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Journal Cover Child Development
  [SJR: 3.116]   [H-I: 189]   [162 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0009-3920 - ISSN (Online) 1467-8624
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Contributions of Reward Sensitivity to Ventral Striatum Activity Across
           Adolescence and Early Adulthood
    • Authors: Elisabeth Schreuders; Barbara R. Braams, Neeltje E. Blankenstein, Jiska S. Peper, Berna Güroğlu, Eveline A. Crone
      Abstract: It was examined how ventral striatum responses to rewards develop across adolescence and early adulthood and how individual differences in state- and trait-level reward sensitivity are related to these changes. Participants (aged 8–29 years) were tested across three waves separated by 2 years (693 functional MRI scans) in an accelerated longitudinal design. The results confirmed an adolescent peak in reward-related ventral striatum, specifically nucleus accumbens, activity. In early to mid-adolescence, increases in reward activation were related to trait-level reward drive. In mid-adolescence to early adulthood decreases in reward activation were related to decreases in state-level hedonic reward pleasure. This study demonstrates that state- and trait-level reward sensitivity account for reward-related ventral striatum activity in different phases of adolescence and early adulthood.
      PubDate: 2018-03-13T23:05:46.625752-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13056
  • A Path Analysis of Nutrition, Stimulation, and Child Development Among
           Young Children in Bihar, India
    • Authors: Leila M. Larson; Reynaldo Martorell, Patricia J. Bauer
      Abstract: Nutrition plays an important role in the development of a child, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where malnutrition is often widespread. The relation between diet, hemoglobin, nutritional status, motor development, stimulation and mental development was examined in a cross-sectional sample of 1,079 children 12–18 months of age living in rural Bihar, India. Path analysis revealed associations between (a) length-for-age z-scores and motor development, standardized β (β) = .285, p 
      PubDate: 2018-03-12T13:30:40.308873-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13057
  • Goal-Directed Correlates and Neurobiological Underpinnings of Adolescent
           Identity: A Multimethod Multisample Longitudinal Approach
    • Authors: Andrik I. Becht; Marieke G.N. Bos, Stefanie A. Nelemans, Sabine Peters, Wilma A.M. Vollebergh, Susan J.T. Branje, Wim H.J. Meeus, Eveline A. Crone
      Abstract: This multimethod multisample longitudinal study examined how neurological substrates associated with goal directedness and information seeking are related to adolescents’ identity. Self-reported data on goal-directedness were collected across three biannual waves in Study 1. Identity was measured one wave later. Study 1 design and measurements were repeated in Study 2 and extended with structural brain data (nucleus accumbens [NAcc] and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume [PFC]), collected across three biannual waves. Study 1 included 497 adolescents (Mage T1 = 13.03 years) and Study 2 included 131 adolescents (Mage T1 = 14.69 years). Using latent growth curve models, goal directedness, NAcc, and PFC volume predicted a stronger identity one wave later. These findings provide crucial new insights in the underlying neurobiological architecture of identity.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:00:53.032331-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13048
  • From Learning Beliefs to Achievement Among Chinese Immigrant and European
           American Preschool Children
    • Authors: Jin Li; Yoko Yamamoto, Jamison M. Kinnane, Bree C. Shugarts, Clarence K.K. Ho
      Abstract: Little research exists on how immigrant children develop their beliefs about school learning (BASLs) in their home and host cultures. We examined the BASLs and achievement children of Chinese immigrants’ (CCI) and European American (EA) children. We followed longitudinally 120 middle-class children from age 4 to 5, balanced for gender. Children heard two story beginnings depicting a child eager to attend school and another not. Children completed the stories and were tested for math and literacy achievement. We found seven BASLs. CCIs and EAs showed similar BASLs. Awareness of parental involvement and intellectual benefit consistently explained their achievement, with CCIs showing greater achievement. CCIs’ (but not EAs’) valuation of learning explained their net academic growth. Implications on CCIs’ development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07T21:46:13.13262-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13055
  • Familiar Object Salience Affects Novel Word Learning
    • Authors: Ron Pomper; Jenny R. Saffran
      Abstract: Children use the presence of familiar objects with known names to identify the correct referents of novel words. In natural environments, objects vary widely in salience. The presence of familiar objects may sometimes hinder rather than help word learning. To test this hypothesis, 3-year-olds (N = 36) were shown novel objects paired with familiar objects that varied in their visual salience. When the novel objects were labeled, children were slower and less accurate at fixating them in the presence of highly salient familiar objects than in the presence of less salient familiar objects. They were also less successful in retaining these word-referent pairings. While familiar objects may facilitate novel word learning in ambiguous situations, the properties of familiar objects matter.
      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:18:07.407047-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13053
  • Using Meta-analytic Structural Equation Modeling to Study Developmental
           Change in Relations Between Language and Literacy
    • Authors: Jamie M. Quinn; Richard K. Wagner
      Abstract: The purpose of this review was to introduce readers of Child Development to the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) technique. Provided are a background to the MASEM approach, a discussion of its utility in the study of child development, and an application of this technique in the study of reading comprehension (RC) development. MASEM uses a two-stage approach: first, it provides a composite correlation matrix across included variables, and second, it fits hypothesized a priori models. The provided MASEM application used a large sample (N = 1,205,581) of students (ages 3.5–46.225) from 155 studies to investigate the factor structure and relations among components of RC. The practical implications of using this technique to study development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27T02:55:36.936795-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13049
  • Child Sleep and Socioeconomic Context in the Development of Cognitive
           Abilities in Early Childhood
    • Authors: Caroline P. Hoyniak; John E. Bates, Angela D. Staples, Kathleen M. Rudasill, Dennis L. Molfese, Victoria J. Molfese
      Abstract: Despite a robust literature examining the association between sleep problems and cognitive abilities in childhood, little is known about this association in toddlerhood, a period of rapid cognitive development. The present study examined the association between various sleep problems, using actigraphy, and performance on a standardized test of cognitive abilities, longitudinally across three ages (30, 36, and 42 months) in a large sample of toddlers (N = 493). Results revealed a between-subject effect in which the children who had more delayed sleep schedules on average also showed poorer cognitive abilities on average but did not support a within-subjects effect. Results also showed that delayed sleep explains part of the association between family socioeconomic context and child cognitive abilities.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27T02:40:26.977862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13042
  • A Person-Centered Approach to Child Temperament and Parenting
    • Authors: Danielle M. Dalimonte-Merckling; Holly E. Brophy-Herb
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine how variations in children's temperamental reactivity and mothers’ parenting stress relate to parenting behavior. A sample of 3,001 mother–child dyads was assessed when children were 14, 24, 36, and 54 months. Latent profile analysis identified a group of temperamentally “easy” children whose mothers experienced little parenting stress, along with two groups of highly reactive children differentiated by mothers’ stress levels. Maternal negative regard over time was highest in the group of reactive children with highly stressed mothers. Mothers in this group also perceived more child behavior problems and had less knowledge of child development. Results are discussed relative to Person × Environment interactions and the complex interplay between parent and child characteristics.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27T02:36:16.648065-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13046
  • More Similar Than Different: Gender Differences in Children's Basic
           Numerical Skills Are the Exception Not the Rule
    • Authors: Jane E. Hutchison; Ian M. Lyons, Daniel Ansari
      Abstract: This study investigates gender differences in basic numerical skills that are predictive of math achievement. Previous research in this area is inconsistent and has relied upon traditional hypothesis testing, which does not allow for assertive conclusions to be made regarding nonsignificant findings. This study is the first to compare male and female performance (N = 1,391; ages 6–13) on many basic numerical tasks using both Bayesian and frequentist analyses. The results provide strong evidence of gender similarities on the majority of basic numerical tasks measured, suggesting that a male advantage in foundational numerical skills is the exception rather than the rule.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27T02:32:01.181109-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13044
  • Housing Interventions and the Chronic and Acute Risks of Family
           Homelessness: Experimental Evidence for Education
    • Authors: J. J. Cutuli; Janette E. Herbers
      Abstract: This study considers risk associated with family homelessness for school functioning and experimental evidence on the effects of different housing interventions over time. Students in homeless families (N = 172; Mage = 7.31; SD = 4.15) were randomized to housing interventions that focus on acute risks (community-based rapid rehousing), chronic risks (permanent subsidy), or usual care (UC). A matched group of low-income, housed students served as an additional reference for effects on attendance, school mobility, and reading and math achievement across 4 years. Findings partially support the chronic-risk hypothesis that family homelessness interferes with achievement through its relation to deep poverty. Children randomly assigned to UC perform as well or better than children assigned to housing interventions in this municipality.
      PubDate: 2018-02-21T23:20:34.527203-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13041
  • Parental Depression, Overreactive Parenting, and Early Childhood
           Externalizing Problems: Moderation by Social Support
    • Authors: Lindsay Taraban; Daniel S. Shaw, Leslie D. Leve, Misaki N. Natsuaki, Jody M. Ganiban, David Reiss, Jenae M. Neiderhiser
      Abstract: This study used a large (N = 519), longitudinal sample of adoptive families to test overreactive parenting as a mediator of associations between parental depressive symptoms and early childhood externalizing, and parents’ social support satisfaction as a moderator. Maternal parenting (18 months) mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms (9 months) and child externalizing problems (27 months). Paternal parenting was not a significant mediator. Unexpectedly, we found a cross-over effect for the moderating role of social support satisfaction, such that partners’ social support satisfaction reduced the strength of the association between each parent's own depressive symptoms and overreactive parenting. Results point to the importance of accounting for broader family context in predicting early childhood parenting and child outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20T00:15:10.61189-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13027
  • The Development of Empathic Concern in Siblings: A Reciprocal Influence
    • Authors: Marc Jambon; Sheri Madigan, André Plamondon, Ella Daniel, Jennifer M. Jenkins
      Abstract: This study utilized actor–partner interdependence modeling to examine the bidirectional effects of younger (Mage = 18 months) and older siblings (Mage = 48 months) on later empathy development in a large (n = 452 families), diverse (42% immigrant) Canadian sample. Controlling for parenting, demographic characteristics, sibling relationship quality, and within-child stability in empathic concern, both younger and older siblings’ observed empathic concern uniquely predicted relative increases in the other's empathy over a period of 18 months. The strength of the partner effects did not differ by birth order. Sex composition moderated the younger sibling partner effect, whereas age gap moderated the older sibling partner effect. This study highlights the important role that siblings play in enhancing the development of care and concern for others.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20T00:15:09.408558-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13015
  • Getting a Read on Ready To Learn Media: A Meta-analysis Review of
           Effects on Literacy
    • Authors: Lisa B. Hurwitz
      Abstract: Most U.S. preschoolers have consumed media created with funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Ready To Learn (RTL) initiative, which was established to promote school readiness among children ages 2–8. Synthesizing data from 45 evaluations (N = 24,624 unique child participants), this meta-analysis examined the effects of RTL media exposure on young children's literacy skills. Results indicate positive effects of RTL media exposure on children's literacy outcomes, especially vocabulary and phonological concepts. These effects are equivalent to about one-and-a-half months of literacy learning above and beyond typical growth. Findings are robust across a variety of research designs and for exposure to both television and new media. These results are discussed in terms of accountability evidence for RTL and larger debates in scholarly understanding of educational media effects.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19T03:21:18.433012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13043
  • Adolescents’ Friendships, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behaviors:
           Same-Behavior and Cross-Behavior Selection and Influence Processes
    • Authors: Mariola C. Gremmen; Christian Berger, Allison M. Ryan, Christian E.G. Steglich, René Veenstra, Jan K. Dijkstra
      Abstract: This study examined to what extent adolescents’ and their friends’ risk behaviors (i.e., delinquency and alcohol use) hinder or promote their academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]), and vice versa. Longitudinal data were used (N = 1,219 seventh- to ninth-grade adolescents; Mage = 13.69). Results showed that risk behaviors negatively affected adolescents’ GPA, whereas GPA protected against engaging in risk behaviors. Moreover, adolescents tended to select friends who have similar behaviors and friends’ behaviors became more similar over time (same-behavior selection and influence). Furthermore, although same-behavior effects seemed to dominate, evidence was found for some cross-behavior selection effects and a tendency in seventh grade for cross-behavior influence effects. Concluding, it is important to investigate the interplay between different behaviors with longitudinal social network analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:26:34.090265-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13045
  • Development of Children's Use of External Reminders for Hard-to-Remember
    • Authors: Jonathan Redshaw; Johanna Vandersee, Adam Bulley, Sam J. Gilbert
      Abstract: This study explored under what conditions young children would set reminders to aid their memory for delayed intentions. A computerized task requiring participants to carry out delayed intentions under varying levels of cognitive load was presented to 63 children (aged between 6.9 and 13.0 years old). Children of all ages demonstrated metacognitive predictions of their performance that were congruent with task difficulty. Only older children, however, set more reminders when they expected their future memory performance to be poorer. These results suggest that most primary school-aged children possess metacognitive knowledge about their prospective memory limits, but that only older children may be able to exercise the metacognitive control required to translate this knowledge into strategic reminder setting.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15T05:05:28.755352-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13040
  • Dynamic Changes in Peer Victimization and Adjustment Across Middle School:
           Does Friends’ Victimization Alleviate Distress'
    • Authors: Hannah L. Schacter; Jaana Juvonen
      Abstract: Although some adolescents are chronically bullied throughout middle school, others may only experience peer victimization temporarily. This study examined the effects of time-invariant (average level) and time-varying (year-to-year) victimization experiences across middle school on adolescents’ depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, and self-blame. A key question was whether friends’ victimization buffered students from their victimization-related distress. The diverse sample (n = 5,991) was surveyed four times between sixth and eighth grade (Mage at sixth grade = 11.54 years). Three-level multilevel models revealed both time-invariant and time-varying effects of victimization on adjustment, but these maladaptive associations were attenuated when adolescents’ friends experienced more victimization across middle school. The results suggest that even temporarily victimized youth may have unmet mental health needs, and sharing social plight with friends can protect victims.
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T23:20:54.857331-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13038
  • Preschoolers' Saving Behavior: The Role of Planning and Self-Control
    • Authors: Deepthi Kamawar; Kimberly Connolly, Andrea Astle-Rahim, Serena Smygwaty, Corrie Vendetti
      Abstract: Planning and self-control were examined in relation to preschoolers' (41- to 74-months) saving behavior. Employing a marble run paradigm, 54 children participated in two trials in which they could use their marbles immediately on a less desirable run, or save for a more desirable run. Twenty-nine children received the opportunity to create a budget. On Trial 1, children in the budgeting condition saved significantly more than did children in the control condition, and their planning ability related to saving (after controlling for age and language). Those who consistently budgeted at least one marble for the more desirable run were more likely to save. Control children's performance improved across trials, with no between-condition differences on Trial 2. Self-control was not related to saving.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31T00:16:31.468174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13037
  • Neural Correlates of Risk Processing Among Adolescents: Influences of
           Parental Monitoring and Household Chaos
    • Authors: Nina Lauharatanahirun; Dominique Maciejewski, Christopher Holmes, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Brooks King-Casas
      Abstract: Adolescent risky behavior is related to developmental changes in decision-making processes and their neural correlates. Yet, research investigating how the family environment relates to risk processing in the adolescent brain is limited. In this study, longitudinal data were collected from 167 adolescents (13–15 years, 53% male) who self-reported household chaos and their parent's monitoring practices, and completed a decision-making task during functional MRI at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year apart). Parental knowledge was positively related to insular risk processing only among adolescents in low-chaos environments at both time points. Results highlight environmental correlates of insular risk processing in the developing brain.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31T00:15:55.99457-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13036
  • Dorsomedial Prefrontal Activity to Sadness Predicts Later Emotion
           Suppression and Depression Severity in Adolescent Girls
    • Authors: Veronika Vilgis; Kristina L. Gelardi, Jonathan L. Helm, Erika E. Forbes, Alison E. Hipwell, Kate Keenan, Amanda E. Guyer
      Abstract: The present study used cross-lagged panel analyses to test longitudinal associations among emotion regulation, prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, and depression severity in adolescent girls. The ventromedial and dorsomedial PFC (vmPFC and dmPFC) were regions of interest given their roles in depression pathophysiology, self-referential processing, and emotion regulation. At ages 16 and 17, seventy-eight girls completed a neuroimaging scan to assess changes in vmPFC and dmPFC activation to sad faces, and measures of depressive symptom severity and emotion regulation. The 1-year cross-lagged effects of dmPFC activity at age 16 on expressive suppression at age 17 and depressive symptomatology at age 17 were significant, demonstrating a predictive relation between dmPFC activity and both suppression and depressive severity.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30T02:02:03.144763-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13023
  • Children's Early Decontextualized Talk Predicts Academic Language
           Proficiency in Midadolescence
    • Authors: Paola Uccelli; Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Meredith L. Rowe, Susan Levine, Susan Goldin-Meadow
      Abstract: This study examines whether children's decontextualized talk—talk about nonpresent events, explanations, or pretend—at 30 months predicts seventh-grade academic language proficiency (age 12). Academic language (AL) refers to the language of school texts. AL proficiency has been identified as an important predictor of adolescent text comprehension. Yet research on precursors to AL proficiency is scarce. Child decontextualized talk is known to be a predictor of early discourse development, but its relation to later language outcomes remains unclear. Forty-two children and their caregivers participated in this study. The proportion of child talk that was decontextualized emerged as a significant predictor of seventh-grade AL proficiency, even after controlling for socioeconomic status, parent decontextualized talk, child total words, child vocabulary, and child syntactic comprehension.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:50:25.470587-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13034
  • Sense and Sensitivity: A Response to the Commentary by Keller et al.
    • Authors: Judi Mesman
      Abstract: This reply to the commentary by Keller et al. (2018) on the article “Universality Without Uniformity: A Culturally Inclusive Approach to Sensitive Responsiveness in Infant Caregiving” (Mesman et al., ) highlights key points of agreement emphasizing the sense of investing in synergies across research traditions. These include the importance of distinguishing between different parenting constructs, the need for more studies to test the presented theoretical assumptions, and the value of examining multiple caregiver sensitivity in relation to infants’ developing membership of a community. The only point of disagreement reflects the rigidity versus flexibility of the sensitivity construct. This reply argues that it is exactly the versatility of the sensitivity construct that makes it a valuable building block for bridges between fields.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:35:45.500268-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13030
  • The Myth of Universal Sensitive Responsiveness: Comment on Mesman
           et al. (2017)
    • Authors: Heidi Keller; Kim Bard, Gilda Morelli, Nandita Chaudhary, Marga Vicedo, Mariano Rosabal-Coto, Gabriel Scheidecker, Marjorie Murray, Alma Gottlieb
      Abstract: This article considers claims of Mesman et al. (2017) that sensitive responsiveness as defined by Ainsworth, while not uniformly expressed across cultural contexts, is universal. Evidence presented demonstrates that none of the components of sensitive responsiveness (i.e., which partner takes the lead, whose point of view is primary, and the turn-taking structure of interactions) or warmth are universal. Mesman and colleagues’ proposal that sensitive responsiveness is “providing for infant needs” is critiqued. Constructs concerning caregiver quality must be embedded within a nexus of cultural logic, including caregiving practices, based on ecologically valid childrearing values and beliefs. Sensitive responsiveness, as defined by Mesman and attachment theorists, is not universal. Attachment theory and cultural or cross-cultural psychology are not built on common ground.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:35:38.407128-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13031
  • Impacts of Adolescent and Young Adult Civic Engagement on Health and
           Socioeconomic Status in Adulthood
    • Authors: Parissa J. Ballard; Lindsay T. Hoyt, Mark C. Pachucki
      Abstract: The present study examines links between civic engagement (voting, volunteering, and activism) during late adolescence and early adulthood, and socioeconomic status and mental and physical health in adulthood. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a propensity score matching approach is used to rigorously estimate how civic engagement is associated with outcomes among 9,471 adolescents and young adults (baseline Mage = 15.9). All forms of civic engagement are positively associated with subsequent income and education level. Volunteering and voting are favorably associated with subsequent mental health and health behaviors, and activism is associated with more health-risk behaviors and not associated with mental health. Civic engagement is not associated with physical health.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:01:04.30223-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12998
  • The Nature and Consequences of Essentialist Beliefs About Race in Early
    • Authors: Tara M. Mandalaywala; Gabrielle Ranger-Murdock, David M. Amodio, Marjorie Rhodes
      Abstract: It is widely believed that race divides the world into biologically distinct kinds of people—an essentialist belief inconsistent with reality. Essentialist views of race have been described as early emerging, but this study found that young children (n = 203, Mage = 5.45) hold only the more limited belief that the physical feature of skin color is inherited and stable. Overall, children rejected the causal essentialist view that behavioral and psychological characteristics are constrained by an inherited racial essence. Although average levels of children's causal essentialist beliefs about race were low, variation in these beliefs was related to children's own group membership, exposure to diversity, as well as children's own social attitudes.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T02:01:03.02018-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13008
  • Becoming Kinder: Prosocial Choice and the Development of
           Interpersonal Regret
    • Authors: Brian Uprichard; Teresa McCormack
      Abstract: Three experiments examined children's ability to feel regret following a failure to act prosocially. In Experiment 1, ninety 6- to 7-year-olds and one hundred seven 7- to 9-year-olds were given a choice to donate a resource to another child. If they failed to donate, they discovered that this meant the other child could not win a prize. Children in both age groups then showed evidence of experiencing regret, although not in control conditions where they had not made the choice themselves or their choice did not negatively affect the other child. In Experiment 2, eighty-five 5- to 6-year-olds and one hundred nine 7- to 9-year-olds completed the same task; only the older group showed evidence of regret. In Experiment 3, with one hundred thirty-four 6- to 7-year-olds, experiencing regret was associated with subsequently making other prosocial choices.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22T00:05:34.635385-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13029
  • Examining Character Structure and Function Across Childhood and
    • Authors: Jennifer Shubert; Laura Wray-Lake, Amy K. Syvertsen, Aaron Metzger
      Abstract: Character strengths are an integral component of positive youth development that can promote flourishing. Developmental principles posit constructs become increasingly complex with age, yet this process has not been examined with character. Using a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse sample of 2,467 youth ages 9–19, bifactor models were estimated across elementary, middle, and high school-age groups to examine age differences in character structure and function. With successive age, a greater number of specific character strength factors were identified, suggesting character structure becomes more differentiated across adolescence. Results linking character bifactor models to indicators of positive functioning also supported differentiation in character function across ages. Findings point to the need for theoretical and empirical considerations of character structure and function across development.
      PubDate: 2018-01-19T03:15:39.371238-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13035
  • Mothers' Early Mind-Mindedness Predicts Educational Attainment in Socially
           and Economically Disadvantaged British Children
    • Authors: Elizabeth Meins; Charles Fernyhough, Luna C.M. Centifanti
      Abstract: Relations between mothers' mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) at 8 months (N = 206), and children's educational attainment at ages 7 (n = 158) and 11 (n = 156) were investigated in a British sample. Appropriate mind-related comments were positively correlated with reading and mathematics performance at both ages but only in the low-socioeconomic status (SES) group. Path analyses showed that in the low-SES group, appropriate mind-related comments directly predicted age-11 reading performance, with age-4 verbal ability mediating the relation between appropriate mind-related comments and age-7 reading. In contrast, maternal sensitivity and infant–mother attachment security did not predict children's educational attainment. These findings are discussed in terms of genetic and environmental contributions to reading and mathematics performance.
      PubDate: 2018-01-18T00:55:24.714578-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13028
  • Trajectories of Infants’ Biobehavioral Development: Timing and Rate of
           A-Not-B Performance Gains and EEG Maturation
    • Authors: Leigha A. MacNeill; Nilam Ram, Martha Ann Bell, Nathan A. Fox, Koraly Pérez-Edgar
      Abstract: This study examined how timing (i.e., relative maturity) and rate (i.e., how quickly infants attain proficiency) of A-not-B performance were related to changes in brain activity from age 6 to 12 months. A-not-B performance and resting EEG (electroencephalography) were measured monthly from age 6 to 12 months in 28 infants and were modeled using logistic and linear growth curve models. Infants with faster performance rates reached performance milestones earlier. Infants with faster rates of increase in A-not-B performance had lower occipital power at 6 months and greater linear increases in occipital power. The results underscore the importance of considering nonlinear change processes for studying infants’ cognitive development as well as how these changes are related to trajectories of EEG power.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17T02:02:02.744283-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13022
  • Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: 2017 Redux
    • Authors: Cristine H. Legare; Jennifer M. Clegg, Nicole J. Wen
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:44.54722-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13018
  • How Children Invented Humanity
    • Authors: David F. Bjorklund
      Abstract: I use the commentaries of Legare, Clegg, and Wen and of Frankenhuis and Tiokhin as jumping-off points to discuss an issue hinted at both in my essay and their commentaries: How a developmental perspective can help us achieve a better understanding of evolution. I examine briefly how neoteny may have contributed to human morphology; how developmental plasticity in great apes, and presumably our common ancestor with them, may have led the way to advances in social cognition; and how the “invention” of childhood contributed to unique human cognitive abilities. I conclude by acknowledging that not all developmentalists have adopted an evolutionary perspective, but that we are approaching a time when an evolutionary perspective will be implicit in the thinking of all psychologists.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:37.970785-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13020
  • Bridging Evolutionary Biology and Developmental Psychology: Toward An
           Enduring Theoretical Infrastructure
    • Authors: Willem E. Frankenhuis; Leonid Tiokhin
      Abstract: Bjorklund synthesizes promising research directions in developmental psychology using an evolutionary framework. In general terms, we agree with Bjorklund: Evolutionary theory has the potential to serve as a metatheory for developmental psychology. However, as currently used in psychology, evolutionary theory is far from reaching this potential. In evolutionary biology, formal mathematical models are the norm. In developmental psychology, verbal models are the norm. In order to reach its potential, evolutionary developmental psychology needs to embrace formal modeling.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:36.536287-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13021
  • A Metatheory for Cognitive Development (or “Piaget is Dead”
    • Authors: David F. Bjorklund
      Abstract: In 1997, I argued that with the loss of Piaget's theory as an overarching guide, cognitive development had become disjointed and a new metatheory was needed to unify the field. I suggested developmental biology, particularly evolutionary theory, as a candidate. Here, I examine the increasing emphasis of biology in cognitive development research over the past 2 decades. I describe briefly the emergence of evolutionary developmental psychology and examines areas in which proximal and distal biological causation have been particularly influential. I argue that developmental biology will continue to increasingly influence research and theory in cognitive development and that evolutionary theory is well on its way to becoming a metatheory, not just for cognitive development, but for developmental psychology generally.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16T01:25:35.050858-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13019
  • Youth's Conceptions of Adolescence Predict Longitudinal Changes in
           Prefrontal Cortex Activation and Risk Taking During Adolescence
    • Authors: Yang Qu; Eva M. Pomerantz, Ethan McCormick, Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: The development of cognitive control during adolescence is paralleled by changes in the function of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Using a three-wave longitudinal neuroimaging design (N = 22, Mage = 13.08 years at Wave 1), this study examined if youth's stereotypes about teens modulate changes in their neural activation during cognitive control. Participants holding stereotypes of teens as irresponsible in the family context (i.e., ignoring family obligations) in middle school showed increases in bilateral ventrolateral PFC activation during cognitive control over the transition to high school, which was associated with increases in risk taking. These findings provide preliminary evidence that youth's conceptions of adolescence play a role in neural plasticity over this phase of development.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15T23:40:50.207889-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13017
  • The Legacy of Early Abuse and Neglect for Social and Academic Competence
           From Childhood to Adulthood
    • Authors: K. Lee Raby; Glenn I. Roisman, Madelyn H. Labella, Jodi Martin, R. Chris Fraley, Jeffry A. Simpson
      Abstract: This study used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 267) to investigate whether abuse and neglect experiences during the first 5 years of life have fading or enduring consequences for social and academic competence over the next 3 decades of life. Experiencing early abuse and neglect was consistently associated with more interpersonal problems and lower academic achievement from childhood through adulthood (32–34 years). The predictive significance of early abuse and neglect was not attributable to the stability of developmental competence over time, nor to abuse and neglect occurring later in childhood. Early abuse and neglect had enduring associations with social (but not academic) competence after controlling for potential demographic confounds and early sensitive caregiving.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15T23:30:34.270667-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13033
  • Children's Perceptions of Economic Groups in a Context of Limited Access
           to Opportunities
    • Authors: Laura Elenbaas; Melanie Killen
      Abstract: Children (N = 267, ages 8–14 years, M = 11.61 years, middle to upper-middle income) made predictions regarding groups of same-aged peers from high-wealth and low-wealth backgrounds. The context involved granting access to a special opportunity. From middle childhood to early adolescence children increasingly expected both high- and low-wealth groups to want access to opportunities for their own group. However, children viewed high-wealth groups as motivated in part by selfishness and low-wealth groups as concerned in part with broader economic inequality. Finally, the higher children's family income, the more they expected group-serving tendencies. These findings revealed children's perceptions of exclusive preferences between economic groups, negative stereotypes about high-wealth children, and awareness of some of the constraints faced by low-wealth children.
      PubDate: 2018-01-15T01:40:28.593524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13024
  • Bilingualism Narrows Socioeconomic Disparities in Executive Functions and
           Self-Regulatory Behaviors During Early Childhood: Evidence From the Early
           Childhood Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Andree Hartanto; Wei X. Toh, Hwajin Yang
      Abstract: Socioeconomic status (SES) and bilingualism have been shown to influence executive functioning during early childhood. Less is known, however, about how the two factors interact within an individual. By analyzing a nationally representative sample of approximately 18,200 children who were tracked from ages 5 to 7 across four waves, both higher SES and bilingualism were found to account for greater performance on the inhibition and shifting aspects of executive functions (EF) and self-regulatory behaviors in classroom. However, only SES reliably predicted verbal working memory. Furthermore, bilingualism moderated the effects of SES by ameliorating the detrimental consequences of low-SES on EF and self-regulatory behaviors. These findings underscore bilingualism's power to enrich executive functioning and self-regulatory behaviors, especially among underprivileged children.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10T01:25:32.236306-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13032
  • Gaze Following Is Not Dependent on Ostensive Cues: A Critical Test of
           Natural Pedagogy
    • Authors: Gustaf Gredebäck; Kim Astor, Christine Fawcett
      Abstract: The theory of natural pedagogy stipulates that infants follow gaze because they are sensitive to the communicative intent of others. According to this theory, gaze following should be present if, and only if, accompanied by at least one of a set of specific ostensive cues. The current article demonstrates gaze following in a range of contexts, both with and without expressions of communicative intent in a between-subjects design with a large sample of 6-month-old infants (n = 94). Thus, conceptually replicating prior results from Szufnarowska et al. (2014) and falsifying a central pillar of the natural pedagogy theory. The results suggest that there are opportunities to learn from others’ gaze independently of their displayed communicative intent.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T02:32:02.747401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13026
  • Personality Traits Are Associated With Cortical Development Across
           Adolescence: A Longitudinal Structural MRI Study
    • Authors: Lia Ferschmann; Anders M. Fjell, Margarete E. Vollrath, Håkon Grydeland, Kristine B. Walhovd, Christian K. Tamnes
      Abstract: How personality traits relate to structural brain changes in development is an important but understudied question. In this study, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were investigated in 99 participants aged 8–19 years. Follow-up MRI data were collected after on average 2.6 years for 74 individuals. The Big Five personality traits were related to longitudinal regional CT or SA development, but limited cross-sectional relations were observed. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, and imagination were associated with more age-expected cortical thinning over time. The results suggest that the substantial individual variability observed in personality traits may partly be explained by cortical maturation across adolescence, implying a developmental origin for personality–brain relations observed in adults.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T03:15:47.867255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13016
  • Development of Social Working Memory in Preschoolers and Its Relation to
           Theory of Mind
    • Authors: Jie He; Dong Guo, Shuyi Zhai, Mowei Shen, Zaifeng Gao
      Abstract: Social working memory (WM) has distinct neural substrates from canonical cognitive WM (e.g., color). However, no study, to the best of our knowledge, has yet explored how social WM develops. The current study explored the development of social WM capacity and its relation to theory of mind (ToM). Experiment 1 had sixty-four 3- to 6-year-olds memorize 1–5 biological motion stimuli, the processing of which is considered a hallmark of social cognition. The social WM capacity steadily increased between 3- and 6-year-olds, with the increase between 4 and 5 years being sharp. Furthermore, social WM capacity positively predicted preschoolers' ToM scores, while nonsocial WM capacity did not; this positive correlation was particularly strong among 4-year-olds (Experiment 2, N = 144).
      PubDate: 2018-01-01T21:00:43.24184-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13025
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 333 - 337
      PubDate: 2018-03-12T13:33:22.904094-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12963
  • The Trouble With Quantifiers: Exploring Children's Deficits in Scalar
    • Authors: Alexandra C. Horowitz; Rose M. Schneider, Michael C. Frank
      Abstract: Adults routinely use the context of utterances to infer a meaning beyond the literal semantics of their words (e.g., inferring from “She ate some of the cookies” that she ate some, but not all). Contrasting children's (N = 209) comprehension of scalar implicatures using quantifiers with contextually derived ad hoc implicatures revealed that 4- to 5-year-olds reliably computed ad hoc, but not scalar, implicatures (Experiment 1). Unexpectedly, performance with “some” and “none” was correlated (Experiments 1 and 2). An individual differences study revealed a correlation between quantifier knowledge and implicature success (Experiment 3); a control study ruled out other factors (Experiment 4). These findings suggest that some failures with scalar implicatures may be rooted in a lack of semantic knowledge rather than general pragmatic or processing demands.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29T02:31:00.518055-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13014
  • Differential Associations of Distinct Forms of Childhood Adversity With
           Neurobehavioral Measures of Reward Processing: A Developmental Pathway to
    • Authors: Meg J. Dennison; Maya L. Rosen, Kelly A. Sambrook, Jessica L. Jenness, Margaret A. Sheridan, Katie A. McLaughlin
      Abstract: Childhood adversity is associated with altered reward processing, but little is known about whether this varies across distinct types of adversity. In a sample of 94 children (6–19 years), we investigated whether experiences of material deprivation, emotional deprivation, and trauma have differential associations with reward-related behavior and white matter microstructure in tracts involved in reward processing. Material deprivation (food insecurity), but not emotional deprivation or trauma, was associated with poor reward performance. Adversity-related influences on the integrity of white matter microstructure in frontostriatal tracts varied across childhood adversity types, and reductions in frontostriatal white matter integrity mediated the association of food insecurity with depressive symptoms. These findings document distinct behavioral and neurodevelopmental consequences of specific forms of adversity that have implications for psychopathology risk.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T02:00:45.948362-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13011
  • Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission
    • Authors: Leah C. Hibel; Evelyn Mercado
      Abstract: Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers’ positive affect during the discussion buffered, and intrusion during the free-play potentiated, mother-to-infant adrenocortical transmission. These findings advance our understanding of the social and contextual regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T02:00:38.984524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13010
  • Interactive Contributions of Attribution Biases and Emotional Intensity to
           Child–Friend Interaction Quality During Preadolescence
    • Authors: Xi Chen; Nancy L. McElwain, Jennifer E. Lansford
      Abstract: Using data from a subsample of 913 study children and their friends who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the interactive contributions of child-reported attribution biases and teacher-reported child emotional intensity (EI) at Grade 4 (M = 9.9 years) to observed child–friend interaction at Grade 6 (M = 11.9 years) were examined. Study children's hostile attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more negative child–friend interaction. In contrast, benign attribution bias, combined with high EI, predicted more positive child–friend interaction. The findings are discussed in light of the “fuel” interpretation of EI, in which high-intensity emotions may motivate children to act on their cognitive biases for better or for worse.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T03:15:38.949845-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13012
  • Attachment Security Priming Decreases Children's Physiological Response to
    • Authors: Brandi Stupica; Bonnie E. Brett, Susan S. Woodhouse, Jude Cassidy
      Abstract: Ninety 6- and 7-year-olds (49.3% White, mostly middle class) from greater Washington, DC were randomly assigned to a subliminal priming condition (secure, happy, or neutral) to determine if attachment security priming decreases physiological, expressive, and self-reported fear reactions to threatening stimuli. Dispositional attachment security was also assessed. Secure priming and attachment security each decreased electrodermal reactivity, increased vagal augmentation, and decreased fearful facial expressions compared to control conditions. Examination of a statistical interaction between security priming and child attachment indicated that, although secure children had increased vagal augmentation and fewer fearful expressions than insecure children, the effects of priming were constant across secure and insecure children. There were no priming or attachment effects associated with children's self-reported fear.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T03:10:25.029729-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13009
  • Impact of Contact With Grandparents on Children's and Adolescents’
           Views on the Elderly
    • Authors: Allison Flamion; Pierre Missotten, Manon Marquet, Stéphane Adam
      Abstract: Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against the elderly (ageism) may manifest themselves in children at an early age. However, the factors influencing this phenomenon are not well known. Using both explicit and open-ended questions, this study analyzed the influence of personal and familial parameters on the views of 1,151 seven- to sixteen-year-old Belgian children and adolescents on the elderly. Four factors were found to affect these views: gender (girls had slightly more positive views than boys), age (ageism was lowest in 10- to 12-year-old, reminiscent of other forms of stereotypes and cognitive developmental theories), grandparents’ health, and most importantly, quality of contact with grandparents (very good and good contacts correlated with more favorable feelings toward the elderly, especially in children with frequent contacts).
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T02:05:03.687699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12992
  • Enlisting Peer Cooperation in the Service of Alcohol Use Prevention in
           Middle School
    • Authors: Mark J. Van Ryzin; Cary J. Roseth
      Abstract: This article reports on a cluster randomized trial of cooperative learning (CL) as a way to prevent escalation in alcohol use during middle school (N = 1,460 seventh-grade students, age 12–13, seven intervention and eight control schools). We hypothesized that CL, by bringing students together in group-based learning activities using positive interdependence, would interrupt the process of deviant peer clustering, provide at-risk youth with prosocial influences, and in turn, reduce escalations in alcohol use. Results indicated that CL significantly reduced growth in deviant peer affiliation and actual alcohol use, and effects for willingness to use alcohol were at the threshold of significance (p = .05). CL also attenuated the link between willingness to use alcohol and later alcohol use.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T02:05:02.627928-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12981
  • Creepiness Creeps In: Uncanny Valley Feelings Are Acquired in Childhood
    • Authors: Kimberly A. Brink; Kurt Gray, Henry M. Wellman
      Abstract: The uncanny valley posits that very human-like robots are unsettling, a phenomenon amply demonstrated in adults but unexplored in children. Two hundred forty 3- to 18-year-olds viewed one of two robots (machine-like or very human-like) and rated their feelings toward (e.g., “Does the robot make you feel weird or happy'”) and perceptions of the robot's capacities (e.g., “Does the robot think for itself'”). Like adults, children older than 9 judged the human-like robot as creepier than the machine-like robot—but younger children did not. Children's perceptions of robots’ mental capacities predicted uncanny feelings: children judge robots to be creepy depending on whether they have human-like minds. The uncanny valley is therefore acquired over development and relates to changing conceptions about robot minds.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T08:07:08.302077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12999
  • Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well-Being:
           Evidence From a Population-Based Study
    • Authors: Andrew K. Przybylski; Netta Weinstein
      Abstract: There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well-being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2- to 5-year-olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well-being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (
      PubDate: 2017-12-13T08:06:58.606344-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13007
  • Shyness and Trajectories of Functional Network Connectivity Over Early
    • Authors: Chad M. Sylvester; Diana J. Whalen, Andy C. Belden, Shana L. Sanchez, Joan L. Luby, Deanna M. Barch
      Abstract: High shyness during early adolescence is associated with impaired peer relationships and risk for psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, about the relation between shyness and trajectories of brain development over early adolescence. The current study longitudinally examined trajectories of resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) within four brain networks in 147 adolescents. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at three different time points, at average ages 10.5 (range = 7.8–13.0), 11.7 (range = 9.3–14.1), and 12.9 years (range = 10.1–15.2). Multilevel linear modeling indicated that high shyness was associated with a less steep negative slope of default mode network (DMN) rs-fc over early adolescence relative to low shyness. Less steep decreases in DMN rs-fc may relate to increased self-focus in adolescents with high shyness.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T23:46:31.550036-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13005
  • Learning to Individuate: The Specificity of Labels Differentially Impacts
           Infant Visual Attention
    • Authors: Charisse B. Pickron; Arjun Iyer, Eswen Fava, Lisa S. Scott
      Abstract: This study examined differences in visual attention as a function of label learning from 6 to 9 months of age. Before and after 3 months of parent-directed storybook training with computer-generated novel objects, event-related potentials and visual fixations were recorded while infants viewed trained and untrained images (n = 23). Relative to a pretraining, a no-training control group (n = 11), and to infants trained with category-level labels (e.g., all labeled “Hitchel”), infants trained with individual-level labels (e.g., “Boris,” “Jamar”) displayed increased visual attention and neural differentiation of objects after training.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T07:28:04.970784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13004
  • Development of Episodic Prospection: Factors Underlying Improvements in
           Middle and Late Childhood
    • Authors: Christine Coughlin; Richard W. Robins, Simona Ghetti
      Abstract: Episodic prospection is the mental simulation of a personal future event in rich contextual detail. This study examined age-related differences in episodic prospection in 5- to 11-year-olds and adults (N = 157), as well as factors that may contribute to developmental improvements. Participants’ narratives of past, future, and make-believe events were coded for episodic content, and self-concept coherence (i.e., how coherently an individual sees himself or herself) and narrative ability were tested as predictors of episodic prospection. Although all ages provided less episodic content for future event narratives, age-related improvements were observed across childhood, suggesting future event generation is particularly difficult for children. Self-concept coherence and narrative ability each independently predicted the episodic content of 5- and 7-year-olds’ future event narratives.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T02:20:33.881192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13001
  • Adolescent Perceptions of Parental Privacy Invasion and Adolescent
           Secrecy: An Illustration of Simpson's Paradox
    • Authors: Evelien Dietvorst; Marieke Hiemstra, Manon H.J. Hillegers, Loes Keijsers
      Abstract: Adolescents’ secrecy is intertwined with perception of parents’ behaviors as acts of privacy invasion. It is currently untested, however, how this transactional process operates at the within-person level—where these causal processes take place. Dutch adolescents (n = 244, Mage = 13.84, 38.50% boys) reported three times on perceived parental privacy invasion and secrecy. Cross-lagged panel models (CLPM) confirmed earlier findings. Privacy invasion predicted increased secrecy, but a reverse effect was found from increased secrecy to increased privacy invasion. Controlling for confounding positive group-level associations with a novel random intercept CLPM, negative within-person associations were found. Higher levels of secrecy predicted lower levels of privacy invasive behaviors at the within-person level. These opposing findings within- versus between-persons illustrate a Simpson's paradox.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:25:53.702259-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13002
  • Multiracial in Middle School: The Influence of Classmates and Friends on
           Changes in Racial Self-Identification
    • Authors: Leslie Echols; Jerreed Ivanich, Sandra Graham
      Abstract: In the present research, the influence of racial diversity among classmates and friends on changes in racial self-identification among multiracial youth was examined (n = 5,209; Mage = 10.56 years at the beginning of sixth grade). A novel individual-level measure of diversity among classmates based on participants’ course schedules was utilized. The findings revealed that although there was some fluidity in multiracial identification at the beginning of middle school, changes in multiracial identification were more evident later in middle school. In addition, although diversity among classmates and friends both increased the likelihood of multiracial identification in the beginning of middle school, only diversity among friends mattered later in middle school, when fluidity in multiracial identification was at its peak.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T07:25:25.784784-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13000
  • A Within-Family Examination of Interparental Conflict, Cognitive
           Appraisals, and Adolescent Mood and Well-Being
    • Authors: Gregory M. Fosco; David M. Lydon-Staley
      Abstract: Interparental conflict (IPC) is a well-established risk factor across child and adolescent development. This study disentangled situational (within-family) and global (between-family) appraisal processes to better map hypothesized processes to adolescents’ experiences in the family. This 21-day daily dairy study sampled 151 caregivers and their adolescents (61.5% female). Using multilevel mediation analyses indicated that, on days when IPC was elevated, adolescents experienced more threat and self-blame. In turn, when adolescents experienced more threat appraisals, they experienced diminished positive well-being; whereas days when adolescents felt more self-blame, they experienced increased negative mood and diminished positive well-being. Statistically significant indirect effects were found for threat as a mediator of IPC and positive outcomes. Daily blame appraisals mediated IPC and adolescent angry mood.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:40:36.910962-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12997
  • Exposure to Parental Depression in Adolescence and Risk for Metabolic
           Syndrome in Adulthood
    • Authors: Katherine B. Ehrlich; Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gregory E. Miller, Gene H. Brody
      Abstract: The psychosocial consequences of living with a depressed parent have been well characterized. Less well known, however, is how this exposure is predictive of later physical health problems. The present study evaluated how parental depression across youths’ adolescence (ages 11–18) was associated with youth metabolic syndrome at age 25 (n = 391). Youth self-regulation and health behaviors were considered as possible moderators of the link between parental depression and youth metabolic syndrome. Analyses revealed that parental depression in adolescence was associated with a composite score reflecting metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood. Furthermore, self-regulation and health behaviors moderated this link, such that links between parental depression and the metabolic syndrome existed only for youth with low self-regulation or unhealthy behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:40:28.350271-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13003
  • Is There a Downside to Anticipating the Upside' Children's and
           Adults’ Reasoning About How Prior Expectations Shape Future Emotions
    • Authors: Karen Hjortsvang Lara; Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J. Kramer
      Abstract: Four- to 10-year-olds and adults (N = 205) responded to vignettes involving three individuals with different expectations (high, low, and no) for a future event. Participants judged characters’ pre-outcome emotions, as well as predicted and explained their feelings following three events (positive, attenuated, and negative). Although adults rated high-expectation characters more negatively than low-expectation characters after all outcomes, children shared this intuition starting at 6–7 years for negative outcomes, 8–10 years for attenuated, and never for positive. Comparison to baseline (no expectation) indicated that understanding the costs of high expectations emerges first and remains more robust across age than recognition that low expectations carry benefits. Explanation analyses further clarified this developing awareness about the relation between thoughts and emotions over time.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T00:00:41.289809-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12994
  • High-Ability Grouping: Benefits for Gifted Students’ Achievement
           Development Without Costs in Academic Self-Concept
    • Authors: Franzis Preckel; Isabelle Schmidt, Eva Stumpf, Monika Motschenbacher, Katharina Vogl, Vsevolod Scherrer, Wolfgang Schneider
      Abstract: Effects of full-time ability grouping on students’ academic self-concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students’ average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. The study sample comprised 148 (60% male) students from 14 gifted classes and 148 (57% male) students from 25 regular classes (matched by propensity score matching). Data analyses involved multilevel and latent growth curve analyses. Findings revealed no evidence for contrast effects of class-average achievement or assimilation effects of class type on students’ ASC. ASC remained stable over time. Students in gifted classes showed higher achievement gains than students in regular classes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T23:50:34.652099-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12996
  • The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Universal Preschool: Evidence From
           a Spanish Reform
    • Authors: Thomas Huizen; Lisa Dumhs, Janneke Plantenga
      Abstract: This study provides a cost–benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit–cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. The results show that the child development effects are the major determinant of the cost–benefit ratio; the employment gains for parents appear to play a relatively minor role. Overall, the cost–benefit analysis provides support for investing in high-quality preschool education.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T07:05:26.963147-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12993
  • Promoting Resilience Among African American Girls: Racial Identity as a
           Protective Factor
    • Authors: Sheretta T. Butler-Barnes; Seanna Leath, Amber Williams, Christy Byrd, Rona Carter, Tabbye M. Chavous
      Abstract: This study examines school climate, racial identity beliefs, and achievement motivation beliefs within a cultural-ecological and risk and resilience framework. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 733 (Mage = 14.49) African American adolescent girls. A linear mixed effects model was used to determine if racial identity dimensions moderated the relationship between school climate and achievement motivation beliefs across four waves. Results revealed that racial identity (private regard and racial centrality) and ideology (nationalist) beliefs were associated with higher achievement motivation beliefs over time, while racial centrality and private regard, and a sense of belonging served as protective factors. The findings contribute to the importance of racial identity beliefs and increase the visibility of African American girls.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T07:05:22.474515-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12995
  • Development of Gender Typicality and Felt Pressure in European French and
           North African French Adolescents
    • Authors: Adam J. Hoffman; Florence Dumas, Florence Loose, Annique Smeding, Beth Kurtz-Costes, Isabelle Régner
      Abstract: Trajectories of gender identity were examined from Grade 6 (Mage = 11.9 years) to Grade 9 in European French (n = 570) and North African French (n = 534) adolescents, and gender and ethnic group differences were assessed in these trajectories. In Grade 6, boys of both ethnic groups reported higher levels of gender typicality and felt pressure for gender conformity than girls. European French girls and boys and North African French girls reported decreasing gender typicality from Grade 6 to Grade 9, whereas North African French boys did not change. Felt pressure decreased among girls, did not change in European French boys, and increased in North African French boys. Ethnic and gender differences in gender identity development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:15:45.15027-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12959
  • Changes in the Relation Between Competence Beliefs and Achievement in Math
           Across Elementary School Years
    • Authors: Anne F. Weidinger; Ricarda Steinmayr, Birgit Spinath
      Abstract: Math competence beliefs and achievement are important outcomes of school-based learning. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on whether skill development, self-enhancement, or reciprocal effects account for the interplay among them. A development-related change in the direction of their relation in the early school years might explain the inconsistency. To test this, 542 German elementary school students (M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.58) were repeatedly investigated over 24 months from Grade 2 to Grade 4. Math competence beliefs declined and had a growing influence on subsequent math grades. This suggests changes in the dominant direction of the relation from a skill development to a reciprocal effects model during elementary school. Findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical and practical implications.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T07:35:50.766303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12806
  • Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive
           Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach
    • Authors: Michael Kühhirt; Markus Klein
      Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children who have been exposed to very different patterns of eary maternal employment, but with similar observed covariate history.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T05:35:39.143225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12796
  • Prenatal Risk and Infant Regulation: Indirect Pathways via Fetal Growth
           and Maternal Prenatal Stress and Anger
    • Authors: Pamela Schuetze; Rina D. Eiden, Craig R. Colder, Marilyn A. Huestis, Kenneth E. Leonard
      Abstract: Pathways from maternal tobacco, marijuana, stress, and anger in pregnancy to infant reactivity and regulation (RR) at 9 months of infant age were examined in a low-income, diverse sample beginning in the first trimester of pregnancy, with fetal growth and postnatal stress/anger as potential mediators, and infant sex as a moderator. Participants were 247 dyads (173 substance-exposed infants). There were no direct effects of prenatal risk on RR and no moderation by sex. However, there were significant indirect effects on RR via poor fetal growth and higher postnatal anger. The study adds to the sparse literature on joint effects of tobacco and marijuana, and highlights the role of fetal growth and maternal anger as important pathways from prenatal risk to infant RR.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06T05:35:33.827822-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12801
  • High School Dropout in Proximal Context: The Triggering Role of Stressful
           Life Events
    • Authors: Véronique Dupéré; Eric Dion, Tama Leventhal, Isabelle Archambault, Robert Crosnoe, Michel Janosz
      Abstract: Adolescents who drop out of high school experience enduring negative consequences across many domains. Yet, the circumstances triggering their departure are poorly understood. This study examined the precipitating role of recent psychosocial stressors by comparing three groups of Canadian high school students (52% boys; Mage = 16.3 years; N = 545): recent dropouts, matched at-risk students who remain in school, and average students. Results indicate that in comparison with the two other groups, dropouts were over three times more likely to have experienced recent acute stressors rated as severe by independent coders. These stressors occurred across a variety of domains. Considering the circumstances in which youth decide to drop out has implications for future research and for policy and practice.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T05:30:29.349149-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12792
  • Associations Between Household Food Insecurity in Early Childhood and
           Children's Kindergarten Skills
    • Authors: Anna D. Johnson; Anna J. Markowitz
      Abstract: Using nationally representative data on a recent birth cohort of U.S.-born children in low-income households (n = 2,800–3,700), this study investigates associations between the timing and intensity of early childhood food insecurity and children's kindergarten reading, math, and social-emotional outcomes. Descriptive patterns reveal that approximately 20% of low-income 0- to 5-year-old children reside in food-insecure households. Food insecurity experienced during early childhood is unfavorably associated with social-emotional outcomes in kindergarten, controlling for household income and prior assessments of child social-emotional skills. Results are less consistent for cognitive outcomes but similar in magnitude. If replicated, findings may inform policy efforts to reduce disparities in early skills for approximately 15 million U.S. children in food-insecure households.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T00:05:43.820394-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12764
  • Naturalistic Language Recordings Reveal “Hypervocal” Infants at High
           Familial Risk for Autism
    • Authors: Meghan R. Swanson; Mark D. Shen, Jason J. Wolff, Brian Boyd, Mark Clements, James Rehg, Jed T. Elison, Sarah Paterson, Julia Parish-Morris, J. Chad Chappell, Heather C. Hazlett, Robert W. Emerson, Kelly Botteron, Juhi Pandey, Robert T. Schultz, Stephen R. Dager, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Annette M. Estes, Joseph Piven,
      Abstract: Children's early language environments are related to later development. Little is known about this association in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who often experience language delays or have ASD. Fifty-nine 9-month-old infants at high or low familial risk for ASD contributed full-day in-home language recordings. High-risk infants produced more vocalizations than low-risk peers; conversational turns and adult words did not differ by group. Vocalization differences were driven by a subgroup of “hypervocal” infants. Despite more vocalizations overall, these infants engaged in less social babbling during a standardized clinic assessment, and they experienced fewer conversational turns relative to their rate of vocalizations. Two ways in which these individual and environmental differences may relate to subsequent development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:56:55.66321-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12777
  • Fathers' Infant-Directed Speech in a Small-Scale Society
    • Authors: Tanya Broesch; Gregory A. Bryant
      Abstract: When speaking to infants, mothers often alter their speech compared to how they speak to adults, but findings for fathers are mixed. This study examined interactions (N = 30) between fathers and infants (Mage ± SD = 7.8 ± 4.3 months) in a small-scale society in Vanuatu and two urban societies in North America. Fundamental frequency (F0) and speech rate were measured in infant-directed and adult-directed speech. When speaking to infants, fathers in both groups increased their F0 range, yet only Vanuatu fathers increased their average F0. Conversely, North American fathers slowed down their speech rate to infants, whereas Vanuatu fathers did not. Behavioral traits can vary across distant cultures while still potentially solving similar communicative problems.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T01:20:28.452716-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12768
  • Sleep Tight, Act Right: Negative Affect, Sleep and Behavior Problems
           During Early Childhood
    • Authors: Amanda Cremone; Desiree M. Jong, Lauri B. F. Kurdziel, Phillip Desrochers, Aline Sayer, Monique K. LeBourgeois, Rebecca M. C. Spencer, Jennifer M. McDermott
      Abstract: Temperamental negative affect and insufficient sleep have been independently associated with behavior problems during early childhood. However, it is unknown whether these factors interact to contribute to behavioral difficulties in young children. The current study examined the interactions between temperamental negative affect and both sleep onset time and sleep midpoint, assessed by actigraphy, in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 117 children (34–69 months of age). Children with high temperamental negative affect and either later sleep onset time or later sleep midpoint were more likely to exhibit externalizing and internalizing behaviors. These results emphasize the association between temperamental negative affect and behavioral difficulties, particularly for children with insufficient sleep.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T12:30:29.607345-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12717
  • Adolescent Sleep Duration, Variability, and Peak Levels of Achievement and
           Mental Health
    • Authors: Andrew J. Fuligni; Erin H. Arruda, Jennifer L. Krull, Nancy A. Gonzales
      Abstract: To inform public health recommendations for adolescent sleep, the amounts of sleep associated with the highest levels of academic achievement and mental health were examined. The degree to which daily variability in sleep duration represents an underappreciated but functionally significant sleep behavior also was tested. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage = 15.03 years) with Mexican-American backgrounds reported nightly sleep times for 2 weeks; approximately 80% repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated that the amount of sleep associated with the lowest levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms was more than 1 hr greater than the amount associated with the highest levels of academic performance. Greater daily variability in sleep duration predicted greater symptomatology and mixed academic outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T12:30:26.822997-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12729
  • Rituals Improve Children's Ability to Delay Gratification
    • Authors: Veronika Rybanska; Ryan McKay, Jonathan Jong, Harvey Whitehouse
      Pages: 349 - 359
      Abstract: To be accepted into social groups, individuals must internalize and reproduce appropriate group conventions, such as rituals. The copying of such rigid and socially stipulated behavioral sequences places heavy demands on executive function. Given previous research showing that challenging executive functioning improves it, it was hypothesized that engagement in ritualistic behaviors improves children's executive functioning, in turn improving their ability to delay gratification. A 3-month circle time games intervention with 210 schoolchildren (Mage = 7.78 years, SD = 1.47) in two contrasting cultural environments (Slovakia and Vanuatu) was conducted. The intervention improved children's executive function and in turn their ability to delay gratification. Moreover, these effects were amplified when the intervention task was imbued with ritual, rather than instrumental, cues.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:00:25.280493-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12762
  • Locating Economic Risks for Adolescent Mental and Behavioral Health:
           Poverty and Affluence in Families, Neighborhoods, and Schools
    • Authors: Rebekah Levine Coley; Jacqueline Sims, Eric Dearing, Bryn Spielvogel
      Pages: 360 - 369
      Abstract: Research has identified risks of both poverty and affluence for adolescents. This study sought to clarify associations between income and youth mental and behavioral health by delineating economic risks derived from family, neighborhood, and school contexts within a nationally representative sample of high school students (N = 13,179, average age 16). Attending schools with more affluent schoolmates was associated with heightened likelihoods of intoxication, drug use, and property crime, but youth at poorer schools reported greater depressive and anxiety symptoms, engagement in violence, and for male adolescents, more frequent violence and intoxication. Neighborhood and family income were far less predictive. Results suggest that adolescent health risks derive from both ends of the economic spectrum, and may be largely driven by school contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T12:45:29.510467-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12771
  • The Development of Implicit Memory From Infancy to Childhood: On Average
           Performance Levels and Interindividual Differences
    • Authors: Isabel A. Vöhringer; Thorsten Kolling, Frauke Graf, Sonja Poloczek, Ina Fassbender, Claudia Freitag, Bettina Lamm, Janina Suhrke, Johanna Teiser, Manuel Teubert, Heidi Keller, Arnold Lohaus, Gudrun Schwarzer, Monika Knopf
      Pages: 370 - 382
      Abstract: The present multimethod longitudinal study aimed at investigating development and stability of implicit memory during infancy and early childhood. A total of 134 children were followed longitudinally from 3 months to 3 years of life assessing different age-appropriate measures of implicit memory. Results from structural equation modeling give further evidence that implicit memory is stable from 9 months of life on, with earlier performance predicting later performance. Second, it was found that implicit memory is present from early on, and no age-related improvements are found from 3 months on. Results are discussed with respect to the basic brain structures implicit memory builds on, as well as methodological issues.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T05:55:58.596152-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12749
  • Chinese Malaysian Adolescents' Social-Cognitive Reasoning Regarding Filial
           Piety Dilemmas
    • Authors: Charissa S. L. Cheah; Christy Y. Y. Leung, Sevgi Bayram Özdemir
      Pages: 383 - 396
      Abstract: This study examined the social-cognitive reasoning of 52 Chinese Malaysian preadolescents (9–12 years old; M = 11.02, SD = 0.94) and 68 adolescents (13–18 years old; M = 14.76, SD = 1.39) in resolving filial dilemmas within the personal and moral domain. Preadolescents deferred to parental authority, whereas adolescents endorsed filial obligation reasoning to justify compliance in the personal domain. Both appealed to filial obligation, pragmatic, or welfare and safety reasoning to justify compliance but fairness or rights reasoning to justify their noncompliance, for the moral issue. Distinctions between authoritarian and reciprocal filial piety reasoning were revealed. Findings demonstrated complex decision-making and cognitive reasoning processes among Chinese Malaysian adolescents as they negotiate their filial obligations and autonomy development.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T04:30:25.114583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12725
  • Gender Differences in the Developmental Cascade From Harsh Parenting to
           Educational Attainment: An Evolutionary Perspective
    • Authors: Rochelle F. Hentges; Ming-Te Wang
      Pages: 397 - 413
      Abstract: This study utilized life history theory to test a developmental cascade model linking harsh parenting to low educational attainment. Multigroup models were examined to test for potential gender differences. The sample consisted of 1,482 adolescents followed up for 9 years starting in seventh grade (Mage = 12.74). Results supported indirect links between harsh parenting and low educational attainment through the development of extreme peer orientations, early sexual behavior, and delinquency. Among male adolescents, harsh parenting was related to the development of an extreme peer orientation, which further led to increased delinquency, and subsequently lower educational attainment. Among female adolescents, harsh parenting predicted extreme peer orientations, which increased both delinquency and early sexual behavior. Early sexual behavior further predicted lower educational attainment in female adolescents.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T00:07:07.039322-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12719
  • Preschoolers Continually Adjust Their Epistemic Trust Based on an
           Informant's Ongoing Accuracy
    • Authors: Samuel Ronfard; Jonathan D. Lane
      Pages: 414 - 429
      Abstract: Children aged 4–7 years (N = 120) played four rounds of a find-the-sticker game. For each round, an informant looked into two cups and made a claim about which cup held a sticker. At the end of each round, children guessed the sticker's location, and then the sticker's actual location was revealed. For three of the rounds, the informant accurately reported the sticker's location. But critically, for one round—either Round 1, 2, or 3—she was inaccurate. Children continually adjusted their trust in the informant as they obtained more information about her accuracy. Relations between the informant's pattern of accuracy and children's trust were robust, neither mediated nor moderated by children inferences about her intent or traits.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T04:30:28.165381-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12720
  • Gaze-Contingent Display Changes as New Window on Analytical and Holistic
           Face Perception in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
    • Authors: Kris Evers; Goedele Van Belle, Jean Steyaert, Ilse Noens, Johan Wagemans
      Pages: 430 - 445
      Abstract: The strength of holistic face perception in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was evaluated by applying the gaze-contingent mask and window technique to a face matching and discrimination task in 6- to 14-year-old children with (n = 36) and without ASD (n = 47), and by examining fixation patterns. Behavioral results suggested a slower and less efficient face processing in the ASD sample compared with the matched control group. Comparing the moving mask and window conditions revealed a reduced holistic face processing bias in the younger age group but not in the older sample. Preferential viewing patterns revealed both similarities and differences between both participant groups.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:56:51.794112-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12776
  • The Development of Spatial Skills in Elementary School Students
    • Authors: Martha Carr; Natalia Alexeev, Lu Wang, Nicole Barned, Erin Horan, Adam Reed
      Pages: 446 - 460
      Abstract: Through five waves of data collection, this longitudinal study investigated the development of spatial skills in 304 elementary school children (Mage = 7.64 years) as they progressed from the second to fourth grade. The study focused on whether multiple latent classes with different developmental profiles best explain development. Spatial skills were measured by tests featuring two-dimensional figures. Mathematics achievement was measured by the statewide end-of-year test and was included as a distal outcome variable. The role of covariates, including socioeconomic status, verbal working memory, and gender, was also explored. The results indicate a need to view two-dimensional spatial skills development as multidimensional with two developmental profiles predicted by socioeconomic status, verbal working memory, and gender. The developmental profiles predicted differences in mathematics achievement.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T06:20:40.965255-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12753
  • Fitting the Message to the Listener: Children Selectively Mention General
           and Specific Facts
    • Authors: Carolyn Baer; Ori Friedman
      Pages: 461 - 475
      Abstract: In three experiments, two hundred and ninety-seven 4- to 6-year-olds were asked to describe objects to a listener, and their answers were coded for the presence of general and specific facts. In Experiments 1 and 2, the listener's knowledge of the kinds of objects was manipulated. This affected references to specific facts at all ages, but only affected references to general facts in children aged 5 and older. In Experiment 3, children's goal in communicating was either pedagogical or not. Pedagogy influenced references to general information from age 4, but not references to specific information. These findings are informative about how children vary general and specific information in conversation, and suggest that listeners' knowledge and children's pedagogical goals influenced children's responses via different mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T05:05:31.228221-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12751
  • Developmental Relations Among Motor and Cognitive Processes and
           Mathematics Skills
    • Authors: Helyn Kim; Chelsea A. K. Duran, Claire E. Cameron, David Grissmer
      Pages: 476 - 494
      Abstract: This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years. Associations were dynamic, with more reciprocal transactions occurring in kindergarten than in the later grades. Specifically, visuomotor integration and mathematics exhibited ongoing reciprocity in kindergarten and first grade, attention contributed to mathematics in kindergarten and first grade, mathematics contributed to attention across the kindergarten year only, and fine motor coordination contributed to mathematics indirectly, through visuomotor integration, across kindergarten and first grade. Implications of examining the hierarchical interrelations among processes underlying the development of children's mathematics skills are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T05:05:33.881351-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12752
  • Memory and Executive Functioning in 12-Year-Old Children With a History of
           Institutional Rearing
    • Authors: Johanna Bick; Charles H. Zeanah, Nathan A. Fox, Charles A. Nelson
      Pages: 495 - 508
      Abstract: We examined visual recognition memory and executive functioning (spatial working memory [SWM], spatial planning, rule learning, and attention shifting) in 12-year-olds (n = 150) who participated in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. Similar to prior reports at 8 years of age, institutionally reared children showed significant deficits in visual recognition memory and SWM. Deficits in attention shifting and rule learning were also apparent at this time point. These data suggest that early experiences continue to shape the development of memory, learning, and executive functioning processes in preadolescence, which may explain broader cognitive and learning difficulties commonly associated with severe early life neglect.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T07:56:00.600628-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12952
  • Peer Problems and Hyperactivity–Impulsivity Among Norwegian and American
           Children: The Role of 5-HTTLPR
    • Authors: Frode Stenseng; Zhi Li, Jay Belsky, Beate W. Hygen, Vera Skalicka, Ismail C. Guzey, Lars Wichstrøm
      Pages: 509 - 524
      Abstract: Peer problems are linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and the serotonin system is thought to be involved in ADHD-related behavior. Hence, from a Gene × Environment perspective, the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR may play a moderating role. In two large community samples, the moderating role of 5-HTTLPR was examined related to more hyperactivity–impulsivity symptoms (HI symptoms) predicted by more peer problems. In Study 1, involving 642 Norwegian children, results indicated that for s-allele carriers only, caregiver-reported peer problems at age 4 predicted more parent-reported HI symptoms at age 6. In Study 2, similar results emerged involving 482 American children. Discussion focuses on differential sensitivity to the adverse effects of poor peer relations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:56:34.242251-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12766
  • Cortisol in Neonatal Mother's Milk Predicts Later Infant Social and
           Cognitive Functioning in Rhesus Monkeys
    • Authors: Amanda M. Dettmer; Ashley M. Murphy, Denisse Guitarra, Emily Slonecker, Stephen J. Suomi, Kendra L. Rosenberg, Melinda A. Novak, Jerrold S. Meyer, Katie Hinde
      Pages: 525 - 538
      Abstract: Milk provides not only the building blocks for somatic development but also the hormonal signals that contribute to the biopsychological organization of the infant. Among mammals, glucocorticoids (GCs) in mother's milk have been associated with infant temperament. This study extended prior work to investigate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mother–infant dyads (N = 34) from birth through 8 months postpartum. Regression analysis revealed that cortisol concentrations in milk during the neonatal period predicted impulsivity on a cognitive task, but not global social behaviors, months later. During this time period, sex-differentiated social behavior emerged. For female infants, milk cortisol concentrations predicted total frequency of play. Collectively, these findings support and extend the “lactational programming” hypothesis on the impact of maternal-origin hormones ingested via milk.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:32:47.56675-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12783
  • What Is the Long-Run Impact of Learning Mathematics During Preschool'
    • Authors: Tyler W. Watts; Greg J. Duncan, Douglas H. Clements, Julie Sarama
      Pages: 539 - 555
      Abstract: The current study estimated the causal links between preschool mathematics learning and late elementary school mathematics achievement using variation in treatment assignment to an early mathematics intervention as an instrument for preschool mathematics change. Estimates indicate (n = 410) that a standard deviation of intervention-produced change at age 4 is associated with a 0.24-SD gain in achievement in late elementary school. This impact is approximately half the size of the association produced by correlational models relating later achievement to preschool math change, and is approximately 35% smaller than the effect reported by highly controlled ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models (Claessens et al., 2009; Watts et al., ) using national data sets. Implications for developmental theory and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-20T04:35:41.036704-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12713
  • Low-Income Ethnically Diverse Children's Engagement as a Predictor of
           School Readiness Above Preschool Classroom Quality
    • Authors: Terri J. Sabol; Natalie L. Bohlmann, Jason T. Downer
      Pages: 556 - 576
      Abstract: This study examined whether children's observed individual engagement with teachers, peers, and tasks related to their school readiness after controlling for observed preschool classroom quality and children's baseline skills. The sample included 211 predominately low-income, racially/ethnically diverse 4-year-old children in 49 preschool classrooms in one medium-sized U.S. city. Results indicated that children's positive engagement with (a) teachers related to improved literacy skills; (b) peers related to improved language and self-regulatory skills; and (c) tasks related to closer relationships with teachers. Children's negative engagement was associated with lower language, literacy, and self-regulatory skills, and more conflict and closeness with teachers. Effect sizes were small to medium in magnitude, and some expected relations between positive engagement and school readiness were not found.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T23:45:42.650576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12832
  • Longitudinal Relations Among Parenting Styles, Prosocial Behaviors, and
           Academic Outcomes in U.S. Mexican Adolescents
    • Authors: Gustavo Carlo; Rebecca M. B. White, Cara Streit, George P. Knight, Katharine H. Zeiders
      Pages: 577 - 592
      Abstract: This article examined parenting styles and prosocial behaviors as longitudinal predictors of academic outcomes in U.S. Mexican youth. Adolescents (N = 462; Wave 1 Mage = 10.4 years; 48.1% girls), parents, and teachers completed parenting, prosocial behavior, and academic outcome measures at 5th, 10th, and 12th grades. Authoritative parents were more likely to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors than those who were moderately demanding and less involved. Fathers and mothers who were less involved and mothers who were moderately demanding were less likely than authoritative parents to have youth who exhibited high levels of prosocial behaviors. Prosocial behaviors were positively associated with academic outcomes. Discussion focuses on parenting, prosocial behaviors, and academic attitudes in understanding youth academic performance.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:00:27.516091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12761
  • Associations Among Infant Iron Deficiency, Childhood Emotion and Attention
           Regulation, and Adolescent Problem Behaviors
    • Authors: Patricia East; Erin Delker, Betsy Lozoff, Jorge Delva, Marcela Castillo, Sheila Gahagan
      Pages: 593 - 608
      Abstract: This study examined whether iron deficiency (ID) in infancy contributes to problem behaviors in adolescence through its influence on poor regulatory abilities in childhood. Chilean infants (N = 1,116) were studied when there was no national program for iron fortification (1991–1996), resulting in high rates of ID (28%) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA, 17%). Infants (54% male) were studied at childhood (Mage = 10 years) and adolescence (Mage = 14 years). IDA in infancy was related to excessive alcohol use and risky sexual behavior in adolescence through its effect on poor emotion regulation in childhood. Attentional control deficits at age 10 were also related to both infant IDA and heightened risk taking in adolescence. Findings elucidate how poor childhood regulatory abilities associated with infant IDA compromise adjustment in adolescence.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T23:30:29.958551-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12765
  • Not All Distractions Are the Same: Investigating Why Preschoolers Make
           Distraction Errors When Switching
    • Authors: Emma Blakey; Daniel J. Carroll
      Pages: 609 - 619
      Abstract: When switching between tasks, preschoolers frequently make distraction errors—as distinct from perseverative errors. This study examines for the first time why preschoolers make these errors. One hundred and sixty-four 2- and 3-year-olds completed one of four different conditions on a rule-switching task requiring children to sort stimuli according to one rule and then switch to a new rule. Conditions varied according to the type of information that children needed to ignore. Children made significantly more distraction errors when the to-be-ignored information was related to the previous rule. When it was not related to a previous rule, even young preschoolers could disregard this information. This demonstrates that distraction errors are caused by children's initial goal representations that continue to affect performance.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09T08:00:33.140636-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12721
  • Gender Development in Transgender Preschool Children
    • Authors: Anne A. Fast; Kristina R. Olson
      Pages: 620 - 637
      Abstract: An increasing number of transgender children—those who express a gender identity that is “opposite” their natal sex—are socially transitioning, or presenting as their gender identity in everyday life. This study asks whether these children differ from gender-typical peers on basic gender development tasks. Three- to 5-year-old socially transitioned transgender children (n = 36) did not differ from controls matched on age and expressed gender (n = 36), or siblings of transgender and gender nonconforming children (n = 24) on gender preference, behavior, and belief measures. However, transgender children were less likely than both control groups to believe that their gender at birth matches their current gender, whereas both transgender children and siblings were less likely than controls to believe that other people's gender is stable.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T00:50:35.082735-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12758
  • Associations of Early Developmental Milestones With Adult Intelligence
    • Authors: Trine Flensborg-Madsen; Erik L. Mortensen
      Pages: 638 - 648
      Abstract: The study investigated whether age at attainment of 20 developmental milestones within the areas of language, walking, eating, dressing, social interaction, and toilet training was associated with adult intelligence. Mothers of 821 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 20 developmental milestones at a 3-year examination, and all children were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale when they were 20–34 years old. Later attainment of a number of milestones was associated with lower adult IQ with the strongest associations found for those related to language and social interaction. The adjusted full-scale IQ means were 107.0, 101.8, and 100.6 for being able to form a sentence at less than 24 months, at 24 months, and later than 24 months.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15T04:45:42.437654-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12760
  • Inferring Beliefs and Desires From Emotional Reactions to Anticipated and
           Observed Events
    • Authors: Yang Wu; Laura E. Schulz
      Pages: 649 - 662
      Abstract: Researchers have long been interested in the relation between emotion understanding and theory of mind. This study investigates a cue to mental states that has rarely been investigated: the dynamics of valenced emotional expressions. When the valence of a character's facial expression was stable between an expected and observed outcome, children (N = 122; M = 5.0 years) recovered the character's desires but did not consistently recover her beliefs. When the valence changed, older but not younger children recovered both the characters’ beliefs and desires. In contrast, adults jointly recovered agents’ beliefs and desires in all conditions. These results suggest that the ability to infer mental states from the dynamics of emotional expressions develops gradually through early and middle childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T04:15:30.091883-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12759
  • The Interplay Among Children's Negative Family Representations, Visual
           Processing of Negative Emotions, and Externalizing Symptoms
    • Authors: Patrick T. Davies; Jesse L. Coe, Rochelle F. Hentges, Melissa L. Sturge-Apple, Erika Kloet
      Pages: 663 - 680
      Abstract: This study examined the transactional interplay among children's negative family representations, visual processing of negative emotions, and externalizing symptoms in a sample of 243 preschool children (Mage = 4.60 years). Children participated in three annual measurement occasions. Cross-lagged autoregressive models were conducted with multimethod, multi-informant data to identify mediational pathways. Consistent with schema-based top-down models, negative family representations were associated with attention to negative faces in an eye-tracking task and their externalizing symptoms. Children's negative representations of family relationships specifically predicted decreases in their attention to negative emotions, which, in turn, was associated with subsequent increases in their externalizing symptoms. Follow-up analyses indicated that the mediational role of diminished attention to negative emotions was particularly pronounced for angry faces.
      PubDate: 2017-02-25T00:47:13.094927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12767
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