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Journal Cover Child Development
  [SJR: 3.116]   [H-I: 189]   [140 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0009-3920 - ISSN (Online) 1467-8624
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Does the Effect of Justice System Attitudes on Adolescent Crime Vary Based
           on Psychosocial Maturity'
    • Authors: Adam Fine; Kevin T. Wolff, Michael T. Baglivio, Alex R. Piquero, Paul J. Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
      Abstract: Adolescents who view the justice system negatively are prone to commit crime. Simultaneously, youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior are likely to commit crime. Using a longitudinal sample of 1,216 male adolescents (ages 13–17) who had been arrested for the first time, were racially/ethnically diverse, and were drawn from three U.S. states, this study incorporated a developmental perspective into the procedural justice framework to examine whether psychosocial immaturity moderated the effect of justice system attitudes on youth crime. Attitudes toward the justice system were associated with reoffending among psychosocially mature youth, but not among psychosocially immature youth. This developmental perspective indicates that psychosocially immature youth who have difficulty regulating their behavior may be at risk of engaging in crime regardless of how they perceive the justice system.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T07:26:03.282478-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12983
  • A Long-Term Effect of Perceptual Individuation Training on Reducing
           Implicit Racial Bias in Preschool Children
    • Authors: Miao K. Qian; Paul C. Quinn, Gail D. Heyman, Olivier Pascalis, Genyue Fu, Kang Lee
      Abstract: This study tracked the long-term effect of perceptual individuation training on reducing 5-year-old Chinese children's (N = 95, Mage = 5.64 years) implicit pro-Asian/anti-Black racial bias. Initial training to individuate other-race Black faces, followed by supplementary training occurring 1 week later, resulted in a long-term reduction of pro-Asian/anti-Black bias (70 days). In contrast, training Chinese children to recognize White or Asian faces had no effect on pro-Asian/anti-Black bias. Theoretically, the finding that individuation training can have a long-term effect on reducing implicit racial bias in preschoolers suggests that a developmentally early causal linkage between perceptual and social processing of faces is not a transitory phenomenon. Practically, the data point to an effective intervention method for reducing implicit racism in young children.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T09:00:01.651043-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12971
  • Discrimination and Ethnic–Racial Identity: Understanding Direction of
           Effects Using Within- and Between-Person Analyses
    • Authors: Katharine H. Zeiders; Sara D. Bayless, Chelsea L. Derlan, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Laudan B. Jahromi
      Abstract: Ethnic–racial identity (ERI) development and ethnic–racial discrimination are two salient experiences among adolescents in the United States. Despite growing awareness of the costs and benefits of these experiences individually, we know little about how they may influence one another. The current study examined competing hypotheses relating discrimination and components of ERI (i.e., exploration, resolution, affirmation) among a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 181; Mage at Wave 1 = 16.83, SD = 1.01) across six waves of data. Findings revealed that within-person changes in discrimination predicted subsequent ERI resolution and affirmation; however, ERI did not predict subsequent discrimination. Between-person effects of discrimination on affirmation were significant. Our findings underscore the importance of discrimination experiences in shaping Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ normative developmental competencies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T06:41:17.944065-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12978
  • Expecting the Unexpected' Expectations for Future Success Among
           Adolescent First-Time Offenders
    • Authors: Alissa Mahler; Adam Fine, Paul J. Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
      Abstract: Adolescent first-time offenders demonstrate greater risk of continued offending, justice system contact, and high school dropout. The current study evaluates if optimistic expectations protect youth by reducing offending and improving school grades for 3 years following a first arrest (N = 1,165, Mage = 15.29). This article also considers whether improved behavior raises expectations about the future and uses autoregressive latent trajectory modeling with structured residuals to examine the within-person cross-lagged associations between expectations and behavior. The results indicated that positive expectations reduce offending and improve grades, which are in turn associated with higher expectations. Although raising expectations may improve outcomes following an arrest, ensuring adolescents have the tools to meet their goals may be an effective way to raise expectations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T06:41:13.603574-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12977
  • Ethnic Harassment and Immigrant Youth's Engagement in Violent Behaviors:
           Understanding the Risk Factors
    • Authors: Sevgi Bayram Özdemir; Metin Özdemir, Hakån Stattin
      Abstract: The present study aimed to examine whether ethnic harassment was related to violent behaviors among immigrant youth over time and to identify the risk factors. The sample comprised immigrant adolescents living in Sweden (N = 365; Mage = 13.93, SD = 0.80). Results showed that the more youth were ethnically harassed, the more they engaged in violent acts over time. A separated identity significantly moderated the effect of ethnic harassment on youth's engagement in violent behaviors. Specifically, ethnic harassment positively predicted engagement in violent behaviors only at high levels of separated identity. Impulsivity and school ethnic composition did not act as moderators. The findings suggest that preventing violent behaviors among immigrant youth requires a focus on promoting positive interethnic relationships, and multicultural identity among immigrant youth.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T07:00:24.041936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12975
  • An Expanded View of Joint Attention: Skill, Engagement, and Language in
           Typical Development and Autism
    • Authors: Lauren B. Adamson; Roger Bakeman, Katharine Suma, Diana L. Robins
      Abstract: This study provides an expanded view of joint attention and its relation to expressive language development. A total of 144 toddlers (40 typically developing, 58 with autism spectrum disorder [ASD], 46 with developmental delay [DD]) participated at 24 and 31 months. Toddlers who screened positive for ASD risk, especially those subsequently diagnosed with ASD, had poorer joint attention skills, joint engagement during parent–toddler interaction, and expressive language. Findings highlight the dynamic relation between joint attention and language development. In the ASD and DD groups, joint engagement predicted later expressive vocabulary, significantly more than predictions based on joint attention skills. Joint engagement was most severely impacted when toddlers did not talk initially and improved markedly if they subsequently began to speak.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T08:05:29.514715-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12973
  • Scaling Theory of Mind in a Small-Scale Society: A Case Study From Vanuatu
    • Authors: Henry G. W. Dixson; Aimée F. Komugabe-Dixson, Barnaby J. Dixson, Jason Low
      Abstract: Although theory of mind (ToM) is argued to emerge between 3 and 5 years of age, data from non-Western, small-scale societies suggest diversity. Deeper investigations into these settings are warranted. In the current study, over 400 Melanesian children from Vanuatu (range = 3–14 years), growing up in either urban or rural remote environments, completed culturally tailored ToM batteries. Results show a marked delay in false belief (FB) performance, particularly among participants from rural villages. By further investigating a diverse range of concepts beyond FB, we illustrate two unique cultural sequences for a suite of mental state concepts among urban and rural ni-Vanuatu children. Implications for social and cultural influences on the development of ToM are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T05:45:35.864678-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12919
  • Infants Distinguish Between Two Events Based on Their Relative Likelihood
    • Authors: Ezgi Kayhan; Gustaf Gredebäck, Marcus Lindskog
      Abstract: Likelihood estimations are crucial for dealing with the uncertainty of life. Here, infants' sensitivity to the difference in likelihood between two events was investigated. Infants aged 6, 12, and 18 months (N = 75) were shown animated movies of a machine simultaneously drawing likely and unlikely samples from a box filled with different colored balls. In different trials, the difference in likelihood between the two samples was manipulated. The infants' looking patterns varied as a function of the magnitude of the difference in likelihood and were modulated by the number of items in the samples. Looking patterns showed qualitative similarities across age groups. This study demonstrates that infants' looking responses are sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in likelihood between two events.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T06:50:31.074749-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12970
  • Childhood Amnesia in Children: A Prospective Study Across Eight Years
    • Authors: Carole Peterson; Darcy Hallett, Cassy Compton-Gillingham
      Abstract: This was a prospective study of earliest memories across 8 years for 37 children who were of age 4–9 years initially. In three interviews (initial and after 2 and 8 years) children provided their three earliest memories; those from earlier interviews that were not spontaneously provided later were cued. There was little consistency in the earliest memory or overlap across interviews in spontaneous memories. The youngest group also forgot over half their initial memories although few were forgotten by older children. For consistency of content, 25%–32% of information by former 6- to 9-year-olds was the same after 8 years, but
      PubDate: 2017-10-03T06:50:23.960337-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12972
  • Multigenerational Effects on Children's Cognitive and Socioemotional
           Outcomes: A Within-Child Investigation
    • Authors: Antti O. Tanskanen; Mirkka Danielsbacka
      Abstract: Associations between grandparental investment and child outcomes were investigated using three waves of a longitudinal British Millennium Cohort Study that included children between the ages of 9 months and 5 years (n = 24,614 person-observations from 13,744 children). Grandparental investment was measured by parent–grandparent contact frequency and grandparental financial support. Child cognitive development was measured using the British Ability Scale and socioemotional outcomes using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Grandparental investment was associated with improved cognitive and socioemotional outcomes among children. However, these associations occurred because of between-person effects and did not exist in within-person analyses that compared the same children over time. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to multigenerational relationships research.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T06:01:13.391382-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12968
  • Discrimination, Parent–Adolescent Conflict, and Peer Intimacy: Examining
           Risk and Resilience in Mexican-Origin Youths' Adjustment Trajectories
    • Authors: Melissa Y. Delgado; Rajni L. Nair, Kimberly A. Updegraff, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor
      Abstract: Peer discrimination and parent–adolescent conflict in early adolescence were examined as predictors of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors from early to late adolescence using four waves of data over an 8-year period from a sample of 246 Mexican-origin adolescents (MTime 1 age = 12.55, SD = 0.58; 51% female). The buffering effect of friendship intimacy and moderating role of adolescent gender were tested. Higher levels of discrimination and conflict in early adolescence were associated with higher initial levels of depressive symptoms and risky behaviors in early adolescence and stability through late adolescence. For females who reported higher than average discrimination, friendship intimacy had a protective effect on their depressive symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-09-22T07:25:25.018309-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12969
  • Peer Effects on Aggressive Behavior in Norwegian Child Care Centers
    • Authors: Luisa A. Ribeiro; Henrik D. Zachrisson
      Abstract: This study examined whether exposure to changes in peer aggression predicted changes in child physical aggression (PA) in preschool children attending Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) centers. Data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study were used, including 956 children. In fixed effects models, within-child changes in exposure to peer aggression predicted changes in teacher-rated child PA across ages 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, changes in exposure to a peer group with two or more externalizing children increased teacher-rated child PA over time, but only for boys. No significant peer effects on parent-rated child PA were found. Findings point to the importance of avoiding the congregation of several problematic children, particularly boys, in the same ECEC groups.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T01:55:38.779028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12953
  • A Methylome-Wide Association Study of Trajectories of Oppositional Defiant
           Behaviors and Biological Overlap With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
    • Authors: Edward D. Barker; Esther Walton, Charlotte A.M. Cecil, Richard Rowe, Sara R. Jaffee, Barbara Maughan, Thomas G. O'Connor, Argyris Stringaris, Alan J. Meehan, Wendy McArdle, Caroline L. Relton, Tom R. Gaunt
      Abstract: In 671 mother–child (49% male) pairs from an epidemiological birth cohort, we investigated (a) prospective associations between DNA methylation (at birth) and trajectories (ages 7–13) of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and the ODD subdimensions of irritable and headstrong; (b) common biological pathways, indexed by DNA methylation, between ODD trajectories and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (c) genetic influence on DNA methylation; and (d) prenatal risk exposure associations. Methylome-wide significant associations were identified for the ODD and headstrong, but not for irritable. Overlap analysis indicated biological correlates between ODD, headstrong, and ADHD. DNA methylation in ODD and headstrong was (to a degree) genetically influenced. DNA methylation associated with prenatal risk exposures of maternal anxiety (headstrong) and cigarette smoking (ODD and headstrong).
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T01:26:14.714825-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12957
  • The Decline in Adult Activities Among U.S. Adolescents, 1976–2016
    • Authors: Jean M. Twenge; Heejung Park
      Abstract: The social and historical contexts may influence the speed of development. In seven large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents 1976–2016 (N = 8.44 million, ages 13–19), fewer adolescents in recent years engaged in adult activities such as having sex, dating, drinking alcohol, working for pay, going out without their parents, and driving, suggesting a slow life strategy. Adult activities were less common when median income, life expectancy, college enrollment, and age at first birth were higher and family size and pathogen prevalence were lower, consistent with life history theory. The trends are unlikely to be due to homework and extracurricular time, which stayed steady or declined, and may or may not be linked to increased Internet use.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T23:02:04.652547-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12930
  • Self-Concept Predicts Academic Achievement Across Levels of the
           Achievement Distribution: Domain Specificity for Math and Reading
    • Authors: Maria Ines Susperreguy; Pamela E. Davis-Kean, Kathryn Duckworth, Meichu Chen
      Abstract: This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development–Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics–Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement. These results were replicated across the three data sets representing different populations and provide robust evidence for the role of self-concept of ability in understanding achievement from early childhood to adolescence across the spectrum of performance (low to high).
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T23:02:03.117872-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12924
  • How Unequal Is the United States' Adolescents’ Images of Social
    • Authors: Constance A. Flanagan; Mariah Kornbluh
      Abstract: This study highlights the use of pictorial images to understand adolescents’ views on social stratification. A continuum of five visual images of social stratification were presented to a diverse sample of five hundred ninety-eight 8th–12th graders (14–18 years old). Adolescents selected which image best represented the United States (today, in 20 years, how it ought to be). Images ranged from inequitable to egalitarian. Results supported reference group and possible selves theories. Adolescents in higher status families chose a more egalitarian image for how the United States is today and how it ought to be. African Americans considered the United States today more unequal. Differences in adolescents’ commitment to an egalitarian ideal depended on their reactions to inequality and their beliefs about government responsiveness, bolstering the measure's validity.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:50:34.018853-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12954
  • Intelligence and Neurophysiological Markers of Error Monitoring Relate to
           Children's Intellectual Humility
    • Authors: Judith H. Danovitch; Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z. Hambrick, Jason Moser
      Abstract: This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6–8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children. Greater IH was associated with higher intelligence but not with social cognition or motivational framework. ERN related to self-assessment, whereas Pe related to question delegation. Thus, children show separable epistemic and social components of IH that may differentially contribute to metacognition and learning.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:45:58.983208-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12960
  • Children's Theories of the Self
    • Authors: Christina Starmans
      Abstract: This article provides a theoretical review of the developmental origins of children's “folk theories” about the nature of the self, linking theoretical developments in philosophy with empirical discoveries from developmental psychology. The article first reviews children's views about the material nature of the self, outlining evidence that children naturally think about the self as distinct from the body. It then discusses children's understanding of the persistence of the self over time and, finally, explores children's views about conflict within the self. Together, these findings suggest that preschoolers possess stable, coherent, and predictive theories about the nature of the self that are stable across individuals, early emerging, and in some cases undergo interesting developmental change.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:45:55.196854-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12951
  • Optimism as a Candidate Health Asset: Exploring Its Links With Adolescent
           Quality of Life in Sweden
    • Authors: Katrin Häggström Westberg; Marie Wilhsson, Petra Svedberg, Jens M. Nygren, Antony Morgan, Maria Nyholm
      Abstract: This study aims to understand the role that optimism could play in the context of a health asset approach to promote adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Adolescents (n = 948), between 11 and 16 years old from a medium-sized rural town in Sweden, answered questionnaires measuring optimism, pessimism, and HRQOL. The findings indicate a significant decrease in optimism and a significant increase in pessimism between early and midadolescence. The study has allowed us to present associational evidence of the links between optimism and HRQOL. This infers the potential of an optimistic orientation about the future to function as a health asset during adolescence and by implication may provide additional intervention tool in the planning of health promotion strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T07:45:53.14402-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12958
  • How Children Construct Views of Themselves: A Social-Developmental
    • Authors: Eddie Brummelman; Sander Thomaes
      Abstract: As they grow up, children construct views of themselves and their place in the world, known as their self-concept. This topic has often been addressed by social psychologists (studying how the self-concept is influenced by social contexts) and developmental psychologists (studying how the self-concept changes over time). Yet, relatively little is known about the origins of the self-concept. This article calls for research that bridges social and developmental psychology to illuminate this important issue. Adopting such a social-developmental approach, the current special section shows that children construct their self-concept based on the social relationships they have, the feedback they receive, the social comparisons they make, and the cultural values they endorse. These findings underline the deeply social nature of self-development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:02:20.648021-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12961
  • The Origins of Children's Growth and Fixed Mindsets: New Research and a
           New Proposal
    • Authors: Kyla Haimovitz; Carol S. Dweck
      Abstract: Children's mindsets about intelligence (as a quality they can grow vs. a trait they cannot change) robustly influence their motivation and achievement. How do adults foster “growth mindsets” in children' One might assume that adults act in ways that communicate their own mindsets to children. However, new research shows that many parents and teachers with growth mindsets are not passing them on. This article presents a new perspective on why this is the case, and reviews research on adult practices that do instill growth mindsets, concluding that a sustained focus on the process of learning is critical. After discussing key implications and promising future directions, we consider the topic in the context of important societal issues, like high-stakes testing.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T03:01:38.754688-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12955
  • Fine Motor Control Underlies the Association Between Response Inhibition
           and Drawing Skill in Early Development
    • Authors: Andrew Simpson; Reshaa Al Ruwaili, Richard Jolley, Hayley Leonard, Nicolas Geeraert, Kevin J. Riggs
      Abstract: Previous research shows that the development of response inhibition and drawing skill are linked. The current research investigated whether this association reflects a more fundamental link between response inhibition and motor control. In Experiment 1, 3- and 4-year-olds (n = 100) were tested on measures of inhibition, fine motor control, and drawing skill. Data revealed an association between inhibition and fine motor control, which was responsible for most of the association observed with drawing skill. Experiment 2 (n = 100) provided evidence that, unlike fine motor control, gross motor control and inhibition were not associated (after controlling for IQ). Alternative explanations for the link between inhibition and fine motor control are outlined, including a consideration of how these cognitive processes may interact during development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T07:35:23.92154-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12949
  • Consequences of Individual Differences in Children's Formal Understanding
           of Mathematical Equivalence
    • Authors: Nicole M. McNeil; Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Brianna L. Devlin, Cristina Carrazza, Mary O. McKeever
      Abstract: Experts claim that individual differences in children's formal understanding of mathematical equivalence have consequences for mathematics achievement; however, evidence is lacking. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with a diverse sample of 112 children from a midsized city in the Midwestern United States (Mage [second grade] = 8:1). As hypothesized, understanding of mathematical equivalence in second grade predicted mathematics achievement in third grade, even after controlling for second-grade mathematics achievement, IQ, gender, and socioeconomic status. Most children exhibited poor understanding of mathematical equivalence, but results provide clues about which children are on the path to constructing an understanding and which may need extra support to overcome their misconceptions. Findings suggest that mathematical equivalence may deserve more attention from educators.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T07:30:27.812875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12948
  • Memory and Executive Functioning in 12-Year-Old Children With a History of
           Institutional Rearing
    • Authors: Johanna Bick; Charles H. Zeanah, Nathan A. Fox, Charles A. Nelson
      Abstract: We examined visual recognition memory and executive functioning (spatial working memory [SWM], spatial planning, rule learning, and attention shifting) in 12-year-olds (n = 150) who participated in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. Similar to prior reports at 8 years of age, institutionally reared children showed significant deficits in visual recognition memory and SWM. Deficits in attention shifting and rule learning were also apparent at this time point. These data suggest that early experiences continue to shape the development of memory, learning, and executive functioning processes in preadolescence, which may explain broader cognitive and learning difficulties commonly associated with severe early life neglect.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T07:56:00.600628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12952
  • Black Adolescent Males: Intersections Among Their Gender Role Identity and
           Racial Identity and Associations With Self-Concept (Global and School)
    • Authors: Tamara R. Buckley
      Abstract: Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combination of feminine and masculine gender roles, rather than hypermasculine. A canonical correlation analysis found that Black racial identity attitudes (RIAS-L) and gender roles simultaneously contributed to significant relationships with total and school self-concept. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T07:45:33.881469-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12950
  • Parental Co-Construction of 5- to 13-Year-Olds' Global Self-Esteem Through
           Reminiscing About Past Events
    • Authors: Michelle A. Harris; M. B. Donnellan, Jen Guo, Dan P. McAdams, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal, Kali H. Trzesniewski
      Abstract: The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self-esteem development. Eighty 5- to 13-year-olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open-ended questions, and a laboratory-based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security. Attachment was associated with concurrent self-esteem, which predicted relative increases in self-esteem 16 months later, on average. Finally, parent support also predicted residual increases in self-esteem. Findings extend prior research by including younger ages and uncovering a process by which two theoretically relevant parenting behaviors impact self-esteem development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T10:13:51.085723-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12944
  • Beliefs About Stress Attenuate the Relation Among Adverse Life Events,
           Perceived Distress, and Self-Control
    • Authors: Daeun Park; Alisa Yu, Sarah E. Metz, Eli Tsukayama, Alia J. Crum, Angela L. Duckworth
      Abstract: Prior research has shown that adverse events in the lives of adolescents precipitate psychological distress, which in turn impairs self-control. This study (N = 1,343) examined the protective effects of stress mindsets—beliefs about the extent to which stress might be beneficial or strictly detrimental. The results confirmed that increasing the number of adverse life events across the school year predicted rank order increases in perceived distress, which in turn predicted rank order decreases in self-control. Adolescents who believed in the potential benefits of stress were less prone to feeling stressed in the wake of adverse life events. These findings suggest that changing the way adolescents think about stress may help protect them from acting impulsively when confronted with adversity.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T06:33:05.200162-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12946
  • The Longitudinal Effects of Early Language Intervention on Children's
           Problem Behaviors
    • Authors: Philip R. Curtis; Megan Y. Roberts, Ryne Estabrook, Ann P. Kaiser
      Abstract: Researchers examined whether a parent-implemented language intervention improved problem behaviors 1 year after intervention. Ninety-seven children with language delays (mean age at 12-month follow-up = 48.22 months) were randomized to receive Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) language intervention or business as usual treatment. Twelve months after the intervention ended, children in the EMT intervention condition displayed lower rates of parent-reported externalizing, internalizing, and total problem behaviors. A mediation analysis revealed that the relation between EMT and problem behaviors was partially mediated by child rate of communication for both internalizing and total problem behaviors. A developmental framework is proposed to explain the impact of EMT on problem behaviors, and future lines of research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T06:32:59.593129-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12942
  • Relations of Inhibition and Emotion-Related Parenting to Young Children's
           Prosocial and Vicariously Induced Distress Behavior
    • Authors: Nancy Eisenberg; Tracy L. Spinrad, Zoe E. Taylor, Jeffrey Liew
      Abstract: Children's prosocial behavior and personal distress are likely affected by children's temperament as well as parenting quality. In this study, we examined bidirectional relations from age 30 to 42 months between children's (N = 218) prosocial or self-focused (presumably distressed) reactions to a relative stranger's distress and both supportive emotion-related maternal reactions to children's emotions and children's shyness/inhibition. When controlling for 30-month prosocial behavior and personal distress behavior, maternal supportive (emotion-focused and problem-focused) reactions were positively related to prosocial behavior and marginally negatively related to children's personal distress behaviors and shyness/inhibition at 42 months. Thirty-month personal distress behavior predicted greater shyness/inhibition at 42 months, and 30-month shyness/inhibition was negatively related to prosocial behavior at 30 months.
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T07:00:28.761551-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12934
  • A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American
           Adolescents’ Self-Views
    • Authors: George P. Knight; Gustavo Carlo, Cara Streit, Rebecca M.B. White
      Abstract: Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents’ endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents’ ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T08:00:47.962026-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12939
  • The Role of Campus Support, Undocumented Identity, and Deferred Action for
           Childhood Arrivals on Civic Engagement for Latinx Undocumented
    • Authors: Dalal Katsiaficas; Vanessa Volpe, Syeda S. Raza, Yuliana Garcia
      Abstract: This study examined civic engagement in a sample of 790 undocumented Latinx undergraduates (aged 18–30). The relations between social supports (campus safe spaces and peer support) and civic engagement and whether a strong sense of undocumented identity mediated this relation were examined. Competing statistical models examined the role of participants' status (whether or not they received temporary protection from deportation with Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals [DACA]) in this mediational process. Results revealed that having a strong identification with being undocumented mediated the role of social supports on civic engagement in the overall sample, and that this process was specifically important for those with DACA status. The intersection of policies such as DACA and the lived experiences of Latinx undocumented college students are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T07:55:49.489936-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12933
  • When Parents’ Praise Inflates, Children's Self-Esteem Deflates
    • Authors: Eddie Brummelman; Stefanie A. Nelemans, Sander Thomaes, Bram Orobio de Castro
      Abstract: Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to form narcissistic self-views (self-inflation hypothesis). These perspectives were tested in an observational-longitudinal study (120 parent–child dyads from the Netherlands) in late childhood (ages 7–11), when narcissism and self-esteem first emerge. Supporting the self-deflation hypothesis, parents’ inflated praise predicted lower self-esteem in children. Partly supporting the self-inflation hypothesis, parents’ inflated praise predicted higher narcissism—but only in children with high self-esteem. Noninflated praise predicted neither self-esteem nor narcissism. Thus, inflated praise may foster the self-views it seeks to prevent.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T07:55:21.292822-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12936
  • Do Varieties of Spanish Influence U.S. Spanish–English Bilingual
           Children's Friendship Judgments'
    • Authors: Maria M. Arredondo; Susan A. Gelman
      Abstract: Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States (U.S. Census, 2014), yet this term comprises individuals from multiple ethnicities who speak distinct varieties of Spanish. We investigated whether Spanish–English bilingual children (N = 140, ages 4–17) use Spanish varieties in their social judgments. The findings revealed that children distinguished varieties of Spanish but did not use Spanish dialects to make third-person friendship judgments until 10–12 years; this effect became stronger in adolescence. In contrast, young children (4–6 years) made friendship judgments based on a speaker's language (English, Spanish). Thus, using language varieties as a social category and as a basis for making social inferences is a complex result of multiple influences for Spanish-speaking children growing up bilingual in the United States.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T07:50:32.943289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12932
  • Anxious Solitude and Self-Compassion and Self-Criticism Trajectories in
           Early Adolescence: Attachment Security as a Moderator
    • Authors: Divya Peter; Heidi Gazelle
      Abstract: Youths’ attachment representations with their parents were tested as moderators of the relation between peer-reported anxious solitude and self-compassion and self-criticism trajectories from fifth to seventh grades. Participants were 213 youth, 57% girls, M = 10.65 years of age. Growth curves revealed that attachment representations with both parents moderated the relation between AS and self-processes such that AS youth with (a) dual secure attachments demonstrated the most adaptive self-processes, (b) one secure attachment demonstrated intermediately adaptive self-processes, and (c) dual insecure attachments demonstrated the least adaptive self-processes over time. AS youth with dual insecure attachments are of most concern because they demonstrated elevated and increasing self-criticism over time, given evidence for relations between self-criticism and internalizing psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T19:02:03.317874-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12926
  • Clear Self, Better Relationships: Adolescents’ Self-Concept Clarity and
           Relationship Quality With Parents and Peers Across 5 Years
    • Authors: Andrik I. Becht; Stefanie A. Nelemans, Marloes P. A. Dijk, Susan J. T. Branje, Pol A. C. Van Lier, Jaap J. A. Denissen, Wim H. J. Meeus
      Abstract: This study examined reciprocal associations between adolescents’ self-concept clarity (SCC) and their relationship quality with parents and best friends in a five-wave longitudinal study from age 13 to 18 years. In all, 497 adolescents (57% boys) reported on their SCC and all informants (i.e., adolescents, both parents, and adolescents’ best friends) reported on support and negative interaction. Within-person cross-lagged analyses provided systematic evidence for both parent effects and child effects, with the direction of effects being strongly dependent on the relational context. For example, higher maternal support predicted higher adolescent SCC, supporting a parent effects perspective, whereas higher SCC predicted lower paternal negative interaction, supporting a child effects perspective. Peer effects on adolescent SCC were not consistently found across adolescent and best friend reports.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T19:02:01.794196-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12921
  • Group Membership Influences More Social Identification Than Social
           Learning or Overimitation in Children
    • Authors: Thibaud Gruber; Amélie Deschenaux, Aurélien Frick, Fabrice Clément
      Abstract: Group membership is a strong driver of everyday life in humans, influencing similarity judgments, trust choices, and learning processes. However, its ontogenetic development remains to be understood. This study investigated how group membership, age, sex, and identification with a team influenced 39- to 60-month-old children (N = 94) in a series of similarity, trust, and learning tasks. Group membership had the most influence on similarity and trust tasks, strongly biasing choices toward in-groups. In contrast, prior experience and identification with the team were the most important factors in the learning tasks. Finally, overimitation occurred most when the children's team, but not the opposite, displayed meaningless actions. Future work must investigate how these cognitive abilities combine during development to facilitate cultural processes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T05:40:40.343072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12931
  • Young Children's Self-Concepts Include Representations of Abstract Traits
           and the Global Self
    • Authors: Andrei Cimpian; Matthew D. Hammond, Giulia Mazza, Grace Corry
      Abstract: There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts—specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4–7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to peculiarities of the task context not the inadequacy of children's self-concepts. Similarly, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that, contrary to claims of immaturity in reasoning about the global self, young children update their global self-evaluations in flexible, context-sensitive ways. This evidence suggests continuity in the structure of self-concepts across childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T11:00:01.540769-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12925
  • Smart Conformists: Children and Adolescents Associate Conformity With
           Intelligence Across Cultures
    • Authors: Nicole J. Wen; Jennifer M. Clegg, Cristine H. Legare
      Abstract: The current study used a novel methodology based on multivocal ethnography to assess the relations between conformity and evaluations of intelligence and good behavior among Western (U.S.) and non-Western (Ni-Vanuatu) children (6- to 11-year-olds) and adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds; N = 256). Previous research has shown that U.S. adults were less likely to endorse high-conformity children as intelligent than Ni-Vanuatu adults. The current data demonstrate that in contrast to prior studies documenting cultural differences between adults' evaluations of conformity, children and adolescents in the United States and Vanuatu have a conformity bias when evaluating peers' intelligence and behavior. Conformity bias for good behavior increases with age. The results have implications for understanding the interplay of conformity bias and trait psychology across cultures and development.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T07:15:24.6987-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12935
  • Causal Learning Across Culture and Socioeconomic Status
    • Authors: Adrienne O. Wente; Katherine Kimura, Caren M. Walker, Nirajana Banerjee, María Fernández Flecha, Bridget MacDonald, Christopher Lucas, Alison Gopnik
      Abstract: Extensive research has explored the ability of young children to learn about the causal structure of the world from patterns of evidence. These studies, however, have been conducted with middle-class samples from North America and Europe. In the present study, low-income Peruvian 4- and 5-year-olds and adults, low-income U.S. 4- and 5-year-olds in Head Start programs, and middle-class children from the United States participated in a causal learning task (N = 435). Consistent with previous studies, children learned both specific causal relations and more abstract causal principles across culture and socioeconomic status (SES). The Peruvian children and adults generally performed like middle-class U.S. children and adults, but the low-SES U.S. children showed some differences.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T07:45:24.512655-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12943
  • Motion Perception and Form Discrimination in Extremely Preterm School-Aged
    • Authors: Mariagrazia Benassi; Roberto Bolzani, Lea Forsman, Ulrika Ådén, Lena Jacobson, Sara Giovagnoli, Kerstin Hellgren
      Abstract: This population-based study evaluated motion and form perception in 71 children born extreme premature (EPT;
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T07:40:27.423037-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12945
  • When Peer Performance Matters: Effects of Expertise and Traits on
           Children's Self-Evaluations After Social Comparison
    • Authors: Candace Lapan; Janet J. Boseovski
      Abstract: The present research examined the influence of peer characteristics on children's reactions to upward social comparisons. In Experiment 1, one hundred twenty-six 5-, 8-, and 10-year-olds were told that they were outperformed by an expert or novice peer. Older children reported higher self-evaluations after comparisons with an expert rather than a novice, whereas 5-year-olds reported high self-evaluations broadly. In Experiment 2, ninety-eight 5- to 6-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds were told that the peer possessed a positive or negative trait that was task relevant (i.e., intelligence) or task irrelevant (i.e., athleticism). Older children reported higher self-evaluations after hearing about positive rather than negative traits, irrespective of relevance. Younger children reported high self-evaluations indiscriminately. Results inform the understanding of social comparison development in childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22T07:40:22.455643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12941
  • Mothers' Physiological and Affective Responding to Infant Distress: Unique
           Antecedents of Avoidant and Resistant Attachments
    • Authors: Ashley M. Groh; Cathi Propper, Roger Mills-Koonce, Ginger A. Moore, Susan Calkins, Martha Cox
      Abstract: In a sample of 127 mother–infant dyads, this study examined the predictive significance of mothers' physiological and observed emotional responding within distressing and nondistressing caregiving contexts at 6 months for infant attachment assessed with Fraley and Spieker's (2003) dimensional approach and the categorical approach at 12 months. Findings revealed that a lesser degree of maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal and higher levels of maternal neutral (vs. positive) affect within distressing (vs. nondistressing) caregiving contexts were distinctive antecedents of avoidance versus resistance assessed dimensionally (but not categorically), independent of maternal sensitivity. Discussion focuses on the usefulness of examining mothers' physiological and affective responding, considering the caregiving context, and employing the dimensional approach to attachment in identifying unique antecedents of patterns of attachment insecurity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T19:02:03.846223-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12912
  • Close Friendship Strength and Broader Peer Group Desirability as
           Differential Predictors of Adult Mental Health
    • Authors: Rachel K. Narr; Joseph P. Allen, Joseph S. Tan, Emily L. Loeb
      Abstract: Middle adolescents’ close friendship strength and the degree to which their broader peer group expressed a preference to affiliate with them were examined as predictors of relative change in depressive symptoms, self-worth, and social anxiety symptoms from ages 15 to 25 using multimethod, longitudinal data from 169 adolescents. Close friendship strength in midadolescence predicted relative increases in self-worth and decreases in anxiety and depressive symptoms by early adulthood. Affiliation preference by the broader peer group, in contrast, predicted higher social anxiety by early adulthood. Results are interpreted as suggesting that adolescents who prioritize forming close friendships are better situated to manage key social developmental tasks going forward than adolescents who prioritize attaining preference with many others in their peer milieu.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T19:02:02.159516-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12905
  • Why Most Children Think Well of Themselves
    • Authors: Sander Thomaes; Eddie Brummelman, Constantine Sedikides
      Abstract: This research aimed to examine whether and why children hold favorable self-conceptions (total N = 882 Dutch children, ages 8–12). Surveys (Studies 1–2) showed that children report strongly favorable self-conceptions. For example, when describing themselves on an open-ended measure, children mainly provided positive self-conceptions—about four times more than neutral self-conceptions, and about 11 times more than negative self-conceptions. Experiments (Studies 3–4) demonstrated that children report favorable self-conceptions, in part, to live up to social norms idealizing such self-conceptions, and to avoid seeing or presenting themselves negatively. These findings advance understanding of the developing self-concept and its valence: In middle and late childhood, children's self-conceptions are robustly favorable and influenced by both external (social norms) and internal (self-motives) forces.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:46:06.774694-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12937
  • Self-Construals and Social Adjustment in Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Early
           Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Executive Functioning
    • Authors: Diana Miconi; Ughetta Moscardino, Gianmarco Altoè, Silvia Salcuni
      Abstract: This study examined whether executive functions (EFs) moderate the association between independent and interdependent self-construals and social adjustment in 488 Moroccan, Romanian, and Italian preadolescents (ages 11–13) in Italy. Participants were assessed using self-report questionnaires and standardized EF tasks. Better working memory was related to increased social competence across all groups. High levels of inhibitory control were found to enhance the positive relation between interdependence and prosocial behavior for native Italian youth, and between interdependence and social competence for Moroccan preadolescents. High levels of cognitive flexibility boosted the interdependence–social competence link for the immigrant groups, whereas among native Italian preadolescents, the interdependence–social competence link was significant at low levels of flexibility. Implications for developmental theory and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:45:53.126982-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12918
  • “Wealth Makes Many Friends”: Children Expect More Giving From
           Resource-Rich Than Resource-Poor Individuals
    • Authors: Richard E. Ahl; Yarrow Dunham
      Abstract: Young children show social preferences for resource-rich individuals, although few studies have explored the causes underlying such preferences. We evaluate the viability of one candidate cause: Children believe that resource wealth relates to behavior, such that they expect the resource rich to be more likely to materially benefit others (including themselves) than the resource poor. In Studies 1 and 2 (ages 4–10), American children from predominantly middle-income families (n = 94) and Indian children from lower income families (n = 30) predicted that the resource rich would be likelier to share with others than the resource poor. In Study 3, American children (n = 66) made similar predictions in an incentivized decision-making task. The possibility that children's expectations regarding giving contribute to prowealth preferences is discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:45:29.433542-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12922
  • Corrigendum
    • PubDate: 2017-08-18T02:16:09.382651-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12956
  • Longitudinal Trajectories of Family Functioning Among Recent Immigrant
           Adolescents and Parents: Links With Adolescent and Parent Cultural Stress,
           Emotional Well-Being, and Behavioral Health
    • Authors: Elma I. Lorenzo-Blanco; Alan Meca, Brandy Piña-Watson, Byron L. Zamboanga, José Szapocznik, Miguel Ángel. Cano, David Cordova, Jennifer B. Unger, Andrea Romero, Sabrina E. Des Rosiers, Daniel W. Soto, Juan A. Villamar, Monica Pattarroyo, Karina M. Lizzi, Seth J. Schwartz
      Abstract: This study examined longitudinal effects of adolescent and parent cultural stress on adolescent and parent emotional well-being and health behaviors via trajectories of adolescent and parent family functioning. Recent immigrant Latino adolescents (Mage = 14.51) and parents (Mage = 41.09; N = 302) completed measures of these constructs. Latent growth modeling indicated that adolescent and parent family functioning remained stable over time. Early levels of family functioning predicted adolescent and parent outcomes. Baseline adolescent cultural stress predicted lower positive adolescent and parent family functioning. Latent class growth analyses produced a two-class solution for family functioning. Adolescents and parents in the low family functioning class reported low family functioning over time. Adolescents and parents in the high family functioning class experienced increases in family functioning.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T01:26:00.528281-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12914
  • Little Evidence That Socioeconomic Status Modifies Heritability of
           Literacy and Numeracy in Australia
    • Authors: Katrina L. Grasby; William L. Coventry, Brian Byrne, Richard K. Olson
      Abstract: Socioeconomic status (SES) has been found to moderate the influence of genes and the environment on cognitive ability, such that genetic influence is greater when SES is higher, and the shared environment is greater when SES is lower, but not in all Western countries. The effects of both family and school SES on the heritability of literacy and numeracy in Australian twins aged 8, 10, 12, and 14 years with 1,307, 1,235, 1,076, and 930 pairs at each age, respectively, were tested. Shared environmental influences on Grade 3 literacy were greater with low family SES, and no other moderating effects of SES were significant. These findings are contrasted with results from the United States and the United Kingdom.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T01:25:45.551607-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12920
  • “Oh, the Places You'll Go” by Bringing Developmental Science
           Into the World!
    • Authors: Roberta M. Golinkoff; Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Rachel Grob, Mark Schlesinger
      Abstract: Urie Bronfenbrenner and Ernest Boyer argued for leaving the laboratory to conduct rigorous developmental research in the real world where children are found—in the places they go. Contributions to this special issue meet Bronfenbrenner and Boyer's call while at the same time recognizing the continued importance of laboratory research. These articles range from a review of research on the arts to a language intervention in Senegal to large-scale dissemination and intervention projects designed to communicate the best developmental science to families, public agencies, and schools. Together these articles illustrate how we can study development in the world and enrich our work on the factors that promote development. Taking this path presents us with a set of additional hurdles to be addressed, such as how to communicate with the public and how to scale up our interventions in the face of diversity along many dimensions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T12:00:21.786605-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12929
  • Childhood Maltreatment and Early Developmental Vulnerabilities at Age
           5 Years
    • Authors: Melissa J. Green; Stacy Tzoumakis, Brooke McIntyre, Maina Kariuki, Kristin R. Laurens, Kimberlie Dean, Marilyn Chilvers, Felicity Harris, Merran Butler, Sally A. Brinkman, Vaughan J. Carr
      Abstract: This study examined associations between maltreatment and early developmental vulnerabilities in a population sample of 68,459 children (Mage = 5.62 years, SD = .37) drawn from the Australian state of New South Wales, using linked administrative data for the children and their parents (collected 2001–2009). Associations were estimated between (a) any maltreatment, (b) the number of maltreatment types, and (c) the timing of first reported maltreatment and vulnerability and risk status on multiple developmental domains (i.e., physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and communication). Pervasive associations were revealed between maltreatment and all developmental domains; children exposed to two or more maltreatment types, and with first maltreatment reported after 3 years of age, showed greater likelihood of vulnerability on multiple domains, relative to nonmaltreated children.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T04:35:26.351883-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12928
  • For Better or for Worse' Positive and Negative Parental Influences on
           Young Children's Executive Function
    • Authors: Claire Hughes; Rory T. Devine
      Abstract: Despite rapidly growing research on parental influences on children's executive function (EF), the uniqueness and specificity of parental predictors and links between adult EF and parenting remain unexamined. This 13-month longitudinal study of 117 parent–child dyads (60 boys; Mage at Time 1 = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53) included detailed observational coding of parent–child interactions and assessed adult and child EF and child verbal ability (VA). Supporting a differentiated view of parental influence, negative parent–child interactions and parental scaffolding showed unique and specific associations with child EF, whereas the home learning environment and parental language measures showed global associations with children's EF and VA.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T08:26:38.770206-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12915
  • Parental Cultural Socialization and Adolescent Private Regard: Exploring
           Mediating Pathways Through Daily Experiences
    • Authors: Yijie Wang; Heining Cham, Meera Aladin, Tiffany Yip
      Abstract: Using longitudinal experience sampling data from 214 ethnic/racial minority adolescents (Wave 1 Mage = 15.24), the present study investigated how the longitudinal effect of parental cultural socialization on adolescent private regard was mediated through various daily pathways and novel constructs. Both the mean levels and variability of adolescents' ethnic feelings (i.e., private regard) and social interactions (i.e., intragroup contact) in daily situations, as well as the situational association between intragroup contact and private regard, emerged as mediators. Greater cultural socialization promoted greater and more stable ethnic feelings and interactions, as well as their situational association, all of which promoted private regard over time. This study provides a framework to explore how development occurs in daily lives.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T08:25:53.386929-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12911
  • Feeding Imprinting: The Extreme Test Case of Premature Infants Born With
           Very Low Birth Weight
    • Authors: Moriya Suberi; Iris Morag, Tzipora Strauss, Ronny Geva
      Abstract: Feeding imprinting, considered a survival-enabling process, is not well understood. Infants born very preterm, who first feed passively, are an effective model for studying feeding imprinting. Retrospective analysis of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) records of 255 infants (Mgestational age = 29.98 ± 1.64) enabled exploring the notion that direct breastfeeding (DBF) during NICU stay leads to consumption of more mother's milk and earlier NICU discharge. Results showed that DBF before the first bottle feeding is related to shorter transition into oral feeding, a younger age of full oral feeding accomplishment and earlier discharge. Furthermore, the number of DBF meals before first bottle feeding predicts more maternal milk consumption and improved NICU outcomes. Improved performance in response to initial exposure to DBF at the age of budding feeding abilities supports a feeding imprinting hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T08:25:36.369567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12923
  • Specific Preschool Executive Functions Predict Unique Aspects of
           Mathematics Development: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Stefanie Simanowski; Kristin Krajewski
      Abstract: This study assessed the extent to which executive functions (EF), according to their factor structure in 5-year-olds (N = 244), influenced early quantity–number competencies, arithmetic fluency, and mathematics school achievement throughout first and second grades. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in updating as a first, and inhibition and shifting as a combined second factor. In the structural equation model, updating significantly affected knowledge of the number word sequence, suggesting a facilitatory effect on basic encoding processes in numerical materials that can be learnt purely by rote. Shifting and inhibition significantly influenced quantity to number word linkages, indicating that these processes promote developing a profound understanding of numbers. These results show the supportive role of specific EF for specific aspects of a numerical foundation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T08:15:32.166931-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12909
  • He Says, She Says: Mothers and Children Remembering the Same Events
    • Authors: Qi Wang; Qingfang Song
      Abstract: This study examined the consistency of memories for the same events in mothers and children, and how that varied as a function of culture and organizational components of memories. European American (EA) and Chinese immigrant (CI) mothers and their 6-year-old children (N = 127) independently recalled two emotionally salient events. In both cultures, mothers and children agreed more on factual event details and observable behaviors and less on subjective experiences and idiosyncratic interpretations. EA mothers and children told more diverse stories than did CI mothers and children. The findings shed important light on autobiographical memory as a multidimensional construct shaped by cultural beliefs and practices, and have critical implications for the evaluation of memory accuracy in research and real-life settings.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T08:15:22.216074-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12927
  • Children's Counterfactual Reasoning About Causally Overdetermined Events
    • Authors: Angela Nyhout; Lena Henke, Patricia A. Ganea
      Abstract: In two experiments, one hundred and sixty-two 6- to 8-year-olds were asked to reason counterfactually about events with different causal structures. All events involved overdetermined outcomes in which two different causal events led to the same outcome. In Experiment 1, children heard stories with either an ambiguous causal relation between events or causally unrelated events. Children in the causally unrelated version performed better than chance and better than those in the ambiguous condition. In Experiment 2, children heard stories in which antecedent events were causally connected or causally disconnected. Eight-year-olds performed above chance in both conditions, whereas 6-year-olds performed above chance only in the connected condition. This work provides the first evidence that children can reason counterfactually in causally overdetermined contexts by age 8.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T07:13:09.91399-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12913
  • The Roles of Parental Support and Family Stress in Adolescent Sleep
    • Authors: Kim M. Tsai; Ronald E. Dahl, Michael R. Irwin, Julienne E. Bower, Heather McCreath, Teresa E. Seeman, David M. Almeida, Andrew J. Fuligni
      Abstract: The current study examines the association between parental support and adolescent sleep under varying levels of family stress. Participants included 316 adolescents (Mage = 16.40 years, 43% male) and their parents (Mage = 45.67 years, 91% mothers) from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Both adolescents and parents completed questionnaires and adolescents wore wrist actigraphs and completed self-reports on their sleep for 7 consecutive days. Results indicated that under contexts of family stress, more parental support was linked to longer sleep duration, less sleep variability, and less time spent awake during the night. Findings suggest that under contexts of family stress, cohesive family relationships may provide a sense of stability and security that is necessary for healthful sleep.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T07:41:13.903519-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12917
  • From Innovation to Impact at Scale: Lessons Learned From a Cluster of
           Research–Community Partnerships
    • Authors: Holly S. Schindler; Philip A. Fisher, Jack P. Shonkoff
      Abstract: This article presents a description of how an interdisciplinary network of academic researchers, community-based programs, parents, and state agencies have joined together to design, test, and scale a suite of innovative intervention strategies rooted in new knowledge about the biology of adversity. Through a process of cocreation, collective pilot testing, and the support of a measurement and evaluation hub, the Washington Innovation Cluster is using rapid cycle iterative learning to elucidate differential impacts of interventions designed to build child and caregiver capacities and address the developmental consequences of socioeconomic disadvantage. Key characteristics of the Innovation Cluster model are described and an example is presented of a video-coaching intervention that has been implemented, adapted, and evaluated through this distinctive collaborative process.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T07:41:10.966762-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12904
  • The Influence of Adult and Peer Role Models on Children’ and
           Adolescents’ Sharing Decisions
    • Authors: Azzurra Ruggeri; Shenghua Luan, Monika Keller, Michaela Gummerum
      Abstract: This study explores how the age (adult vs. peer) and the suggestion (to be fair vs. unfair) of models affect the sharing decisions of 9- and 12-year-olds (N = 365) from Italy and Singapore. Results demonstrate a developmental shift in the influence of models on children's and adolescents’ sharing decisions in both cultures: Children's decisions were more affected by an adult model's suggestion than by that of a peer model, whereas the opposite was true for adolescents. Regardless of the models’ influence, participants considered equal sharing to be the fair choice and reported being happier when their sharing decisions were generous. Our results highlight the crucial importance of social and developmental factors for the promotion of fairness judgments and emotions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T07:40:56.843684-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12916
  • What Develops in Infants’ Spatial Categorization' Korean Infants’
           Categorization of Containment and Tight-Fit Relations
    • Authors: Marianella Casasola; Yeojin A. Ahn
      Abstract: Korean-learning infants’ categorization of two spatial categories, one consistent and one inconsistent with the Korean semantic category of “kkita,” was examined. Infants of 10 months (n = 32) and 18 months (n = 49) were tested on their categorization of containment or tight fit spatial relations. At 10 months, infants only formed a category of containment, but at 18 months, their categorization of tight fit was significantly stronger than containment. The results suggest that Korean infants benefit from their language environment in forming a category of tight fit when the exemplars are perceptually diverse. In particular, infants’ language environment may bolster their ability to generalize across diverse exemplars to form abstract categorical representations of spatial relations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:40:51.252348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12903
  • Judging a Book by Its Cover: Children's Facial Trustworthiness as Judged
           by Strangers Predicts Their Real-World Trustworthiness and Peer
    • Authors: Qinggong Li; Gail D. Heyman, Jing Mei, Kang Lee
      Abstract: This longitudinal research examined whether children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers can predict their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) judged the facial trustworthiness of 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 100) solely based on their photographs. The children's classmates were asked to report their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Children's facial trustworthiness reliably predicted these outcomes both initially when the photographs were taken, as well as 1 year later, and this effect was mediated by the initial ratings of real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. These results provide evidence for a long-lasting linkage between children's facial and real-world trustworthiness.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T07:40:30.5034-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12907
  • Scaling and Sustaining Effective Early Childhood Programs Through
           School–Family–University Collaboration
    • Authors: Arthur J. Reynolds; Momoko Hayakawa, Suh-Ruu Ou, Christina F. Mondi, Michelle M. Englund, Allyson J. Candee, Nicole E. Smerillo
      Abstract: We describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a comprehensive preschool to third grade prevention program for the goals of sustaining services at a large scale. The Midwest Child–Parent Center (CPC) Expansion is a multilevel collaborative school reform model designed to improve school achievement and parental involvement from ages 3 to 9. By increasing the dosage, coordination, and comprehensiveness of services, the program is expected to enhance the transition to school and promote more enduring effects on well-being in multiple domains. We review and evaluate evidence from two longitudinal studies (Midwest CPC, 2012 to present; Chicago Longitudinal Study, 1983 to present) and four implementation examples of how the guiding principles of shared ownership, committed resources, and progress monitoring for improvement can promote effectiveness. The implementation system of partners and further expansion using “Pay for Success” financing shows the feasibility of scaling the program while continuing to improve effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02T13:15:22.844005-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12901
  • Erratum
    • PubDate: 2017-08-01T05:05:48.149902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12940
  • Data-Driven Improvement in Prekindergarten Classrooms: Report From a
           Partnership in an Urban District
    • Authors: Dale C. Farran; Deanna Meador, Caroline Christopher, Kimberly T. Nesbitt, Laura E. Bilbrey
      Abstract: In 2014–2015 and 2015–2016, a metropolitan school system in the southern United States embarked on a unique mission to improve the quality of its public prekindergarten programs through a partnership with a group of developmental researchers in an iterative, data-based venture. Data on 407 children in Year 1 and 433 in Year 2 (who were enrolled in 26 classrooms and extensively observed) are presented from the first 2 years of the ongoing partnership. All children were 4 years of age. Variability in classroom practices, measured empirically, and variability in child outcomes provided the means to examine the relations between children's gains in academic and social-emotional areas and major areas of classroom practices. Lessons learned, the eight identified significant practices, implications, and next steps in the partnership are addressed.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T06:16:19.75064-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12906
  • Moving an Evidence-Based Parenting Program Into the Community
    • Authors: Caroline K.P. Roben; Mary Dozier, EB Caron, Kristin Bernard
      Abstract: Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a parenting program developed to enhance sensitivity among parents of infants who experience early adversity. In several randomized clinical trials, the intervention's efficacy has been demonstrated. Moving interventions into the community with adequate fidelity is challenging, though, and intervention effects are often much smaller than when tested in randomized clinical trials. To enhance the likelihood that ABC is delivered with high fidelity, a microanalytic fidelity assessment was developed. Using this fidelity tool as a central component of training, supervision, and certification, changes in parent sensitivity for 108 families with children ages 6 months to 2 years were as large as those seen in laboratory settings. These findings are discussed with regard to implications for moving other evidence-based interventions into the community.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:35:47.832313-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12898
  • Playing With Ideas: Evaluating the Impact of the Ultimate Block Party, a
           Collective Experiential Intervention to Enrich Perceptions of Play
    • Authors: Rachel Grob; Mark Schlesinger, Amy Pace, Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Kathy Hirsh-Pasek
      Abstract: Parental attitudes shape play opportunities afforded to children in home, community, and school settings. This study presents evaluation of an intervention designed to enrich parent's conception of play and its relationship with socially valued skills and capacities. On the basis of data from 291 racially and ethnically diverse parents/caregivers of young children (median age between 3 and 6) attending an event in NYC, we find the intervention helped parents conceptualize play in complex ways and altered perceptions of its impact on children's current—but not future—lives. Multivariate analyses reveal the causal pathway for these changes as exposure to multiple play sites, rather than time at the event—a finding with direct implications for exposing parents to developmental science in community settings.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14T07:36:20.533947-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12897
  • Civic Science for Public Use: Mind in the Making and Vroom
    • Authors: Ellen Galinsky; Jackie Bezos, Megan McClelland, Stephanie M. Carlson, Philip D. Zelazo
      Abstract: Mind in the Making and Vroom are partner initiatives that exemplify a unique “civic science” approach to “bringing developmental science into the world.” Mind in the Making offers families and professionals working with children 0–8 access to developmental research, by engaging them in an active process of professional development and community outreach. Vroom is an outreach and communication initiative that brings “brain building basics” to communities, inviting parents to participate in the science of early learning through partnerships with trusted entities. These initiatives use collaborative, iterative processes in disseminating findings and implications of child development research. Preliminary evidence shows early promise of these initiatives to help promote engaged learning and life skills based on executive function in adults and children.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10T07:00:20.533322-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12892
  • Family Science Talk in Museums: Predicting Children's Engagement From
           Variations in Talk and Activity
    • Authors: Maureen A. Callanan; Claudia L. Castañeda, Megan R. Luce, Jennifer L. Martin
      Abstract: Children's developing reasoning skills are better understood within the context of their social and cultural lives. As part of a research–museum partnership, this article reports a study exploring science-relevant conversations of 82 families, with children between 3 and 11 years, while visiting a children's museum exhibit about mammoth bones, and in a focused one-on-one exploration of a “mystery object.” Parents' use of a variety of types of science talk predicted children's conceptual engagement in the exhibit, but interestingly, different types of parent talk predicted children's engagement depending on the order of the two activities. The findings illustrate the importance of studying children's thinking in real-world contexts and inform creation of effective real-world science experiences for children and families.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T04:20:55.516181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12886
  • When Cultural Norms Discourage Talking to Babies: Effectiveness of a
           Parenting Program in Rural Senegal
    • Authors: Ann Weber; Anne Fernald, Yatma Diop
      Abstract: In some areas of rural Africa, long-standing cultural traditions and beliefs may discourage parents from verbally engaging with their young children. This study assessed the effectiveness of a parenting program designed to encourage verbal engagement between caregivers and infants in Wolof-speaking villages in rural Senegal. Caregivers (n = 443) and their 4- to 31-month-old children were observed at baseline in 2013 and 1 year later at follow-up. Results showed that caregivers in program villages nearly doubled the amount of child-directed speech during a play session compared to baseline, whereas caregivers in matched comparison villages showed no change. After 1 year, children in program villages produced more utterances, and showed greater improvement in vocabulary and other language outcomes compared to children in comparison villages.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26T06:02:33.332367-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12882
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1399 - 1402
      PubDate: 2017-09-04T07:24:06.604505-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12626
  • Investigation of the Integration of Supports for Youth Thriving Into a
           Community-Based Mentoring Program
    • Authors: David L. DuBois; Thomas E. Keller
      Pages: 1480 - 1491
      Abstract: A randomized control trial involving 806 youth (ages 10–16; 85.4% low-income households) served in U.S. Big Brothers Big Sisters affiliates investigated effects of incorporating activities to promote youth thriving into mentoring relationships over a 15-month period. Outcomes included support for thriving in youths’ relationships with adults, youths’ personal resources for thriving, and levels of problem behavior. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed no differences in outcomes based on assignment to thriving promotion or standard services. There was substantial variability in youth exposure to thriving promotion activities, primarily in association with premature endings of mentoring relationships. In path analyses, positive engagement with the activities predicted enhanced support for thriving from adults and, via this support, increased personal resources for thriving and reduced problem behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T00:51:15.211277-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12887
  • The Arts as a Venue for Developmental Science: Realizing a Latent
    • Authors: Thalia R. Goldstein; Matthew D. Lerner, Ellen Winner
      Pages: 1505 - 1512
      Abstract: Children in all cultures readily engage in artistic activities, yet the arts (dance, drama, drawing, and music) have traditionally been marginal topics in the discipline of developmental science. We argue that developmental psychologists cannot afford to ignore such naturalistic activities that involve so many basic phenomena—attention, engagement, motivation, emotion regulation, understanding of others, and so on. Despite historical issues with research methodologies and overdrawn conclusions, a current wave of methodologically rigorous studies shows the depth of arts learning, as well as how arts engagement can be harnessed for transfer to other skills. Here, we present 21 exemplary research case studies, covering an age range of 18 months to 17 years old and discuss how the arts are no more difficult to study than other real-world developmental phenomena and deserve a thorough examination.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T02:18:26.216402-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12884
  • Words to Sleep On: Naps Facilitate Verb Generalization in Habitually and
           Nonhabitually Napping Preschoolers
    • Authors: Michelle Sandoval; Julia A. Leclerc, Rebecca L. Gómez
      Pages: 1615 - 1628
      Abstract: A nap soon after encoding leads to better learning in infancy. However, whether napping plays the same role in preschoolers' learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 (N = 39), 3-year-old habitual and nonhabitual nappers learned novel verbs before a nap or a period of wakefulness and received a generalization test examining word extension to novel actors after 24 hr. Only habitual and nonhabitual nappers who napped after learning generalized 24 hr later. In Experiment 2 (N = 40), children learned the same verbs but were tested within 2–3 min of training. Here, habitual and nonhabitual nappers retained the mappings but did not generalize. The results suggest that naps consolidate weak learning that habitual and nonhabitual nappers would otherwise forget over periods of wakefulness.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T05:20:51.890679-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12723
  • Developmental Pathways to Preference and Popularity in Middle Childhood
    • Authors: Yvonne H. M. Berg; Marike H. F. Deutz, Sanny Smeekens, Antonius H. N. Cillessen
      Pages: 1629 - 1641
      Abstract: This study examined the associations between children's early life experiences with parents, ego resiliency and ego undercontrol, and peer group social status in a longitudinal, multimethod study from infancy to middle childhood. Participants were 129 children (52% boys) who were followed from 15 months of age to 9 years and their primary caregivers from the Nijmegen Longitudinal Study on Infant and Child Development. The measurements included observations of parent–child interaction, teacher ratings of ego resiliency and ego undercontrol, and peer-reported social status. Quality of parental interactive behavior was associated with ego resiliency and ego undercontrol. Ego resiliency and ego undercontrol were uniquely related to preference and popularity. The findings provide insight into the developmental pathways leading to the two distinct types of social status.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T04:40:22.496487-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12706
  • Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of
           Reciprocal Effects
    • Authors: Reinhard Pekrun; Stephanie Lichtenfeld, Herbert W. Marsh, Kou Murayama, Thomas Goetz
      Pages: 1653 - 1670
      Abstract: A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents’ development in mathematics (Grades 5–9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting age = 11.7 years; representative sample). Structural equation modeling showed that positive emotions (enjoyment, pride) positively predicted subsequent achievement (math end-of-the-year grades and test scores), and that achievement positively predicted these emotions, controlling for students’ gender, intelligence, and family socioeconomic status. Negative emotions (anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, hopelessness) negatively predicted achievement, and achievement negatively predicted these emotions. The findings were robust across waves, achievement indicators, and school tracks, highlighting the importance of emotions for students’ achievement and of achievement for the development of emotions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T00:06:55.85808-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12704
  • Child and Parenting Outcomes After 1 Year of Educare
    • Authors: Noreen Yazejian; Donna M. Bryant, Sydney Hans, Diane Horm, Lisa St. Clair, Nancy File, Margaret Burchinal
      Pages: 1671 - 1688
      Abstract: Educare is a birth to age 5 early education program designed to reduce the achievement gap between children from low-income families and their more economically advantaged peers through high-quality center-based programming and strong school–family partnerships. This study randomly assigned 239 children (
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T00:07:00.77775-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12688
  • Neural Oscillation Reveals Deficits in Visuospatial Working Memory in
           Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder
    • Authors: Chun-Hao Wang; Yu-Ting Tseng, Dang Liu, Chia-Liang Tsai
      Pages: 1716 - 1726
      Abstract: The electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations associated with visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were examined in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD; 10–11 years; N = 29) and typically developing (TD) children (10–11 years; N = 29). Behaviorally, DCD showed poorer VSWM than TD, which coincided with the diminished ability of DCD in modulating neural oscillations. Furthermore, prestimulus oscillatory alpha activity was correlated with VSWM performance. The results suggest that children with DCD might have a reduced ability to encode and recognize new information, and in particular have difficulty in maintaining task-relevant information, resulting in poorer VSWM. This study thus concludes that changes in oscillatory EEG activity reflect some of the problems leading to cognitive deficits in DCD.
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T05:10:26.770111-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12708
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