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Journal Cover American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  [SJR: 3.771]   [H-I: 262]   [132 followers]  Follow
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   ISSN (Print) 0002-9165 - ISSN (Online) 1938-3207
   Published by American Society for Nutrition Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Can changes in the plasma lipidome help explain the cardiovascular
           benefits of the Mediterranean diet' [Editorials]
    • Authors: Bajaj, A; Rader, D. J.
      Pages: 965 - 966
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.165886
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Tackling iron deficiency in infants: galacto-oligosaccharides may be up to
           the task [Editorials]
    • Authors: Wang; F.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.165878
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Closer to clarity on the effect of lipid consumption on fat-soluble
           vitamin and carotenoid absorption: do we need to close in further'
    • Authors: Moran, N. E; Johnson, E. J.
      Pages: 969 - 970
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.165894
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Supplementing a normal diet with protein yields a moderate improvement in
           the robust gains in muscle mass and strength induced by resistance
           training in older individuals [Editorials]
    • Authors: Holm, L; Nordsborg, N. B.
      Pages: 971 - 972
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.165860
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Plasma lipidomic profiles and cardiovascular events in a randomized
           intervention trial with the Mediterranean diet [Cardiovascular disease
    • Authors: Toledo, E; Wang, D. D, Ruiz-Canela, M, Clish, C. B, Razquin, C, Zheng, Y, Guasch-Ferre, M, Hruby, A, Corella, D, Gomez-Gracia, E, Fiol, M, Estruch, R, Ros, E, Lapetra, J, Fito, M, Aros, F, Serra-Majem, L, Liang, L, Salas-Salvado, J, Hu, F. B, Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.
      Pages: 973 - 983
      Abstract: Background: Lipid metabolites may partially explain the inverse association between the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).Objective: We evaluated the associations between 1) lipid species and the risk of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death); 2) a MedDiet intervention [supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) or nuts] and 1-y changes in these molecules; and 3) 1-y changes in lipid species and subsequent CVD.Design: With the use of a case-cohort design, we profiled 202 lipid species at baseline and after 1 y of intervention in the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial in 983 participants [230 cases and a random subcohort of 790 participants (37 overlapping cases)].Results: Baseline concentrations of cholesterol esters (CEs) were inversely associated with CVD. A shorter chain length and higher saturation of some lipids were directly associated with CVD. After adjusting for multiple testing, direct associations remained significant for 20 lipids, and inverse associations remained significant for 6 lipids. When lipid species were weighted by the number of carbon atoms and double bonds, the strongest inverse association was found for CEs [HR: 0.39 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.68)] between extreme quintiles (P-trend = 0.002). Participants in the MedDiet + EVOO and MedDiet + nut groups experienced significant (P < 0.05) 1-y changes in 20 and 17 lipids, respectively, compared with the control group. Of these changes, only those in CE(20:3) in the MedDiet + nuts group remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. None of the 1-y changes was significantly associated with CVD risk after correcting for multiple comparisons.Conclusions: Although the MedDiet interventions induced some significant 1-y changes in the lipidome, they were not significantly associated with subsequent CVD risk. Lipid metabolites with a longer acyl chain and higher number of double bonds at baseline were significantly and inversely associated with the risk of CVD.
      Keywords: Research Need: Role of Nutrition in Health Maintenance
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.151159
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during
           long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss [Nutritional status,
           dietary intake, and body composition]
    • Authors: Tsaban, G; Wolak, A, Avni-Hassid, H, Gepner, Y, Shelef, I, Henkin, Y, Schwarzfuchs, D, Cohen, N, Bril, N, Rein, M, Serfaty, D, Kenigsbuch, S, Tene, L, Zelicha, H, Yaskolka-Meir, A, Komy, O, Bilitzky, A, Chassidim, Y, Ceglarek, U, Stumvoll, M, Blüher, M, Thiery, J, Dicker, D, Rudich, A, Stampfer, M. J, Shai, I.
      Pages: 984 - 995
      Abstract: Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity. We performed whole-body MRI and volumetrically quantified IPF and EPF among 80 participants to follow the 18-mo changes.Results: The participants [mean age: 48.6 y; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2); 31.7; 90% men] had baseline IPF and EPF (mean ± SD) volumes of 172.4 ± 53.3 mL and 194.9 ± 71.5 mL, respectively. The 18-mo moderate weight loss of 3.7 kg was similar in both groups, but the reduction in waist circumference was higher in the MED/LC group (–6.9 ± 6.6 cm) than in the LF diet group (–2.3 ± 6.5 cm; P = 0.01). After 18 mo, the IPF volume had reduced twice as much in the MED/LC group compared with the LF group [–37 ± 26.2 mL (–22% ± 15%) compared with –15.5 ± 26.2 mL (–8% ± 15%), respectively; P < 0.05, after adjustment for changes in weight or visceral adipose tissue]. The EPF volume had reduced similarly in both groups [–41.6 ± 30.2 mL (–23% ± 16%) in the MED/LC group compared with –37.9 ± 28.3 mL (–19% ± 14%) in the LF group; P> 0.1]. After controlling for weight loss, IPF and EPF volume reduction paralleled changes in lipid profile but not with improved glycemic profile variables: the IPF relative reduction was associated with a decrease in triglycerides (TGs) (β = 0.090; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.154; P = 0.007) and the ratio of TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (β = 2.689; 95% CI: 0.373, 5.003; P = 0.024), and the EPF relative reduction was associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol (β = –0.452; 95% CI: –0.880, –0.023; P = 0.039) and a decrease in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (β = 3.766; 95% CI: 1.092, 6.440; P = 0.007).Conclusions: Moderate but persistent dietary-induced weight loss substantially decreased both IPF and EPF volumes. Reduction of pericardial adipose tissues is independently associated with an improved lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet, rich in unsaturated fats and restricted carbohydrates, is superior to an LF diet in terms of the IPF burden reduction. This trial was registered at as NCT01530724.
      Keywords: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.157115
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating
           behaviors [Nutritional status, dietary intake, and body composition]
    • Authors: de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Clifton, E. A, Day, F. R, Clement, K, Brage, S, Forouhi, N. G, Griffin, S. J, Koudou, Y. A, Pelloux, V, Wareham, N. J, Charles, M.-A, Heude, B, Ong, K. K.
      Pages: 996 - 1004
      Abstract: Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health.Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity.Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively. The eating behaviors—emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and cognitive restraint—were measured through the use of a validated questionnaire. The mediating effect of each eating behavior on the association between the BMI-GRS and measured BMI was assessed by using the Sobel test. In addition, we tested for interactions between each eating behavior and the BMI-GRS on BMI.Results: The association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was mediated by both emotional eating (EDEN: P-Sobel = 0.01; Fenland: P-Sobel = 0.02) and uncontrolled eating (EDEN: P-Sobel = 0.04; Fenland: P-Sobel = 0.0006) in both sexes combined. Cognitive restraint did not mediate this association (P-Sobel> 0.10), except among EDEN women (P-Sobel = 0.0009). Cognitive restraint modified the relation between the BMI-GRS and BMI among men (EDEN: P-interaction = 0.0001; Fenland: P-interaction = 0.04) and Fenland women (P-interaction = 0.0004). By tertiles of cognitive restraint, the association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was strongest in the lowest tertile of cognitive restraint, and weakest in the highest tertile.Conclusions: Genetic susceptibility to obesity was partially mediated by the "appetitive" eating behavior traits (uncontrolled and emotional eating) and, in 3 of the 4 population groups studied, was modified by cognitive restraint. High levels of cognitive control over eating appear to attenuate the genetic susceptibility to obesity. Future research into interventions designed to support restraint may help to protect genetically susceptible individuals from weight gain.
      Keywords: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.157396
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Quantity and source of dietary protein influence metabolite production by
           gut microbiota and rectal mucosa gene expression: a randomized, parallel,
           double-blind trial in overweight humans [Energy and protein metabolism]
    • Authors: Beaumont, M; Portune, K. J, Steuer, N, Lan, A, Cerrudo, V, Audebert, M, Dumont, F, Mancano, G, Khodorova, N, Andriamihaja, M, Airinei, G, Tome, D, Benamouzig, R, Davila, A.-M, Claus, S. P, Sanz, Y, Blachier, F.
      Pages: 1005 - 1019
      Abstract: Background: Although high-protein diets (HPDs) are frequently consumed for body-weight control, little is known about the consequences for gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and for large intestine mucosal homeostasis. Moreover, the effects of HPDs according to the source of protein need to be considered in this context.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the quantity and source of dietary protein on microbiota composition, bacterial metabolite production, and consequences for the large intestinal mucosa in humans.Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-design trial was conducted in 38 overweight individuals who received a 3-wk isocaloric supplementation with casein, soy protein, or maltodextrin as a control. Fecal and rectal biopsy–associated microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Fecal, urinary, and plasma metabolomes were assessed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Mucosal transcriptome in rectal biopsies was determined with the use of microarrays.Results: HPDs did not alter the microbiota composition, but induced a shift in bacterial metabolism toward amino acid degradation with different metabolite profiles according to the protein source. Correlation analysis identified new potential bacterial taxa involved in amino acid degradation. Fecal water cytotoxicity was not modified by HPDs, but was associated with a specific microbiota and bacterial metabolite profile. Casein and soy protein HPDs did not induce inflammation, but differentially modified the expression of genes playing key roles in homeostatic processes in rectal mucosa, such as cell cycle or cell death.Conclusions: This human intervention study shows that the quantity and source of dietary proteins act as regulators of gut microbiota metabolite production and host gene expression in the rectal mucosa, raising new questions on the impact of HPDs on the large intestine mucosa homeostasis. This trial was registered at as NCT02351297.
      Keywords: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles, Gut Microbiome Research Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.158816
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Consumption of galacto-oligosaccharides increases iron absorption from a
           micronutrient powder containing ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA: a
           stable-isotope study in Kenyan infants [Vitamins, minerals, and
    • Authors: Paganini, D; Uyoga, M. A, Cercamondi, C. I, Moretti, D, Mwasi, E, Schwab, C, Bechtler, S, Mutuku, F. M, Galetti, V, Lacroix, C, Karanja, S, Zimmermann, M. B.
      Pages: 1020 - 1031
      Abstract: Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear.Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants.Design: Infants (n = 50; aged 6–14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7.5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) (Fe+GOS group, n = 22) or the same MNP without GOSs (Fe group, n = 28) each day for 3 wk. Then, on 2 consecutive days, we fed all infants isotopically labeled maize porridge and MNP test meals containing 5 mg Fe as 57FeFum+Na58FeEDTA or ferrous sulfate (54FeSO4). Iron absorption was measured as the erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes. Iron markers, fecal pH, and bacterial groups were assessed at baseline and 3 wk. Comparisons within and between groups were done with the use of mixed-effects models.Results: There was a significant group-by-compound interaction on iron absorption (P = 0.011). The median percentages of fractional iron absorption from FeFum+NaFeEDTA and from FeSO4 in the Fe group were 11.6% (IQR: 6.9–19.9%) and 20.3% (IQR: 14.2–25.7%), respectively, (P < 0.001) and, in the Fe+GOS group, were 18.8% (IQR: 8.3–37.5%) and 25.5% (IQR: 15.1–37.8%), respectively (P = 0.124). Between groups, iron absorption was greater from the FeFum+NaFeEDTA (P = 0.047) in the Fe+GOS group but not from the FeSO4 (P = 0.653). The relative iron bioavailability from FeFum+NaFeEDTA compared with FeSO4 was higher in the Fe+GOS group than in the Fe group (88% compared with 63%; P = 0.006). There was a significant time-by-group interaction on Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.008) and Lactobacillus/Pediococcus/Leuconostoc spp. (P = 0.018); Lactobacillus/Pediococcus/Leuconostoc spp. decreased in the Fe group (P = 0.013), and there was a nonsignificant trend toward higher Bifidobacterium spp. in the Fe+GOS group (P = 0.099). At 3 wk, iron absorption was negatively correlated with fecal pH (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with Lactobacillus/Pediococcus/Leuconostoc spp. (P = 0.001).Conclusion: GOS consumption by infants increased iron absorption by 62% from an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA, thereby possibly reflecting greater colonic iron absorption. This trial was registered at as NCT02666417.
      Keywords: Dietary Bioactive Compounds Research Articles, Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.145060
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Intake of niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 through young
           adulthood and cognitive function in midlife: the Coronary Artery Risk
           Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study [Vitamins, minerals, and
    • Authors: Qin, B; Xun, P, Jacobs, D. R, Zhu, N, Daviglus, M. L, Reis, J. P, Steffen, L. M, Van Horn, L, Sidney, S, He, K.
      Pages: 1032 - 1040
      Abstract: Background: Epidemiologic evidence regarding niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 intake in relation to cognitive function is limited, especially in midlife.Objective: We hypothesize that higher intake of these B vitamins in young adulthood is associated with better cognition later in life.Design: This study comprised a community-based multicenter cohort of black and white men and women aged 18–30 y in 1985–1986 (year 0, i.e., baseline) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n = 3136). We examined participants’ CARDIA diet history at years 0, 7, and 20 to assess nutrient intake, including dietary and supplemental B vitamins. We measured cognitive function at year 25 (mean ± SD age: 50 ± 4 y) through the use of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) for verbal memory, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) for psychomotor speed, and a modified Stroop interference test for executive function. Higher RAVLT and DSST scores and a lower Stroop score indicated better cognitive function. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regressions to estimate mean differences in cognitive scores and 95% CIs.Results: Comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1), cumulative total intake of niacin was significantly associated with 3.92 more digits on the DSST (95% CI: 2.28, 5.55; P-trend < 0.01) and 1.89 points lower interference score on the Stroop test (95% CI: –3.10, –0.68; P-trend = 0.05). Total folate was associated with 2.56 more digits on the DSST (95% CI: 0.82, 4.31; P-trend = 0.01). We also found that higher intakes of vitamin B-6 (quartile 5 compared with quartile 1: 2.62; 95% CI: 0.97, 4.28; P-trend = 0.02) and vitamin B-12 (quartile 5 compared with quartile 1: 2.08; 95% CI: 0.52, 3.65; P-trend = 0.02) resulted in better psychomotor speed measured by DSST scores.Conclusion: Higher intake of B vitamins throughout young adulthood was associated with better cognitive function in midlife.
      Keywords: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.157834
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid
           and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables [Vitamins,
           minerals, and phytochemicals]
    • Authors: White, W. S; Zhou, Y, Crane, A, Dixon, P, Quadt, F, Flendrig, L. M.
      Pages: 1041 - 1051
      Abstract: Background: Previously, we showed that vegetable oil is necessary for carotenoid absorption from salad vegetables. Research is needed to better define the dose effect and its interindividual variation for carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins.Objective: The objective was to model the dose-response relation between the amount of soybean oil in salad dressing and the absorption of 1) carotenoids, phylloquinone, and tocopherols in salad vegetables and 2) retinyl palmitate formed from the provitamin A carotenoids.Design: Women (n = 12) each consumed 5 vegetable salads with salad dressings containing 0, 2, 4, 8, or 32 g soybean oil. Blood was collected at selected time points. The outcome variables were the chylomicron carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin area under the curve (AUC) and maximum content in the plasma chylomicron fraction (Cmax). The individual-specific and group-average dose-response relations were investigated by fitting linear mixed-effects random coefficient models.Results: Across the entire 0–32-g range, soybean oil was linearly related to the chylomicron AUC and Cmax values for α-carotene, lycopene, phylloquinone, and retinyl palmitate. Across 0–8 g of soybean oil, there was a linear increase in the chylomicron AUC and Cmax values for β-carotene. Across a more limited 0–4-g range of soybean oil, there were minor linear increases in the chylomicron AUC for lutein and α- and total tocopherol. Absorption of all carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins was highest with 32 g oil (P < 0.002). For 32 g oil, the interindividual rank order of the chylomicron AUCs was consistent across the carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: Within the linear range, the average absorption of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins could be largely predicted by the soybean oil effect. However, the effect varied widely, and some individuals showed a negligible response. There was a global soybean oil effect such that those who absorbed more of one carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin also tended to absorb more of the others. This trial was registered at as NCT02867488.
      Keywords: Dietary Bioactive Compounds Research Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.153635
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated
           with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine
    • Authors: Karl, J. P; Meydani, M, Barnett, J. B, Vanegas, S. M, Barger, K, Fu, X, Goldin, B, Kane, A, Rasmussen, H, Vangay, P, Knights, D, Jonnalagadda, S. S, Saltzman, E, Roberts, S. B, Meydani, S. N, Booth, S. L.
      Pages: 1052 - 1061
      Abstract: Background: Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for bacterially derived vitamin K forms known as menaquinones in health and disease, which may be attributable in part to anti-inflammatory effects. However, the relevance of menaquinones produced by gut bacteria to vitamin K requirements and inflammation is undetermined.Objective: This study aimed to quantify fecal menaquinone concentrations and identify associations between fecal menaquinone concentrations and serum vitamin K concentrations, gut microbiota composition, and inflammation.Design: Fecal and serum menaquinone concentrations, fecal microbiota composition, and plasma and fecal cytokine concentrations were measured in 80 men and postmenopausal women (48 men, 32 women, age 40–65 y) enrolled in a randomized, parallel-arm, provided-food trial. After consuming a run-in diet for 2 wk, participants were randomly assigned to consume a whole grain–rich (WG) or a refined grain–based (RG) diet for 6 wk. Outcomes were measured at weeks 2 and 8.Results: The median total daily excretion of menaquinones in feces was 850 nmol/d but was highly variable (range: 64–5358 nmol/d). The total median (IQR) fecal concentrations of menaquinones decreased in the WG diet compared with the RG diet [–6.8 nmol/g (13.0 nmol/g) dry weight for WG compared with 1.8 nmol/g (12.3 nmol/g) dry weight for RG; P < 0.01)]. However, interindividual variability in fecal menaquinone concentrations partitioned individuals into 2 distinct groups based on interindividual differences in concentrations of different menaquinone forms rather than the diet group or the time point. The relative abundances of several gut bacteria taxa, Bacteroides and Prevotella in particular, differed between these groups, and 42% of identified genera were associated with ≥1 menaquinone form. Menaquinones were not detected in serum, and neither fecal concentrations of individual menaquinones nor the menaquinone group was associated with any marker of inflammation.Conclusion: Menaquinone concentrations in the human gut appear highly variable and are associated with gut microbiota composition. However, the health implications remain unclear. This trial was registered at as NCT01902394.
      Keywords: Gut Microbiome Research Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.155424
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Trial of ready-to-use supplemental food and corn-soy blend in pregnant
           Malawian women with moderate malnutrition: a randomized controlled
           clinical trial [Pregnancy and lactation]
    • Authors: Callaghan-Gillespie, M; Schaffner, A. A, Garcia, P, Fry, J, Eckert, R, Malek, S, Trehan, I, Thakwalakwa, C, Maleta, K. M, Manary, M. J, Papathakis, P. C.
      Pages: 1062 - 1069
      Abstract: Background: Malnutrition during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with poor birth outcomes.Objective: This study compared maternal and offspring anthropometry for moderately malnourished pregnant women receiving ready-to-use supplemental food (RUSF), a fortified corn-soy blend (CSB+) with a daily multiple micronutrient antenatal supplement [United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Preparation (UNIMMAP)], or standard of care comprising CSB+ and iron and folic acid (IFA).Design: A single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in southern Malawi among 1828 pregnant women with moderate malnutrition, defined as a midupper arm circumference (MUAC) ≥20.6 and ≤23.0 cm. Women received 1 of 3 dietary treatment regimens that provided ~900 kcal/d and 33–36 g protein/d. Maternal and infant anthropometry were followed until the child was 3 mo old.Results: Newborns had a mean length-for-age z score of –1.3 ± 1.2 and 22% were stunted at birth. Mothers receiving RUSF had the highest weight gain during supplementation (3.4 ± 2.6, 3.0 ± 2.2, and 3.2 ± 2.4 kg for the RUSF, CSB+ with UNIMMAP, and CSB+ with IFA groups, respectively; P = 0.03). Newborn birth weights and lengths were similar across intervention groups, but the incidence of newborns with a birth weight
      Keywords: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.157198
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Home- and community-based growth monitoring to reduce early life growth
           faltering: an open-label, cluster-randomized controlled trial [Growth,
           development, and pediatrics]
    • Authors: Fink, G; Levenson, R, Tembo, S, Rockers, P. C.
      Pages: 1070 - 1077
      Abstract: Background: Despite the continued high prevalence of faltering growth, height monitoring remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries.Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether providing parents with information on their child’s height can improve children’s height and developmental outcomes.Design: Villages in Chipata District, Zambia (n = 127), were randomly assigned with equal probability to 1 of 3 groups: home-based growth monitoring (HBGM), community-based growth monitoring including nutritional supplementation for children with stunted growth (CBGM+NS), and control. Primary study outcomes were individual height-for-age z score (HAZ) and overall child development assessed with the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Neurodevelopment Assessment tool. Secondary outcomes were weight-for-age z score (WAZ), protein consumption, breastfeeding, and general dietary diversity.Results: We enrolled a total of 547 children with a median age of 13 mo at baseline. Estimated mean difference (β) in HAZ was 0.127 (95% CI: –0.107, 0.361) for HBGM and –0.152 (95% CI: –0.341, 0.036) for CBGM+NS. HBGM had no impact on child development [β: –0.017 (95% CI: –0.133, 0.098)]; CBGM+NS reduced overall child development scores by –0.118 SD (95% CI: –0.230, –0.006 SD). Both interventions had larger positive effects among children with stunted growth at baseline, with estimated interaction effects of 0.503 (95% CI: 0.160, 0.846) and 0.582 (95% CI: 0.134, 1.030) for CBGM+NS and HBGM, respectively. HBGM increased mean WAZ [β = 0.183 (95% CI: 0.037, 0.328)]. Both interventions improved parental reports of children’s protein intake.Conclusions: The results from this trial suggest that growth monitoring has a limited effect on children’s height and development, despite improvements in self-reported feeding practices. HBGM had modest positive effects on children with stunted growth. Given its relatively low cost, this intervention may be a cost-effective tool for increasing parental efforts toward reducing children’s physical growth deficits. This trial was registered at as NCT02242539.
      Keywords: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.157545
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise on
           body composition and physical function in older adults: a systematic
           review and meta-analysis [Nutritional support]
    • Authors: Liao, C.-D; Tsauo, J.-Y, Wu, Y.-T, Cheng, C.-P, Chen, H.-C, Huang, Y.-C, Chen, H.-C, Liou, T.-H.
      Pages: 1078 - 1091
      Abstract: Background: Overweight and obese older people face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function, which may contribute to sarcopenic obesity. Resistance exercise training (RET) has a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis and can be augmented by protein supplementation (PS). However, whether body weight affects the augmentation of muscular and functional performance in response to PS in older people undergoing RET remains unclear.Objective: This study was conducted to identify the effects of PS on the body composition and physical function of older people undergoing RET.Design: We performed a comprehensive search of online databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the efficacy of PS for lean mass gain, strength gain, and physical mobility improvements in older people undergoing RET.Results: We included 17 RCTs; the overall mean ± SD age and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) in these RCTs were 73.4 ± 8.1 y and 29.7 ± 5.5, respectively. The participants had substantially greater lean mass and leg strength gains when PS and RET were used than with RET alone, with the standard mean differences (SMDs) being 0.58 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.84) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.98), respectively. The subgroup of studies with a mean BMI ≥30 exhibited substantially greater lean mass (SMD: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.87) and leg strength (SMD: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.34) gains in response to PS. The subgroup of studies with a mean BMI
      Keywords: Research Need: Role of Nutrition in Health Maintenance
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.143594
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Vitamin D prenatal programming of childhood metabolomics profiles at age 3
           y [Nutritional epidemiology and public health]
    • Authors: Blighe, K; Chawes, B. L, Kelly, R. S, Mirzakhani, H, McGeachie, M, Litonjua, A. A, Weiss, S. T, Lasky-Su, J. A.
      Pages: 1092 - 1099
      Abstract: Background: Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in a range of common complex diseases that may be prevented by gestational vitamin D repletion. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms related to in utero vitamin D exposure may therefore shed light on complex disease susceptibility.Objective: The goal was to analyze the programming role of in utero vitamin D exposure on children’s metabolomics profiles.Design: First, unsupervised clustering was done with plasma metabolomics profiles from a case-control subset of 245 children aged 3 y with and without asthma from the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), in which pregnant women were randomly assigned to vitamin D supplementation or placebo. Thereafter, we analyzed the influence of maternal pre- and postsupplement vitamin D concentrations on cluster membership. Finally, we used the metabolites driving the clustering of children to identify the dominant metabolic pathways that were influential in each cluster.Results: We identified 3 clusters of children characterized by 1) high concentrations of fatty acids and amines and low maternal postsupplement vitamin D (mean ± SD; 27.5 ± 11.0 ng/mL), 2) high concentrations of amines, moderate concentrations of fatty acids, and normal maternal postsupplement vitamin D (34.0 ± 14.1 ng/mL), and 3) low concentrations of fatty acids, amines, and normal maternal postsupplement vitamin D (35.2 ± 15.9 ng/mL). Adjusting for sample storage time, maternal age and education, and both child asthma and vitamin D concentration at age 3 y did not modify the association between maternal postsupplement vitamin D and cluster membership (P = 0.0014). Maternal presupplement vitamin D did not influence cluster membership, whereas the combination of pre- and postsupplement concentrations did (P = 0.03).Conclusions: Young children can be clustered into distinct biologically meaningful groups by their metabolomics profiles. The clusters differed in concentrations of inflammatory mediators, and cluster membership was influenced by in utero vitamin D exposure, suggesting a prenatal programming role of vitamin D on the child’s metabolome. This trial was registered at as NCT00920621.
      Keywords: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.158220
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Soya, maize, and sorghum-based ready-to-use therapeutic food with amino
           acid is as efficacious as the standard milk and peanut paste-based
           formulation for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children: a
           noninferiority individually randomized controlled efficacy clinical trial
           in Malawi [Nutritional epidemiology and public health]
    • Authors: Bahwere, P; Akomo, P, Mwale, M, Murakami, H, Banda, C, Kathumba, S, Banda, C, Jere, S, Sadler, K, Collins, S.
      Pages: 1100 - 1112
      Abstract: Background: Development of more cost-effective ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is a global public health priority. To date, previous lower-cost recipes have been less effective than the standard peanut and milk (PM)–based RUTF, particularly in children aged
      Keywords: Research Need: Impact of Nutrition on Healthy Growth, Development, and Reproduction
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.156653
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Coffee consumption after myocardial infarction and risk of cardiovascular
           mortality: a prospective analysis in the Alpha Omega Cohort [Nutritional
           epidemiology and public health]
    • Authors: van Dongen, L. H; Mölenberg, F. J, Soedamah-Muthu, S. S, Kromhout, D, Geleijnse, J. M.
      Pages: 1113 - 1120
      Abstract: Background: Consumption of coffee, one of the most popular beverages around the world, has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in population-based studies. However, little is known about these associations in patient populations.Objective: This prospective study aimed to examine the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI).Design: We included 4365 Dutch patients from the Alpha Omega Cohort who were aged 60–80 y (21% female) and had experienced an MI 2–4 cups/d and 0.72 (0.55, 0.95) for>4 cups/d, compared with 0–2 cups/d. Corresponding HRs were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.05) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.95) for IHD mortality and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.00) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.98) for all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar associations were found for decaffeinated coffee and for coffee with additives.Conclusion: Drinking coffee, either caffeinated or decaffeinated, may lower the risk of CVD and IHD mortality in patients with a prior MI. This study was registered at as NCT03192410.
      Keywords: Nutritional Epidemiology Research Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.153338
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Temporal eating patterns: associations with nutrient intakes, diet
           quality, and measures of adiposity [Nutritional epidemiology and public
    • Authors: Leech, R. M; Timperio, A, Livingstone, K. M, Worsley, A, McNaughton, S. A.
      Pages: 1121 - 1130
      Abstract: Background: Some evidence suggests that higher energy intake (EI) later in the day is associated with poor diet quality and obesity. However, EI at one eating occasion (EO) is also dependent on EI at surrounding EOs. Studies that examine the distribution of EOs across the day are rare.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and measures of adiposity in a representative sample of Australian adults.Design: Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed (n = 4544 adults, aged ≥19 y). Temporal eating patterns, based on the distribution of EOs across the day, were determined by using latent class analysis. Diet quality estimated adherence to healthy eating recommendations and was assessed by using the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI). Multivariate regression models assessed associations between temporal eating patterns, nutrient intakes, diet quality, and adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference, weight status, and central weight status). Models were adjusted for potential confounders and energy misreporting.Results: Three patterns, labeled "conventional," "later lunch," and "grazing," were identified. Compared with a "conventional" or "later lunch" pattern, men and women with a "grazing" pattern had lower DGI scores and higher intakes of discretionary (noncore) foods (P < 0.05). Among women, the "grazing" pattern was associated with overweight or obesity (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15, 2.13) and central overweight or obesity (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.50). These associations were attenuated after the exclusion of energy misreporters and adjustment for total EI.Conclusions: This study found that a "grazing" temporal eating pattern was modestly but significantly associated with poorer diet quality and adiposity among women, after adjustment for covariates and energy misreporting. Future research should consider the impact of energy misreporting on the relation between temporal eating patterns and adiposity. This secondary analysis was registered at as ACTRN12617001029381.
      Keywords: Obesity and Metabolism Research Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.156588
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop
           Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study [Nutritional epidemiology and
           public health]
    • Authors: Derkach, A; Sampson, J, Joseph, J, Playdon, M. C, Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z.
      Pages: 1131 - 1141
      Abstract: Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies.Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)–Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure.Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions (N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher’s method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups.Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, -glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold (P < 10–5). Adjustment for coinciding change in blood pressure did not substantively alter the association for the top-ranked metabolites.Conclusion: Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and -glutamyl amino acid–related metabolites. This trial was registered at as NCT00000608.
      Keywords: Research Need: Variability in Individual Responses to Diet and Foods, Research Need: Role of Nutrition in Health Maintenance
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.150136
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Association of TCN2 rs1801198 c.776G>C polymorphism with markers of
           one-carbon metabolism and related diseases: a systematic review and
    • Authors: Oussalah, A; Levy, J, Filhine-Tresarrieu, P, Namour, F, Gueant, J.-L.
      Pages: 1142 - 1156
      Abstract: Background: Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency may produce severe neurologic and hematologic manifestations. Approximately 20–25% of circulating cobalamin binds to transcobalamin 2 (TCN2), which is referred to as active vitamin B-12. The G allele of the TCN2 c.776G>C (rs1801198) polymorphism has been associated with a lower plasma concentration of holotranscobalamin. However, genotype association studies on rs1801198 have led to conflicting results regarding its influence on one-carbon metabolism (OCM) markers or its association with pathologic conditions.Objective: We assessed the association of rs1801198 genotypes with OCM marker concentrations and primary risks of congenital abnormalities, cancer, and Alzheimer disease.Design: We conducted a systematic review of the literature that was published from January 1966 to February 2017 and included all studies that assessed the association between rs1801198 and OCM markers or a pathologic condition.Results: Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Subjects with the rs1801198 GG genotype had significantly lower concentrations of holotranscobalamin [standardized mean difference (SMD): –0.445 (95% CI: –0.673, –0.217; P < 0.001); I2 = 48.16% (95% CI: 0.00%, 78.10%; P = 0.07)] and higher concentrations of homocysteine (European descent only) [SMD: 0.070 (95% CI: 0.020, 0.120; P = 0.01); I2 = 0.00% (95% CI: 0.00%, 49.59%; P = 0.73)] than did subjects with the rs1801198 CC genotype. The meta-analysis on the association between rs1801198 and methylmalonic acid (MMA) lacked statistical power. No significant difference was observed regarding cobalamin, folate, and red blood cell folate. No significant association was observed between rs1801198 and primary risks of congenital abnormalities, cancer, or Alzheimer disease.Conclusions: Meta-analysis results indicate an influence of rs1801198 on holotranscobalamin and homocysteine concentrations in European-descent subjects. In addition, well-designed and -powered studies should be conducted for assessing the association between rs1801198 and MMA and clinical manifestations that are linked to a decreased availability of cobalamin. This review was registered at as CRD42017058504.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.156349
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • DHA-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases DNA methylation in blood
           leukocytes: the OmegAD study [Gene-nutrient interactions]
    • Authors: Karimi, M; Vedin, I, Freund Levi, Y, Basun, H, Faxen Irving, G, Eriksdotter, M, Wahlund, L.-O, Schultzberg, M, Hjorth, E, Cederholm, T, Palmblad, J.
      Pages: 1157 - 1165
      Abstract: Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n–3 (-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n–3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n–3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. However, the effects of long-term treatment of humans with DHA and EPA on various epigenetic factors—such as DNA methylation, which controls messenger RNA generation—are poorly described.Objective: We wanted to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n–3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the relation to plasma EPA and DHA concentrations in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients.Design: In the present study, DNA methylation in four 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' (CpG) sites of long interspersed nuclear element-1 repetitive sequences was assessed in a group of 63 patients (30 given the n–3 FA preparation and 33 given placebo) as an estimation of the global DNA methylation in blood cells. Patients originated from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled OmegAD study, in which 174 AD patients received either 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (the n–3 FA group) or placebo daily for 6 mo.Results: At 6 mo, the n–3 FA group displayed marked increases in DHA and EPA plasma concentrations (2.6- and 3.5-fold), as well as decreased methylation in 2 out of 4 CpG sites (P < 0.05 for all), respectively. This hypomethylation in CpG2 and CpG4 sites showed a reverse correlation to changes in plasma EPA concentration (r = –0.25, P = 0.045; and r = –0.26, P = 0.041, respectively), but not to changes in plasma DHA concentration, and were not related to apolipoprotein E-4 allele frequency.Conclusion: Supplementation with n–3 FA for 6 mo was associated with global DNA hypomethylation in PBLs. Our data may be of importance in measuring various effects of marine oils, including gene expression, in patients with AD and in other patients taking n–3 FA supplements. This trial was registered at as NCT00211159.
      Keywords: Dietary Bioactive Compounds Research Articles, Research Need: Role of Nutrition in Health Maintenance
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.155648
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Handbook of Community-based Participatory Research, by SS Coughlin, SA
           Smith, and ME Fernandez, editors. Reviewed by [Book Review]
    • Authors: Dave; J. M.
      Pages: 1166 - 1166
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.117.162099
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
  • Calendar of Events [From the American Society for Nutrition]
    • Pages: 1167 - 1167
      PubDate: 2017-10-02T09:30:29-07:00
      Issue No: Vol. 106, No. 4 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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