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Future Internet
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.219
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 121  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1999-5903
Published by MDPI Homepage  [202 journals]
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 56: Big Data Perspective and Challenges in
           Next Generation Networks

    • Authors: Kashif Sultan, Hazrat Ali, Zhongshan Zhang
      First page: 56
      Abstract: With the development towards the next generation cellular networks, i.e., 5G, the focus has shifted towards meeting the higher data rate requirements, potential of micro cells and millimeter wave spectrum. The goals for next generation networks are very high data rates, low latency and handling of big data. The achievement of these goals definitely require newer architecture designs, upgraded technologies with possible backward support, better security algorithms and intelligent decision making capability. In this survey, we identify the opportunities which can be provided by 5G networks and discuss the underlying challenges towards implementation and realization of the goals of 5G. This survey also provides a discussion on the recent developments made towards standardization, the architectures which may be potential candidates for deployment and the energy concerns in 5G networks. Finally, the paper presents a big data perspective and the potential of machine learning for optimization and decision making in 5G networks.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070056
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 57: Dynamic Cost-Aware Routing of Web

    • Authors: Gandhimathi Velusamy, Ricardo Lent
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Work within next generation networks considers additional network convergence possibilities and the integration of new services to the web. This trend responds to the ongoing growth of end-user demand for services that can be delivered anytime, anywhere, on any web-capable device, and of traffic generated by new applications, e.g., the Internet of Things. To support the massive traffic generated by the enormous user base and number of devices with reliability and high quality, web services run from redundant servers. As new servers need to be regularly deployed at different geographical locations, energy costs have become a source of major concern for operators. We propose a cost aware method for routing web requests across replicated and distributed servers that can exploit the spatial and temporal variations of both electricity prices and the server network. The method relies on a learning automaton that makes per-request decisions, which can be computed much faster than regular global optimization methods. Using simulation and testbed measurements, we show the cost reductions that are achievable with minimal impact on performance compared to standard web routing algorithms.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070057
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 58: Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Based Trust
           Management in Heterogeneous Federated Future Internet Testbeds

    • Authors: Dimitrios Dechouniotis, Ioannis Dimolitsas, Konstantinos Papadakis-Vlachopapadopoulos, Symeon Papavassiliou
      First page: 58
      Abstract: A federation of heterogeneous testbeds, which provides a wide range of services, attracts many experimenters from academia and industry to evaluate novel future Internet architectures and network protocols. The candidate experimenter reserves the appropriate testbeds’ resources based on various diverse criteria. Since several testbeds offer similar resources, a trust mechanism between the users and the providers will facilitate the proper selection of testbeds. This paper proposes a fuzzy reputation-based trust framework that is based on a modification of the fuzzy VIKOR multi-criteria decision making method and combines the user’s opinion from previously-conducted experiments with retrieved monitoring data from the utilized testbeds, in order to quantify the reputation of each testbed and the credibility of the experimenter. The proposed framework can process various types of numeric and linguistic data in an on-line fashion and can be easily extended for new types of testbeds and services. Data from active federated testbeds are used to evaluate the performance of the fuzzy reputation-based trust framework under dynamic conditions. Furthermore, a comparison of the proposed framework with another existing state of the art trust framework for federated testbeds is presented, and its superiority is demonstrated.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070058
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 59: Clock Recovery Challenges in DSP-Based
           Coherent Single-Mode and Multi-Mode Optical Systems

    • Authors: Júlio César Medeiros Diniz, Francesco Da Ros, Darko Zibar
      First page: 59
      Abstract: We present an analysis of clock recovery algorithms in both polarization division multiplexing systems and mode division multiplexing systems. The impact of inter-polarization time skew and polarization mode dispersion in single-mode fibers, as well as the combined impact of mode mixing and mode group delay spread in multi-mode fibers under different coupling regimes are investigated. Results show that although the clock tone vanishing has a known solution for single-mode systems, in multi-mode systems even for low group delay spread, strong coupling will cause clock tone extinction, making it harder to implement an effective clock recovery scheme.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070059
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 60: A Novel Two-Layered Reinforcement
           Learning for Task Offloading with Tradeoff between Physical Machine
           Utilization Rate and Delay

    • Authors: Li Quan, Zhiliang Wang, Fuji Ren
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Mobile devices could augment their ability via cloud resources in mobile cloud computing environments. This paper developed a novel two-layered reinforcement learning (TLRL) algorithm to consider task offloading for resource-constrained mobile devices. As opposed to existing literature, the utilization rate of the physical machine and the delay for offloaded tasks are taken into account simultaneously by introducing a weighted reward. The high dimensionality of the state space and action space might affect the speed of convergence. Therefore, a novel reinforcement learning algorithm with a two-layered structure is presented to address this problem. First, k clusters of the physical machines are generated based on the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN). The first layer of TLRL is implemented by a deep reinforcement learning to determine the cluster to be assigned for the offloaded tasks. On this basis, the second layer intends to further specify a physical machine for task execution. Finally, simulation examples are carried out to verify that the proposed TLRL algorithm is able to speed up the optimal policy learning and can deal with the tradeoff between physical machine utilization rate and delay.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070060
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 61: Personalised and Coordinated
           Demand-Responsive Feeder Transit Service Design: A Genetic Algorithms

    • Authors: Bo Sun, Ming Wei, Chunfeng Yang, Zhihuo Xu, Han Wang
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The purpose of this work is to create an efficient optimization framework for demand-responsive feeder transit services to assign vehicles to cover all pickup locations to transport passengers to a rail station. The proposed methodology features passengers placing a personalized travel order involving the subway schedule chosen by passengers and windows of service time, etc. Moreover, synchronous transfer between the shuttle and feeder bus is fully accounted for in the problem. A mixed-integer linear programming model is formulated to minimize the total travel time for all passengers, which consists of ride-time for vehicles from the pickup locations to the rail station and wait-time for passengers taking the subway beforehand. Different from conventional methods, the proposed model benefits from using a real distribution of passenger demand aggregated from cellular data and travel time or the distance matrix obtained from an open GIS tool. A distributed genetic algorithm is further designed to obtain meta-optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time. When applied to design a feeder bus system in Nanjing City, China, case study results reveal that the total travel time of the proposed model was reduced by 2.46% compared to the traditional model. Sensitivity analyses were also further performed to investigate the impact of the number of vehicles on the output. Finally, the difference in results of Cplex, standard GA, and the proposed algorithm were compared to prove the validity of the algorithm.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070061
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 62: The GDPR beyond Privacy: Data-Driven
           Challenges for Social Scientists, Legislators and Policy-Makers

    • Authors: Margherita Vestoso
      First page: 62
      Abstract: While securing personal data from privacy violations, the new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) explicitly challenges policymakers to exploit evidence from social data-mining in order to build better policies. Against this backdrop, two issues become relevant: the impact of Big Data on social research, and the potential intersection between social data mining, rulemaking and policy modelling. The work aims at contributing to the reflection on some of the implications of the ‘knowledge-based’ policy recommended by the GDPR. The paper is thus split into two parts: the first describes the data-driven evolution of social sciences, raising methodological and epistemological issues; the second focuses on the interplay between data-driven social research, rule-making and policy modelling, in the light of the policy model fostered by GDPR. Some theoretical reflections about the role of evidence in rule-making will be considered to introduce a discussion on the intersection between data-driven social research and policy modelling and to sketch hypotheses on its future evolutions.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070062
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 63: Towards Prediction of Immersive
           Virtual Reality Image Quality of Experience and Quality of Service

    • Authors: Anil Kumar Karembai, Jeffrey Thompson, Patrick Seeling
      First page: 63
      Abstract: In this article, we evaluate the Quality of Service (QoS) through media impairment levels and device operators’ subjective Quality of Experience (QoE). The human-centered QoE determination commonly requires human subject experimentation, which we combine with Electroencephalography (EEG) measurements to move towards automatized and generalized possibilities of determining the QoE. We evaluate the prediction performance for spherical/immersive images displayed with a mobile device VR viewer (Spherical Virtual Reality (SVR)) with the help of only four-position EEG data gathered at the forehead, which correlates well with practical applicability. We find that QoS levels can be predicted more reliably (directly with R2=0.68 or based on profiles with R2=0.9) than the QoE, which exhibits significant error levels. Additional comparison with previous approaches for the Spherical Augmented Reality (SAR) QoE indicates better predictability in AR scenarios over VR.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-07
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070063
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Dynamic Traffic Scheduling and
           Congestion Control across Data Centers Based on SDN

    • Authors: Dong Sun, Kaixin Zhao, Yaming Fang, Jie Cui
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Software-defined Networking (SDN) and Data Center Network (DCN) are receiving considerable attention and eliciting widespread interest from both academia and industry. When the traditionally shortest path routing protocol among multiple data centers is used, congestion will frequently occur in the shortest path link, which may severely reduce the quality of network services due to long delay and low throughput. The flexibility and agility of SDN can effectively ameliorate the aforementioned problem. However, the utilization of link resources across data centers is still insufficient, and has not yet been well addressed. In this paper, we focused on this issue and proposed an intelligent approach of real-time processing and dynamic scheduling that could make full use of the network resources. The traffic among the data centers could be classified into different types, and different strategies were proposed for these types of real-time traffic. Considering the prolonged occupation of the bandwidth by malicious flows, we employed the multilevel feedback queue mechanism and proposed an effective congestion control algorithm. Simulation experiments showed that our scheme exhibited the favorable feasibility and demonstrated a better traffic scheduling effect and great improvement in bandwidth utilization across data centers.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070064
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 65: Performance Analysis of Hybrid
           Optical–Acoustic AUV Swarms for Marine Monitoring

    • Authors: Chiara Lodovisi, Pierpaolo Loreti, Lorenzo Bracciale, Silvello Betti
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are assuming an important role in the monitoring and mapping of marine ecosystems, especially for their ability to explore harsh environments. AUV swarm can collect data operating autonomously for long periods enabling new applications in this field. However, the mission duration is usually limited also by the high power consumption required for acoustic transmissions. A new generation of devices complements the acoustic modem with an optical modem that can provide a communication channel with higher capacity and lower power consumption with respect to the acoustic channel. However, the optical link that uses the visible light is very sensitive to the water turbidity that can strongly limit the link coverage. In this paper, we evaluate the networking performances of the Venus vessel, a real AUV prototype equipped with an acoustical modem and an optical modem. The presented analysis aims to evaluate key system parameters allowing to select the best way to set up network communications according to the surrounding conditions (e.g., quality of water) and to the application requirements. Simulation results account for the case of ports or basins, where the water quality is poor and the use of the optical modem is strongly limited by distance. We evaluate system performance in terms of transmission delay in the network and we also provide a power–capacity trade-off.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Enabling Trustworthy Multicast
           Wireless Services through D2D Communications in 5G Networks

    • Authors: Sara Pizzi, Chiara Suraci, Leonardo Militano, Antonino Orsino, Antonella Molinaro, Antonio Iera, Giuseppe Araniti
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered as one of the key enabling technologies for fifth-generation (5G) networks as it allows data offloading generated by the huge number of connected devices. In this respect, group-oriented services are among the most interesting usage scenarios. Indeed, D2D can improve the performance of the conventional multicast scheme (CMS) in cellular networks, which is known to suffer from low spectral efficiency. Security is a further key field of investigation for 5G systems, as any threat to privacy and security may lead to both deteriorated user experience and inefficient network resources’ utilization. Security issues are even more in focus for D2D connections between devices that are in mutual proximity. To improve the CMS performance and also sustain security requirements of the 5G network, this work proposes a secure D2D data transmission algorithm. Making use of mechanisms such as encryption and signature, this algorithm aims to protect the exchanged data and the privacy of the devices involved in the communication. A simulation campaign conducted using MATLAB shows the ability of the proposed solution to take advantage of the establishment of secure D2D communications and efficiently utilize network resources.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10070066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 7 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Studying Semi-TCP and Its Application
           in Marine Internet

    • Authors: Liang Zhou, Sheng-Ming Jiang, Chen-Lin Xiong
      First page: 44
      Abstract: TCP protocol has good performance on the Internet, but its performance is significantly reduced when it is applied to Marine Internet (MI). How to improve the performance of TCP protocol in Marine Internet has become an important research topic. In this paper, an improved Semi-TCP is adopted for Marine Internet, and the implementation scheme of Semi-TCP congestion control is introduced. The exposed terminal problem and congestion control problem of high load networks are analyzed in detail. By using a timer, the congestion control algorithm is improved. Performance analysis and comparison of TCP-Lite, Semi-TCP-RTS, and improved Semi-TCP (Semi-TCP-RTS-V2) are carried out on Exata simulation platform, and the experimental results show that Semi-TCP-RTS-V2 has better transmission performance in ship ad hoc networks.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 45: A Multiple Access Protocol Based on
           Gray Forecast for Satellite Network

    • Authors: Chong Han, Zilong Li, Jian Zhou, Lijuan Sun, Siyu Chen
      First page: 45
      Abstract: A satellite network’s multiple access protocol must be well designed to efficiently occupy channel resources and meet various qualities of service requirements. In this paper, a combined free/demand assignment multiple access protocol based on gray forecast is proposed. In terms of access, the adoption of the gray forecast method allows the user to book the number of timeslots to have more than the existing number of burst of packets. In terms of bandwidth allocation, a user priority allocation method is used to prioritize users with high needs and focus on the allocation of satellite resources. Experimental results show that the proposed protocol can effectively improve the channel utilization of the entire system. Thus, this protocol has some advantages over existing protocols in network throughput and end-to-end delay.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 46: A Tiered Control Plane Model for
           Service Function Chaining Isolation

    • Authors: Håkon Gunleifsen, Vasileios Gkioulos, Thomas Kemmerich
      First page: 46
      Abstract: This article presents an architecture for encryption automation in interconnected Network Function Virtualization (NFV) domains. Current NFV implementations are designed for deployment within trusted domains, where overlay networks with static trusted links are utilized for enabling network security. Nevertheless, within a Service Function Chain (SFC), Virtual Network Function (VNF) flows cannot be isolated and end-to-end encrypted because each VNF requires direct access to the overall SFC data-flow. This restricts both end-users and Service Providers from enabling end-to-end security, and in extended VNF isolation within the SFC data traffic. Encrypting data flows on a per-flow basis results in an extensive amount of secure tunnels, which cannot scale efficiently in manual configurations. Additionally, creating secure data plane tunnels between NFV providers requires secure exchange of key parameters, and the establishment of an east–west control plane protocol. In this article, we present an architecture focusing on these two problems, investigating how overlay networks can be created, isolated, and secured dynamically. Accordingly, we propose an architecture for automated establishment of encrypted tunnels in NFV, which introduces a novel, tiered east–west communication channel between network controllers in a multi-domain environment.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 47: Secure Inter-Frame Space
           Communications for Wireless LANs

    • Authors: Il-Gu Lee
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The internet of things (IoTs) offers a wide range of consumer benefits, from personal portable devices to internet-connected infrastructure. The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the potential candidates for IoTs technology to connect billions of smart devices. Long-range WLAN is widely deployed in dense networks as an alternative to cellular networks or satellite internet access because of its low cost, high performance, and existing ecosystem. However, due to the nature of unregulated communications in industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands, WLANs experience interferences from other radios such as radars and frequency hopping devices. Once interference is detected at a WLAN device, the channel is avoided and other channels become crowded. Thus, it degrades network throughput and channel utilization. In this paper, a secure inter-frame space communication system design is proposed for WLANs to share the ISM bands with other radio systems that generate periodic radio signals. The proposed secure inter-frame communication scheme achieves the goal by designing accurate radar detection and secure inter-frame space communication. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly increases the receiver sensitivity and user datagram protocol throughput.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 48: On the Future of Legal Publishing
           Services in the Semantic Web

    • Authors: Enrico Francesconi
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The development of the Semantic Web represents an essential precondition to the definition of new scenarios for the future Internet. This perspective is of particular interest in the legal information domain for the specialized nature of legal information and the peculiarities of the legal users’ information needs. In this paper, the evolution in recent years of the Semantic Web in the legal domain is reviewed, with particular emphasis to the most recent developments related to Linked Open Data initiative and to the role, in the legal Semantic Web, of the Publications Office of the European Union in its two-fold role of public institution and legal publisher.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 49: Certificateless Provable Group Shared

    • Authors: Hongbin Yang, Shuxiong Jiang, Wenfeng Shen, Zhou Lei
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Provable Data Possession (PDP) protocol makes it possible for cloud users to check whether the cloud servers possess their original data without downloading all the data. However, most of the existing PDP schemes are based on either public key infrastructure (PKI) or identity-based cryptography, which will suffer from issues of expensive certificate management or key escrow. In this paper, we propose a new construction of certificateless provable group shared data possession (CL-PGSDP) protocol by making use of certificateless cryptography, which will eliminate the above issues. Meanwhile, by taking advantage of zero-knowledge protocol and randomization method, the proposed CL-PGSDP protocol leaks no information of the stored data and the group user’s identity to the verifiers during the verifying process, which is of the property of comprehensive privacy preservation. In addition, our protocol also supports efficient user revocation from the group. Security analysis and experimental evaluation indicate that our CL-PGSDP protocol provides strong security with desirable efficiency.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Fairness and Trust in Virtual
           Environments: The Effects of Reputation

    • Authors: Mirko Duradoni, Mario Paolucci, Franco Bagnoli, Andrea Guazzini
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Reputation supports pro-social behaviors in a variety of social settings and across different ages. When re-encounters are possible, developing a positive reputation can be a valuable asset that will result in better outcomes. However, in real life, cooperative acts are ambiguous and happen in noisy environments in which individuals can have multiple goals, visibility is reduced, and reputation systems may differ. This study examined how reputation within a virtual environment affects fairness in material allocations and trust in information exchange, in a three-actors interaction game in which each player had an incentive to deceive the others. We compared the results of two experimental conditions, one in which informers could be evaluated, and one without reputational opportunities. A reputational system appeared to enhance both trust and fairness even within a virtual environment under anonymous condition. We tested adolescents and adults finding that they were consistently more generous when visibility was increased, but they showed significantly different patterns in resources allocation and information exchange. Male and female participants, across ages, showed other interesting differences. These findings suggest that reputational effects increase fairness and trust even in a noisy, ambiguous and uncertain environment, but this effect is modulated by age and gender.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 51: A Driving Behavior Planning and
           Trajectory Generation Method for Autonomous Electric Bus

    • Authors: Lingli Yu, Decheng Kong, Xiaoxin Yan
      First page: 51
      Abstract: A framework of path planning for autonomous electric bus is presented. ArcGIS platform is utilized for map-building and global path planning. Firstly, a high-precision map is built based on GPS in ArcGIS for global planning. Then the global optimal path is obtained by network analysis tool in ArcGIS. To facilitate local planning, WGS-84 coordinates in the map are converted to local coordinates. Secondly, a double-layer finite state machine (FSM) is devised to plan driving behavior under different driving scenarios, such as structured driving, lane changing, turning, and so on. Besides, local optimal trajectory is generated by cubic polynomial, which takes full account of the safety and kinetics of the electric bus. Finally, the simulation results show that the framework is reliable and feasible for driving behavior planning and trajectory generation. Furthermore, its validity is proven with an autonomous bus platform 12 m in length.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 52: A Novel Self-Adaptive VM Consolidation
           Strategy Using Dynamic Multi-Thresholds in IaaS Clouds

    • Authors: Lei Xie, Shengbo Chen, Wenfeng Shen, Huaikou Miao
      First page: 52
      Abstract: With the rapid development of cloud computing, the demand for infrastructure resources in cloud data centers has further increased, which has already led to enormous amounts of energy costs. Virtual machine (VM) consolidation as one of the important techniques in Infrastructure as a Service clouds (IaaS) can help resolve energy consumption by reducing the number of active physical machines (PMs). However, the necessity of considering energy-efficiency and the obligation of providing high quality of service (QoS) to customers is a trade-off, as aggressive consolidation may lead to performance degradation. Moreover, most of the existing works of threshold-based VM consolidation strategy are mainly focused on single CPU utilization, although the resource request on different VMs are very diverse. This paper proposes a novel self-adaptive VM consolidation strategy based on dynamic multi-thresholds (DMT) for PM selection, which can be dynamically adjusted by considering future utilization on multi-dimensional resources of CPU, RAM and Bandwidth. Besides, the VM selection and placement algorithm of VM consolidation are also improved by utilizing each multi-dimensional parameter in DMT. The experiments show that our proposed strategy has a better performance than other strategies, not only in high QoS but also in less energy consumption. In addition, the advantage of its reduction on the number of active hosts is much more obvious, especially when it is under extreme workloads.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 53: A Privacy Preserving Framework for
           Worker’s Location in Spatial Crowdsourcing Based on Local Differential

    • Authors: Jiazhu Dai, Keke Qiao
      First page: 53
      Abstract: With the development of the mobile Internet, location-based services are playing an important role in everyday life. As a new location-based service, Spatial Crowdsourcing (SC) involves collecting and analyzing environmental, social, and other spatiotemporal information of individuals, increasing convenience for users. In SC, users (called requesters) publish tasks and other users (called workers) are required to physically travel to specified locations to perform the tasks. However, with SC services, the workers have to disclose their locations to untrusted third parties, such as the Spatial Crowdsourcing Server (SC-server), which could pose a considerable threat to the privacy of workers. In this paper, we propose a new location privacy protection framework based on local difference privacy for spatial crowdsourcing, which does not require the participation of trusted third parties by adding noises locally to workers’ locations. The noisy locations of workers are submitted to the SC-server rather than the real locations. Therefore, the protection of workers’ locations is achieved. Experiments showed that this framework not only preserves the privacy of workers in SC, but also has modest overhead performance.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 54: StegNet: Mega Image Steganography
           Capacity with Deep Convolutional Network

    • Authors: Pin Wu, Yang Yang, Xiaoqiang Li
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Traditional image steganography often leans interests towards safely embedding hidden information into cover images with payload capacity almost neglected. This paper combines recent deep convolutional neural network methods with image-into-image steganography. It successfully hides the same size images with a decoding rate of 98.2% or bpp (bits per pixel) of 23.57 by changing only 0.76% of the cover image on average. Our method directly learns end-to-end mappings between the cover image and the embedded image and between the hidden image and the decoded image. We further show that our embedded image, while with mega payload capacity, is still robust to statistical analysis.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Simulating the Cost of Cooperation: A
           Recipe for Collaborative Problem-Solving

    • Authors: Andrea Guazzini, Mirko Duradoni, Alessandro Lazzeri, Giorgio Gronchi
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Collective problem-solving and decision-making, along with other forms of collaboration online, are central phenomena within ICT. There had been several attempts to create a system able to go beyond the passive accumulation of data. However, those systems often neglect important variables such as group size, the difficulty of the tasks, the tendency to cooperate, and the presence of selfish individuals (free riders). Given the complex relations among those variables, numerical simulations could be the ideal tool to explore such relationships. We take into account the cost of cooperation in collaborative problem solving by employing several simulated scenarios. The role of two parameters was explored: the capacity, the group’s capability to solve increasingly challenging tasks coupled with the collective knowledge of a group, and the payoff, an individual’s own benefit in terms of new knowledge acquired. The final cooperation rate is only affected by the cost of cooperation in the case of simple tasks and small communities. In contrast, the fitness of the community, the difficulty of the task, and the groups sizes interact in a non-trivial way, hence shedding some light on how to improve crowdsourcing when the cost of cooperation is high.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-06-19
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10060055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 6 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 37: Ex Machina: Analytical platforms, Law
           and the Challenges of Computational Legal Science

    • Authors: Nicola Lettieri, Antonio Altamura, Rosalba Giugno, Alfonso Guarino, Delfina Malandrino, Alfredo Pulvirenti, Francesco Vicidomini, Rocco Zaccagnino
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Over the years, computation has become a fundamental part of the scientific practice in several research fields that goes far beyond the boundaries of natural sciences. Data mining, machine learning, simulations and other computational methods lie today at the hearth of the scientific endeavour in a growing number of social research areas from anthropology to economics. In this scenario, an increasingly important role is played by analytical platforms: integrated environments allowing researchers to experiment cutting-edge data-driven and computation-intensive analyses. The paper discusses the appearance of such tools in the emerging field of computational legal science. After a general introduction to the impact of computational methods on both natural and social sciences, we describe the concept and the features of an analytical platform exploring innovative cross-methodological approaches to the academic and investigative study of crime. Stemming from an ongoing project involving researchers from law, computer science and bioinformatics, the initiative is presented and discussed as an opportunity to raise a debate about the future of legal scholarship and, inside of it, about the challenges of computational legal science.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050037
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 38: MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of
           Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers

    • Authors: Jingsha He, Jianan Wu, Nafei Zhu, Muhammad Salman Pathan
      First page: 38
      Abstract: To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 39: A Fair Cooperative MAC Protocol in
           IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    • Authors: Seyed Davoud Mousavi, Rasool Sadeghi, Mohamadreza Karimi, Erfan Karimian, Mohammad Reza Soltan Aghaei
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Cooperative communication techniques have recently enabled wireless technologies to overcome their challenges. The main objective of these techniques is to improve resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a new protocol in medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.11 standard. In our new protocol, which is called Fair Cooperative MAC (FC-MAC), every relay node participates in cooperation proportionally to its provided cooperation gain. This technique improves network resource allocation by exploiting the potential capacity of all relay candidates. Simulation results demonstrate that the FC-MAC protocol presents better performance in terms of throughput, fairness, and network lifetime.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 40: An EV Charging Scheduling Mechanism
           Based on Price Negotiation

    • Authors: Baocheng Wang, Yafei Hu, Yu Xiao, Yi Li
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Scheduling EV user’s charging behavior based on charging price and applying renewable energy resources are the effective methods to release the load pressure of power grids brought about by the large-scale popularity of electric vehicles (EVs). This paper presents a novel approach for EV charging scheduling based on price negotiation. Firstly, the EV charging system framework based on price negotiation and renewable energy resources is discussed. Secondly, the price negotiation model is presented, including the initial price models and the conditions of transactions. Finally, an EV charging scheduling mechanism based on price negotiation (CSM-PN), including the price adjustment strategies of both the operator and EV users is proposed to seek a final transaction during multi-round price negotiation. Simulation results show that this novel approach can effectively improve the charging station operator’s income, reduce the EV users’ costs, and balance the load of the power grid while improving the efficiency of the EV charging system.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 41: Route Availability as a Communication
           Quality Metric of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    • Authors: Tamotsu Yashima, Kazumasa Takami
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Using ad hoc communication between mobile terminals, MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) are independent of any communication infrastructure but their communication quality can degrade because, as terminals move about in the service area, routes are constantly disconnected and then re-established. There has been no proposal for a quality metric that models this unstable state, i.e., route nonuniformity. This paper proposes a new concept of route availability (RA) as a metric of route nonuniformity in a MANET and verifies how effectively it represents the quality of service (QoS) of a network or the quality of experience (QoE) of video streaming. We have built an environment that emulates a MANET capable of video streaming, and developed a method of measuring RA for two representative MANET routing methods: AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) and OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing). We have examined the relationship between RA and conventional network QoS metrics: packet loss rate and throughput. We have also checked RA using a subjective quality assessment test.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Test Bed of Semantic Interaction of
           Smart Objects in the Web of Things

    • Authors: Santiago Guerrero-Narváez, Miguel-Ángel Niño-Zambrano, Dalila-Jhoana Riobamba-Calvache, Gustavo-Adolfo Ramírez-González
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Semantic interaction in the Internet of Things (IoT) is an important concept within current IoT development, given that smart things require further autonomy with greater processing, storage, and communication capacities. The problem is now becoming one of how to get these things to interact and collaborate with each other; to form intelligent environments amongst themselves and thus generate better services for users. This article explores a solution approach that consists in providing collaborative behavior to smart things, through the incorporation of an ontology and an architecture. It makes possible things that can communicate and collaborate with each other, allowing the generation of new services of interaction according to user needs. For this task, a real test bed of smart things was created, in which the proposed solution was deployed (Smart Room). Finally, it was concluded that the creation of these types of test bed is feasible, taking into account that response times and the information delivered by the different managed processes are acceptable. New challenges were encountered, however, such as problems of critical region in test beds with conflicting services and management of multiple users.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Botnet Detection Based On Machine
           Learning Techniques Using DNS Query Data

    • Authors: Xuan Dau Hoang, Quynh Chi Nguyen
      First page: 43
      Abstract: In recent years, botnets have become one of the major threats to information security because they have been constantly evolving in both size and sophistication. A number of botnet detection measures, such as honeynet-based and Intrusion Detection System (IDS)-based, have been proposed. However, IDS-based solutions that use signatures seem to be ineffective because recent botnets are equipped with sophisticated code update and evasion techniques. A number of studies have shown that abnormal botnet detection methods are more effective than signature-based methods because anomaly-based botnet detection methods do not require pre-built botnet signatures and hence they have the capability to detect new or unknown botnets. In this direction, this paper proposes a botnet detection model based on machine learning using Domain Name Service query data and evaluates its effectiveness using popular machine learning techniques. Experimental results show that machine learning algorithms can be used effectively in botnet detection and the random forest algorithm produces the best overall detection accuracy of over 90%.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10050043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 32: Development of a Social DTN for
           Message Communication between SNS Group Members

    • Authors: Hidenori Takasuka, Koichi Hirai, Kazumasa Takami
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Smartphones have the ability to communicate with other terminals through ad hoc connections. A variety of applications have been developed to exploit this ability. The authors have developed an Android OS (operating system) application (called “social DTN manager”) that builds a DTN (delay, disruption, disconnection tolerant networking) among members of a social networking service (SNS) community using a community token. The members can exchange messages over this network. Control messages for building a DTN are forwarded to only those nodes that use the same community token in order to reduce flooding of message copies. When a source node sends a communication request to its destination node, they exchange control messages to establish a communication route. Relay nodes use these messages to create and hold routing information for these nodes in their routing tables. Thereafter, relay nodes can forward data messages based on their routing tables. This again reduces flooding of message copies. The social DTN manager incorporates these functions, Facebook Graph API and Google Nearby Connections API. The authors have installed it in Android terminals and confirmed that a social DTN can successfully be built using this application and that data messages can be exchanged between terminals via reactive routes.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040032
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 33: An Intelligent Content Prefix
           Classification Approach for Quality of Service Optimization in
           Information-Centric Networking

    • Authors: Cutifa Safitri, Yoshihide Yamada, Sabariah Baharun, Shidrokh Goudarzi, Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Keping Yu, Takuro Sato
      First page: 33
      Abstract: This research proposes an intelligent classification framework for quality of service (QoS) performance improvement in information-centric networking (ICN). The proposal works towards keyword classification techniques to obtain the most valuable information via suitable content prefixes in ICN. In this study, we have achieved the intelligent function using Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementation. Particularly, to find the most suitable and promising intelligent approach for maintaining QoS matrices, we have evaluated various AI algorithms, including evolutionary algorithms (EA), swarm intelligence (SI), and machine learning (ML) by using the cost function to assess their classification performances. With the goal of enabling a complete ICN prefix classification solution, we also propose a hybrid implementation to optimize classification performances by integration of relevant AI algorithms. This hybrid mechanism searches for a final minimum structure to prevent the local optima from happening. By simulation, the evaluation results show that the proposal outperforms EA and ML in terms of network resource utilization and response delay for QoS performance optimization.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040033
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 34: Replicas Strategy and Cache
           Optimization of Video Surveillance Systems Based on Cloud Storage

    • Authors: Rongheng Li, Jian Zhang, Wenfeng Shen
      First page: 34
      Abstract: With the rapid development of video surveillance technology, especially the popularity of cloud-based video surveillance applications, video data begins to grow explosively. However, in the cloud-based video surveillance system, replicas occupy an amount of storage space. Also, the slow response to video playback constrains the performance of the system. In this paper, considering the characteristics of video data comprehensively, we propose a dynamic redundant replicas mechanism based on security levels that can dynamically adjust the number of replicas. Based on the location correlation between cameras, this paper also proposes a data cache strategy to improve the response speed of data reading. Experiments illustrate that: (1) our dynamic redundant replicas mechanism can save storage space while ensuring data security; (2) the cache mechanism can predict the playback behaviors of the users in advance and improve the response speed of data reading according to the location and time correlation of the front-end cameras; and (3) in terms of cloud-based video surveillance, our proposed approaches significantly outperform existing methods.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040034
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 35: Enhanced Matching Game for Decoupled
           Uplink Downlink Context-Aware Handover

    • Authors: Asmae Ait Mansour, Nourddine Enneya, Mohamed Ouadou
      First page: 35
      Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of cell association during a handover performed in a dense heterogeneous network, where the preference of a mobile user’s equipment in terms of uplink traffic is not the same as for the downlink traffic. Therefore, since mobility is an intrinsic element of cellular networks, designing a handover from the perspective of the uplink and downlink is mandatory in the context of 5G cellular networks. Based on this arena, we propose a decoupled uplink-downlink handover scheme while making use of femtocells in order to maximize the overall network entity utilities and avoid overloading macrocells. However, the fact that the handover process is performed in a dense heterogeneous network makes the issue NP-hard. Therefore, taking into account the need for self-organizing solutions, we modeled the handover process as a matching game with externalities. Thus, we will provide an aspect of intelligence for the execution of the handover process to mobile user’s equipment (UE). To make the proposition more efficient, we integrate an assignment step to assist the matching game. Hence, the base stations will be investigated and filtered, keeping only the helpful base stations as the players in terms of the quality of service for the uplink and downlink. The numerical results verify the superiority of the proposed context-aware algorithm over traditional downlink handover and traditional decoupled uplink and downlink handover schemes, by improving the load balancing, increasing rates and reducing delays.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040035
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 36: Dynamic Linked Data: A SPARQL Event
           Processing Architecture

    • Authors: Luca Roffia, Paolo Azzoni, Cristiano Aguzzi, Fabio Viola, Francesco Antoniazzi, Tullio Salmon Cinotti
      First page: 36
      Abstract: This paper presents a decentralized Web-based architecture designed to support the development of distributed, dynamic, context-aware and interoperable services and applications. The architecture enables the detection and notification of changes over the Web of Data by means of a content-based publish-subscribe mechanism where the W3C SPARQL 1.1 Update and Query languages are fully supported and used respectively by publishers and subscribers. The architecture is built on top of the W3C SPARQL 1.1 Protocol and introduces the SPARQL 1.1 Secure Event protocol and the SPARQL 1.1 Subscribe Language as a means for conveying and expressing subscription requests and notifications. The reference implementation of the architecture offers to developers a design pattern for a modular, scalable and effective application development.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10040036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 22: Learning and Mining Player Motion
           Profiles in Physically Interactive Robogames

    • Authors: Ewerton Oliveira, Davide Orrù, Luca Morreale, Tiago Nascimento, Andrea Bonarini
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Physically-Interactive RoboGames (PIRG) are an emerging application whose aim is to develop robotic agents able to interact and engage humans in a game situation. In this framework, learning a model of players’ activity is relevant both to understand their engagement, as well as to understand specific strategies they adopted, which in turn can foster game adaptation. Following such directions and given the lack of quantitative methods for player modeling in PIRG, we propose a methodology for representing players as a mixture of existing player’s types uncovered from data. This is done by dealing both with the intrinsic uncertainty associated with the setting and with the agent necessity to act in real time to support the game interaction. Our methodology first focuses on encoding time series data generated from player-robot interaction into images, in particular Gramian angular field images, to represent continuous data. To these, we apply latent Dirichlet allocation to summarize the player’s motion style as a probabilistic mixture of different styles discovered from data. This approach has been tested in a dataset collected from a real, physical robot game, where activity patterns are extracted by using a custom three-axis accelerometer sensor module. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system is able to provide a robust description for the player interaction.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030022
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 23: SDN Based Collaborative Scheme for
           Mitigation of DDoS Attacks

    • Authors: Sufian Hameed, Hassan Ahmed Khan
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Software Defined Networking (SDN) has proved itself to be a backbone in the new network design and is quickly becoming an industry standard. The idea of separation of control plane and data plane is the key concept behind SDN. SDN not only allows us to program and monitor our networks but it also helps in mitigating some key network problems. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is among them. In this paper we propose a collaborative DDoS attack mitigation scheme using SDN. We design a secure controller-to-controller (C-to-C) protocol that allows SDN-controllers lying in different autonomous systems (AS) to securely communicate and transfer attack information with each other. This enables efficient notification along the path of an ongoing attack and effective filtering of traffic near the source of attack, thus saving valuable time and network resources. We also introduced three different deployment approaches i.e., linear, central and mesh in our testbed. Based on the experimental results we demonstrate that our SDN based collaborative scheme is fast and reliable in efficiently mitigating DDoS attacks in real time with very small computational footprints.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030023
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 24: How Data Will Transform Industrial
           Processes: Crowdsensing, Crowdsourcing and Big Data as Pillars of Industry

    • Authors: Virginia Pilloni
      First page: 24
      Abstract: We are living in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, namely Industry 4.0. This paper presents the main aspects related to Industry 4.0, the technologies that will enable this revolution, and the main application domains that will be affected by it. The effects that the introduction of Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), crowdsensing, crowdsourcing, cloud computing and big data will have on industrial processes will be discussed. The main objectives will be represented by improvements in: production efficiency, quality and cost-effectiveness; workplace health and safety, as well as quality of working conditions; products’ quality and availability, according to mass customisation requirements. The paper will further discuss the common denominator of these enhancements, i.e., data collection and analysis. As data and information will be crucial for Industry 4.0, crowdsensing and crowdsourcing will introduce new advantages and challenges, which will make most of the industrial processes easier with respect to traditional technologies.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030024
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 25: Interference Management in Femtocells
           by the Adaptive Network Sensing Power Control Technique

    • Authors: Tehseen Hassan, Fei Gao, Babur Jalal, Sheeraz Arif
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The overlay integration of low-power femtocells over macrocells in a heterogeneous network (HetNet) plays an important role in dealing with the increasing demand of spectral efficiency, coverage and higher data rates, at a nominal cost to network operators. However, the downlink (DL) transmission power of an inadequately deployed femtocell causes inter-cell interference (ICI), which leads to severe degradation and sometimes link failure for nearby macrocell users. In this paper, we propose an adaptive network sensing (ANS) technique for downlink power control to obviate the ICI. The simulation results have shown that the ANS power control technique successfully decreases the cell-edge macro user’s interference and enhances the throughput performance of macro users, while also optimizing the coverage and capacity of the femtocell. When compared with the Femto User Equipment (FUE)-assisted and Macro User Equipment (MUE)-assisted power control technique, the proposed technique offers a good tradeoff in reducing interference to macro users, while maintaining the quality of service (QoS) requirement of the femtocell users.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 26: TwinNet: A Double Sub-Network
           Framework for Detecting Universal Adversarial Perturbations

    • Authors: Yibin Ruan, Jiazhu Dai
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Deep neural network has achieved great progress on tasks involving complex abstract concepts. However, there exist adversarial perturbations, which are imperceptible to humans, which can tremendously undermine the performance of deep neural network classifiers. Moreover, universal adversarial perturbations can even fool classifiers on almost all examples with just a single perturbation vector. In this paper, we propose TwinNet, a framework for neural network classifiers to detect such adversarial perturbations. TwinNet makes no modification of the protected classifier. It detects adversarially perturbated examples by enhancing different types of features in dedicated networks and fusing the output of the networks later. The paper empirically shows that our framework can identify adversarial perturbations effectively with a slight loss in accuracy when predicting normal examples, which outperforms state-of-the-art works.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030026
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 27: Security Awareness in Software-Defined
           Multi-Domain 5G Networks

    • Authors: Jani Suomalainen, Kimmo Ahola, Mikko Majanen, Olli Mämmelä, Pekka Ruuska
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Fifth generation (5G) technologies will boost the capacity and ease the management of mobile networks. Emerging virtualization and softwarization technologies enable more flexible customization of network services and facilitate cooperation between different actors. However, solutions are needed to enable users, operators, and service providers to gain an up-to-date awareness of the security and trustworthiness of 5G systems. We describe a novel framework and enablers for security monitoring, inferencing, and trust measuring. The framework leverages software-defined networking and big data technologies to customize monitoring for different applications. We present an approach for sharing security measurements across administrative domains. We describe scenarios where the correlation of multi-domain information improves the accuracy of security measures with respect to two threats: end-user location tracking and Internet of things (IoT) authentication storms. We explore the security characteristics of data flows in software networks dedicated to different applications with a mobile network testbed.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030027
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Ecosystemic Evolution Fed by Smart

    • Authors: Dino Giuli
      First page: 28
      Abstract: n/a
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030028
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Understanding How GitHub Supports
           Curation Repositories

    • Authors: Yu Wu, Jessica Kropczynski, Raquel Prates, John Carroll
      First page: 29
      Abstract: In recent years, software developers have started to appropriate GitHub repositories to curate resources, in order to systematically select, evaluate, and organize existing artifacts for preservation and future use. Curation behaviors in social media sites, such as users’ experiences to curate tweets from Twitter and pins on Pinterest, are well documented. However, GitHub, as a social coding platform, presents a new context for this activity, raising questions about the nature of curation on this task-driven online work site. To explore and understand curation on GitHub, we compared and contrasted curation repositories with software repositories using activity logs and analyzed the content of popular curation repositories. Our results show that: (1) curation repositories have become a favorite category of repositories in GitHub; (2) curation repositories leverage collaborative features and practices native to GitHub in new ways; (3) curation repositories collect and preserve high-quality resources for the software developers’ community. Our results suggest that curation is becoming increasingly important to the software developers’ community, and current practices can be better supported with tools designed specifically for curation.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030029
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Optimal Design of Demand-Responsive
           Feeder Transit Services with Passengers’ Multiple Time Windows and

    • Authors: Bo Sun, Ming Wei, Senlai Zhu
      First page: 30
      Abstract: This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming model for demand-responsive feeder transit services to assign vehicles located at different depots to pick up passengers at the demand points and transport them to the rail station. The proposed model features passengers’ one or several preferred time windows for boarding vehicles at the demand point and their expected ride time. Moreover, passenger satisfaction that was related only to expected ride time is fully accounted for in the model. The objective is to simultaneously minimize the operation costs of total mileage and maximize passenger satisfaction. As the problem is an extension of the nondeterministic polynomial problem with integration of the vehicle route problem, this study further develops an improved bat algorithm to yield meta-optimal solutions for the model in a reasonable amount of time. When this was applied to a case study in Nanjing City, China, the mileage and satisfaction of the proposed model were reduced by 1.4 km and increased by 7.1%, respectively, compared with the traditional model. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the impact of the number of designed bus routes and weights of objective functions on the model performance. Finally, a comparison of Cplex, standard bat algorithm, and group search optimizer is analyzed to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030030
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 31: A Statistical Analysis of Industrial
           Penetration and Internet Intensity in Taiwan

    • Authors: Chia-Lin Chang, Michael McAleer, Yu-Chieh Wu
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This paper is the first to investigate the effect of industrial penetration (geographic concentration of industries) and internet intensity (the proportion of enterprises that uses the internet) for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on a unique set of data, namely 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry categories and 358 geographical townships in Taiwan. The Heckman sample selection model is used to accommodate sample selectivity for unobservable data for firms that use the internet. The empirical results from Heckman’s two-stage estimation show that: (1) a higher degree of industrial penetration will not affect the probability that firms will use the internet, but it will affect the total expenditure on internet intensity; (2) for two-digit SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) industries, industrial penetration generally decreases the total expenditure on internet intensity; and, (3) industrial penetration and internet intensity are substitutes.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10030031
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 11: Announcing the 2018 Future Internet
           Travel Award for PhD Students

    • Authors: Dino Giuli
      First page: 11
      Abstract: With the goal of promoting the development of early career investigators in the fields of Internet 11 technologies and the information society, Future Internet welcomed applications for the 2018 Future 12 Internet Travel Award for PhD students.[...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020011
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 12: The Improved Adaptive Silence Period
           Algorithm over Time-Variant Channels in the Cognitive Radio System

    • Authors: Jingbo Zhang, Zhenyang Sun, Shufang Zhang
      First page: 12
      Abstract: In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM) has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM). However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the ASPM algorithm will increase the probability of missed detection for the primary user (PU). Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive silence period management (IA-SPM) algorithm which can adaptively adjust the sensing parameters of the current period in combination with the feedback information from the data communication with the sensing results of the previous period. The feedback information in the channel is achieved with frequency resources rather than time resources in order to adapt to the parameter change in the time-varying channel. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the detection probability of the IA-SPM is 10–15% higher than that of the ASPM under low SNR conditions.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020012
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 13: Push Attack: Binding Virtual and Real
           Identities Using Mobile Push Notifications

    • Authors: Pierpaolo Loreti, Lorenzo Bracciale, Alberto Caponi
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Popular mobile apps use push notifications extensively to offer an “always connected” experience to their users. Social networking apps use them as a real-time channel to notify users about new private messages or new social interactions (e.g., friendship request, tagging, etc.). Despite the cryptography used to protect these communication channels, the strict temporal binding between the actions that trigger the notifications and the reception of the notification messages in the mobile device may represent a privacy issue. In this work, we present the push notification attack designed to bind the physical owners of mobile devices with their virtual identities, even if pseudonyms are used. In an online attack, an active attacker triggers a push notification and captures the notification packets that transit in the network. In an offline attack, a passive attacker correlates the social network activity of a user with the received push notification. The push notification attack bypasses the standard ways of protecting user privacy based on the network layer by operating at the application level. It requires no additional software on the victim’s mobile device.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020013
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 14: A Review of Vehicle to Vehicle
           Communication Protocols for VANETs in the Urban Environment

    • Authors: Irshad Abbasi, Adnan Shahid Khan
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have been gaining significant attention from the research community due to their increasing importance for building an intelligent transportation system. The characteristics of VANETs, such as high mobility, network partitioning, intermittent connectivity and obstacles in city environments, make routing a challenging task. Due to these characteristics of VANETs, the performance of a routing protocol is degraded. The position-based routing is considered to be the most significant approach in VANETs. In this paper, we present a brief review of most significant position based unicast routing protocols designed for vehicle to vehicle communications in the urban environment. We provide them with their working features for exchanging information between vehicular nodes. We describe their pros and cons. This study also provides a comparison of the vehicle to vehicle communication based routing protocols. The comparative study is based on some significant factors such as mobility, traffic density, forwarding techniques and method of junction selection mechanism, and strategy used to handle a local optimum situation. It also provides the simulation based study of existing dynamic junction selection routing protocols and a static junction selection routing protocol. It provides a profound insight into the routing techniques suggested in this area and the most valuable solutions to advance VANETs. More importantly, it can be used as a source of references to other researchers in finding literature that is relevant to routing in VANETs.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 15: Smart Pedestrian Crossing Management
           at Traffic Light Junctions through a Fuzzy-Based Approach

    • Authors: Giovanni Pau, Tiziana Campisi, Antonino Canale, Alessandro Severino, Mario Collotta, Giovanni Tesoriere
      First page: 15
      Abstract: In the last few years, numerous research efforts have been conducted to merge the Internet of Things (IoT) with smart city environments. The goal to make a city “smart” is arising as a possible solution to lessen the issues caused by the urban population growth and fast urbanization. Attention also has focused on the pedestrian crossings because they are one of the most dangerous places in the transport field. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) can undoubtedly be an excellent support in developing infrastructures that can best manage pedestrian crossing. For this reason, this paper introduces a fuzzy logic-based solution able to manage dynamically the traffic lights’ phases in signalized pedestrian crossings. The proposed approach provides the possibility to change the phases of the traffic light taking into account the time of the day and the number of pedestrians about to cross the road. The paper presents a thorough description of the fuzzy logic controller configuration, an in-depth analysis of the application scenario and simulative assessments obtained through Vissim simulations.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020015
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 16: An Efficient Trust-Based Scheme for
           Secure and Quality of Service Routing in MANETs

    • Authors: Muhammad Pathan, Nafei Zhu, Jingsha He, Zulfiqar Zardari, Muhammad Memon, Muhammad Hussain
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Due to the dynamism of topology, sharing of bandwidth and constraint of resources in wireless nodes, the provision of quality of service (QoS) for routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents a great challenge. Security is another crucial aspect of providing QoS since the existence of malicious nodes present all kinds of threats to MANETs. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed for protecting MANETs, most of the solutions are only effective for a particular kind of attacks or provide security at the cost of sacrificing QoS. In this paper, we propose a trust-based secure QoS routing scheme by combining social and QoS trust. The primary approach of the proposed scheme relies on mitigating nodes that exhibit various packet forwarding misbehavior and on discovering the path that ensures reliable communication through the trust mechanism. The scheme would select the best forwarding node based on packet forwarding behavior as well as capability in terms of QoS parameters, such as residual energy, channel quality, link quality, etc. We will present an adversary model for packet dropping attack against which we evaluate the proposed scheme. Simulation experiment using Network Simulator-2 (NS2) and under various network conditions show that mixing social and QoS trust parameters can greatly improve security and quality of service routing in terms of overhead, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020016
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Increasing Trustworthiness of Face
           Authentication in Mobile Devices by Modeling Gesture Behavior and Location
           Using Neural Networks

    • Authors: Blerim Rexha, Gresa Shala, Valon Xhafa
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Personal mobile devices currently have access to a significant portion of their user’s private sensitive data and are increasingly used for processing mobile payments. Consequently, securing access to these mobile devices is a requirement for securing access to the sensitive data and potentially costly services. Face authentication is one of the promising biometrics-based user authentication mechanisms that has been widely available in this era of mobile computing. With a built-in camera capability on smartphones, tablets, and laptops, face authentication provides an attractive alternative of legacy passwords for its memory-less authentication process, which is so sophisticated that it can unlock the device faster than a fingerprint. Nevertheless, face authentication in the context of smartphones has proven to be vulnerable to attacks. In most current implementations, a sufficiently high-resolution face image displayed on another mobile device will be enough to circumvent security measures and bypass the authentication process. In order to prevent such bypass attacks, gesture recognition together with location is proposed to be additionally modeled. Gestures provide a faster and more convenient method of authentication compared to a complex password. The focus of this paper is to build a secure authentication system with face, location and gesture recognition as components. User gestures and location data are a sequence of time series; therefore, in this paper we propose to use unsupervised learning in the long short-term memory recurrent neural network to actively learn to recognize, group and discriminate user gestures and location. Moreover, a clustering-based technique is also implemented for recognizing gestures and location.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020017
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 18: Security and Privacy in Wireless and
           Mobile Networks

    • Authors: Georgios Kambourakis, Felix Gomez Marmol, Guojun Wang
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Currently, at the dawn of 5G networks, and the era of the Internet-of-Things, wireless and mobile networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous [...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020018
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 19: Virtual Career Fairs: Perspectives
           from Norwegian Recruiters and Exhibitors

    • Authors: Ådne Vik, Bjørn Nørbech, Debora Jeske
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The present work introduces virtual fairs, particularly the perceived benefits, challenges, and relevance of such fairs for recruitment and employer branding. These aspects were explored in a semi-structured interview with an organizer of virtual fairs across Scandinavia, and a focus group composed of Norwegian recruiters and exhibitors. The results of the data collection can be summarized in the form of themes that relate to web analytics, web services and optimization. The benefits of virtual fairs pertain to the (a) visibility and branding; (b) costs; and (c) analytics-based customization. Challenges of virtual career fairs pertain to the (a) lack of online engagement, (b) preparation and staffing costs; (c) lack of guidelines; (d) talent access and identification; (e) security and infrastructure; (f) long-term planning; (g) and inter-dependencies. The discussion summarizes the implications of branding and recruitment and the value they add to business, also noting how context effects may come into play. The article concludes by exploring the possibility that virtual fairs will complement or become the new standard in recruitment and outlines future avenues for research and practice.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020019
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 20: Blockchain and Smart Contracts for
           Insurance: Is the Technology Mature Enough'

    • Authors: Valentina Gatteschi, Fabrizio Lamberti, Claudio Demartini, Chiara Pranteda, Víctor Santamaría
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Blockchain is receiving increasing attention from academy and industry, since it is considered a breakthrough technology that could bring huge benefits to many different sectors. In 2017, Gartner positioned blockchain close to the peak of inflated expectations, acknowledging the enthusiasm for this technology that is now largely discussed by media. In this scenario, the risk to adopt it in the wake of enthusiasm, without objectively judging its actual added value is rather high. Insurance is one the sectors that, among others, started to carefully investigate the possibilities of blockchain. For this specific sector, however, the hype cycle shows that the technology is still in the innovation trigger phase, meaning that the spectrum of possible applications has not been fully explored yet. Insurers, as with many other companies not necessarily active only in the financial sector, are currently requested to make a hard decision, that is, whether to adopt blockchain or not, and they will only know if they were right in 3–5 years. The objective of this paper is to support actors involved in this decision process by illustrating what a blockchain is, analyzing its advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing several use cases taken from the insurance sector, which could easily be extended to other domains.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020020
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 21: Robotics Construction Kits: From
           “Objects to Think with” to “Objects to Think and to Emote with”

    • Authors: Antonella D’Amico, Domenico Guastella
      First page: 21
      Abstract: This paper discusses new ideas about the use of educational robotics in social-emotional learning. In particular, educational robotics could be a tool intended to allow children to acquire some of the basic aspects of human emotions and emotional functioning, and to understand how these relate to the mind and body. More specifically, by using robots such as the LEGO Mindstorm construction kits—which allow users to both construct the body of the robot and to provide it with a behavioural repertory—children have the opportunity to visualize (and manipulate) the relationship between the robot’s body and mind. This allows them to simulate “embodied emotional minds” and to reflect on new neuroscientific concepts regarding body-mind and cognition-emotion relationships.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10020021
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 2: An Anonymous Offline RFID
           Grouping-Proof Protocol

    • Authors: Zhibin Zhou, Pin Liu, Qin Liu, Guojun Wang
      First page: 2
      Abstract: As more and more items are tagged with RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, grouping-proof technology is widely utilized to provide a coexistence evidence for a group of related items. Due to the wireless channel used in RFID systems, a security risk exists in the communication between the reader and tags. How to ensure the tag’s information security and to generate reliable grouping-proof becomes a hot research topic. To protect the privacy of tags, the verification of grouping-proof is traditionally executed by the verifier, and the reader is only used to collect the proof data. This approach can cause the reader to submit invalid proof data to the verifier in the event of DoP (Deny of Proof) attack. In this paper, an ECC-based, off-line anonymous grouping-proof protocol (EAGP) is proposed. The protocol authorizes the reader to examine the validity of grouping-proof without knowing the identities of tags. From the security and performance analysis, the EAGP can protect the security and privacy of RFID tags, and defence impersonation and replay attacks. Furthermore, it has the ability to reduce the system overhead caused by the invalid submission of grouping-proofs. As a result, the proposed EAGP equips practical application values.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010002
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 3: Review of Latest Advances in 3GPP
           Standardization: D2D Communication in 5G Systems and Its Energy
           Consumption Models

    • Authors: Marko Höyhtyä, Olli Apilo, Mika Lasanen
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential part of the future fifth generation (5G) system that can be seen as a “network of networks,” consisting of multiple seamlessly-integrated radio access technologies (RATs). Public safety communications, autonomous driving, socially-aware networking, and infotainment services are example use cases of D2D technology. High data rate communications and use of several active air interfaces in the described network create energy consumption challenges for both base stations and the end user devices. In this paper, we review the status of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardization, which is the most important standardization body for 5G systems. We define a set of application scenarios for D2D communications in 5G networks. We use the recent models of 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) and WiFi interfaces in analyzing the power consumption from both the infrastructure and user device perspectives. The results indicate that with the latest radio interfaces, the best option for energy saving is the minimization of active interfaces and sending the data with the best possible data rate. Multiple recommendations on how to exploit the results in future networks are given.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010003
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 4: A Virtual Learning Architecture
           Enhanced by Fog Computing and Big Data Streams

    • Authors: Riccardo Pecori
      First page: 4
      Abstract: In recent years, virtual learning environments are gaining more and more momentum, considering both the technologies deployed in their support and the sheer number of terminals directly or indirectly interacting with them. This essentially means that every day, more and more smart devices play an active role in this exemplary Web of Things scenario. This digital revolution, affecting education, appears clearly intertwined with the earliest forecasts of the Internet of Things, envisioning around 50 billions heterogeneous devices and gadgets to be active by 2020, considering also the deployment of the fog computing paradigm, which moves part of the computational power to the edge of the network. Moreover, these interconnected objects are expected to produce more and more significant streams of data, themselves generated at unprecedented rates, sometimes to be analyzed almost in real time. Concerning educational environments, this translates to a new type of big data stream, which can be labeled as educational big data streams. Here, pieces of information coming from different sources (such as communications between students and instructors, as well as students’ tests, etc.) require accurate analysis and mining techniques in order to retrieve fruitful and well-timed insights from them. This article presents an overview of the current state of the art of virtual learning environments and their limitations; then, it explains the main ideas behind the paradigms of big data streams and of fog computing, in order to introduce an e-learning architecture integrating both of them. Such an action aims to enhance the ability of virtual learning environments to be closer to the needs of all the actors in an educational scenario, as demonstrated by a preliminary implementation of the envisioned architecture. We believe that the proposed big stream and fog-based educational framework may pave the way towards a better understanding of students’ educational behaviors and foster new research directions in the field.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010004
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 5: Elastic Scheduling of Scientific
           Workflows under Deadline Constraints in Cloud Computing Environments

    • Authors: Nazia Anwar, Huifang Deng
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Scientific workflow applications are collections of several structured activities and fine-grained computational tasks. Scientific workflow scheduling in cloud computing is a challenging research topic due to its distinctive features. In cloud environments, it has become critical to perform efficient task scheduling resulting in reduced scheduling overhead, minimized cost and maximized resource utilization while still meeting the user-specified overall deadline. This paper proposes a strategy, Dynamic Scheduling of Bag of Tasks based workflows (DSB), for scheduling scientific workflows with the aim to minimize financial cost of leasing Virtual Machines (VMs) under a user-defined deadline constraint. The proposed model groups the workflow into Bag of Tasks (BoTs) based on data dependency and priority constraints and thereafter optimizes the allocation and scheduling of BoTs on elastic, heterogeneous and dynamically provisioned cloud resources called VMs in order to attain the proposed method’s objectives. The proposed approach considers pay-as-you-go Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds having inherent features such as elasticity, abundance, heterogeneity and VM provisioning delays. A trace-based simulation using benchmark scientific workflows representing real world applications, demonstrates a significant reduction in workflow computation cost while the workflow deadline is met. The results validate that the proposed model produces better success rates to meet deadlines and cost efficiencies in comparison to adapted state-of-the-art algorithms for similar problems.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010005
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 6: Investigating the Influence of Special
           On–Off Attacks on Challenge-Based Collaborative Intrusion Detection

    • Authors: Wenjuan Li, Weizhi Meng, Lam Kwok
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Intrusions are becoming more complicated with the recent development of adversarial techniques. To boost the detection accuracy of a separate intrusion detector, the collaborative intrusion detection network (CIDN) has thus been developed by allowing intrusion detection system (IDS) nodes to exchange data with each other. Insider attacks are a great threat for such types of collaborative networks, where an attacker has the authorized access within the network. In literature, a challenge-based trust mechanism is effective at identifying malicious nodes by sending challenges. However, such mechanisms are heavily dependent on two assumptions, which would cause CIDNs to be vulnerable to advanced insider attacks in practice. In this work, we investigate the influence of advanced on–off attacks on challenge-based CIDNs, which can respond truthfully to one IDS node but behave maliciously to another IDS node. To evaluate the attack performance, we have conducted two experiments under a simulated and a real CIDN environment. The obtained results demonstrate that our designed attack is able to compromise the robustness of challenge-based CIDNs in practice; that is, some malicious nodes can behave untruthfully without a timely detection.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010006
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 7: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Future
           Internet in 2017

    • Authors: Future Internet Editorial Office
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Future Internet maintains high quality standards for its published papers.[...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010007
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 8: A Decision Framework for Choosing
           Telecommunication Technologies in Limited-Resource Settings

    • Authors: Suzana Brown, Alan Mickelson
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Remote areas with sparse population, disaster areas in the aftermath, and refugee camps all require communication that is not forthcoming from commercial vendors. Numerous communication system options are available, but with widely varying cost and efficacy. The goal of this work is to discuss a framework in which to consider appropriate telecommunications technology. The framework approaches sustainable development as a business, under the assumption that social/technical/environmental sustainability requires economic sustainability. The framework incorporates well known and accepted business canvas as a roadmap. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) interventions are then considered in terms of their value proposition, markets, and perhaps most important for the realm of sustainable development, the key partners. To illustrate how the framework applies, we consider three case studies and then apply the resultant principles to the consideration of these ICT projects. The case studies are chosen for their diversity. Furthermore, after verifying the decision framework, recommendations are made for three ongoing intervention projects in limited-resource settings.
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010008
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 9: A Velocity-Aware Handover Trigger in
           Two-Tier Heterogeneous Networks

    • Authors: Asmae Ait Mansour, Nourddine Enneya, Mohamed Ouadou
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The unexpected change in user equipment (UE) velocity is recognized as the primary explanation for poor handover quality. In order to resolve this issue, while limiting ping-pong (PP) events we carefully and dynamically optimized handover parameters for each UE unit according to its velocity and the coverage area of the access point (AP). In order to recognize any variations in velocity, we applied Allan variance (AVAR) to the received signal strength (RSS) from the serving AP. To assess our approach, it was essential to configure a heterogeneous network context (LTE-WiFi) and interconnect Media-Independent Handover (MIH) and Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) for seamless handover. Reproduction demonstrated that our approach does not only result in a gain in relatively accurate velocity but in addition reduces the number of PP and handover failures (HOFs).
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010009
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
  • Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 10: Recent Advances on Cellular D2D

    • Authors: Boon-Chong Seet, Syed Hasan, Peter Chong
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communications have attracted a great deal of attention fromresearchers in recent years.[...]
      Citation: Future Internet
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/fi10010010
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2018)
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