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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0031-2746 - ISSN (Online) 1477-464X
   Published by Oxford University Press Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Pigs in the Flesh and Fisc: An Early Medieval Ecology *
    • Authors: Kreiner J.
      Pages: 3 - 42
      Abstract: It used to be the case that Gaul’s pigs needed no introduction. When Varro wrote his guide to running a profitable farm in the Late Republic, he could not resist repeating a few tall tales about the size of the pigs responsible for Gaul’s large, tasty flitches. The mosaics and sculptures around the Roman empire that began to celebrate seasonal agricultural work in the imperial period never included pigs in their cycles — except in Gaul. It is not that pig husbandry was insignificant in other provinces; in certain regions of Italy in particular it was a crucial part of local and imperial economies. But the cliché endured, so that even in the sixth century a Byzantine physician named Anthimus would repeat the old claim to fame, remarking to the Merovingian king himself that he knew how the Franks loved their bacon.11
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtx031
      Issue No: Vol. 236, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Settlement of the Poor and the Rise of the Form in England, c
           .1662–1780 *
    • Authors: Tadmor N.
      Pages: 43 - 97
      Abstract: On 27 May 1762 James Carr, a husbandman, must have breathed a sigh of relief. The settlement certificate naming himself and his family members was formally endorsed: two justices of the peace signed it, and two witnesses attested that the preceding seals and signatures were true. James Carr had not gone far. Originally from the township of Scarisbrick in the parish of Ormskirk, Lancashire, he and his family moved to the neighbouring township of Aughton. Demographers would describe this as ‘short-’ or ‘medium-distance migration’, the most typical form of labour movement in the eighteenth century.11 But even such a move of six or seven miles could necessitate formal certification. Since the previous century, each English person had to have a parish to which they legally ‘belonged’, and which could underwrite claims for poor relief. James the husbandman was evidently not wealthy enough to acquire legal settlement in his new home, Aughton, and so he needed the township of Scarisbrick to declare its commitment to him. This was not always easily obtained, for local authorities could create obstacles. In any event certification required time, money and multilateral co-operation. James and his family must have felt reassured when their form was signed, and delivered. In the spring of that year, 1762, in the Sussex county town of Lewes, 264 miles to the south-east, the members of the Trimby family probably experienced a similar feeling. James Trimby, Susanna and their four children had relocated from one parish in Lewes to another. They too needed a form to attest their settlement, and they too were no doubt pleased to have had it ‘allowed’ by the local justices of the peace, signed and sealed.22
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtx029
      Issue No: Vol. 236, No. 1 (2017)
  • Clock-Watching: Work and Working Time at the Late Eighteenth-Century Bank
           of England *
    • Authors: Murphy AL.
      Pages: 99 - 132
      Abstract: By the end of the eighteenth century the Bank of England was the largest private employer of white-collar workers in Britain. In 1783 there were 321 permanent clerks working at the Bank, more than double the white-collar staff of the East India Company and ten times the numbers employed by the large insurance companies, the Royal Exchange and Sun Assurance companies.11 The Bank’s workers were organized into two large departments: the Cashier’s Office and the Accountant’s Office and each of those departments was subdivided into more than a dozen offices, some employing just a few men, while managing the Three Per Cent Consols Office made work for more than fifty.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtx015
      Issue No: Vol. 236, No. 1 (2017)
  • Precursors to Red Rubber: Violence in the Congo Free State,
           1885–1895 *
    • Authors: Gordon DM.
      Pages: 133 - 168
      Abstract: The historiography of the Congo Free State has come to focus on the ties between violence and economic exploitation, in particular ‘red rubber’, beginning in the middle of the 1890s, when a sparse European administration and its African agents supervised a brutal system of forced labour to collect wild rubber.11 It is accepted that the administration of King Leopold II in the Congo Free State (CFS) harnessed a wave of indigenous violence to further its own political and economic ambitions, but less is known about the CFS before red rubber, when Leopold’s agents claimed to have maintained the principles of free trade and acted against the slave trade, nearly bankrupting the state. According to one recent history of the Congo, this period was ‘the mildest by far’.22 This article disagrees: analysis of oral tradition and the unpublished correspondence of CFS officers demonstrates how the culture of violence that informed red rubber first coalesced prior to 1895.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtx018
      Issue No: Vol. 236, No. 1 (2017)
  • Humanitarianism and the Overseas Aid Craze in Britain’s Colonial Straits
           Settlements, 1870–1920 *
    • Authors: Frost MR.
      Pages: 169 - 205
      Abstract: Is the history of modern humanitarianism primarily a European one' Let us begin to answer this question by considering a letter which appeared in the Singapore Free Press in 1900 from a correspondent who wrote under the pseudonym ‘Protestant’. The writer desired ‘to give expression to a feeling’ he believed he shared with ‘a large proportion of the European public of the Straits’: namely, ‘the protest most of us would like to make against the Charitable Funds craze’. He had been prompted to write by his irritation with the ‘Indian Famine Fund idea’, which he claimed had become ‘comfortably installed among us on the familiar cuckoo-egg principle’. As ‘Protestant’ saw things, the high cost of Tamil ‘native labour’ in the Straits Settlements and the Malay peninsula allowed him to feel little sympathy for the starving masses of India. Instead, he confessed to ‘no false sentiment in the matter and to a great deal of what I shall frankly call selfishness’.11
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtx030
      Issue No: Vol. 236, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Green Cadres and the Collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918
    • Authors: Beneš JS.
      Pages: 207 - 241
      Abstract: This article sheds light on a forgotten aspect of Austria-Hungary’s collapse at the end of the First World War. While the armed forces of the Dual Monarchy were beginning to lose in the field in 1918 and working-class unrest was convulsing the major urban and industrial centres, revolt was spreading across vast territories of the countryside. Here ‘Green Cadres’ (sometimes called ‘Green Guards’ or ‘Green Brigades’) had coalesced from groups of army deserters and radicalized local peasants. With strongholds in forested and mountainous areas, they violently resisted their re-enlistment for the war effort and mounted armed attacks on civilian and military authorities. Strikingly, rural common people near their spheres of action often saw in these forces their emancipators.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtx028
      Issue No: Vol. 236, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Social Networks of South Asian Migrants in the Sheffield Area During
           the Early Twentieth Century *
    • Authors: Holland D.
      Pages: 243 - 279
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1093/pastj/gtx019
      Issue No: Vol. 236, No. 1 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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