Journal Cover Evidence Based Library and Information Practice
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1715-720X - ISSN (Online) 1715-720X
   Published by U of Alberta Homepage  [10 journals]
  • EBLIP Receives the Seal of Approval

    • Authors: Lorie A. Kloda
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: no abstract
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8CM1R
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Editorial Responsibilities

    • Authors: . .
      First page: 3
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8H95D
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • The C-EBLIP Fall Symposium: Librarians as Researchers

    • Authors: Virginia Wilson
      Pages: 4 - 5
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8RS9X
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Collaborating to Increase the Evidence Base in Library and Information

    • Authors: Margaret E. Henderson
      Pages: 6 - 14
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8K951
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Through the Students’ Lens: Photographic Methods for Research in
           Library Spaces

    • Authors: Shailoo Bedi, Jenaya Webb
      Pages: 15 - 35
      Abstract: Abstract Objective – As librarians and researchers, we are deeply curious about how our library users navigate and experience our library spaces. Although we have some data about users’ experiences and wayfinding strategies at our libraries, including anecdotal evidence, statistics, surveys, and focus group discussions, we lacked more in-depth information that reflected students’ real-time experiences as they move through our library spaces. Our objective is to address that gap by using photographic methods for studying library spaces. Methods – We present two studies conducted in two academic libraries that used participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) methods. Described simply, photo-elicitation methods involve the use of photographs as discussion prompts in interviews. In both studies presented here, we asked participants to take photographs that reflected their experiences using and navigating our library spaces. We then met with participants for an interview using their photos as prompts to discuss their experiences. Results – Our analysis of students’ photos and interviews provided rich descriptions of student experiences in library spaces. This analysis resulted in new insights into the ways that students navigate the library as well as the ways that signage, furniture, technology, and artwork in the library can shape student experiences in library spaces. The results have proven productive in generating answers to our research questions and supporting practical improvements to our libraries. Additionally, when comparing the results from our two studies we identified the importance of detailed spatial references for understanding student experiences in library spaces, which has implications beyond our institutions. Conclusion – We found that photographic methods were very productive in helping us to understand library users’ experiences and supporting decision-making related to library spaces. In addition, engaging with students and hearing their interpretations and stories about the photographs they created enhanced our research understandings of student experiences and needs in new and unique ways.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8FH33
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Connecting Music and Place: Exploring Library Collection Data Using

    • Authors: Carolyn Doi
      Pages: 36 - 52
      Abstract: Abstract Objectives – This project had two stated objectives: 1) to compare the location and concentration of Saskatchewan-based large ensembles (bands, orchestras, choirs) within the province, with the intention to draw conclusions about the history of community-based musical activity within the province; and 2) to enable location-based browsing of Saskatchewan music materials through an interactive search interface. Methods – Data was harvested from MARC metadata found in the library catalogue for a special collection of Saskatchewan music at the University of Saskatchewan. Microsoft Excel and OpenRefine were used to screen, clean, and enhance the dataset. Data was imported into ArcGIS software, where it was plotted using a geo-visualization showing location and concentrations of musical activity by large ensembles within the province. The geo-visualization also allows users to filter results based on the ensemble type (band, orchestra, or choir). Results – The geo-visualization shows that albums from large community ensembles appear across the province, in cities and towns of all sizes. The ensembles are concentrated in the southern portion of the province and there is a correlation between population density and ensemble location. Choral ensembles are more prevalent than bands and orchestras, and appear more widely across the province, whereas bands and orchestras are concentrated around larger centres. Conclusions – Library catalogue data contains unique information for research based on special collections, though additional cleaning is needed. Using geospatial visualizations to navigate collections allows for more intuitive searching by location, and allow users to compare facets. While not appropriate for all kinds of searching, maps are useful for browsing and for location-based searches. Information is displayed in a visual way that allows users to explore and connect with other platforms for more information.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B86078
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Quantitative Methods and Inferential Statistics: Capacity and Development
           for Librarians

    • Authors: Lise Doucette
      Pages: 53 - 58
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B82940
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Cultivating Your Academic Online Presence

    • Authors: Shannon Lucky, Joseph E. Rubin
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B89S9W
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • In and Out of the Rabbit Hole: Unpacking the Research Proposal

    • Authors: Marjorie Mitchell
      Pages: 65 - 67
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8Q07X
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Space Use in the Commons: Evaluating a Flexible Library Environment

    • Authors: Andrew D. Asher
      Pages: 68 - 89
      Abstract: Abstract Objective – This article evaluates the usage and user experience of the Herman B Wells Library’s Learning Commons, a newly renovated technology and learning centre that provides services and spaces tailored to undergraduates’ academic needs at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB). Methods – A mixed-method research protocol combining time-lapse photography, unobtrusive observation, and random-sample surveys was employed to construct and visualize a representative usage and activity profile for the Learning Commons space. Results – Usage of the Learning Commons by particular student groups varied considerably from expectations based on student enrollments. In particular, business, first and second year students, and international students used the Learning Commons to a higher degree than expected, while humanities students used it to a much lower degree. While users were satisfied with the services provided and the overall atmosphere of the space, they also experienced the negative effects of insufficient space and facilities due to the space often operating at or near its capacity. Demand for collaboration rooms and computer workstations was particularly high, while additional evidence suggests that the Learning Commons furniture mix may not adequately match users’ needs. Conclusions – This study presents a unique approach to space use evaluation that enables researchers to collect and visualize representative observational data. This study demonstrates a model for quickly and reliably assessing space use for open-plan and learning-centred academic environments and for evaluating how well these learning spaces fulfill their institutional mission.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8M659
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • E-Preferred Approval Books at the University of Manitoba: A Comparison of
           Print and Ebook Usage

    • Authors: Jan C. Horner
      Pages: 90 - 105
      Abstract: Abstract Objective – To compare the usage of print and ebooks received on University of Manitoba’s e-preferred YBP approval plan as well as to examine cost per use for the approval print books and ebooks. Methods – Usage data was compiled for books received on approval in 2012/2013 to December 31, 2014. Counter reports were used to determine use and non-use of ebooks, while vendor reports from EBL and ebrary were used for the cost per use analysis. Print usage information was drawn from SIRSI and then ALMA when UML switched systems at the beginning of 2014. Results – Ebooks received more use than p-books overall, but when examined by subject discipline, significant differences could not be found for the “STM” and “Other” categories. With ebooks, university press books tended to be used more than those from other publishers, but the same result was not found for print books. Ebrary ebooks tended to be used more often than EBL, EBSCO, and Wiley ebooks, and single-licence books tended to be somewhat more used than multi-user ones. Cost-per-use data was much lower for print books, though the comparison did not look at staffing costs for each medium. Conclusions – This study finds that of approval books matching the same profile, ebooks are used more, but print books receive more substantial use. Both formats are needed in a library’s collection. Future comparisons of cost per use should take into account hidden labour costs associated with each medium. Usage studies provide evidence for librarians refining approval plan profiles and for budget managers considering changes to monographic acquisition methods and allocations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8BT04
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Teaching Systematic Searching Methods to Public Health Graduate Students:
           Repeated Library Instruction Sessions Correlate With Better Assignment

    • Authors: John Pell
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Abstract Objective – The objective of this study was to devise an assessment plan to determine if repeat attendance at two library instruction sessions is statistically associated with overall assignment scores or specific assignment qualities. Methods – The author used SPSS to calculate correlations between attendance and assignment scores and cross tabulations between attendance and assignment item analysis scores. Results – Repeat attendance at two library instruction sessions was statistically associated with higher overall assignment scores and higher scores on specific assignment sections. The effect is statistically significant. Conclusion – Students who attended two library instruction sessions applied skills and concepts practiced in those sessions on a subsequent research assignment. Not all skills and concepts practiced in the session were applied. Acquisition of more technical skills such as Boolean searching may require a greater number of follow-up sessions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8707K
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Informing Evidence Based Decisions: Usage Statistics for Online Journal

    • Authors: Alexei Botchkarev
      Pages: 114 - 132
      Abstract: Abstract Objective – The primary objective was to examine online journal database usage statistics for a provincial ministry of health in the context of evidence based decision-making. In addition, the study highlights implementation of the Journal Access Centre (JAC) that is housed and powered by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) to inform health systems policy-making. Methods – This was a prospective case study using descriptive analysis of the JAC usage statistics of journal articles from January 2009 to September 2013. Results – JAC enables ministry employees to access approximately 12,000 journals with full-text articles. JAC usage statistics for the 2011-2012 calendar years demonstrate a steady level of activity in terms of searches, with monthly averages of 5,129. In 2009-2013, a total of 4,759 journal titles were accessed including 1,675 journals with full-text. Usage statistics demonstrate that the actual consumption was over 12,790 full-text downloaded articles or approximately 2,700 articles annually. Conclusion – JAC’s steady level of activities, revealed by the study, reflects continuous demand for JAC services and products. It testifies that access to online journal databases has become part of routine government knowledge management processes. MOHLTC’s broad area of responsibilities with dynamically changing priorities translates into the diverse information needs of its employees and a large set of required journals. Usage statistics indicate that MOHLTC information needs cannot be mapped to a reasonably compact set of “core” journals with a subsequent subscription to those.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8GH21
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Wayfinding Research in Library and Information Studies: State of the Field

    • Authors: Lauren H. Mandel
      Pages: 133 - 148
      Abstract: Abstract Objective – Often people enter libraries focused on their primary information needs and haven't considered their need for spatial information to find their way to what they need. This presents unique wayfinding information challenges for libraries. Papers on library wayfinding often include some discussion of the lack of wayfinding research in libraries, but apparently there has been no comprehensive review of the LIS literature on wayfinding. Methods – This paper is a comprehensive review of library wayfinding literature, using the Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts with Full Text (via EBSCOhost) database to collect the dataset. Results – Findings indicate a small collection of library wayfinding research, primarily focused on academic libraries. Conclusion – Empirical research in this area is limited. Suggestions for future research on library wayfinding, including potential foci for that research, are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8395P
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Transparency and Tiers: Restructuring a Publisher Deal with a Modified
           Decision Matrix

    • Authors: Denise Pan, Gabrielle Wiersma
      Pages: 149 - 156
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B81952
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Information Literacy Skills Are Positively Correlated with Writing Grade
           and Overall Course Performance

    • Authors: Rachel Elizabeth Scott
      Pages: 157 - 159
      Abstract: A Review of: Shao, X., & Purpur, G. (2016). Effects of information literacy skills on student writing and course performance. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 42(6), 670-678. Abstract Objective – To measure the correlation of tested information literacy skills with individual writing scores and overall course grade. Design – Online, multiple-choice survey. Setting – Public research university in North Carolina, United States of America. Subjects – Freshmen students enrolled in either first-year seminar (UCO1200) or basic English writing course (ENG1000). Methods – A 25-question, forced-choice test was piloted with 30 students and measured for internal consistency using Cronbach’s Alphas. The survey instrument was slightly revised before being administered online via SelectSurvey, to 398 students in 19 different sections of either UCO1200 or ENG1000, during class sessions. The test measured students’ information literacy skills in four areas: research strategies, resource types, scholarly vs. popular, and evaluating websites. The preliminary questions asked for each student’s name, major (by category), number of library instruction sessions attended, and the names of library services utilized. The students’ information literacy scores were compared to their writing scores and overall course grades, both of which were obtained from course instructors. The information literacy scores were also analyzed for correlation to the number of library instruction sessions attended or the types of library services utilized. Main Results – Information literacy skills positively correlated with writing scores (n=344, r=-.153, p=0.004) and final course grades (n=345, r=0.112, p=0.037). Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients results demonstrated relationships between writing scores and the information literacy test section “Scholarly versus Popular Sources” (n=344, r=0.145, p=0.007), and final grade and information literacy test sections “Types of Sources” (n=345, r=0.124, p=0.021) and “Website Evaluation” (n=345, r=0.117, p=0.029). The impact of using other library services or of attending multiple information literacy sessions was not statistically significant. Conclusion – Students’ mastery of tested information literacy skills directly correlates to their writing and final course grades. The study confirms the need for faculty and library collaboration to create well-integrated library instruction and services, and advocates for librarians to become integral to campus initiatives for student learning and success.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8TT0G
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Multiple Sessions for Information Literacy Instruction are Associated with
           Improvement in Students’ Research Abilities and Confidence

    • Authors: Kelley Wadson
      Pages: 160 - 162
      Abstract: A Review of: Henry, J., Glauner, D., & Lefoe, G. (2015). A double shot of information literacy instruction at a community college. Community & Junior College Libraries, 21(1-2), 27-36. Abstract Objective – To evaluate the impact of providing multiple information literacy (IL) sessions, instead of a single “one-shot” session, to students in face-to-face and online English courses. Design – Non-experimental, using pre-test and post-test surveys for one group, and only a post-test survey for the other group. Setting – A small community college in North Carolina, United States of America. Subjects – 352 students enrolled in 2 successive 3-credit English courses, excluding those under the age of 18, for a total of 244 participants. Methods – The researchers selected two English courses, ENG 111 and ENG 112, of which most students were required to take at least one to earn a degree or certification. After consulting with faculty, the researchers designed two workshops for each course that integrated active and group learning techniques. The ENG 111 workshops covered pre-searching (e.g., mind mapping and selecting search terms) and database searching in the first session, and website analysis and research (e.g., URLs, Google’s advanced search, and the evaluative CRAAP test) in the second session. The ENG 112 workshops covered subject database searching in the first session and evaluative analysis of magazine and scholarly journal articles in the second session. Instructors provided web-based tutorials to online course sections as a substitute for the face-to-face sessions. Course assignments were the same for both online and face-to-face classes. The researchers used anonymous online surveys. ENG 111 students completed pre-test and post-test surveys for their two workshops during the fall 2014 semester. The surveys consisted of seven fill-in-the-blank and multiple-choice questions measuring pre-searching, research, and website analysis skills, and three Likert-type 1-5 rating scale questions measuring comfort levels. ENGL 112 students completed their post-test survey in the spring 2015 semester, which consisted of the same three 1-5 rating scale questions measuring comfort levels, to further test the effectiveness of multiple sessions. Main Results – The ENG 111 pre-test survey had 244 (66.67% female and 33.33% male) respondents and the post-test had 150 (72.37% female and 28.69% male) respondents. When comparing results, scores increased for pre-searching, specifically understanding of methods for brainstorming search terms (9%), and for all measures of website analysis and research, namely understanding of library databases (7.63%), choosing correct evaluative criteria (4.49%), recognizing reliable top-level domains (TLDs) .edu (1.15%) and .gov (11.21%), and Google’s advanced search (10.43%). Post-test scores decreased on the measures of understanding of a thesis statement (7%) and narrowing a topic if there’s too much information (6%). For comfort levels, neutral responses did not vary much, but there was a shift in responses from “not comfortable” to “somewhat comfortable” and “very comfortable.” Across three measures, namely getting started with a research paper, library research skills, and writing an academic research paper, participants’ “not comfortable” responses decreased and their “comfortable” responses increased. The ENG 112 post-test survey had 29 (60.71% female and 39.29% male) respondents and measured the same comfort levels. In addition, responses showed further improvement for all three questions. Within-subject analysis of both surveys showed slight gender variations. On several pre-test and post-test measures, females scored lower than males in understanding of databases, Google’s advanced search, and website analysis. Conclusion – The researchers conclude that expanding IL instruction from a single “one-shot” to four sessions had a positive impact on student learning, particularly the ability to evaluate websites and to use Google’s advanced search. Student participants expressed increased comfort levels and confidence in their research skills. To address decreases on the post-test survey described above, the researchers planned to focus more on research topic narrowing and using thesis statements alongside the research process in future IL sessions. In terms of instructional strategy, the researchers found timing the workshops closely with the course assignments was helpful and concluded that the use of hands-on, interactive elements was successful in engaging and assessing students’ understanding in the workshops.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8J94B
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence
           Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    • Authors: Lindsay J. Alcock
      Pages: 163 - 165
      Abstract: A Review of: Swanberg, S. M., Dennison, C. C., Farrell, A., Machel, V., Marton, C., O'Brien, K. K., … & Holyoke, A. N. (2016). Instructional methods used by health sciences librarians to teach evidence-based practice (EBP): a systematic review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 104(3), 197-208. Objective – To determine both the instructional methods and their effectiveness in teaching evidence based practice (EBP) by librarians in health sciences curricula. Design – Systematic review. Setting – A total of 16 databases, Google Scholar, and MLA Annual Meeting abstracts. Subjects – There were 27 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching 16 online databases, Google Scholar, and MLA Annual Conference abstracts. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified to inform the literature search and determine article eligibility. Duplicates were removed and the remaining search results were divided into sets and assigned to two reviewers who screened first by title/abstract and then by full-text. A third reviewer addressed disagreement in article inclusion. Data extraction, using a validated method described by Koufogiannakis and Wiebe (2006), and critical appraisal, using the Glasgow checklist (1999), were performed concurrently. Main Results – After removal of duplicates 30,043 articles were identified for initial title/abstract screening. Of the 637 articles assessed for full-text screening 26 articles and 1 conference proceeding ultimately met all eligibility criteria. There was no meta-analysis included in the synthesis. There were 16 articles published in library and information science journals and 10 in health sciences journals. Of those studies, 22 were conducted in the United States. A wide range of user groups was identified as participants in the studies with medical students and residents representing the highest percentage and nursing and other allied health professional programs also included. While there was variation in sample size and group allocation, the authors estimate an average of 50 participants per instructional session. Included studies represented research undertaken since the 1990s. All studies addressed at least one of the standard EBP steps including obtaining the best evidence through a literature search (27 studies), developing a clinical question (22 studies), and critical appraisal (12 studies). There were 11 studies which addressed applying evidence to clinical scenarios, and 1 study which addressed the efficacy and efficiency of the EBP process. The majority of studies indicated that literature searching was the primary focus of EBP instruction with MEDLINE being the most utilized database and Cochrane second. Other resources include databases and clinical decision support tools. Teaching methods, including lecture, small group, computer lab, and online instruction, varied amongst the studies. There were 7 studies which employed 1 instructional method while 20 employed a combination of teaching methods. Only one study compared instructional methods and found that students obtained better scores when they received online instruction as compared with face-to-face instruction. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. Skills assessments were conducted in most of the studies utilizing various measurements both validated and not validated. Given the variation in measurement tools a cross-study analysis was not possible. The most common assessment methods included self-reporting and pre- and post-surveys of participants’ attitudes and confidence in EBP skills. Randomization was utilized in 10 studies, and an additional 3 studies had a “clearly defined intervention group.” There were 10 blinded studies and 15 studies utilized cohorts with pre- and post- intervention assessments. There were 25 studies which included descriptive statistics and many also included inferential statistics intended to show significance. Differences between groups were assessed with parametric measures in 9 studies and non-parametric measures in 15 studies. Good to high statistical significance on at least 1 measurement was achieved in 23 studies. Given the absence of effect sizes, the level of differences between study groups could not be determined. Conclusion – Numerous pedagogical methods are used in librarian-led instruction in evidence based practice. However, there is a paucity of high level evidence and the literature suggests that no instructional method is demonstrated to be more effective than another.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8XH3F
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • PubMed’s Native Interface Remains the Best Tool for Systematic Searching
           of its Biomedical Citations

    • Authors: Ann Glusker
      Pages: 166 - 168
      Abstract: A Review of: Wildgaard, L. E., & Lund, H. (2016). Advancing PubMed' A comparison of third-party PubMed/Medline tools. Library Hi Tech, 34 (4), 669-684. 10.1108/LHT-06-2016-0066 Abstract Objective – To compare the functionality of third-party PubMed tools for searching biomedical citations in PubMed, in the specific context of systematic searching. Design – Comparative analysis of software functionality. Setting – Online, freely accessible search software. Subjects – Sixteen third-party tools for searching and managing the full range of PubMed citations (tools which focused on specific disciplines were not included). Methods – Tools for analysis were identified in two ways; those discussed in two published articles were used, and a supplementary PubMed search was performed. The initial list of 76 possibilities was assessed for study inclusion on 4 criteria: covering the entire range of PubMed content; being freely available; not limiting to a particular bio-medical discipline; and incorporating online PubMed/MEDLINE content. After assessment, 16 tools were chosen for further analysis (the authors provide a list and description of the tools in their Table I). Each was examined in relation to 11 crucial operational aspects. Result sets were tested against a control (a literature search result set on a particular clinical question which was determined by physicians to yield relevant results, details of which are provided by the authors in an online appendix). Main Results – The 11 identified aspects related to tool functionality were examined for each tool selected, with results grouped into three sets of factors: 1) supporting the search (field codes, filters, limits and Boolean operators); 2) managing the search (output, related articles, links to articles, number of results, exporting); and 3) documenting the search (saving the search and search history). In some cases, the tests had to be adjusted to accommodate the tool's specifications. In Table II the authors present a grid with the results of the testing, on each of the 11 aspects, for each tool. The authors found that with many tools it was not straightforward, if even possible, to filter and limit in order to get more specific result sets. Few tools were effective at suggesting related articles within the tool itself, instead linking the user out to PubMed, and only two tools provided the same number of citation results as the comparison PubMed search. In addition, the display of results often made it difficult to assess result sets; and only two tools provided the option to save searches and see search history. Furthermore, due to unexpected tool limitations, it was not possible to assess the relevance of citation result sets delivered by the third-party tools, as compared with the control PubMed search. Conclusion – Close analysis of the tools studied indicated that they were not created in order to support systematic searches. They lack support for filtering/limiting, saving or exporting searches, which are central functionalities to the work of performing such searches. While some of the tools studied may still be in the early phases of development, and while several of them, in enhancing PubMed searches in particular ways, may suggest additional profitable strategies for performing a systematic search, not one of them can replace the functionalities of the native PubMed interface. It remains the best tool for searching and managing the full range of PubMed citations, for the purposes of performing systematic searches.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.1108/lht-06-2016-0066 abstract objective – to compare the functionality of third-party pubm
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences
           Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    • Authors: Elizabeth Margaret Stovold
      Pages: 169 - 171
      Abstract: A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016). Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2), 109-117. Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD) services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS). Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic.
      Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall coverage of MEDLINE, they recorded the first 50 results from each of the 6 PubMed searches in a spreadsheet. During data collection at the WSD sites, they searched for these references to discover if the WSD tool at each site indexed these known items.
      Authors adopted measures to control for any customisation of the product setup at each data collection site. In particular, they excluded local holdings from the results by limiting the searches to scholarly, peer-reviewed articles. Main results –
      Authors reported results for 5 of the 6 sites. All of the WSD tools retrieved between 50-60% relevant results. EDS retrieved the highest number of relevant records (195/360 and 216/360), while Primo retrieved the lowest (167/328 and 169/325). There was good observer agreement (k=0.725) for the relevance assessment. The duplicate detection rate was similar in EDS and Summon (between 96-97% unique articles), while the Primo searches returned 82.9-84.9% unique articles. All three tools retrieved relevant results that were not indexed in MEDLINE, and retrieved relevant material indexed in MEDLINE that was not retrieved in the PubMed searches. EDS and Summon retrieved more non-MEDLINE material than Primo. EDS performed best in the known-item searches, with 300/300 and 299/300 items retrieved, while Primo performed worst with 230/300 and 267/300 items retrieved. The Summon platform features an “automated query expansion” search function, where user-entered keywords are matched to related search terms and these are automatically searched along with the original keyword. The authors observed that this function resulted in a wholly relevant first page of results for one of the search questions tested in Summon. Conclusion – While EDS performed slightly better overall, the difference was not great enough in this small sample of test sites to recommend EDS over the other tools being tested. The automated query expansion found in Summon is a useful function that is worthy of further investigation by the WSD vendors. The ability of the WSDs to retrieve MEDLINE content through simple keyword searches demonstrates the potential value of using a WSD tool in health sciences research, particularly for inexpert searchers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8ZH3R
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Implementation of Proactive Chat Increases Number and Complexity of
           Reference Questions

    • Authors: Sue F. Phelps
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Abstract: A Review of: Maloney, K., & Kemp, J. H. (2015). Changes in reference question complexity following the implementation of a proactive chat system: Implications for practice. College & Research Libraries, 76(7), 959-974. Objective – To determine whether the complexity of reference questions has changed over time; whether chat reference questions are more complex than those at the reference desk; and whether proactive chat increases the number and complexity of questions. Design – Literature review and library data analysis. Setting – Library of a doctoral degree granting university in the United States of America. Methods – The study was carried out in two parts. The first was a meta-analysis of published data with empirical findings about the complexity of questions received at library service points in relationship to staffing levels. The authors used seven studies published between 1977 and 2012 from their literature review to create a matrix to compare reference questions based on the staffing level required to answer the questions (e.g., by a nonprofessional, a generalist, or a librarian). They present these articles in chronological order to illustrate how questions have changed over time. They sorted questions by the service point at which they were asked, either through chat service or at a reference desk. In the second part of the study authors used the READ scale to categorize the complexity of questions asked at the reference desk and via proactive chat reference. They collected data for chat reference for six one-week periods over the course of eight months to provide a representative sample. They recorded reference desk questions for three of those same weeks. Both evaluators scored the data for a single week to norm their results, while the remaining data was coded independently. Main Results – The complexity of questions in the seven articles studied indicated change over time, shown in tables for desk and chat reference. One outlier, a study published in 1977 before reference tools and resources moved online, reported that 62% of questions asked could be answered by nonprofessionals, 38% by a trained generalist, and only 6% required a librarian. The six other studies were published after 2001 when most resources had moved online. Of the questions from these six, authors found a range of 74-90% could be answered by a non-professional, 12-16% by a generalist, and 0-11% required a librarian. Once chat reference was added there was more variation reported between studies, with generalist questions at 30-47% of those reported and 10-23% requiring a librarian. Though the underlying differences in the study designs do not allow for formal analysis, the seven studies indicate that more complex questions are asked via chat service than at the reference desk. Each staffing level was grouped and averaged for comparison. The 1977 study shows nonprofessional questions at 62%, generalist questions at 32%, and librarian questions at 6%. Reference desk questions in the post-2001 articles indicated 81% nonprofessional, 13% generalist, and 5% librarian questions. Post-2001 chat questions were at 49% nonprofessional, 36% generalist, and 15% at librarian level. In the second part of the study, the data coded using the READ scale and collected from the proactive chat system showed an increased number and complexity of questions. The authors identified 4% of questions were rated at a level 1 (e.g., directional, library hours), 30% at level 2 (e.g., known item searching), 39% at level 3 (e.g., reference questions), and 27% at level 4 requiring advanced expertise (e.g., using specialized databases or data sets).
      Authors combined questions at levels 5 and 6 due to low numbers, and did not describe these when reporting their study. In comparison, 15% of reference desk questions were at a level 3 on the READ scale, and 1% were at level 4. Conclusion – Proactive chat reference service increased the number and the complexity of questions over those received via the reference desk. The frequency of complex questions was too high for nonprofessional staff to refer questions to librarians, causing reevaluation of the tiered service model. Further, this study demonstrates that users still have questions about research, but for users to access services for these questions “reference service must be proactive, convenient, and expert to meet user expectations and research needs” (p. 972).
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B85370
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • “Just-in-Time” Unmediated Document Delivery Service Provides Fast
           Delivery, Helps Identify Collection Gaps, but Incurs Extra Costs

    • Authors: Heather MacDonald
      Pages: 175 - 177
      Abstract: A Review of: Chan, E. K., Mune, C., Wang, Y., & Kendall, S. L. (2016). Three years of unmediated document delivery: An analysis and consideration of collection development priorities. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 35(1), 42-51. Retrieved from: Abstract Objective – Examine the collection development opportunities and challenges of an unmediated document delivery service. Design – Case study. Setting – Large comprehensive public university in the United States of America. Subjects – 11,981 document delivery requests. Methods – This library implemented Copyright Clearance Center’s Get It Now (CCC-GiN) service in November 2011 to supplement existing holdings, provide access to embargoed content and help support two new programs. The CCC-GiN service was offered in addition to regular ILL service. Statistical analysis was done using usage data collected for the academic years 2012-2013, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015 (excluding June and July). Usage data included: order date and time, fulfillment date and time, publication name, publication date, article name, article author, publisher name, cost, delivery e-mail address. Taylor and Francis publications were added to the CCC-GiN service in November of 2014. Main Results – The average yearly cost of titles with the largest number of CCC-GiN requests was compared to the annual subscription cost of the same titles. If the annual subscription cost was less than the average yearly cost of CCC-GiN requests, the library purchased a subscription. Patrons ordered older journal content through CCC-GiN requests. This suggested that backfile subscriptions could be cost effective means of providing content. The authors are in the process of analyzing what historical journal content should be purchased. The addition of Taylor and Francis publications resulted in an increase in the average cost per article. Taylor and Francis publications were popular with patrons, helping boost the total number of requests. The date of the Taylor and Francis materials ordered through CCC-GiN tended to be more recent compared to other publishers. The authors suggest CCC-GiN is a possible solution for acquiring embargoed material. Average fulfillment time increased during the three year time period from 1:34 (hr:min) to 3:52. The percentage of requests outside of ILL working hours was consistent across all three years (62% each academic year). The authors note CCC-GiN service provided the most expedient way for patrons to receive requested material. A number of the most requested CCC-GiN publications were also available in print format. The quality of print serials data was uncertain hence the decision was made to not upload this data to the CCC-GiN service. This resulted in some overlap in requests with the library’s print holdings. Older content was requested through CCC-GiN rather than through traditional ILL. This resulted in increased costs from copyright fees that would have been avoided using traditional ILL services. Conclusion – The authors reference the impact of e-commerce on library patron expectations about ease of access and just-in-time delivery. They found that the CCC-GiN service meets these expectations as patrons were able to access a broad selection of materials in a timely and easy to use manner. From the analysis come suggestions to help reduce costs associated with the service. They include adjusting system settings to cap spending limits, limiting who can use the service, selecting only titles that cover a gap in the collection, and including quality print serials holdings data to prevent purchase of already owned material. The authors also discuss using a mediated rather than unmediated service to help lower costs but they note this would slow down turnaround time. The authors close by saying each library will have to consider its own needs and those of its patrons with respect to ease of use, delivery time, and cost.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8P07M
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • STEM and Non-STEM Library Users Have Increased Their Use of E-Books

    • Authors: Stephanie Krueger
      Pages: 178 - 180
      Abstract: A Review of: Carroll, A. J., Corlett-Rivera, K., Hackman, T., & Zou, J. (2016). E-book perceptions and use in STEM and non-STEM disciplines: A comparative follow-up study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 16(1), 131-162. Abstract Objective – To compile a set of usability and collection development suggestions and to examine a possible statistical correlation between visiting the physical library, online resource use, and e-book use. Design – Online questionnaire survey. Setting – Major public research university in Maryland, United States of America. Subjects – 47,209 faculty, students, and staff. Methods – This survey is a follow-up to a similar 2012 study at the same institution. Survey respondents completed 14 multiple-choice and up to 8 open-ended questions about academic e-book discovery, perception, and usage patterns for both STEM and non-STEM respondents using the Qualtrics online research platform. Seven of eight open-ended questions were conditional (i.e., dependent on answers to multiple-choice questions), thus the number of questions answered by respondents could vary. The survey was available from October 1 to November 22, 2014, and promoted across a variety of communication channels (email, library website, social media, print flyers and handouts). Incentives for completing the survey included one iPad Mini and eight U.S. $25 Amazon gift cards. Main Results – 1,911 (820 STEM and 1,091 non-STEM) self-selected students, faculty, and staff from a total campus population of 47,209 faculty, students, and staff (4.2% response rate) participated in the survey, excluding 277 additional responses representing library personnel (70) and individuals not affiliated with the institution (207). 64% of respondents indicated more e-book use than three years before, with only 21.9% of respondents noting they never use e-books for academic purposes compared to 31% in 2012. 32.5% of respondents noted daily or weekly use of e-books for scholarly pursuits, with undergraduates reporting the most frequent use: 38.6% daily/weekly use versus 37.2% for graduate students, 16.2% for faculty, and 14.2% for staff. 38% of respondents reporting daily/weekly use were from STEM disciplines; 31.3% were from non-STEM fields. Computers, not e-readers, were the primary devices used for accessing e-books: 72.5% of respondents reported using laptops or desktops to this end versus tablets, 37.9%; mobile phones, 36.7%; Kindles, 25.6%; Nooks, 5.9%; and other e-readers, 3.3%. Top “mixed device access” responses were tablet/mobile phone/computer (98 responses); mobile phone/computer (93 responses); and tablet/computer (81 responses). The top three discovery tools respondents reported using for finding e-books were commercial sites (35.9%), free websites (26.8%), and the library website (26.2%). A weak-positive Spearman’s rho rank correlation of 0.25 provides some evidence that respondents who visit the library often are likely to use online resources and e-books. 35% of respondents reported they use e-books online “most of the time,” and 67% of respondents indicated they print out e-book content for use. Responses to the question “What, if anything, would make you more likely to use e-books for academic purposes'” included easier access via the library website (48% of respondents), better functionality for highlighting/annotating (44%), reduced cost (43.2%), easier downloading (38.5%), more e-books in area of research interest (37.3%), more textbooks (37.2%), and ownership of a dedicated e-reader (35.6%). In 2012, 52% of respondents reported never having downloaded an e-book for offline use. This percentage dropped notably in this study, with only 11.5% of respondents indicating they had never downloaded for later use. Conclusion – While this study indicates both STEM and non-STEM respondents at this institution are increasingly using e-books, preferences for electronic versus print format varied according to content type and type of user (e.g., STEM or non-STEM, undergraduate or graduate, student/faculty/staff). Key recommendations for usability and collection development include: improving discovery and awareness mechanisms, purchasing some content (e.g., references works, style guides) in e-format while ensuring multiple simultaneous use, taking advantage of print plus electronic options to serve users with different format preferences, and encouraging vendors to allow digital rights management free downloading and printing.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8DM2F
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • AAU Library Directors Prefer Collaborative Decision Making with Senior
           Administrative Team Members

    • Authors: Carol L. Perryman
      Pages: 181 - 183
      Abstract: A Review of: Meier, J. J. (2016). The future of academic libraries: Conversations with today’s leaders about tomorrow. Portal: Libraries and the Academy, 16(2), 263-288. Retrieved from Abstract Objective – To understand academic library leaders’ decision making methods, priorities, and support of succession planning, as well as to understand the nature, extent, and drivers of organizational change. Design – Survey and interview. Setting – Academic libraries with membership in the Association of American Universities (AAU) in the United States of America and Canada. Subjects – 62 top administrators of AAU academic libraries. Methods – Content analysis performed to identify most frequent responses. An initial survey written to align with the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) 2014-2015 salary survey was distributed prior to or during structured in-person interviews to gather information about gender, race/ethnicity, age, time since terminal degree, time in position, temporary or permanent status, and current job title. 7-question interview guides asked about decision processes, strategic goals, perceived impacts of strategic plan and vision, planned changes within the next 3-5 years, use of mentors for organizational change, and succession planning activities. Transcripts were analyzed to identify themes, beginning with a preliminary set of codes that were expanded during analysis to provide clarification. Main results – 44 top academic library administrators of the 62 contacted (71% response rate) responded to the survey and interview. Compared to the 2010 ARL Survey, respondents were slightly more likely to be female (55%; ARL: 58%) and non-white (5%; ARL: 11%). Approximately 66% of both were aged 60 and older, while slightly fewer were 50-59 (27% compared to 31% for ARL), and almost none were aged 40-49 compared to 7% for the ARL survey. Years of experience averaged 33, slightly less than the reported ARL average of 35. Requested on the survey, but not reported, were time since terminal degree and in position, temporary or permanent status, and current job title. Hypothesis 1, that most library leaders base decisions on budget concerns rather than upon library and external administration strategic planning, was refuted. Hypothesis 2, that changes to the academic structure are incremental rather than global (e.g., alterations to job titles and responsibilities), was supported by responses. Major organizational changes in the next three to five years were predicted, led by role changes, addition of new positions, and unit consolidation. Most participants agreed that while there are sufficient personnel to replace top level library administrators, there will be a crisis for mid-level positions as retirements occur. A priority focus emerging from interview responses was preparing for next-generation administrators. There was disagreement among respondents about whether a crisis exists in the availability of new leaders to replace those who are retiring. Conclusion – Decisions are primarily made in collaboration with senior leadership teams, and based on strategic planning and goals as well as university strategic plans in order to effect incremental change as opposed to wholesale structural change.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8SS97
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Research in Practice: Mythbusting EBLIP

    • Authors: Virginia Wilson
      Pages: 184 - 186
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8N37B
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
  • Call for Applicants: Concordia University Library 2018
           Researcher-in-Residence Program

    • Authors: . .
      Pages: 187 - 189
      Abstract: No abstract.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.18438/B8WM1D
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 2 (2017)
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