youth by reducing offending and improving school grades for 3 years following a first arrest (N = 1,165, Mage = 15.29). This article also considers whether improved behavior raises expectations about the future and uses autoregressive latent trajectory modeling with structured residuals to examine the within-person cross-lagged associations between expectations and behavior. The results indicated that positive expectations reduce offending and improve grades, which are in turn associated with higher expectations. Although raising expectations may improve outcomes following an arrest, ensuring adolescents have the tools to meet their goals may be an effective way to raise expectations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T06:41:13.603574-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12977
  • Ethnic Harassment and Immigrant Youth's Engagement in Violent Behaviors:
           Understanding the Risk Factors
    • Authors: Sevgi Bayram Özdemir; Metin Özdemir, Hakån Stattin
      Abstract: The present study aimed to examine whether ethnic harassment was related to violent behaviors among immigrant youth over time and to identify the risk factors. The sample comprised immigrant adolescents living in Sweden (N = 365; Mage = 13.93, SD = 0.80). Results showed that the more youth were ethnically harassed, the more they engaged in violent acts over time. A separated identity significantly moderated the effect of ethnic harassment on youth's engagement in violent behaviors. Specifically, ethnic harassment positively predicted engagement in violent behaviors only at high levels of separated identity. Impulsivity and school ethnic composition did not act as moderators. The findings suggest that preventing violent behaviors among immigrant youth requires a focus on promoting positive interethnic relationships, and multicultural identity among immigrant youth.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T07:00:24.041936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12975
  • An Expanded View of Joint Attention: Skill, Engagement, and Language in
           Typical Development and Autism
    • Authors: Lauren B. Adamson; Roger Bakeman, Katharine Suma, Diana L. Robins
      Abstract: This study provides an expanded view of joint attention and its relation to expressive language development. A total of 144 toddlers (40 typically developing, 58 with autism spectrum disorder [ASD], 46 with developmental delay [DD]) participated at 24 and 31 months. Toddlers who screened positive for ASD risk, especially those subsequently diagnosed with ASD, had poorer joint attention skills, joint engagement during parent–toddler interaction, and expressive language. Findings highlight the dynamic relation between joint attention and language development. In the ASD and DD groups, joint engagement predicted later expressive vocabulary, significantly more than predictions based on joint attention skills. Joint engagement was most severely impacted when toddlers did not talk initially and improved markedly if they subsequently began to speak.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T08:05:29.514715-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12973
  • Scaling Theory of Mind in a Small-Scale Society: A Case Study From Vanuatu
    • Authors: Henry G. W. Dixson; Aimée F. Komugabe-Dixson, Barnaby J. Dixson, Jason Low
      Abstract: Although theory of mind (ToM) is argued to emerge between 3 and 5 years of age, data from non-Western, small-scale societies suggest diversity. Deeper investigations into these settings are warranted. In the current study, over 400 Melanesian children from Vanuatu (range = 3–14 years), growing up in either urban or rural remote environments, completed culturally tailored ToM batteries. Results show a marked delay in false belief (FB) performance, particularly among participants from rural villages. By further investigating a diverse range of concepts beyond FB, we illustrate two unique cultural sequences for a suite of mental state concepts among urban and rural ni-Vanuatu children. Implications for social and cultural influences on the development of ToM are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T05:45:35.864678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12919
  • Infants Distinguish Between Two Events Based on Their Relative Likelihood
    • Authors: Ezgi Kayhan; Gustaf Gredebäck, Marcus Lindskog
      Abstract: Likelihood estimations are crucial for dealing with the uncertainty of life. Here, infants' sensitivity to the difference in likelihood between two events was investigated. Infants aged 6, 12, and 18 months (N = 75) were shown animated movies of a machine simultaneously drawing likely and unlikely samples from a box filled with different colored balls. In different trials, the difference in likelihood between the two samples was manipulated. The infants' looking patterns varied as a function of the magnitude of the difference in likelihood and were modulated by the number of items in the samples. Looking patterns showed qualitative similarities across age groups. This study demonstrates that infants' looking responses are sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in likelihood between two events.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T06:50:31.074749-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12970
  • Childhood Amnesia in Children: A Prospective Study Across Eight Years
    • Authors: Carole Peterson; Darcy Hallett, Cassy Compton-Gillingham
      Abstract: This was a prospective study of earliest memories across 8 years for 37 children who were of age 4–9 years initially. In three interviews (initial and after 2 and 8 years) children provided their three earliest memories; those from earlier interviews that were not spontaneously provided later were cued. There was little consistency in the earliest memory or overlap across interviews in spontaneous memories. The youngest group also forgot over half their initial memories although few were forgotten by older children. For consistency of content, 25%–32% of information by former 6- to 9-year-olds was the same after 8 years, but
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T06:50:23.960337-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12972
  • Multigenerational Effects on Children's Cognitive and Socioemotional
           Outcomes: A Within-Child Investigation
    • Authors: Antti O. Tanskanen; Mirkka Danielsbacka
      Abstract: Associations between grandparental investment and child outcomes were investigated using three waves of a longitudinal British Millennium Cohort Study that included children between the ages of 9 months and 5 years (n = 24,614 person-observations from 13,744 children). Grandparental investment was measured by parent–grandparent contact frequency and grandparental financial support. Child cognitive development was measured using the British Ability Scale and socioemotional outcomes using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Grandparental investment was associated with improved cognitive and socioemotional outcomes among children. However, these associations occurred because of between-person effects and did not exist in within-person analyses that compared the same children over time. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to multigenerational relationships research.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T06:01:13.391382-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12968
  • Discrimination, Parent–Adolescent Conflict, and Peer Intimacy: Examining
           Risk and Resilience in Mexican-Origin Youths' Adjustment Trajectories
    • Authors: Melissa Y. Delgado; Rajni L. Nair, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor
      Abstract: Peer discrimination and parent–adolescent conflict in early adolescence were examined as predictors of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors from early to late adolescence using four waves of data over an 8-year period from a sample of 246 Mexican-origin adolescents (MTime 1 age = 12.55, SD = 0.58; 51% female). The buffering effect of friendship intimacy and moderating role of adolescent gender were tested. Higher levels of discrimination and conflict in early adolescence were associated with higher initial levels of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors in early adolescence and stability through late adolescence. For females who reported higher than average discrimination, friendship intimacy had a protective effect on their depressive symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T07:25:25.018309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12969
  • Peer Effects on Aggressive Behavior in Norwegian Child Care Centers
    • Authors: Luisa A. Ribeiro; Henrik D. Zachrisson
      Abstract: This study examined whether exposure to changes in peer aggression predicted changes in child physical aggression (PA) in preschool children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study were used, including 956 children. In fixed effects models, within-child changes in exposure to peer aggression predicted changes in teacher-rated child PA across ages 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, changes in exposure to a peer group with two or more externalizing children increased teacher-rated child PA over time, but only for boys. No significant peer effects on parent-rated child PA were found. Findings point to the importance of avoiding the congregation of several problematic children, particularly boys, in the same ECEC groups.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T01:55:38.779028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12953
  • A Methylome-Wide Association Study of Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant
           Behaviors and Biological Overlap With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
    • Authors: Edward D. Barker; Esther Walton, Charlotte A.M. Cecil, Richard Rowe, Sara R. Jaffee, Barbara Maughan, Thomas G. O'Connor, Argyris Stringaris, Alan J. Meehan, Wendy McArdle, Caroline L. Relton, Tom R. Gaunt
      Abstract: In 671 mother–child (49% male) pairs from an epidemiological birth cohort, we investigated (a) prospective associations between DNA methylation (at birth) and trajectories (ages 7–13) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and the ODD subdimensions of irritable and headstrong; (b) common biological pathways, indexed by DNA methylation, between ODD trajectories and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (c) genetic influence on DNA methylation; and (d) prenatal risk exposure associations. Methylome-wide significant associations were identified for the ODD and headstrong, but not for irritable. Overlap analysis indicated biological correlates between ODD, headstrong, and ADHD. DNA methylation in ODD and headstrong was (to a degree) genetically influenced. DNA methylation associated with prenatal risk exposures of maternal anxiety (headstrong) and cigarette smoking (ODD and headstrong).
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T01:26:14.714825-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12957
  • The Decline in Adult Activities Among U.S. Adolescents, 1976–2016
    • Authors: Jean M. Twenge; Heejung Park
      Abstract: The social and historical contexts may influence the speed of development. In seven large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents 1976–2016 (N = 8.44 million, ages 13–19), fewer adolescents in recent years engaged in adult activities such as having sex, dating, drinking alcohol, working for pay, going out without their parents, and driving, suggesting a slow life strategy. Adult activities were less common when median income, life expectancy, college enrollment, and age at first birth were higher and family size and pathogen prevalence were lower, consistent with life history theory. The trends are unlikely to be due to homework and extracurricular time, which stayed steady or declined, and may or may not be linked to increased Internet use.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T23:02:04.652547-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12930
  • Self-Concept Predicts Academic Achievement Across Levels of the
           Achievement Distribution: Domain Specificity for Math and Reading
    • Authors: Maria Ines Susperreguy; Pamela E. Davis-Kean, Kathryn Duckworth, Meichu Chen
      Abstract: This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development–Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics–Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement. These results were replicated across the three data sets representing different populations and provide robust evidence for the role of self-concept of ability in understanding achievement from early childhood to adolescence across the spectrum of performance (low to high).
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T23:02:03.117872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12924
  • How Unequal Is the United States' Adolescents’ Images of Social
    • Authors: Constance A. Flanagan; Mariah Kornbluh
      Abstract: This study highlights the use of pictorial images to understand adolescents’ views on social stratification. A continuum of five visual images of social stratification were presented to a diverse sample of five hundred ninety-eight 8th–12th graders (14–18 years old). Adolescents selected which image best represented the United States (today, in 20 years, how it ought to be). Images ranged from inequitable to egalitarian. Results supported reference group and possible selves theories. Adolescents in higher status families chose a more egalitarian image for how the United States is today and how it ought to be. African Americans considered the United States today more unequal. Differences in adolescents’ commitment to an egalitarian ideal depended on their reactions to inequality and their beliefs about government responsiveness, bolstering the measure's validity.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:50:34.018853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12954
  • Intelligence and Neurophysiological Markers of Error Monitoring Relate to
           Children's Intellectual Humility
    • Authors: Judith H. Danovitch; Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z. Hambrick, Jason Moser
      Abstract: This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6–8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children. Greater IH was associated with higher intelligence but not with social cognition or motivational framework. ERN related to self-assessment, whereas Pe related to question delegation. Thus, children show separable epistemic and social components of IH that may differentially contribute to metacognition and learning.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:45:58.983208-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12960
  • Children's Theories of the Self
    • Authors: Christina Starmans
      Abstract: This article provides a theoretical review of the developmental origins of children's “folk theories” about the nature of the self, linking theoretical developments in philosophy with empirical discoveries from developmental psychology. The article first reviews children's views about the material nature of the self, outlining evidence that children naturally think about the self as distinct from the body. It then discusses children's understanding of the persistence of the self over time and, finally, explores children's views about conflict within the self. Together, these findings suggest that preschoolers possess stable, coherent, and predictive theories about the nature of the self that are stable across individuals, early emerging, and in some cases undergo interesting developmental change.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:45:55.196854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12951
  • Optimism as a Candidate Health Asset: Exploring Its Links With Adolescent
           Quality of Life in Sweden
    • Authors: Katrin Häggström Westberg; Marie Wilhsson, Petra Svedberg, Jens M. Nygren, Antony Morgan, Maria Nyholm
      Abstract: This study aims to understand the role that optimism could play in the context of a health asset approach to promote adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Adolescents (n = 948), between 11 and 16 years old from a medium-sized rural town in Sweden, answered questionnaires measuring optimism, pessimism, and HRQOL. The findings indicate a significant decrease in optimism and a significant increase in pessimism between early and midadolescence. The study has allowed us to present associational evidence of the links between optimism and HRQOL. This infers the potential of an optimistic orientation about the future to function as a health asset during adolescence and by implication may provide additional intervention tool in the planning of health promotion strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:45:53.14402-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12958
  • How Children Construct Views of Themselves: A Social-Developmental
    • Authors: Eddie Brummelman; Sander Thomaes
      Abstract: As they grow up, children construct views of themselves and their place in the world, known as their self-concept. This topic has often been addressed by social psychologists (studying how the self-concept is influenced by social contexts) and developmental psychologists (studying how the self-concept changes over time). Yet, relatively little is known about the origins of the self-concept. This article calls for research that bridges social and developmental psychology to illuminate this important issue. Adopting such a social-developmental approach, the current special section shows that children construct their self-concept based on the social relationships they have, the feedback they receive, the social comparisons they make, and the cultural values they endorse. These findings underline the deeply social nature of self-development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:02:20.648021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12961
  • The Origins of Children's Growth and Fixed Mindsets: New Research and a
           New Proposal
    • Authors: Kyla Haimovitz; Carol S. Dweck
      Abstract: Children's mindsets about intelligence (as a quality they can grow vs. a trait they cannot change) robustly influence their motivation and achievement. How do adults foster “growth mindsets” in children' One might assume that adults act in ways that communicate their own mindsets to children. However, new research shows that many parents and teachers with growth mindsets are not passing them on. This article presents a new perspective on why this is the case, and reviews research on adult practices that do instill growth mindsets, concluding that a sustained focus on the process of learning is critical. After discussing key implications and promising future directions, we consider the topic in the context of important societal issues, like high-stakes testing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:01:38.754688-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12955
  • Fine Motor Control Underlies the Association Between Response Inhibition
           and Drawing Skill in Early Development
    • Authors: Andrew Simpson; Reshaa Al Ruwaili, Richard Jolley, Hayley Leonard, Nicolas Geeraert, Kevin J. Riggs
      Abstract: Previous research shows that the development of response inhibition and drawing skill are linked. The current research investigated whether this association reflects a more fundamental link between response inhibition and motor control. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds (n = 100) were tested on measures of inhibition, fine motor control, and drawing skill. Data revealed an association between inhibition and fine motor control, which was responsible for most of the association observed with drawing skill. Experiment 2 (n = 100) provided evidence that, unlike fine motor control, gross motor control and inhibition were not associated (after controlling for IQ). Alternative explanations for the link between inhibition and fine motor control are outlined, including a consideration of how these cognitive processes may interact during development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T07:35:23.92154-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12949
  • Consequences of Individual Differences in Children's Formal Understanding
           of Mathematical Equivalence
    • Authors: Nicole M. McNeil; Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Brianna L. Devlin, Cristina Carrazza, Mary O. McKeever
      Abstract: Experts claim that individual differences in children's formal understanding of mathematical equivalence have consequences for mathematics achievement; however, evidence is lacking. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with a diverse sample of 112 children from a midsized city in the Midwestern United States (Mage [second grade] = 8:1). As hypothesized, understanding of mathematical equivalence in second grade predicted mathematics achievement in third grade, even after controlling for second-grade mathematics achievement, IQ, gender, and socioeconomic status. Most children exhibited poor understanding of mathematical equivalence, but results provide clues about which children are on the path to constructing an understanding and which may need extra support to overcome their misconceptions. Findings suggest that mathematical equivalence may deserve more attention from educators.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T07:30:27.812875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12948
  • Memory and Executive Functioning in 12-Year-Old Children With a History of
           Institutional Rearing
    • Authors: Johanna Bick; Charles H. Zeanah, Nathan A. Fox, Charles A. Nelson
      Abstract: We examined visual recognition memory and executive functioning (spatial working memory [SWM], spatial planning, rule learning, and attention shifting) in 12-year-olds (n = 150) who participated in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. Similar to prior reports at 8 years of age, institutionally reared children showed significant deficits in visual recognition memory and SWM. Deficits in attention shifting and rule learning were also apparent at this time point. These data suggest that early experiences continue to shape the development of memory, learning, and executive functioning processes in preadolescence, which may explain broader cognitive and learning difficulties commonly associated with severe early life neglect.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T07:56:00.600628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12952
  • Black Adolescent Males: Intersections Among Their Gender Role Identity and
           Racial Identity and Associations With Self-Concept (Global and School)
    • Authors: Tamara R. Buckley
      Abstract: Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combination of feminine and masculine gender roles, rather than hypermasculine. A canonical correlation analysis found that Black racial identity attitudes (RIAS-L) and gender roles simultaneously contributed to significant relationships with total and school self-concept. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T07:45:33.881469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12950
  • Parental Co-Construction of 5- to 13-Year-Olds' Global Self-Esteem Through
           Reminiscing About Past Events
    • Authors: Michelle A. Harris; M. B. Donnellan, Jen Guo, Dan P. McAdams, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Kali H. Trzesniewski
      Abstract: The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self-esteem development. Eighty 5- to 13-year-olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open-ended questions, and a laboratory-based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security. Attachment was associated with concurrent self-esteem, which predicted relative increases in self-esteem 16 months later, on average. Finally, parent support also predicted residual increases in self-esteem. Findings extend prior research by including younger ages and uncovering a process by which two theoretically relevant parenting behaviors impact self-esteem development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:13:51.085723-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12944
  • The Longitudinal Effects of Early Language Intervention on Children's
           Problem Behaviors
    • Authors: Philip R. Curtis; Megan Y. Roberts, Ryne Estabrook, Ann P. Kaiser
      Abstract: Researchers examined whether a parent-implemented language intervention improved problem behaviors 1 year after intervention. Ninety-seven children with language delays (mean age at 12-month follow-up = 48.22 months) were randomized to receive Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) language intervention or business as usual treatment. Twelve months after the intervention ended, children in the EMT intervention condition displayed lower rates of parent-reported externalizing, internalizing, and total problem behaviors. A mediation analysis revealed that the relation between EMT and problem behaviors was partially mediated by child rate of communication for both internalizing and total problem behaviors. A developmental framework is proposed to explain the impact of EMT on problem behaviors, and future lines of research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T06:32:59.593129-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12942
  • Relations of Inhibition and Emotion-Related Parenting to Young Children's
           Prosocial and Vicariously Induced Distress Behavior
    • Authors: Nancy Eisenberg; Tracy L. Spinrad, Zoe E. Taylor, Jeffrey Liew
      Abstract: Children's prosocial behavior and personal distress are likely affected by children's temperament as well as parenting quality. In this study, we examined bidirectional relations from age 30 to 42 months between children's (N = 218) prosocial or self-focused (presumably distressed) reactions to a relative stranger's distress and both supportive emotion-related maternal reactions to children's emotions and children's shyness/inhibition. When controlling for 30-month prosocial behavior and personal distress behavior, maternal supportive (emotion-focused and problem-focused) reactions were positively related to prosocial behavior and marginally negatively related to children's personal distress behaviors and shyness/inhibition at 42 months. Thirty-month personal distress behavior predicted greater shyness/inhibition at 42 months, and 30-month shyness/inhibition was negatively related to prosocial behavior at 30 months.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T07:00:28.761551-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12934
  • A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American
           Adolescents’ Self-Views
    • Authors: George P. Knight; Gustavo Carlo, Cara Streit, Rebecca M.B. White
      Abstract: Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents’ endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents’ ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T08:00:47.962026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12939
  • The Role of Campus Support, Undocumented Identity, and Deferred Action for
           Childhood Arrivals on Civic Engagement for Latinx Undocumented
    • Authors: Dalal Katsiaficas; Vanessa Volpe, Syeda S. Raza, Yuliana Garcia
      Abstract: This study examined civic engagement in a sample of 790 undocumented Latinx undergraduates (aged 18–30). The relations between social supports (campus safe spaces and peer support) and civic engagement and whether a strong sense of undocumented identity mediated this relation were examined. Competing statistical models examined the role of participants' status (whether or not they received temporary protection from deportation with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals [DACA]) in this mediational process. Results revealed that having a strong identification with being undocumented mediated the role of social supports on civic engagement in the overall sample, and that this process was specifically important for those with DACA status. The intersection of policies such as DACA and the lived experiences of Latinx undocumented college students are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T07:55:49.489936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12933
  • When Parents’ Praise Inflates, Children's Self-Esteem Deflates
    • Authors: Eddie Brummelman; Stefanie A. Nelemans, Sander Thomaes, Bram Orobio de Castro
      Abstract: Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational-longitudinal study (120 parent–child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7–11), when narcissism and self-esteem first emerge. Supporting the self-deflation hypothesis, parents’ inflated praise predicted lower self-esteem in children. Partly supporting the self-inflation hypothesis, parents’ inflated praise predicted higher narcissism—but only in children with high self-esteem. Noninflated praise predicted neither self-esteem nor narcissism. Thus, inflated praise may foster the self-views it seeks to prevent.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T07:55:21.292822-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12936
  • Do Varieties of Spanish Influence U.S. Spanish–English Bilingual
           Children's Friendship Judgments'
    • Authors: Maria M. Arredondo; Susan A. Gelman
      Abstract: Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States (U.S. Census, 2014), yet this term comprises individuals from multiple ethnicities who speak distinct varieties of Spanish. We investigated whether Spanish–English bilingual children (N = 140, ages 4–17) use Spanish varieties in their social judgments. The findings revealed that children distinguished varieties of Spanish but did not use Spanish dialects to make third-person friendship judgments until 10–12 years; this effect became stronger in adolescence. In contrast, young children (4–6 years) made friendship judgments based on a speaker's language (English, Spanish). Thus, using language varieties as a social category and as a basis for making social inferences is a complex result of multiple influences for Spanish-speaking children growing up bilingual in the United States.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T07:50:32.943289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12932
  • Anxious Solitude and Self-Compassion and Self-Criticism Trajectories in
           Early Adolescence: Attachment Security as a Moderator
    • Authors: Divya Peter; Heidi Gazelle
      Abstract: Youths’ attachment representations with their parents were tested as moderators of the relation between peer-reported anxious solitude and self-compassion and self-criticism trajectories from fifth to seventh grades. Participants were 213 youth, 57% girls, M = 10.65 years of age. Growth curves revealed that attachment representations with both parents moderated the relation between AS and self-processes such that AS youth with (a) dual secure attachments demonstrated the most adaptive self-processes, (b) one secure attachment demonstrated intermediately adaptive self-processes, and (c) dual insecure attachments demonstrated the least adaptive self-processes over time. AS youth with dual insecure attachments are of most concern because they demonstrated elevated and increasing self-criticism over time, given evidence for relations between self-criticism and internalizing psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T19:02:03.317874-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12926
  • Clear Self, Better Relationships: Adolescents’ Self-Concept Clarity and
           Relationship Quality With Parents and Peers Across 5 Years
    • Authors: Andrik I. Becht; Stefanie A. Nelemans, Marloes P. A. Dijk, Susan J. T. Branje, Pol A. C. Van Lier, Jaap J. A. Denissen, Wim H. J. Meeus
      Abstract: This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents’ self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e., adolescents, both parents, and adolescents’ best friends) reported on support and negative interaction. Within-person cross-lagged analyses provided systematic evidence for both parent effects and child effects, with the direction of effects being strongly dependent on the relational context. For example, higher maternal support predicted higher adolescent SCC, supporting a parent effects perspective, whereas higher SCC predicted lower paternal negative interaction, supporting a child effects perspective. Peer effects on adolescent SCC were not consistently found across adolescent and best friend reports.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T19:02:01.794196-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12921
  • Group Membership Influences More Social Identification Than Social
           Learning or Overimitation in Children
    • Authors: Thibaud Gruber; Amélie Deschenaux, Aurélien Frick, Fabrice Clément
      Abstract: Group membership is a strong driver of everyday life in humans, influencing similarity judgments, trust choices, and learning processes. However, its ontogenetic development remains to be understood. This study investigated how group membership, age, sex, and identification with a team influenced 39- to 60-month-old children (N = 94) in a series of similarity, trust, and learning tasks. Group membership had the most influence on similarity and trust tasks, strongly biasing choices toward in-groups. In contrast, prior experience and identification with the team were the most important factors in the learning tasks. Finally, overimitation occurred most when the children's team, but not the opposite, displayed meaningless actions. Future work must investigate how these cognitive abilities combine during development to facilitate cultural processes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T05:40:40.343072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12931
  • Young Children's Self-Concepts Include Representations of Abstract Traits
           and the Global Self
    • Authors: Andrei Cimpian; Matthew D. Hammond, Giulia Mazza, Grace Corry
      Abstract: There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts—specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4–7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to peculiarities of the task context not the inadequacy of children's self-concepts. Similarly, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that, contrary to claims of immaturity in reasoning about the global self, young children update their global self-evaluations in flexible, context-sensitive ways. This evidence suggests continuity in the structure of self-concepts across childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T11:00:01.540769-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12925
  • Smart Conformists: Children and Adolescents Associate Conformity With
           Intelligence Across Cultures
    • Authors: Nicole J. Wen; Jennifer M. Clegg, Cristine H. Legare
      Abstract: The current study used a novel methodology based on multivocal ethnography to assess the relations between conformity and evaluations of intelligence and good behavior among Western (U.S.) and non-Western (Ni-Vanuatu) children (6- to 11-year-olds) and adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds; N = 256). Previous research has shown that U.S. adults were less likely to endorse high-conformity children as intelligent than Ni-Vanuatu adults. The current data demonstrate that in contrast to prior studies documenting cultural differences between adults' evaluations of conformity, children and adolescents in the United States and Vanuatu have a conformity bias when evaluating peers' intelligence and behavior. Conformity bias for good behavior increases with age. The results have implications for understanding the interplay of conformity bias and trait psychology across cultures and development.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T07:15:24.6987-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12935
  • Causal Learning Across Culture and Socioeconomic Status
    • Authors: Adrienne O. Wente; Katherine Kimura, Caren M. Walker, Nirajana Banerjee, María Fernández Flecha, Bridget MacDonald, Christopher Lucas, Alison Gopnik
      Abstract: Extensive research has explored the ability of young children to learn about the causal structure of the world from patterns of evidence. These studies, however, have been conducted with middle-class samples from North America and Europe. In the present study, low-income Peruvian 4- and 5-year-olds and adults, low-income U.S. 4- and 5-year-olds in Head Start programs, and middle-class children from the United States participated in a causal learning task (N = 435). Consistent with previous studies, children learned both specific causal relations and more abstract causal principles across culture and socioeconomic status (SES). The Peruvian children and adults generally performed like middle-class U.S. children and adults, but the low-SES U.S. children showed some differences.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T07:45:24.512655-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12943
  • Motion Perception and Form Discrimination in Extremely Preterm School-Aged
    • Authors: Mariagrazia Benassi; Roberto Bolzani, Lea Forsman, Ulrika Ådén, Lena Jacobson, Sara Giovagnoli, Kerstin Hellgren
      Abstract: This population-based study evaluated motion and form perception in 71 children born extreme premature (EPT;
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T07:40:27.423037-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12945
  • When Peer Performance Matters: Effects of Expertise and Traits on
           Children's Self-Evaluations After Social Comparison
    • Authors: Candace Lapan; Janet J. Boseovski
      Abstract: The present research examined the influence of peer characteristics on children's reactions to upward social comparisons. In Experiment 1, one hundred twenty-six 5-, 8-, and 10-year-olds were told that they were outperformed by an expert or novice peer. Older children reported higher self-evaluations after comparisons with an expert rather than a novice, whereas 5-year-olds reported high self-evaluations broadly. In Experiment 2, ninety-eight 5- to 6-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds were told that the peer possessed a positive or negative trait that was task relevant (i.e., intelligence) or task irrelevant (i.e., athleticism). Older children reported higher self-evaluations after hearing about positive rather than negative traits, irrespective of relevance. Younger children reported high self-evaluations indiscriminately. Results inform the understanding of social comparison development in childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T07:40:22.455643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12941
  • Mothers' Physiological and Affective Responding to Infant Distress: Unique
           Antecedents of Avoidant and Resistant Attachments
    • Authors: Ashley M. Groh; Cathi Propper, Roger Mills-Koonce, Ginger A. Moore, Susan Calkins, Martha Cox
      Abstract: In a sample of 127 mother–infant dyads, this study examined the predictive significance of mothers' physiological and observed emotional responding within distressing and nondistressing caregiving contexts at 6 months for infant attachment assessed with Fraley and Spieker's (2003) dimensional approach and the categorical approach at 12 months. Findings revealed that a lesser degree of maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal and higher levels of maternal neutral (vs. positive) affect within distressing (vs. nondistressing) caregiving contexts were distinctive antecedents of avoidance versus resistance assessed dimensionally (but not categorically), independent of maternal sensitivity. Discussion focuses on the usefulness of examining mothers' physiological and affective responding, considering the caregiving context, and employing the dimensional approach to attachment in identifying unique antecedents of patterns of attachment insecurity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T19:02:03.846223-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12912
  • Why Most Children Think Well of Themselves
    • Authors: Sander Thomaes; Eddie Brummelman, Constantine Sedikides
      Abstract: This research aimed to examine whether and why children hold favorable self-conceptions (total N = 882 Dutch children, ages 8–12). Surveys (Studies 1–2) showed that children report strongly favorable self-conceptions. For example, when describing themselves on an open-ended measure, children mainly provided positive self-conceptions—about four times more than neutral self-conceptions, and about 11 times more than negative self-conceptions. Experiments (Studies 3–4) demonstrated that children report favorable self-conceptions, in part, to live up to social norms idealizing such self-conceptions, and to avoid seeing or presenting themselves negatively. These findings advance understanding of the developing self-concept and its valence: In middle and late childhood, children's self-conceptions are robustly favorable and influenced by both external (social norms) and internal (self-motives) forces.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:46:06.774694-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12937
  • Corrigendum
    • PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:16:09.382651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12956
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1759 - 1762
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T08:19:36.396411-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12627
  • The Role of Auditory and Visual Speech in Word Learning at 18 Months
           and in Adulthood
    • Authors: Mélanie Havy; Afra Foroud, Laurel Fais, Janet F. Werker
      Pages: 2043 - 2059
      Abstract: Visual information influences speech perception in both infants and adults. It is still unknown whether lexical representations are multisensory. To address this question, we exposed 18-month-old infants (n = 32) and adults (n = 32) to new word–object pairings: Participants either heard the acoustic form of the words or saw the talking face in silence. They were then tested on recognition in the same or the other modality. Both 18-month-old infants and adults learned the lexical mappings when the words were presented auditorily and recognized the mapping at test when the word was presented in either modality, but only adults learned new words in a visual-only presentation. These results suggest developmental changes in the sensory format of lexical representations.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T05:20:32.117075-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12715
  • Hand–Eye Coordination Predicts Joint Attention
    • Authors: Chen Yu; Linda B. Smith
      Pages: 2060 - 2078
      Abstract: The present article shows that infant and dyad differences in hand–eye coordination predict dyad differences in joint attention (JA). In the study reported here, 51 toddlers ranging in age from 11 to 24 months and their parents wore head-mounted eye trackers as they played with objects together. We found that physically active toddlers aligned their looking behavior with their parent and achieved a substantial proportion of time spent jointly attending to the same object. However, JA did not arise through gaze following but rather through the coordination of gaze with manual actions on objects as both infants and parents attended to their partner's object manipulations. Moreover, dyad differences in JA were associated with dyad differences in hand following.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T06:21:04.85091-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12730
  • Editorial Acknowledgments
    • Pages: 2080 - 2090
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T08:19:35.379517-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12976
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