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Journal Cover
Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.611
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 274  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9251
Published by IEEE Homepage  [191 journals]
  • IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society
    • Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • FPGA-Centric Design Process for Avionic Simulation and Test
    • Authors: Rabie Ben Atitallah;Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan;Nicolas Belanger;Jean-Luc Dekeyser;
      Pages: 1047 - 1065
      Abstract: Real-time computing systems are increasingly used in aerospace and avionic industries. In the face of power challenge, performance requirements and demands for higher flexibility, hardware designers are directed toward reconfigurable computing using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) that offer high computation rates per watt and adaptability to the application constraints. However, considering reconfigurable computing in the avionic design process leads to several challenges for system developers. Indeed, such technology should be validated along the verification & validation cycle starting with simulation tools, passing through the test benches and finishing with the integration phase. For each step, the FPGA can play an essential role to achieve better performances, more adaptive systems, and cost-effective solutions. In this paper, we present a seamless FPGA-centric design process for avionic equipments. Along this process, we redefine the role of the FPGA circuits to cover the simulation, the test, and the integration steps. First, reconfigurable logics are used in the frame of heterogeneous CPU/FPGA computing in order to obtain high speed-up for real-time avionic simulation. The proposed environment supports dynamic execution model enabling reconfiguration during runtime to avoid the timing constraint violation. Second, the FPGA is used as a key solution to offer versatile test benches and to converge toward unified test and simulation tools. We have designed several commercial input output intellectual property systems with dynamic runtime reconfiguration capabilities, in order to mitigate component obsolescence and to provide increased flexibility and decreased design time. Third, at the integration phase, we use the conventional tools to make profit from reconfigurable technology in embedded avionic applications in order to deliver high computation rates and to adapt their functioning mode to provide reliability, fault tolerance, deterministic timing g-arantees, and energy efficiency.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Multiple Model Ballistic Missile Tracking With State-Dependent Transitions
           and Gaussian Particle Filtering
    • Authors: Miao Yu;Liyun Gong;Hyondong Oh;Wen-Hua Chen;Jonathon Chambers;
      Pages: 1066 - 1081
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new method for tracking the entire trajectory of a ballistic missile from launch to impact on the ground. Multiple state models are used to represent the different ballistic missile dynamics in three flight phases: boost, coast, and re-entry. In particular, the transition probabilities between state models are represented in a state-dependent way by utilizing domain knowledge. Based on this modeling system and radar measurements, a state-dependent interacting multiple model approach based on Gaussian particle filtering is developed to accurately estimate information describing the ballistic missile such as the phase of flight, position, velocity, and relevant missile parameters. Comprehensive numerical simulation studies show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional multiple model approaches for ballistic missile tracking.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Continuous Finite-Time Attitude Control for Rigid Spacecraft Based on
           Angular Velocity Observer
    • Authors: Qinglei Hu;Boyan Jiang;
      Pages: 1082 - 1092
      Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of designing an angular velocity observer and an output feedback attitude controller with finite-time convergence and disturbances for spacecraft. First, two new concepts of finite-time stability are proposed and defined as the local fast-finite-time stability and the fast-finite-time uniformly ultimately boundness, which can be seen as the extensions of the traditional fast-finite-time stability. Then, based on these two concepts of stability, a fast-finite-time observer is designed to estimate the unknown angular velocity. Next, based on the estimation of the angular velocity, a nonsingular and continuous attitude control algorithm is proposed to achieve the finite-time stability or finite-time boundness. With consideration of the observation errors and disturbances in the closed-loop system, a rigorous analysis of the proposed strategy is provided through Lyapunov approach. It shows that the observation errors and the spacecraft attitude will converge to a region of zero in finite time. Numerical simulation studies are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer-based attitude control scheme.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Detection Performance of a Forward Scatter Radar Using a Crystal Video
           Detector
    • Authors: Nertjana Ustalli;Pierfrancesco Lombardo;Debora Pastina;
      Pages: 1093 - 1114
      Abstract: The forward scatter radar (FSR) configuration is especially appealing for the detection of low-observable targets since it provides well-known properties for the radar cross section, which includes enhancements with respect to the monostatic and/or moderate bistatic configurations, as well as robustness to the target material and detailed geometrical characteristics. Due to the separation of a transmitter and a receiver, it is customary to use a detection scheme based on a square-law envelope detector followed by an appropriate matched filter, which we address as a crystal video detector (CVD) based on traditional terminology. This paper provides an accurate analytical expression for the detection performance of the FSR target detection using the CVD in terms of both the probability of false alarm $(P_{{rm{fa}}})$ and the probability of detection $(P_{{rm{d}}})$ in order to support performance prediction and FSR system design. The derived expressions are validated by comparison to Monte Carlo simulations under two different geometrical scenarios. Moreover, the comparison of the CVD performance to an ideal optimum detector (upper bound for the FSR achievable detection performance) shows the geometrical conditions, where the CVD suffers significant detection losses so that alternative detectors should be investigated. Finally, to remove the need to operate the CVD with a fixed detection threshold, two fully adaptive detectors are derived, based on the structure of the CVD scheme, which are shown to provide a constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The performance of these CFAR detectors in terms of $P_{{rm{fa}}}$ and $P_{{rm{d}}}$ are provided in closed form and validated-through Monte Carlo simulations, showing quite small losses with respect to the fixed-threshold CVD. The application to real data acquired by a passive FSR based on frequency-modulated signals is used to show the practical effectiveness and consistency.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Maneuver and Active Vibration Suppression of Free-Flying Space Robot
    • Authors: Shiyuan Jia;Yinghong Jia;Shijie Xu;Quan Hu;
      Pages: 1115 - 1134
      Abstract: This work studies the maneuver control and vibration suppression of a flexible free-flying space robot using variable-speed control moment gyros as actuators. A novel flexible space manipulator is designed. The dynamics of the flexible multibody system is derived by using Kane method. Based on the singular perturbation approach, the dynamics of the flexible manipulator is decoupled into a slow subsystem and a fast subsystem. The slow subsystem is associated with the rigid motion dynamics, and the fast subsystem is related to the link flexible dynamics. A composite control strategy is proposed as a combination of two controllers for these subsystems. An adaptive sliding mode controller is designed for the slow subsystem, and an adaptive controller is designed for the fast subsystem. Uncertainty estimation can be achieved by the adaptive terms of the composite controller. A weighted robust pseudo-inverse steering law is proposed for the variable-speed control moment gyros. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed composite controller is robust to parameter uncertainties and external disturbances.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Signal Parameter Estimation for Passive Bistatic Radar With Waveform
           Correlation Exploitation
    • Authors: Fangzhou Wang;Hongbin Li;Xin Zhang;Braham Himed;
      Pages: 1135 - 1150
      Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of target delay and Doppler frequency estimation for passive bistatic radar employing noncooperative illuminators of opportunity (IOs), where the receivers are contaminated by nonnegligible noise, clutter, and direct-path interference. A parametric approach is proposed by modeling the unknown signal transmitted from the IO as an autoregressive process whose temporal correlation is jointly estimated and exploited for passive estimation. An iterative estimator based on the expectation-maximization (EM) principle is utilized to solve this highly nonlinear problem. We also discuss the initialization of the EM-based estimator and a fast implementation based on the fast Fourier transform and interpolation techniques. In addition, we derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the estimation problem to benchmark the performance of the proposed estimator. Simulation results show that the proposed estimator behaves similarly to a clairvoyant EM estimator, which assumes knowledge of the IO waveform covariance matrix, and significantly outperforms other methods that ignore the waveform correlation.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Lagrange-Polynomial-Interpolation-Based Keystone Transform for a Passive
           Radar
    • Authors: Florian Pignol;Fabiola Colone;Tatiana Martelli;
      Pages: 1151 - 1167
      Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of target's range migration in passive bistatic radar exploiting long coherent integration times with fairly wideband signals of opportunity. We resort to the well-known keystone transform (KT) to compensate for the range walk effect and to take advantage of a higher coherent integration gain against targets with nonnegligible radial velocity. Specifically, an efficient implementation of the KT is proposed, based on the Lagrange polynomial interpolation, in order to reduce the computational load of the method that mostly depends on the required slow-time interpolation stage. The analysis conducted against simulated data shows that the conceived approach allows us to achieve theoretical performance, while further reducing the KT complexity with respect to alternative solutions based on cardinal sine functions or chirp-Z transforms. Moreover, the application against experimental datasets collected by a DVB-T-based passive radar proves the practical effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and highlights its suitability for real-time air traffic surveillance applications.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Redundancy for Transient Fault-Tolerant Datapath
    • Authors: Anirban Sengupta;Deepak Kachave;
      Pages: 1168 - 1183
      Abstract: In application specific integrated circuits used in aircraft control systems the effects of transient fault, both in temporal and spatial domain emanating from a single particle strike, cannot be ignored anymore. This is due to scaling of device geometry and surge in frequency. This paper presents novel fault-tolerant high-level synthesis methodology against temporal and spatial impacts of transient at reduced design cost (avg. ∼ 25%) and power (avg. ∼ 48%) than a recent approach.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive In-Flight Alignment of INS/GPS Systems for Aerial Mapping
    • Authors: Maiying Zhong;Jia Guo;Donghua Zhou;
      Pages: 1184 - 1196
      Abstract: In this paper, a new in-flight alignment (IFA) method of the integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) is proposed for the aerial mapping applications. The integrated INS/GPS measurement system is used to provide attitude information and, based on this, the exterior orientation parameters can be derived for the purpose of direct georeference of the airborne imagery. The IFA plays an important role in achieving high accuracy of attitude estimation. However, the statistics of INS noise is usually time-varying and seriously degrades the estimation accuracy in practice. In order to solve the problem, two strategies are taken into account in the paper. First, an adaptive estimation algorithm is developed by adjusting the window size of data processing in IFA, so that the covariances of INS noise can be estimated and updated online to improve the state estimation performance. Second, a strong tracking filter is applied to guarantee the convergence of the IFA algorithm as well as its robustness against parameter perturbations and trajectory maneuvers. Finally, an aerial mapping experiment is implemented, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Robust Quasi-Adaptive Beamforming Against Direction-of-Arrival Mismatch
    • Authors: Xuejing Zhang;Zishu He;Bin Liao;Xuepan Zhang;Weilai Peng;
      Pages: 1197 - 1207
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel robust quasi-adaptive beamforming (RQAB) scheme against direction-of-arrival (DOA) mismatch. Unlike existing robust adaptive beamforming (RAB) methods, the proposed approach obtains the ultimate beamformer weight vector in a quiescent manner, nevertheless, it possesses the remarkable ability of interference rejection and desired signal reception. In this method, a two-step procedure is devised to design the quasi-adaptive weight vector. More specifically, the conventional sample matrix inversion (SMI) beamformer is first applied to find out all notch angles outside the region of interest (ROI) where the desired signal comes with a high probability. It is shown that these notch angles contain the DOAs of interferences. Then, a multipoint accurate array response control ($ {text {MA}}^2text {RC}$) algorithm is utilized to synthesize a beampattern with the same sidelobe notch levels as the SMI, and nearly constant response over the ROI. Contrary to conventional approaches that are vulnerable to the contamination of the training data by the desired signal, our proposed approach exhibits outstanding performance under this common scenario. Moreover, besides the DOA mismatch, the proposed approach is also insensitive to the SNR, number of snapshots and mismatch angle. Additionally, different from many optimization-based RAB methods, the proposed RQAB approach offers an analytical expression of the beamformer weight vector and, hence, is computationally attractive. Typical simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the superiority of the RQAB scheme.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • New Low-Rank Filters for MIMO-STAP Based on an Orthogonal Tensorial
           Decomposition
    • Authors: Frédéric Brigui;Maxime Boizard;Guillaume Ginolhac;Frédéric Pascal;
      Pages: 1208 - 1220
      Abstract: We develop in this paper a new adaptive low-rank (LR) filter for MIMO-space time adaptive processing (STAP) application based on a tensorial modeling of the data. This filter is based on an extension of the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) (which is also one possible extension of singular value decomposition to the tensor case), called alternative unfolding HOSVD (AU-HOSVD), which allows us to consider the combinations of dimensions. This property is necessary to keep the advantages of the STAP and the MIMO characteristics of the data. We show that the choice of a good partition (as well as the tensorial modeling) is not heuristic but have to follow several features. Thanks to the derivation of the theoretical formulation of multimode ranks for all partitions, the tensorial LR filters are easy to compute. Results on simulated data show the good performance of the AU-HOSVD LR filters in terms of secondary data and clutter notch.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • RF Steganography via LFM Chirp Radar Signals
    • Authors: Zhiping Zhang;Yang Qu;Zhiqiang Wu;Michael J. Nowak;John Ellinger;Michael C. Wicks;
      Pages: 1221 - 1236
      Abstract: A novel radio frequency (RF) steganography scheme is proposed to hide digital communication in linear frequency modulation (LFM) radar signals. This joint radar/communication waveform serves two purposes simultaneously: it performs as the original radar waveform, and it provides a covert communication to legitimate receivers. The proposed RF steganography scheme hides digitally modulated communication information inside an LFM radar signal to prevent enemy from detecting the existence of such hidden information via a new modulation and variable symbol duration design.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Multiobjective Sequence Design via Gradient Descent Methods
    • Authors: John Michael Baden;Brian O’Donnell;Lance Schmieder;
      Pages: 1237 - 1252
      Abstract: Gradient descent provides a simple and flexible approach to sequence design. Simplicity is inherent in the gradient approach itself—The negative of the gradient of a given cost function gives an indication of the change to make to a sequence to find the local minimum of the cost function. Flexibility is provided by the lack of constraints on the cost function, allowing different aspects of a sequence to be optimized, e.g., autocorrelation or cross-correlation sidelobe energy, or spectral characteristics. Additional flexibility is provided by the linearity of gradients. The gradient of a linear combination of cost functions is simply an equivalent linear combination of their gradients. This allows multiple objectives to be optimized simultaneously. Gradient computational complexity has been one impediment to the use of gradient descent in sequence design in the past. In this paper, it is shown that gradients for a large variety of cost functions can be computed very efficiently. For a sequence of length $N$, the computational complexity of computing the full gradient (the gradient with respect to all $N$ elements) is $O(N^3)$ in a “naive” implementation. In this paper, equations are derived that allow the gradients to be computed with $O(N log N)$ operations, a substantial improvement over previous methods.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Hybrid Control of Space Robot in On-Orbit Screw-Driving Operation
    • Authors: Lingling Shi;Jayantha Katupitiya;Nathan Michael Kinkaid;
      Pages: 1253 - 1264
      Abstract: Controlled force–torque exertion by a small-scaled free-flying space robot will be potentially required for future on-orbit assembly missions. This paper presents a hybrid controller to achieve the desired end-effector motion and contact forces required for driving a screw into a floating target. Attitude of the spacecraft base is controlled simultaneously. Postcapture control to stabilize the entire system is also addressed in this paper. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed control laws.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Dual-Use Multicarrier Waveform for Radar Detection and Communication
    • Authors: John Ellinger;Zhiping Zhang;Zhiqiang Wu;Michael C. Wicks;
      Pages: 1265 - 1278
      Abstract: The use of multicarrier waveforms, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as used in radio communication, is gaining interest within the radar community. This paper considers the optimization of radar performance within the structure imposed by a coded OFDM format required to achieve an acceptable communication link. The dual goal of achieving both satisfactory radar and communication performance raises challenges that can be substantively addressed by combining phase coding and modulation techniques to provide the temporal and spectral structure necessary to implement simultaneous radar and communication operations.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Spectrum Sharing Radar: Coexistence via Xampling
    • Authors: Deborah Cohen;Kumar Vijay Mishra;Yonina C. Eldar;
      Pages: 1279 - 1296
      Abstract: We present a Xampling-based technology enabling interference-free operation of radar and communication systems over a common spectrum. Our system uses a recently developed cognitive radio (CRo) to sense the spectrum at low sampling and processing rates. The Xampling-based cognitive radar (CRr) then transmits and receives in the available disjoint narrow bands. Our main contribution is the unification and adaptation of two previous ideas—CRo and CRr—to address spectrum sharing. Hardware implementation shows robust performance at SNRs up to –5 dB.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive Finite-Time Attitude Tracking Control for Spacecraft With
           Disturbances
    • Authors: Lin Zhao;Jinpeng Yu;Haisheng Yu;
      Pages: 1297 - 1305
      Abstract: In this paper, the adaptive finite-time attitude tracking control problem for rigid spacecraft with upper bounds unknown external disturbances is studied by using a novel combining control scheme of adaptive control technique and adding a power integrator (AAPI) technique. An adaptive finite-time control law with boundary layer is first established under the proposed combined control scheme, which can attenuate the influences of disturbances and contain the advantages of AAPI technique. Then, another adaptive finite-time control law without boundary layer is further given, which can simply the control design. It is proved that both the two control laws can ensure the tracking errors converge to the desired regions in finite-time. Moreover, since the established two control laws are both designed with continuous control architecture, the chattering problem is eliminated, which are more adopt to practical engineering applications. An example is included to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Polynomial Radon-Polynomial Fourier Transform for Near Space Hypersonic
           Maneuvering Target Detection
    • Authors: Wei Wu;Guo Hong Wang;Jin Ping Sun;
      Pages: 1306 - 1322
      Abstract: For coherent integration detection of near space hypersonic maneuvering weak target via modern radar, a novel radar signal processing approach called polynomial Radon-polynomial Fourier transform (PRPFT) is proposed as a tool to compensate across range unit range walk and Doppler migration simultaneously caused by super-high speed and strong maneuvering. First, the target's observation values in the range-slow time plane are extracted by a kind of polynomial Radon transform according to the preset motion parameters of the searching space. Then, the observation values are matched and integrated by polynomial Fourier transform, and the hypersonic maneuvering target with arbitrary parameterized motion can be detected in the PRPFT domain. To reduce the computational complexity, a multiresolution method is proposed to search multidimensional parameter space. Finally, its application is illustrated to analyze and compare the performance between the proposed approach and the existing approach. It is shown that moving target detection and Radon-Fourier transform are actually special cases of PRPFT. The proposed method can compensate the range walk and the Doppler migration simultaneously, the detection performance of hypersonic maneuvering weak target may be significantly improved via PRPFT in the low signal-noise ratio background. The proposed algorithm can be used in the form of the second-order polynomial model, and it can also be extended to higher order form.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Ambiguity Function Analysis for OFDM-Based LDACS Passive Multistatic Radar
    • Authors: Alexandra Filip;Dmitriy Shutin;
      Pages: 1323 - 1340
      Abstract: The ambiguity function analysis is central to investigating the resolution capabilities of a radar system. It is particularly important for passive radar scenarios, where the signals of opportunity have not been originally designed for radar purposes. This paper focuses on studying the achievable resolution capabilities for a noncoherent orthogonal frequency division-multiplexing (OFDM)-based passive multistatic radar for L-band digital aeronautical communication system (LDACS) signals. For this purpose, the ambiguity function obtained when employing the OFDM-based LDACS communications signals as signals of opportunity is studied. A generic bistatic link is considered and closed-form expressions for the expectation of the corresponding ambiguity function when accounting for the different signal contributions are derived. The resulting expressions are then used to evaluate and analyze the overall multistatic radar ambiguity function for two sample radar scenarios. The results highlight the impact of the geometry on the shape of the ambiguity function, allowing therefore for a better understanding of the effect that the geometry has on the range and velocity resolution capabilities of the studied system.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Experimental Study for Transmitter Imperfections in DVB-T Based Passive
           Radar
    • Authors: Georgia Bournaka;Martin Ummenhofer;Diego Cristallini;James Palmer;Ashley Summers;
      Pages: 1341 - 1354
      Abstract: We investigate effects of transmitter imperfections in terms of time and frequency offsets on the performance of digital video broadcast-terrestrial based passive radars. To facilitate an accurate reconstruction of the transmitted waveform, transmitter imperfections need to be understood and compensated. The transmitter introduced clock imperfections are estimated and compensated via two different methods and tested on real-field measurements acquired in Germany and Australia for single frequency and multiple frequency networks.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Fast ISAR Cross-Range Scaling Using Modified Newton Method
    • Authors: Shuanghui Zhang;Yongxiang Liu;Xiang Li;Guoan Bi;
      Pages: 1355 - 1367
      Abstract: This paper proposes a fast and novel cross-range scaling algorithm for inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. The rotational motion of the target unavoidably results in high-order phase errors that blur the ISAR image. To achieve the cross-range scaling and compensate the quadratic phase error, the rotational velocity and rotational center of the target are jointly estimated by optimizing the ISAR image quality in terms of either entropy or contrast. Since it is a two-dimensional nonlinear optimization problem, the grid search is generally computationally inefficient and inaccurate. To improve the computational efficiency, a modified Newton method is introduced by adjusting the Hessian to be positively definite to ensure the iterative optimization process in a correct direction. The proposed algorithm offers the following desirable advantageous features. First, it automatically compensates the quadratic phase errors jointly with the scaling process to improve the image quality. Second, it is a data-driven, rather than image-driven, process that does not depend on the quality of ISAR image. It also performs satisfactorily for the sparse aperture data, while most other algorithms are invalid. The modified Newton method ensures fast convergence. For example, our numerical experiments achieve a precision of $ bf {10^{-6}}$ with less than ten iterations. Last but not least, the proposed algorithm is robust to noise because our experiments show that it is still effective when signal-to-noise ratio is as low as $-$10 dB.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • FDA Radar Ambiguity Function Characteristics Analysis and Optimization
    • Authors: Wen-Qin Wang;Miaomiao Dai;Zhi Zheng;
      Pages: 1368 - 1380
      Abstract: Frequency diverse array (FDA) radar provides new application capabilities and potentials due to its range-dependent transmit array beampattern. As radar ambiguity function (AF) is an effective tool to analyze the range (time delay) and Doppler resolution characteristics of various radar systems, this paper derives and analyzes the FDA radar AF characteristics in a general way. These characteristics provide some insights into optimal FDA parameters design and are helpful for comparing delay-Doppler performance of the FDA radar with conventional phased-array radar. Furthermore, this paper optimally designs the frequency increments for better FDA radar AF with the simulated annealing algorithm. The optimization object is to minimize undesired range-angle-dependent sidelobes, so that we can focus the transmit beampattern to desired range-angle sections and simultaneously null undesired interferences. All the derived expressions and methods are verified by numerical results. The results also validate that the FDA indeed offers advantages over traditional phased array in delay-Doppler radar applications.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Reliability Considerations of Spherical Phased Array Antenna for
           Satellites
    • Authors: B. Pavan Kumar;Chandrakanta Kumar;V. Senthil Kumar;V. V. Srinivasan;
      Pages: 1381 - 1391
      Abstract: Reliability is one of the most important aspects for any system onboard a satellite. This paper discusses different failure conditions and a fault-tolerant design of an active spherical phased array antenna (SPAA). This SPAA is having a hemispherical scan coverage for transmission of satellite imagery data at high bit rates to the ground station. Different failure conditions are identified and a criticality rank has been assigned based on their effects on the overall performance of the SPAA. Two entirely different configurations of the array are chosen to select the best one considering the failure effects. Based on these analyses, a rational margin is built such that the array can take care of even the most critical failure condition. This paper provides an insight toward the realization of a reliable phased array and thus useful for a practicing antenna engineer involved in designing antennas for the spacecrafts.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Novel Autonomous Celestial Navigation Method Using Solar Oscillation
           Time Delay Measurement
    • Authors: Xiaolin Ning;Mingzhen Gui;Jiancheng Fang;Gang Liu;Weiren Wu;
      Pages: 1392 - 1403
      Abstract: Solar oscillations cause significant variations in sunlight spectral wavelength and intensity over short time periods. These oscillations have been studied in detail over the years, both theoretically and using actual observations. Through detecting the sunlight spectral central wavelengths and intensity and recording the moment when solar oscillation occurs, the time delay between the sunlight coming from the Sun directly and the sunlight reflected by a celestial body such as the satellite of a planet or asteroid can be obtained. Because the solar oscillation time delay is determined by the relative positions of the spacecraft, the reflective celestial body, and the Sun, it can be adopted as the navigation measurement to provide the spacecraft's position information. In this paper, a novel celestial navigation method using the solar oscillation time delay measurement is proposed. The implicit measurement model of time delay is built, and the implicit unscented Kalman filter is applied. Simulation results indicate that the position error and velocity error of the proposed method for the transfer orbit are about 3.55 km and 0.077 m/s, respectively, and those for the surrounding orbit are about 1.76 km and 1.57 m/s, respectively. The impact of four factors on the navigation performance is also investigated.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Multiple-Model Estimators for Tracking Sharply Maneuvering Ground Targets
    • Authors: Radu Visina;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;Peter Willett;
      Pages: 1404 - 1414
      Abstract: This paper presents algorithms that can be used to track the state of kinematic point targets, moving in two dimensions, that are capable of making very sharp heading maneuvers over short periods of time. Ground vehicles with continuous wheel tracks moving in an open field may perform such maneuvers. These targets are capable of 60 $^{circ }text{/s}$ turn rates, whereas measurements are received at only 1 Hz. We describe how an interacting multiple model estimator (IMM) should be designed to accommodate such maneuvers, and we introduce the nonzero mean, white noise turn-rate model to quickly detect sharp turns by modeling a multimode process noise probability density function. Results show that including such modes in an IMM achieves significant improvement in accuracy and consistency, as compared to conventional coordinated-turn IMM filters.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Robust Guidance Strategy for Target Circulation by Controlled UAV
    • Authors: José Lucas Gomes Olavo;Gonçalo Daniel Thums;Tales Argolo Jesus;Luciano Cunha de Araújo Pimenta;Leonardo Antônio Borges Torres;Reinaldo Martinez Palhares;
      Pages: 1415 - 1431
      Abstract: A controlled fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle is modeled as a simplified low-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system with additive disturbances. The guidance strategy presented, considering simultaneously inputs and states constraints, is shown to be robust to additive perturbations representing norm-bounded uncertainties associated with modeling errors resulting from the lower order model approximation, together with unknown but limited atmospheric disturbances. Mathematical proofs are provided ensuring robustness in achieving target circulation with a minimum prescribed accuracy.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive Monopulse Approach With Joint Linear Constraints for Planar Array
           at Subarray Level
    • Authors: Ziyang Cheng;Zishu He;Xiang Duan;Xuejing Zhang;Bin Liao;
      Pages: 1432 - 1441
      Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of angle measuring of the target in the presence of jammings with planar arrays. The relationship between the quiescent monopulse ratios and azimuth/elevation is first studied. On this basis, the distortion of the surface of the conventional minimum variance distortionless response monopulse ratio is analyzed. In order to avoid such distortion and approximate the adaptive monopulse ratio surface to the quiescent one, an adaptive monopulse approach with joint linear constraints on both the azimuth and elevation is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of attaining a high angle measuring accuracy in the presence of mainlobe jammer.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Adaptive Control for Hypersonic Vehicles With Time-Varying Faults
    • Authors: Qinglei Hu;Chenliang Wang;Yun Li;Jian Huang;
      Pages: 1442 - 1455
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel adaptive fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme is proposed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles (HFVs) with input constraints and unknown inertial and aerodynamic parameters. As an advantage beyond existing adaptive FTC schemes for HFVs, we investigate a more practical and more challenging case that both the elevator and the throttle may suffer from unknown and time-varying faults. By introducing some smooth functions and a linear time-varying model and estimating the bounds of those time-varying uncertainties, the impact of the faults and the input constraints is effectively compensated for and stable altitude and velocity tracking is successfully achieved. Besides, with the aid of the dynamic surface control technique, the proposed scheme is free of the problem of explosion of complexity inherent in traditional backstepping design. Such features result in a simple flight control scheme that can be easily implemented with less computational burden and higher reliability. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • CPHD Filter Birth Modeling Using the Probabilistic Admissible Region
    • Authors: Brandon A. Jones;
      Pages: 1456 - 1469
      Abstract: Sparse observations make single-point track initialization difficult in some multitarget tracking scenarios, including space-object tracking. A probabilistic admissible region approach combines physics- and scenario-based constraints in unobservable directions to reduce ambiguity in the initial state and allows for a birth model consistent with the derivation assumptions in the cardinalized probability hypothesis density filter. The proposed filter enables tracking of simulated space objects via optical or radar observations and establishes custody of newly observed targets when given sparse observations.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Simplified Tsunami Modeling and Waveform Reconstruction With GNSS-R
           Observations
    • Authors: Kegen Yu;
      Pages: 1470 - 1484
      Abstract: This paper investigates Tsunami modeling, waveform reconstruction and parameter estimation using noisy sea surface height measurements observed by a satellite-carried global navigation satellite system (GNSS) sensor. Wavelet theory is used to mitigate the strong measurement noise. Tsunami modeling is considered and Cramer–Rao lower bound is derived for estimation of Tsunami shape parameters, wave height and wavelength. Real Tsunami data observed by altimetry satellites are used for performance evaluation and the results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking for Targets Producing Multiple Measurements
    • Authors: Stefano P. Coraluppi;Craig A. Carthel;
      Pages: 1485 - 1498
      Abstract: This paper extends the multiple-hypothesis tracking (MHT) recursion to allow for multiple detections per target, per scan of data. We show that the generalized recursion admits the factorization of global-hypothesis probabilities, enabling track-oriented MHT. We propose a two-stage MHT implementation that allows tractable processing in this setting, and explore performance with respect to classical track-oriented MHT processing.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Robust Missile Autopilot Design Using Two Time-Scale Separation
    • Authors: Bhavnesh Panchal;K. Subramanian;S. E. Talole;
      Pages: 1499 - 1510
      Abstract: In this paper, time-scale separation, feedback linearization (FL), and extended state observer (ESO) based new design for an acceleration tracking pitch autopilot of a tail controlled, skid-to-turn tactical missile is presented. The pitch plane dynamics has been split into pitch rate dynamics as fast, and the acceleration dynamics as a slow subsystem by exploiting the naturally existing time-scale separation between them. FL-based controllers are then designed for the subsystems separately. To achieve robustness in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances, an ESO is designed for each of the subsystem separately. The ESOs estimate the effect of uncertainties in the respective subsystem and the estimate is used to robustify the feedback linearizing controller designed for the respective nominal subsystem. The design neither requires accurate plant model nor any information about the uncertainty. Closed-loop stability for the overall system is established. The effectiveness of the design in meeting specified tracking performance in the presence of significant uncertainties, unmodeled dynamics, measurement noise, control input, and rate saturation, and in varying missile velocity and altitude scenario is illustrated by simulation. Furthermore, to analyze the performance for different initial conditions and parameter perturbations, Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out and the results are presented. Finally, performance comparison of the proposed design with some existing controllers is presented to showcase the efficacy of the proposed design.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Singularity-Free Model Predictive Spacecraft Attitude Regulation Using a
           Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscope Model
    • Authors: Yaguang Yang;
      Pages: 1511 - 1518
      Abstract: This paper discusses spacecraft attitude control using variable-speed control moment gyroscopes. A new operational concept for variable-speed control moment gyroscopes is proposed, i.e., the flywheels and the gimbals of the variable-speed control moment gyroscopes do not always spin at high speed, they spin at high speed only when they need to. The dynamics of the variable-speed control moment gyroscopes are incorporated into the model for the control system design. The complex nonlinear system can be represented as an equivalent linear time-varying system. As a result, an effective control system design method, model predictive control using robust pole assignment, can be used to design the spacecraft attitude control system using variable-speed control moment gyroscopes. A combination of the new operational concept and a model that includes the variable-speed control moment gyroscopes’ dynamics leads to several nice features: 1) the control system does not have any singular point; 2) the design reduces energy consumption because the fly wheels and gimbals are most likely operated at low speed when the spacecraft is stabilized; and 3) the theoretical analysis shows that the designed system is uniformly exponentially stable. A design example is provided. The simulation result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A k-NN-Based Localization Approach for Crowdsourced Air Traffic
           Communication Networks
    • Authors: Martin Strohmeier;Ivan Martinovic;Vincent Lenders;
      Pages: 1519 - 1529
      Abstract: In this paper, we argue that current state-of-the-art methods of aircraft localization such as multilateration are insufficient, in particular for modern crowdsourced air traffic networks with random, unplanned deployment geometry. We propose an alternative, a grid-based localization approach using the k-nearest neighbor (k -NN) algorithm, to deal with the identified shortcomings. Our proposal does not require any changes to the existing air traffic protocols and transmitters, and is easily implemented using only low-cost, commercial-off-the-shelf hardware. Using an algebraic multilateration algorithm for comparison, we evaluate our approach using real-world flight data collected with our collaborative sensor network OpenSky. We quantify its effectiveness in terms of aircraft location accuracy, surveillance coverage, and the verification of false position data. Our results show that the grid-based k-NN approach can increase the effective air traffic surveillance coverage compared to multilateration by a factor of up to 2.5. As it does not suffer from dilution of precision to the same extent, it is more robust in noisy environments and performs better in pre-existing, unplanned receiver deployments. We further find that the mean aircraft location accuracy can be increased by up to 41% in comparison with multilateration while also being able to pinpoint the origin of potential spoofing attacks conducted from the ground.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A New Local Polynomial Modeling Based Variable Forgetting Factor and
           Variable Regularized PAST Algorithm for Subspace Tracking
    • Authors: Shing-Chow Chan;Hai-Jun Tan;Jian-Qiang Lin;Bin Liao;
      Pages: 1530 - 1544
      Abstract: This paper proposes a new local polynomial modeling based variable forgetting factor (VFF) and variable regularized (VR) projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) algorithm, which is based on a novel VR-VFF recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with multiple outputs. The subspace to be estimated is modeled as a local polynomial model so that a new locally optimal forgetting factor (LOFF) can be obtained by minimizing the resulting mean square deviation of the RLS algorithm after using the projection approximation. An $l_2$-regularization term is also incorporated to the LOFF-PAST algorithm to reduce the estimation variance of the subspace during signal fading. The proposed LOFF-VR-PAST algorithm can be implemented by the conventional RLS algorithm as well as the numerically more stable QR decomposition. Applications of the proposed algorithms to subspace-based direction-of-arrival estimation under stationary and nonstationary environments are presented to validate their effectiveness. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms offer improved performance over the conventional PAST algorithm and a comparable performance to the Kalman filter with variable measurement subspace tracking algorithm, which requires a considerably higher arithmetic complexity. The new LOFF-VR-RLS algorithm may also be applicable to other RLS problems involving multiple outputs.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A Maneuvering Uniform Circular Array of Directional Sensors for Improved
           Source Localization Accuracy
    • Authors: Houcem Gazzah;
      Pages: 1545 - 1554
      Abstract: Uniform circular arrays require a minimum number of directional sensors to ensure identical estimation accuracy at all possible directions-of-arrival. We study smaller uniform circular arrays and compensate for the loss in accuracy (Cramer–Rao bound) by a proper array orientation. We calculate, in a closed-form manner and based on the available source prior, the best (Fisher information maximizing) array direction. This scheme is suitable to autonomous unmanned vehicles who have maneuvering capabilities and accommodate minimally-sized arrays.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Consensus-Based Two-Stage Salvo Attack Guidance
    • Authors: Shaoming He;Wei Wang;Defu Lin;Hongbo Lei;
      Pages: 1555 - 1566
      Abstract: The problem of salvo attack of multiple missiles without time-to-go estimation has been addressed by a two-stage guidance scheme in this correspondence. In the first stage, a simple decentralized control law is designed to provide desired initial conditions (target-missile relative range and velocity lead angle) for the latter stage. As for the second stage, all missiles are governed by classical pure proportional navigation guidance law. Numerical simulations under two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed formulation.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Technical Areas and Editors: AESS IEEE Aerospace & Electronic Systems
           Society
    • Pages: 1567 - 1572
      Abstract: Presents a listing of AESS society technical area editors.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Information for Authors
    • Pages: 1573 - 1574
      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: June 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 3 (2018)
       
 
 
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