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Journal Cover Acta Archaeologica
  [SJR: 0.101]   [H-I: 9]   [164 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0065-101X - ISSN (Online) 1600-0390
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 9
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:56.356979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12165.x
    • Authors: Anders Högberg
      Pages: 11 - 32
      Abstract: In a study published in 1994, Helle Juel Jensen observed that microdenticulates are tools whose function is difficult to assess. She calls the use of the tools “an unresolved functional puzzle”. This study proceeds from that conclusion. Based on attribute and use-wear analyses together with contextual studies the results show that microdenticulates are complex tools, in which other parts of the flake besides the denticulated edge were used. The result also show that other flint objects from the flint asemblage were used for the same operations as the microdenticulates. The work comprised a conceptual action in which the production, use, and deposition of the material were all parts of the same process. The task was given in advance. The work probably consisted of preparing or treating plant fibres in some way in order to make thread, rope, bast, or the like. The result shows that seemingly simple tools like microdenticulates were a part of the materiality of the south Scandinavian Funnel Beaker complex. The work conducted using the microdenticultates and the tool box associated with them was associated with concepts shared by people over large areas (present day south Sweden and Denmark) over hundreds of years (from Early Neolithic to Middle Neolithic AI).
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:56.666927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12164.x
           REGION, DENMARK
    • Authors: Tobias Torfing
      Pages: 33 - 48
      Abstract: The article discusses the use of summed probability distribution as a demographic proxy, and highlights several issues with this method, especially during periods of change in the exploitation of the landscape or during social transformation. With a case study from the Langeland region in Denmark an alternative and corrective approach is applied, were number of settlements and size of settlement is included. With this approach a very different development can be described.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:56.762705-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12166.x
    • Authors: Kerkko Nordqvist
      Pages: 49 - 84
      Abstract: Up until recent years, Corded Ware has remained poorly studied in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, located in north-eastern Europe. Traditionally, this region has been considered marginal in terms of Corded Ware, but new research has started to change this view. This paper presents the Corded Ware material known up to the current date (2016) from the eastern area of the Gulf of Finland, i.e. the Karelian Isthmus and Ingria (western Leningrad oblast, Russia); currently ca. 30 sites and ca. 60 stray finds are known in the research area. Based on this and previously published data from the adjoining regions, features related to the material culture, the contact networks, and the chronology of Corded Ware are discussed. Even though focusing the research may skew the picture, there are good grounds to propose, that there was a distinctive Corded Ware sphere of interaction in the eastern area of the Gulf of Finland, also including areas in north-eastern Estonia and south-eastern Finland. Due to its particular cultural background, local preferences, and consequently, development trajectories, the area had a clear regional character. Further, populations inhabiting it also maintained active contacts with other Corded Ware groups in the sphere of Baltic Sea and further to the east, as well as with non-Corded Ware settlers of north-eastern Europe.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:56.892071-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12167.x
    • Authors: Klavs Randsborg; Inga Merkytė, Algimantas Merkevičius, Vladimir I. Kulakov
      Pages: 85 - 130
      Abstract: The article is a report on field activities of 2014 at a renowned location of Kaup forest near Wiskiauten/Viskiautai, nowadays Kaliningrad oblast of Russia, and a sentimental journey through the research history in a region at the crossroads of ancient communication webs, and more recently – of diverse political agendas. Field activities focused on the so-called Barrow 1, the only known mound at Kaup dated to the Neolithic, otherwise dotted with burials of the Viking Age. It was an attempt to reconstruct barrow architecture, which has resulted in a deconstruction of previous views based on rather scarce excavation reports of the 19th – early 20th century. The Neolithic barrow of Kaup remains a unique testimony of the social complexity and spatial awareness of the early 3rd millennium BC when Europe was under the spell of the Corded Ware and other related cultural phenomena.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:56.441118-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12168.x
           THEIR ORIGIN
    • Authors: Haldis Johanne Bollingberg; Ulla Lund Hansen
      Pages: 131 - 178
      Abstract: When examining the importance of the distribution of trace elements in metal objects, for example that a Scandinavian analytical project on 500 metal artefacts from the Roman Iron Age has shown that the relationship between selected trace elements are characteristic of the different groups of artefacts - they might even be typical of different Eggers types within the same group. For instance, a ladle/strainer set from the Late Roman Iron Age (LRI), E 161, may have a significantly higher lead/antimony ratio than the older types, E 162. The verification of this principle has, firstly, shown that the scrap metal content of an artefact alloy affects the interpretation of chemical analyses much less than has hitherto been supposed. Secondly, it has shown that elemental alloy composition for the artefacts are more closely related to the raw materials. For example, the ores used have a characteristic content that is a consequence of their geochemistry. While there are always small amounts of silver, antimony and bismuth in galena, the amounts are a function of the location and geological formation of the ore. These facts are well recognized in lead isotope research where the ratio between the lead isotopes is used.The results from the interdisciplinary analytical projects mentioned above are the basis for a continuing examination of relevant artefacts from Nordic and European collections. Initially it was not expected that permission to collect foreign collections would be granted but, in the event, personal contact and a careful sampling protocol opened the doors to international cooperation. Comparative projects are currently proceeding with the Vatican Museum, the Musée Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Brussels and Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz and Goethe University, Frankfurt a. Main among others. Glass and metal samples from the excavation of Corway Kloster have been analysed by OES in cooperation with German Universities, with financial support from Volkswagenstiftung over many years. Finally, it is important that all kind of treatment of the artefacts during the study is described in detail and following the artefacts for later scientific work.Elemental analyses are a fingerprint of the alloy content. It has been possible to distinguish the various cauldron alloys from the Roman and the Migration Period. The composition of the alloy characterizes the Westland cauldron compared to other artefacts from the Roman period. The similarity between the alloy in the Scandinavian and some French and Belgian Westland cauldrons is documented, which could point to a common provenance. The alloy composition changes according to form and age. The trace element pattern and the lead isotope relations point to an origin in the Maas valley. The use of scrap metal in the alloy seems avoided for the body of the cauldrons - probably because of the complicated production of the thin walls and bottoms of the cauldrons. In conclusion, one can say that detailed studies of the alloys the ancient smiths have used are providing new knowledge of the expertise and cultural achievements of former ages. One can also assert that the chemical and metallurgical constitution of archaeological treasures is as important as their stylistic description in revealing important aspects of our cultural history.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:55.92143-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12169.x
    • Authors: Michael Witty
      Pages: 179 - 191
      Abstract: Important ancient Roman chemical processes involved ammonium, especially fulling. Ammonium accumulates in decaying urine as a dilute chemical agent but is unfortunately present alongside substances which interfere with later processes, such as malodorous organic compounds and bacterial debris. This paper demonstrates how ancients may have obtained concentrated material by crystallization of ammonium salts and purification to a high degree by simple decanting, which uses only those resources available in the first century AD. It is proposed that first century Romans used decayed urine to produce the urine powder “Struvite”, a pure and concentrated form of ammonium. Possession of concentrated ammonium allows for a very wide range of chemical processes but only the very simplest example is presented in this paper; smelling salts.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:57.188419-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12170.x
    • Authors: Sue Brunning
      Pages: 193 - 200
      Abstract: A long iron rod in the British Museum's Viking collection (accession number 1894,1105.5) has been reclassified by curators. Accessioned in the nineteenth century as a fishing tool and later recast as a roasting spit, it can now be added to a group of enigmatic iron rods that are widely interpreted as the special attribute of the völva, or Norse seeress.
      PubDate: 2016-12-22T03:23:56.277796-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0390.2016.12171.x
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