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Journal Cover World Development
  [SJR: 2.1]   [H-I: 122]   [150 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-750X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • The importance of Ostrom’s Design Principles: Youth group
           performance in northern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Stein T. Holden; Mesfin Tilahun
      Pages: 10 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Stein T. Holden, Mesfin Tilahun
      Youth unemployment and migration are growing challenges that need more political attention in many countries, particularly countries with rapid population growth and economic transformation. Proactively mobilizing the youth as a resource in the creation of sustainable livelihoods can potentially be a win-win-win solution that Ethiopia is currently attempting. The new youth employment strategy includes allocation of rehabilitated communal lands to youth groups. This study investigates the extent to which Ostrom’s Design Principles (DPs) are followed and matter for the early performance of youth groups in terms of their stability, trust and overall performance. Data from a census of 742 youth groups in five districts in Tigray in northern Ethiopia is used. This study utilizes econometric methods to assess correlations between the DPs and a range of early performance indicators. The study contributes to the limited literature on local collective action utilizing large samples. We find a high degree of compliance with the DPs. Some of the DPs appeared more important for early performance of the youth groups. The Ethiopian youth group approach to mobilize landless and unemployed youth is promising and should be tested elsewhere. Further longitudinal research is needed on the Ethiopian model as it is still at an early stage of testing as most groups are less than five years old.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Buying stability: The distributive outcomes of private politics in the
           Bolivian mining industry
    • Authors: Matthew Amengual
      Pages: 31 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Matthew Amengual
      Social movements and interest groups in developing countries increasingly challenge large firms to influence their behavior and make direct claims for redistribution of the gains from economic activity. In response to such private politics, firms seek to maintain political support in the localities in which they operate so that they can avoid conflict and secure access to resources. To secure local support and defuse opposition, some firms take actions that expand access to essential public goods, services, and economic opportunities, while others use targeted clientelistic benefits that reward only a few. What accounts for this variation' Answering this question is key to identifying the development consequences of private politics. This article explores this question through a study of multinational mining firms operating in Bolivia, drawing on qualitative data from interviews as well as an original household survey. It shows that the political structures and organization in the localities in which firms operate create distinct incentives for firms to distribute benefits in targeted or inclusive ways. This finding contributes to studies of the local politics of natural resources and firm responses to social contestation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Resilience mobility in Uganda: A dynamic analysis
    • Authors: Marco d'Errico; Stefania Di Giuseppe
      Pages: 78 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Marco d'Errico, Stefania Di Giuseppe
      Household resilience to food insecurity can be considered as the capacity that ensures stressors and shocks do not have long-lasting adverse development consequences; it is, nowadays, one of the key words in the policy debate on development. Measuring resilience capacity and how it varies over time is extremely significant for policy makers and people living in risk-prone environments. More specifically, there is a gap of empirical evidence about what drives changes in resilience capacity status (i.e. moving from a low resilience profile to a high one, and viceversa). This paper applies econometric techniques for estimating household resilience and adopts transition matrices to estimate how it changes over time. Finally, multinomial logit and bivariate probit models are estimated to identify the main drivers of change. Our study finds that female headed households are less likely to become the most resilient; also this paper demonstrates that education and participation to household enterprises are positively associated with increased resilience capacity. This paper innovates the resilience literature by providing an evidence based analysis of the main drivers of resilience; it brings this evidence in the Uganda’s context, focusing the attention of the policy makers on sub-sample of population which are worse off. More generally, our study suggests that resilience enhancing policies can bridge humanitarian and development interventions by demonstrating how long-term perspectives (i.e. those investing in education) can lead to an immediate increase of resilience.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Don’t Touch My Road. Evidence from India on Affirmative Action And
           Everyday Discrimination
    • Authors: Victoire Girard
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Victoire Girard
      This article investigates whether affirmative action, in the form of electoral quotas, affects group-based discrimination. The redistributive effect of quotas is subject to debate, and their ultimate target is discrimination. To identify the effect of electoral quotas, I take advantage of their rotation across space and over time in India. To proxy discrimination, I use a measure of caste-based exclusion from a public infrastructure (namely, streets). In 2006, 44.5% household members of the marginalized castes labeled Scheduled Castes (SC) still suffered from caste-based exclusions. I document that ongoing SC quotas reduce the likelihood of caste-based exclusion for members of the SCs by about one fifth. The results also imply that the effect is not persistent: it disappears with the end of the SC quota. From a policy-maker’s perspective, these results are mixed since electoral quotas do affect everyday discrimination, even if the effect does not last. These results are consistent with a temporary change in the behavior of members of the dominant castes after a one-shot electoral quota. These results are inconsistent with either a change in the stereotypes held by members of the dominant castes, or a change in the aspirations of members of the lower castes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Policies for a Sustainable Biomass Energy Sector in Malawi: Enhancing
           Energy and Food Security Simultaneously
    • Authors: Franziska Schuenemann; Siwa Msangi; Manfred Zeller
      Pages: 14 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Franziska Schuenemann, Siwa Msangi, Manfred Zeller
      Biomass energy still dominates the energy sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular as the main cooking energy source in rural and urban areas. The strong linkages to food security and the environment place biomass energy at the heart of sustainable development, a fact that is largely ignored by policy makers in favor of modern energy. At the same time, population and GDP growth are exacerbating already existing supply–demand imbalances in highly populated countries such as Malawi. These trends make it imperative to identify policy interventions that promote sustainable biomass energy while simultaneously considering linkages with other sectors. We use new data on demand and supply for biomass energy in Malawi and develop a model that estimates fuelwood demand based on actual diets and project demand in future years. We simulate how demand side interventions in the form of improved cookstoves affect biomass demand and built a behavioral model to analyze the potential of agroforestry for promoting a sustainable biomass energy sector in Malawi. Our findings show that policy measures aimed at increasing cooking efficiency are not enough to decrease demand for cooking energy due to high population growth. Supply side interventions like agroforestry on the other hand will not only increase sustainable supply, but can also enhance food security and protect the environment. We find that biomass energy can be inherently sustainable and should be an integral part of every energy sector strategy in developing countries as well as of the Sustainable Development Goals.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • The Household Response to Persistent Natural Disasters: Evidence from
           Bangladesh
    • Authors: Azreen Karim
      Pages: 40 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Azreen Karim
      Recent literatures examine the short-run effects of natural disasters on household welfare and health outcomes. However, less advancement has been observed in the use of self-reported data to capture the short-run disaster–development nexus in least developed countries’ with high climatic risks. This self-identification in the questionnaire could be advantageous to capture the disaster impacts on households more precisely when compared to index-based identifications based on geographical exposure. In this paper, we ask: “what are the impacts on household income, expenditure, asset, and labor market outcomes of recurrent flooding in Bangladesh'” We examine the short-run economic impacts of recurrent flooding on Bangladeshi households surveyed in year 2010. In 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES), households answered a set of questions on whether they were affected by flood and its likely impacts. We identify treatment (affected) groups using two measures of disaster risk exposure; the self-reported flood hazard data, and historical rainfall data-based flood risk index. The paper directly compares the impacts of climatic disaster (i.e., recurrent flooding) on economic development. We further examine these impacts by pooling the data for the years’ 2000, 2005, and 2010 and compare the results with our benchmark estimations. Overall, we find robust evidence of negative impacts on agricultural income and expenditure. Intriguingly, the self-reported treatment group experienced significant positive impacts on crop income.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.026
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Does Government Spending Affect Income Poverty' A Meta-regression
           Analysis
    • Authors: Edward Anderson; Maria Ana Jalles d'Orey; Maren Duvendack; Lucio Esposito
      Pages: 60 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Edward Anderson, Maria Ana Jalles d'Orey, Maren Duvendack, Lucio Esposito
      This paper presents the results of a meta-regression analysis of the relationship between government spending and income poverty, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries. Through a comprehensive search and screening process, we identify a total of 19 cross-country econometric studies containing 169 estimates of this relationship. We find that the size and direction of the estimated relationship are affected by a range of factors, most notably the composition of the sample used for estimation, the control variables included in the regression model, and the type of government spending. Overall, we find no clear evidence that higher government spending has played a significant role in reducing income poverty in low- and middle-income countries. This is consistent with the view that fiscal policy plays a much more limited redistributive role in developing countries, in comparison with OECD countries. In addition, we find that the relationship between government spending and poverty is on average less negative for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and more negative for countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, compared to other regions. We also find that the relationship is less negative for government consumption spending, in comparison with other sectors. Finally, we find some evidence indicating the possibility of publication bias.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Does Institutional Quality Matter for Trade' Institutional Conditions
           in a Sectoral Trade Framework
    • Authors: Inmaculada C. Álvarez; Javier Barbero; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; José L. Zofío
      Pages: 72 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Inmaculada C. Álvarez, Javier Barbero, Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, José L. Zofío
      This article examines the extent to which national institutional quality affects bilateral sectoral trade flows, as well as whether the conditioning role of institutions for trade has been waxing or waning with time. Based on a new trade theory framework, we derive a sectoral gravity equation, including novel variables corresponding to the exporter’s labor competitiveness levels, along with importer’s price indices and sectoral incomes, and analyze industry-specific bilateral trade flows of 186 countries for the period 1996–2012. We address potential endogeneity and econometric drawbacks by means of the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood estimation methods. The results indicate that both the institutional conditions at destination and the institutional distance between exporting and importing countries are relevant factors for bilateral trade. Moreover, the effect associated with institutional conditions at destination moderately increases over time. This is a robust outcome across economic sectors, with higher values for agriculture and raw materials than for manufacturing and services.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Vaccination and GDP Growth Rates: Exploring the Links in a Conditional
           Convergence Framework
    • Authors: Neal A. Masia; Jonathan Smerling; Tendayi Kapfidze; Richard Manning; Mark Showalter
      Pages: 88 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Neal A. Masia, Jonathan Smerling, Tendayi Kapfidze, Richard Manning, Mark Showalter
      Vaccination rates vary significantly across countries, and the intensity of vaccination programs is a matter of public choice, infrastructure limitations, budget constraints, and many other factors. The link between better health and better economic performance is by now well established, and many vaccines have been shown to generate significant ROI in a classical cost-benefit framework. To our knowledge, the longer term macroeconomic benefits of improved vaccination programs have not been estimated. We modify the standard conditional convergence model to account for changes in vaccination rates across time and countries, and use the modified model to estimate the macroeconomic gains from improved vaccination rates, using the DTP vaccine as a proxy for vaccination programs generally. We find evidence to suggest economically and statistically significant and sustained increases in the GDP growth rate associated with lagged increases in vaccination rates; furthermore, we find these effects increasing over time. We find that investments of the sort made by the Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization (Gavi) are linked to measurably higher DTP rates, and we estimate the returns to such investments as at least 12:1. For countries on the threshold of graduating from Gavi, these results suggest that much is at stake: reducing investment in vaccination could reverse both the public health improvements and tangible economic benefits associated with ongoing improvements in vaccination rates.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.013
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Intra-household Behavioral Responses to Cash Transfer Programs. Evidence
           from a Regression Discontinuity Design
    • Authors: Marcelo Bergolo; Estefanía Galván
      Pages: 100 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Marcelo Bergolo, Estefanía Galván
      Considering two-parent households with children, this study investigates the behavioral responses of men and women to a cash transfer program in Uruguay – Asignaciones Familiares-Plan de Equidad (AFAM-PE). We examine its effect on labor market responses, marital dissolution, and the decision-making process regarding the use of money. The assignment mechanism to the AFAM-PE exogenously alters the distribution of non-labor income across applicant households by targeting the monetary transfer (usually) to the female spouse. Our identification strategy exploits both the female targeting and a discontinuity in eligibility for enrollment into the program. Based on a regression discontinuity design and on a follow-up survey matched with program’s administrative records, this study finds that the program has significant negative effects on the formality choice of women at the eligibility cut-off. These responses seem to be associated with a lower rate of moving from unregistered jobs to formality. We also find suggestive evidence that the program results in women taking greater (perceived) responsibility for decisions in specific spheres of household expenditures. This study, represents one of the first efforts to analyze the distributional effects of CCT programs on different couples members’ behavioral responses. It offers relevant considerations for the ongoing debate about the impacts of these kind of programs on women’s agency in developing countries, suggesting the need to discuss new designs for social assistance that reduce discouraging effects on formality.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.030
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Mobile Peoples, Contested Borders: Land use Conflicts and Resolution
           Mechanisms among Borana and Guji Communities, Southern Ethiopia
    • Authors: John G. McPeak; Peter D. Little
      Pages: 119 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): John G. McPeak, Peter D. Little
      The article explores the determinants of different types of land-use disputes and institutional mechanisms for their settlement in the agro-pastoral and pastoral areas of Borana and Guji zones, southern Ethiopia. The analysis uses both household survey and qualitative interview data to answer the following questions: (1) what are the effects of spatial location on types of land use disputes experienced by households; (2) what types of boundary/border disputes are experienced by pastoralists within and between different ethnic groups; (3) what are the principal social and economic determinants of land use disputes; and (4) what factors determine the level of satisfaction by different parties in dispute settlement' We show that despite widespread land use changes in the area and the emergence of private enclosures on communal grazing lands, disputes around administrative borders trump all other determinants of conflict. We also find significant spatial and scale differences in the incidence of conflict, and that different types of conflict are taken to different conflict resolution institutions. Along these lines we also demonstrate that overall conflict and dissatisfaction with conflict resolution outcomes are more pronounced among the more mobile, livestock-dependent segment of the population than other groups. Finally, the article highlights the importance of understanding political and historical factors related to land rights and disputes as necessary for proposed land tenure programs in the area.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Poor targeting: A gridded spatial analysis of the degree to which aid
           reaches the poor in Africa
    • Authors: Ryan C. Briggs
      Pages: 133 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Ryan C. Briggs
      The effects of most kinds of project aid decline over distance, so in order for aid to help the poor it must be targeted to the places where the poor live. This paper examines if aid from the World Bank and African Development Bank flows to the relatively poor within African countries. The unit of analysis is an approximately 50 km × 50 km cell that is tiled across the continent to form a grid of roughly 10,500 cells. I aggregate geotagged aid from each donor into the grid cells in three ways: a binary measure marking if a cell received any aid, the count of aid projects per cell, and each cell’s dollar value of aid. I operationalize poverty at the grid cell level in five ways: light at night, mean travel time from the cell to a major city, distance from the centroid of the cell to the recipient’s capital city, and cell-level estimates of child malnutrition and infant mortality. I test for the influence of each poverty variable in models that control for the population within each cell and include recipient country fixed effects. Aid flows to richer rather than poorer cells.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.020
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • The politics of local government performance: Elite cohesion and
           cross-village constraints in decentralized Senegal
    • Authors: Martha Wilfahrt
      Pages: 149 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Martha Wilfahrt
      The adoption of democratic decentralization across the developing world has been critiqued by scholars and practitioners for both macro-level institutional shortcomings and, on a more micro scale, for falling prey to elite capture. This article draws on interviews with over 350 local authorities in decentralized Senegal to call attention to a third level of analysis: the meso-level of the local state itself. Though local elites dominate positions of authority everywhere, the article argues that local government performance varies subnationally as a function of elites’ relations among each other across villages. Where denser cross-village social ties generate higher cohesion among elites, individual opportunism is constrained and local government performance improves. Where such cross-village relations are weaker, elites see local institutions as a zero-sum game among villages. The composition of local social relations, in other words, drives better or worse governance at the local level. Because West African cross-village relations are largely determined by historical settlement patterns, notably the presence or absence of a precolonial state, the article suggests that local political strategies are historically constrained. The link between history and local government performance documented here holds important implications for the nature of political representation and local development outcomes following the recent wave of democratic decentralization in sub-Saharan Africa.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Procedural Justice in Value Chains Through Public–private
           Partnerships
    • Authors: Jodie Thorpe
      Pages: 162 - 175
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Jodie Thorpe
      This paper is about making agricultural value chains work for smallholder farmers, and the way that governments can achieve this aim through public–private partnerships (PPPs). Applied to agricultural value chains, PPPs seek to catalyze new investments, support chain upgrading, or improve the performance of poorly functioning chains through joint activities that capitalize on the complementary resources and competencies of public and private partners. Smallholder farmers are frequently the intended beneficiaries. However, there is little understanding of how the terms of value chain participation affect farmer perceptions of and behavior within chains, or the role of the public sector in influencing these arrangements. This paper analyzes in-depth case studies from Ghana, Indonesia, Rwanda, and Uganda to better understand a surprising empirical finding: that farmers that experience strong PPP results in terms of productivity and incomes may nevertheless remain dissatisfied, while those experiencing much more modest gains can view the PPP favorably. At the heart is an analytical framework based on five attributes of “procedural justice”. It finds that public sector actors, through PPPs, are able to shape governance within value chains, influencing the relative skills, knowledge, and resources which different actors possess, the way that farmers are organized to engage in the value chain, and the attributes of procedural justice reflected in chain arrangements. Where procedural justice is weak, farmers are more likely to exit or neglect the arrangements, leaving the value chain underperforming with sub-optimal outcomes for all: for farmers, for lead firms, and for government agencies. Government involvement in value chains should be premised on facilitating relationships that are more procedurally just than those which would be expected to arise through the market alone.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Economic Status and Adult Mortality in India: Is the Relationship
           Sensitive to Choice of Indicators'
    • Authors: Debasis Barik; Sonalde Desai; Reeve Vanneman
      Pages: 176 - 187
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Debasis Barik, Sonalde Desai, Reeve Vanneman
      Research on economic status and adult mortality is often stymied by the reciprocity of this relationship and lack of clarity on which aspect of economic status matters. While financial resources increase access to healthcare and nutrition and reduce mortality, sickness also reduces labor force participation, thereby reducing income. Without longitudinal data, it is difficult to study the linkage between economic status and mortality. Using data from a national sample of 132,116 Indian adults aged 15 years and above, this paper examines their likelihood of death between wave 1 of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), conducted in 2004–05 and wave 2, conducted in 2011–12. The results show that mortality between the two waves is strongly linked to the economic status of the household at wave 1 regardless of the choice of indicator for economic status. However, negative relationship between economic status and mortality for individuals already suffering from cardiovascular and metabolic conditions varies between three markers of economic status—income, consumption, and ownership of consumer durables—reflecting two-way relationship between short- and long-term markers of economic status and morbidity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.018
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • The building of mining discourses and the politics of scale in Ecuador
    • Authors: Diana Vela-Almeida; Vijay Kolinjivadi; Nicolas Kosoy
      Pages: 188 - 198
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Diana Vela-Almeida, Vijay Kolinjivadi, Nicolas Kosoy
      In questioning the multiple positions of the stakeholders involved in the mining debate in Ecuador, this paper offers an analytical framework to uncover the ‘politics of scale’ of mining discourses. This is done by understanding how discourses are simultaneously structured, disassembled and restructured according to power relations among stakeholders involved in the mining debate. Q methodology is used as a tool to assess the subjective perceptions of key stakeholders regarding mining projects in the country. Results highlight four distinct discourses: (1) responsible extractivism; (2) local self-determination; (3) national economic development; and (4) local economic development. Discursive analyses suggest that mining positions are constructed to contest power in: decision-making, the enactment of values and rights, and the uneven distribution of economic benefits and socio-environmental burdens associated with mining. The analysis also offers insights for enhancing conflict-resolution and depicting the political complexity associated with structural power inequalities among actors implicated in mining conflicts in the country.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.025
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • The “Local Economy” Effect of Social Transfers: An Empirical
           Assessment of the Impact of the Bolsa Família Program on Local Productive
           Structure and Economic Growth
    • Authors: Eric Rougier; François Combarnous; Yves-André Fauré
      Pages: 199 - 215
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Eric Rougier, François Combarnous, Yves-André Fauré
      Social transfers impact local economic growth through local demand multiplier and local productive structures. Using original data on productive structures, growth determinants and Bolsa Familia conditional transfers (BFP) for the 184 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Ceará during 2003–10, we show that the positive impact of the transfers on local growth is in fact conditional on the direction of local economic structure transformation. Indeed, transfers did spur light manufacturing transformation activities only in the poorest and less-industrialized localities and did prompt informal activities in weakly productive services in all municipalities. Although we do not find support for the hypothesis of a redistribution trap, our estimations indicate that, on average, the growth impact of BFP transfers could have been twice as great during the period investigated in the absence of the adverse impact of social transfers on structural transformation. By promoting services and informal occupations, including in light manufacturing industries, the BFP could possibly cause a problem of job quality in the future. The medium-term impact of social transfers on poor regions’ local productive structures should therefore be more fully acknowledged by policymakers, notably by associating policies promoting the development and modernization of local productive structures with transfers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Competition or cooperation' Using team and tournament incentives for
           learning among female farmers in rural Uganda
    • Authors: Kathryn N. Vasilaky; Asif M. Islam
      Pages: 216 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Kathryn N. Vasilaky, Asif M. Islam
      This study explores the behavioral learning characteristics of smallholder female farmers in Uganda by quantifying the amount of information learned under different incentive schemes. The paper shows how competitive versus team incentives compare in motivating Ugandan farmers to learn and share information relevant to adopting a new agricultural technology. We find that tournament-based incentives provide greater outcomes in terms of total information learned than threshold-based team incentives. Furthermore the order of the incentive – whether the tournament precedes or follows the team incentive scheme – does not affect the volume of information learned. New information introduced between rounds was learned by more individuals under team incentives than under tournament incentives. The study provides direct practical policy recommendations for improving learning in the context of agriculture in Uganda.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.023
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Stigma of sexual violence and women’s decision to work
    • Authors: Tanika Chakraborty; Anirban Mukherjee; Swapnika Reddy Rachapalli; Sarani Saha
      Pages: 226 - 238
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Tanika Chakraborty, Anirban Mukherjee, Swapnika Reddy Rachapalli, Sarani Saha
      Our study is motivated by two disturbing evidences concerning women in India. On one hand, crime against women is on the rise while on the other, women’s labor force participation rate (WLFPR) has been declining over the last three decades. We estimate the extent to which the decline in WLFPR can be assigned to increasing instances of crime against women. We argue that an increase in crime against women, increases the non-pecuniary costs of traveling to work, particularly in a traditional society marked by stigma against victims of sexual crimes. Our findings suggest that women are less likely to work away from home in regions where the perceived threat of sexual harassment against girls is higher. The estimate is robust to various sensitivity checks. Moreover, the deterrence effect of crime responds to the opportunity cost of work on one hand and the stigma cost of sexual crimes on the other.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.031
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Can public works increase equilibrium wages' Evidence from India’s
           National Rural Employment Guarantee
    • Authors: Erlend Berg; Sambit Bhattacharyya; D. Rajasekhar; R. Manjula
      Pages: 239 - 254
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Erlend Berg, Sambit Bhattacharyya, D. Rajasekhar, R. Manjula
      We estimate the impact of the world’s largest public works program, India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), on agricultural wages. NREGS was rolled out across India in three distinct phases, and this phased introduction is used to identify difference-in-difference estimates of the program effect. Using monthly data on wage rates from the period 2000–2011 in 209 districts across 18 Indian states, we include district-specific fixed effects and trends to control for differences in wage rates in the absence of the program. We find that, on average, the program boosted the growth rate of real daily agricultural wages by 4.3% per year. The effect of the scheme is more consistent with an increase in the growth rate of wages than with a discontinuous jump in wages. The effect was concentrated in some states and in the agricultural peak season, appears to have been gender-neutral and was biased towards unskilled labor. Since many of the world’s poorest depend on casual agricultural labor for their livelihood, while at the same time minimum-wage legislation is unlikely to be effective in many developing countries, we argue that rural public employment programs constitute a potentially important anti-poverty policy tool.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.027
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Evaluating the impact of market-assisted land reform in Brazil
    • Authors: Dylan Fitz
      Pages: 255 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Dylan Fitz
      This paper evaluates the impact of land reforms on household agricultural investments, livelihood strategies, and income levels in Brazil. Given the persistence of rural poverty in Northeast Brazil and the existence of both land and credit market failures, land reforms remain important policy tools for alleviating poverty and increasing growth. This paper evaluates the impact of the recent National Program of Land Credit, a controversial market-assisted land reform program that provides access to land through private land markets. Household-level panel data covering similar beneficiary and control groups allows for identification using both propensity score weighting and difference-in-difference methodologies. The evidence indicates that the Land Credit successfully transitions households into agriculture, with land holdings and investments increasing as a result of the program. As with many earlier land reform programs in Latin America, the new wave of market-assisted land reforms does not increase access to private credit. While land reforms have the potential to drive redistribution, poverty reduction, and growth, these findings suggest that ensuring greater access to credit, irrigation, and higher return economic activities remains important.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • The role of land property rights in the war on illicit crops: Evidence
           from Colombia
    • Authors: Juan Carlos Muñoz-Mora; Santiago Tobón; Jesse Willem d’Anjou
      Pages: 268 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Juan Carlos Muñoz-Mora, Santiago Tobón, Jesse Willem d’Anjou
      This paper examines the effect of the formalization of land property rights in the war against illicit crops, using the case of Colombia. We argue that as a consequence of the increase in state presence and visibility, municipalities with a higher level of formalization of their land property rights witnessed a greater reduction in the area allocated to illicit crops. We hypothesize that this is due to the possibility of obtaining more benefits in the newly installed institutional environment when land is formalized, and the increased cost of growing illicit crops on formal relative to informal land. We find that a one-standard-deviation increase in the formality index for smallholders is related to a reduction in the share of municipal area allocated to coca crops of 0.101 percentage points. That is, the formalization of one additional hectare of land with respect to small landholders in an average municipality in the year 2000 is associated with a decrease of approximately 1.4 hectares of land allocated to coca within that particular municipality, ceteris paribus. These results remain robust to a number of sensitivity analyses. Our findings contribute to empirical evidence on the positive effects of formal land property rights and effective policies in the war on drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.021
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Public Policy Reform and Informal Institutions: The Political Articulation
           of the Demand for Work in Rural India
    • Authors: Thibaud Marcesse
      Pages: 284 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Thibaud Marcesse
      The emphasis on rights that individual citizens can claim from the state represents a significant institutional development for poverty alleviation policies. In India, important legislation was passed in 2005 to guarantee rural households 100 days of work paid at a statutory wage rate. This Right to Work legislation has enabled the implementation of the world’s largest public works program—the “Mahatma Gandhi” National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme or NREGS. This study explores variation in policy outcomes under NREGS within a rural district of North India (Uttar Pradesh). It finds that this variation is the product of the interaction between formal and informal institutions. As such, the demand for work benefits does not emerge spontaneously from self-selecting rural citizens, but is articulated by local elected officials who are pressurised to accommodate demands for rents from the bureaucracy. Specifically, local elected officials are compelled to proceed to a selective activation of the demand for benefits to ensure the generation of a surplus which will form the basis of bureaucratic rent payments. The study relies on qualitative data, specifically interviews with past beneficiaries of the scheme, bureaucrats tasked with policy implementation, and elected village leaders (the Gram Pradhans in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh) to document the conditions under which a surplus is extracted and rent payments made. The study shows that caste and political leadership structures at the local level affect the generation of surpluses and the payment of rents by Gram Pradhans to the bureaucracy. While the Right to Work legislation represents progress for poverty alleviation, policies such as NREGS that emphasize rights and the expression of a demand for benefits need to consider more carefully the conditions under which this demand emerges as well as the ways in which discretionary authority can thwart the goals of public policy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.024
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Are we underestimating urban poverty'
    • Authors: Paula Lucci; Tanvi Bhatkal; Amina Khan
      Pages: 297 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): Paula Lucci, Tanvi Bhatkal, Amina Khan
      Data collection methods and poverty measures have not caught up with the reality of an increasingly urbanised world; as a result, urban poverty may be underestimated. This has important implications for targeting interventions and allocating resources in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Several problems affect the measurement of urban poverty: definitions of ‘slum’ settlements vary widely, data collection may undercount slum populations, insufficient data disaggregation may conceal intra-city disparities, and common indicators and assumptions may be ill-suited to assessing both income and multidimensional poverty in urban contexts. However, not enough is known about the extent to which these issues affect the resulting estimates. This paper contributes to the existing literature by illustrating the scale of the bias associated with common practices in measuring urban poverty at different stages of the production of poverty estimates. The analysis draws on selected examples in the literature alongside new analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Household Income and Expenditure Surveys. The article also provides recommendations on how to address each of these problems to improve urban poverty measurement.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.022
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Fertility, household size and poverty in Nepal
    • Authors: François Libois; Vincent Somville
      Pages: 311 - 322
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 103
      Author(s): François Libois, Vincent Somville
      Population control policies keep attracting attention: by increasing the household size, having more children would directly contribute to a household’s poverty. Using nationally representative household level data from Nepal, we investigate the links between a household’s fertility decisions and variations in their size and composition. We show that the relationship between number of births and household size is positive when the mothers are young, but becomes negative as the mothers grow older. Elderly couples who had fewer children host, on average, more relatives who are outside the immediate family unit. This result sheds light on the heterogeneous relation between the number of children and household size over the life cycle. It also implies that reductions in a household’s fertility may have an ambiguous impact on its per capita consumption, which depends on how the household’s composition responds to new births and changes over time: in this sample, an old household’s per capita consumption is not affected by the number of births. We use the gender of the first-born child to instrument the total number of consecutive children.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 103 (2017)
       
  • Does Social Health Insurance Reduce Financial Burden' Panel Data
           Evidence from India
    • Authors: Mehtabul Azam
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Mehtabul Azam
      Indian government launched the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), a national health insurance scheme, in 2008 that provides cashless health services to poor households in India. We evaluate the impact of RSBY on RSBY beneficiary households’ (average treatment impact on treated, ATT) utilization of health services, per capita out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, and per patient OOP expenditure on major morbidities. To address the issue of non-randomness in enrollment into the scheme, we exploit the longitudinal aspect of a large nationally representative household survey data to implement difference-in-differences with matching. We find that RSBY beneficiary households are more likely to report and receive treatment for long-term morbidity in rural areas; however, the differences in reporting and treatment of long-term morbidity is not statistically significant in urban areas. We do not find strong evidence that the RSBY reduced per person OOP expenditure for RSBY beneficiary households in both rural and urban areas. Conditional on having received medical treatment, we find that RSBY beneficiary patient spend less on medicine in rural areas but no statistically significant impact in urban areas. We also conduct a placebo experiment to support the parallel trend assumption of DID.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Balance of Power, Domestic Violence, and Health Injuries: Evidence from
           Demographic and Health Survey of Nepal
    • Authors: Soumi Roy Chowdhury; Alok K. Bohara; Brady P. Horn
      Pages: 18 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Soumi Roy Chowdhury, Alok K. Bohara, Brady P. Horn
      A large literature has documented a complex and interdependent relationship between domestic violence, women empowerment, domestic risk factors, and violence-related health injuries. In this paper, we evaluate this relationship using data drawn from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. We simultaneously estimate the impact of women empowerment and domestic risk factors on domestic violence, and the impact of domestic violence on health consequences. Specifically, an IV ordered probit regression strategy is used, which addresses both the endogenous nature of domestic violence and the ordinal nature of health outcome variables. Our study finds evidence that it is not the autonomous power of women, but a cooperative decision-making environment in a marital relationship that reduces violence. Additionally, education decreases domestic violence and domestic risk factors, including alcohol and multiple unions exacerbate domestic violence. Finally, in terms of adverse health outcomes, we find that domestic violence has a non-linear impact on health injuries. At low levels of violence, the likelihood of injuries is low and injuries are generally not threatening, and as the level of violence increases, it considerably increases the probability of multiple and more serious health injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Limitations of Contract Farming as a Pro-poor Strategy: The Case of Maize
           Outgrower Schemes in Upper West Ghana
    • Authors: Catherine Ragasa; Isabel Lambrecht; Doreen S. Kufoalor
      Pages: 30 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Catherine Ragasa, Isabel Lambrecht, Doreen S. Kufoalor
      Contract farming (CF) arrangements have the potential to address market failures and improve technology adoption, productivity, and welfare. In Ghana, government and donors use CF as a strategy for increasing adoption of new agricultural technologies and developing value chains. Yet to date, there has not been a rigorous assessment of these CF schemes. The focus in this paper is on different maize-based CF schemes in the poorest and most remote region in Ghana. It assesses the profitability and potential impact of these CF schemes, utilizing a unique plot-level dataset that covers two periods of data and two maize plots (scheme and non-scheme) per household, and employing matching techniques and an instrumental variable approach to address selection bias and unobserved heterogeneity across farmers. These are complemented by a community-level survey, in-depth interviews with scheme operators, and a series of key informant interviews. Results show that these schemes led to improved technology adoption and yield increases. In addition, a subset of maize farmers with high yield improvements due to CF participation have high profits. Maize CF schemes also enabled market coordination and consistent supply of quality maize to downstream industries. However, on average, the impact of the CF schemes on profitability is negative, even when input diversion is accounted for. Yield increases are not high enough to compensate for higher input requirements and the cost of capital under the schemes. Despite higher yields, the costs to produce one metric tonne of maize under CF schemes are higher than on maize farms without CF schemes, twice that of several countries in Africa, and more than seven times higher than that of major maize-exporting countries (the United States, Brazil, and Argentina). Sustainability of these CF schemes will largely depend on developing and promoting much-improved varieties and technologies that boost yields in order to compensate for the high input and credit costs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T18:33:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Local Institutional Responses to Global Market Pressures: The Sea Cucumber
           Trade in Yucatán, Mexico
    • Authors: Abigail Bennett; Xavier Basurto
      Pages: 57 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Abigail Bennett, Xavier Basurto
      The expansion of global seafood trade creates opportunities as well as risks for small-scale fisheries (SSFs) livelihoods. Markets provide economic opportunity, but without effective governance, high demand can drive resource degradation. In the context of small-scale sea cucumber fisheries in Yucatán, Mexico, this study documents local governance responses to new markets and identifies factors driving those responses. We conducted a comparative case study of two SSF communities, collecting participant observation and interview data during 16months of fieldwork. Our study found that local rules-in-use did not match government regulations and that the emergence of local rules was shaped by relations of production in each study site. Specifically, patron–client relationships promoted an open access regime that expanded local fishing fleets while fishing cooperatives attempted to restrict access to local fishing grounds through collective action and multi-level linkages with government. We propose that the different material incentives arising from the way that patron–client relationships and cooperatives organize labor, capital, and profits help explain these divergent governance responses. We hypothesize that this finding is generalizable beyond the study context, especially given that patron–client relationships and cooperatives are common throughout the world’s SSFs. This finding builds on previous research that indicates local institutions can mediate the effects of market pressures, showing that the emergence of local rules depends on how resource users are organized not just in relation to resource governance but vis-à-vis the markets themselves. Therefore, effective policies for SSFs facing market pressures require a greater emphasis on regulating local-level trade and governing the commercial aspects of fishing livelihoods. These lessons are relevant to the estimated 540 million individuals whose livelihoods SSFs support who may increasingly engage in the global seafood trade.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T02:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • The Impact of Financial Education for Youth in Ghana
    • Authors: James Berry; Dean Karlan; Menno Pradhan
      Pages: 71 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): James Berry, Dean Karlan, Menno Pradhan
      Governments and non-governmental organizations promote school-based financial literacy programs as means to instill financial behaviors that can persist through adulthood. We conduct a randomized trial of two financial literacy education programs in government-run Ghanaian primary and junior high schools. The first integrated both financial and social education, while the second included only financial education. Our study finds that after nine months, both programs had positive impacts on self-reported savings at school relative to the control group, but there were no statistically significant increases in aggregate savings nor in hypothesized mechanisms such as attitudes, preferences, or knowledge. The financial education-only treatment led to a weakly statistically significant increase in child labor relative to the control group, although the difference in impact between the two treatment groups was not statistically significant. The lack of short-term effects of these programs on financial behaviors and attitudes indicate that alternative program designs should be evaluated to understand whether and how these outcomes can be influenced among students in this age group.

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T02:33:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Can Developing Countries Gain from Defying Comparative Advantage'
           Distance to Comparative Advantage, Export Diversification and
           Sophistication, and the Dynamics of Specialization
    • Authors: Pauline Lectard; Eric Rougier
      Pages: 90 - 110
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Pauline Lectard, Eric Rougier
      Since the 1990’s, developing countries have tried to promote export diversification and sophistication, notably by attracting vertical FDI and by supporting the emergence of new industries whose factor content is distant from the country’s endowment. We investigate whether defying comparative advantage has prompted a more sophisticated and diversified export basket in a large panel of countries over the period 1992–2012. We find that developing countries that defy their comparative advantage tend to export more manufactured items and manufacturing goods that are more sophisticated. As for export diversification, the impact is heterogeneous across development levels: although defying comparative advantage seems to help diversify the export baskets of middle-income and resource-rich countries, it tends to concentrate those of lower-income economies. Moreover, we find that the impact of the distance to comparative advantage on productive transformation is strongly conditioned by the size of FDI stocks and by the country’s specialization in the lower added-value productive tasks of global value chains (GVCs). More specifically, our results suggest that defying comparative advantage by attracting FDI may be a dangerous strategy in the long-term since it tends to bring only partial and artefact industrialization, with manufacturing exports increasing while the manufacturing value-added actually decreases.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Unpacking the Relationship between Outward Direct Investment and
           Innovation Performance: Evidence from Chinese firms
    • Authors: Xiaolan Fu; Jun Hou; Xiaohui Liu
      Pages: 111 - 123
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Xiaolan Fu, Jun Hou, Xiaohui Liu
      This study investigates the impact of outward direct investment (ODI) by Chinese MNEs on innovation performance and the conditions under which such an impact is moderated, based on a sample of Chinese firms. The empirical evidence suggests that undertaking ODI leads to an increase in the innovation performance of these Chinese firms. The impact of ODI on innovation is contingent on firm characteristics such as in-house R&D, strategic orientation, and international experiences as well as contextual factors associated with investment destinations and industry contexts. We also find that learning through ODI is a complex process. There is a substitution between ODI and in-house R&D in Chinese MNEs. Our findings suggest that conducting ODI in developed countries serves as an effective channel for latecomer firms to overcome internal resource constraints and leapfrog toward the technology frontier.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.021
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Women’s Age at First Marriage and Long-Term Economic Empowerment in
           Egypt
    • Authors: Kathryn M. Yount; AliceAnn Crandall; Yuk Fai Cheong
      Pages: 124 - 134
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Kathryn M. Yount, AliceAnn Crandall, Yuk Fai Cheong
      Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 calls on nations to promote gender equality and to empower women and girls. SDG5 also recognizes the value of women’s economic empowerment, entailing equal rights to economic resources and full participation at all levels in economic decisions. Also according to SDG5, eliminating harmful practices—such as child marriage before age 18—is a prerequisite for women’s economic empowerment. Using national data for 4,129 married women 15–43years who took part in the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS 1998–2012), we performed autoregressive, cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether women’s first marriage in adulthood (at 18years or older, as reported in 2006), was positively associated with their long-term post-marital economic empowerment, measured as their engagement in market work and latent family economic agency in 2012. Women’s first marriage in adulthood had positive unadjusted associations with their market work and family economic agency in 2012. These associations persisted after accounting for market work and family economic agency in 2006, pre-marital resources for empowerment, and cumulative fertility. Policies to discourage child marriage may show promise to enhance women’s long-term post-marital economic empowerment.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.013
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Beyond the Short versus Long Accountability Route Dichotomy: Using
           Multi-track Accountability Pathways to Study Performance of Rural Water
           Services in Uganda
    • Authors: Sara Dewachter; Nathalie Holvoet; Miet Kuppens; Nadia Molenaers
      Pages: 158 - 169
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Sara Dewachter, Nathalie Holvoet, Miet Kuppens, Nadia Molenaers
      Performance of social service delivery is often linked with effective accountability. Accountability studies increasingly acknowledge that studying one type of accountability relation at a time is too restrictive. Our study aims to correct for this and explores the effectiveness of combinations of different accountability mechanisms. We take the World Development Report’s accountability triangle as a starting point and adapt it in three ways. First, we refine the long route to accountability into three tracks by differentiating between the three groups of demand side actors; political accountability (opposition), citizen-led, and civil-society-led social accountability. Second, for each track we take into account the demand and supply side and the availability of supply–demand interfaces. Finally, we adopt a holistic approach through the simultaneous incorporation of both the short and long (with the different tracks) routes. To test its usefulness, we use our refined accountability framework to study the accountability constellations and their link to performance in Uganda’s rural water sector. Building on QCA, our findings identify the long three track route (supply—interface—all three demand actors) and the citizen-led social accountability route as viable routes to high water service performance in Ugandan districts. Additionally, a set of new hybrid accountability arrangements are identified while—contrary to theoretical assumptions—the short route (clients to service providers) does not prove effective.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Is the Informal Sector Politically Different' (Null) Answers from
           Latin America
    • Authors: Andy Baker; Vania Ximena Velasco-Guachalla
      Pages: 170 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Andy Baker, Vania Ximena Velasco-Guachalla
      Scholars have produced a limited understanding of the effect of informal labor status on a worker’s political attitudes and behavior. We present descriptive evidence on the micropolitical correlates of informality using direct measures of the concept in public opinion surveys from 18 Latin American countries. We test three scholarly impressions of informal workers—that they are less politically engaged, more right-leaning, and more favorable toward noncontributory social programs than formal-sector workers. These are grounded in a dualist conception of labor markets that views the formal and informal sectors as having little overlap. We find minimal evidence for these impressions and argue that recent empirical findings consistent with a revisionist view of informality better account for our null results. According to this view, informal and formal labor markets are highly integrated, which, we argue, melds together the economic interests and political preferences of individuals in both sectors. We also provide evidence that casts doubt on alternative explanations that would attribute our null results to the timing of our surveys, to arational sources of political behavior, or to measurement error.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Bamboo Beating Bandits: Conflict, Inequality, and Vulnerability in the
           Political Ecology of Climate Change Adaptation in Bangladesh
    • Authors: Benjamin K. Sovacool
      Pages: 183 - 194
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Benjamin K. Sovacool
      Bangladesh contributes little to global greenhouse gas emissions, yet it is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Based on semi-structured research interviews as a conduit to a literature review, this paper shows how the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment impede the vitality of its climate change adaptation efforts. Enclosure refers to when adaptation projects transfer public assets into private hands or expand the roles of private actors into the public sphere. Exclusion refers to when adaptation projects limit access to resources or marginalize particular stakeholders in decision-making activities. Encroachment refers to when adaptation projects intrude on biodiversity areas or contribute to other forms of environmental degradation. Entrenchment refers to when adaptation projects aggravate the disempowerment of women and minorities, or worsen concentrations of wealth and income inequality within a community. In the case of Bangladeshi, climate change policies implemented under the country’s National Adaptation Program of Action have enabled elites to capture land through public servants, the military, and even gangs carrying bamboo sticks. Exclusionary forms of adaptation planning exist at both the national and local scales. Climate protection measures have encroached upon village property, char (public) land, forests, farms, and other public commons. Most egregiously, community coping strategies for climate change have entrenched class and ethnic hierarchies ultimately trapping the poor, powerless, and displaced into a predatory patronage system that can aggravate human insecurity and intensify violent conflict. Planners and practitioners of adaptation need to become more cognizant of the potential for projects to harm others, or admit complicity in the processes of enclosure, exclusion, encroachment, and entrenchment, if they are ever to be eliminated.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.10.014
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • The Role of Fairtrade Certification for Wages and Job Satisfaction of
           Plantation Workers
    • Authors: Katharina Krumbiegel; Miet Maertens; Meike Wollni
      Pages: 195 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Katharina Krumbiegel, Miet Maertens, Meike Wollni
      Worker welfare and employment conditions in the agri-food-producing and processing sectors in the global south have become an increasing concern for consumers. Sustainability standards, such as Fairtrade, play an important role in agri-food markets of horticultural produce and may be a tool to address these concerns. However, so far the implications of Fairtrade certification for extrinsic and intrinsic employment factors of hired labor on large-scale plantations remain hardly understood. In this paper we assess its effect on workers’ hourly wages and their level of job satisfaction with primary survey data from 325 randomly sampled workers from eight different export-oriented pineapple companies in Ghana. We apply a linear, linear mixed model, and instrumental variable approach to take into account the multilevel characteristics of our data and possible selection bias. Our findings show that both hourly wages and job satisfaction are indeed higher on Fairtrade-certified plantations. Factors of increased job satisfaction are likely driven by higher wages, permanent employment contracts, training opportunities, company services such as medical care and paid leave as well as established labor unions on Fairtrade-certified plantations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.020
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Fisheries’ Property Regimes and Environmental Outcomes: A Realist
           Synthesis Review
    • Authors: Rebecca McLain; Steven Lawry; Maria Ojanen
      Pages: 213 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Rebecca McLain, Steven Lawry, Maria Ojanen
      Our paper describes the application of a realist approach to synthesizing evidence from 31 articles examining the environmental outcomes of marine protected areas governed under different types of property regimes. The development of resource tenure interventions that promote sustainable management practices has been challenged by the difficulties of determining how contextual factors affect environmental outcomes given the complexity of socio-ecological systems. Realist synthesis is a promising evidence review technique for identifying the mechanisms that influence policy intervention outcomes in complex systems. Through a combination of inductive and deductive analysis of the links between context, mechanisms, and outcomes, realist synthesis can help clarify when, how, where, and why property regime interventions are likely to result in positive environmental outcomes. Our study revealed the importance of disaggregating property regimes into sub-categories, rather than treating them as homogenous categories. More importantly, use of a realist synthesis approach allowed us to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which three mechanisms—perceptions of legitimacy, perceptions of the likelihood of benefits, and perceptions of enforcement capacity—interact under different socio-ecological contexts to trigger behavioral changes that affect environmental conditions. The approach revealed the multi-faceted and interactive nature of perceptions of legitimacy, in which legal legitimacy, social acceptability, and ecological credibility combined to create robust legitimacy. The existence of robust legitimacy in turn appeared to be an important contributor to the success of regulatory systems reliant on voluntary compliance. Our study contributes to the field of natural resources governance by demonstrating the utility of a systematic review method which has received little attention by property scholars but which has promise to clarify understanding of how complex systems work. Our study also highlights that achieving long-term sustainability requires paying greater attention to the mechanisms that support or undermine people’s willingness to voluntarily engage in conservation behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Temporal Stability of Risk Attitudes and the Impact of Adverse Shocks—A
           Panel Data Analysis from Thailand and Vietnam
    • Authors: Sabine Liebenehm
      Pages: 262 - 274
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Sabine Liebenehm
      Exogenous negative shocks and intrinsic risk attitudes are two important elements characterizing the vicious cycle of poverty associated with rural households in developing countries. Recent empirical studies suggest that adverse shocks—a key driver of poverty—can trigger substantial changes in the risk attitudes of poor people, leading to decisions that perpetuate their lives in poverty. Although the temporal variability of risk attitudes is a controversial topic, the literature advocating the temporal variability of risk attitudes suggests that covariate shocks, such as natural disasters, alter risk attitudes over time, whereas idiosyncratic shocks show no such significant impact. This paper aims to test the temporal stability of risk attitudes in rural households in Thailand and Vietnam to determine whether this pattern—covariate shocks that affect risk attitudes and idiosyncratic shocks that do not—can be confirmed for these households. I use an exogenous measure of shocks to explain temporal variation in risk attitudes. Thus, I estimate variation in consumption using a multilevel model in which variation in consumption at the individual level serves as a proxy for idiosyncratic shocks, while variation in consumption at the aggregate level is used to measure covariate shocks. My study finds temporal variability in risk attitudes that is driven by covariate shocks in Vietnam and—in contrast to past research—by idiosyncratic shocks in Thailand. The results suggest that Vietnamese respondents may be better in insuring idiosyncratic risks for example through safety nets, while mutual insurance across individuals does not seem to work well in Thailand. In addition, results indicate that the mutual insurance problem in Thailand seems to increase in wealth. The differences that I find between Thailand and Vietnam and across poverty types correspond to the difference in political systems and consequently the focus of socio-political measures. Thailand’s recent political volatility and the growing lack of social cohesion in Thai society support these findings.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.020
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • All that Glitters is not Gold: Polarization Amid Poverty Reduction in
           Ghana
    • Authors: Fabio Clementi; Vasco Molini; Francesco Schettino
      Pages: 275 - 291
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Fabio Clementi, Vasco Molini, Francesco Schettino
      Ghana is an exceptional case in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) landscape. Together with a handful of other countries, Ghana offers the opportunity to analyze the distributional changes in the past two decades, since four comparable household surveys are available. In addition, unlike many other countries in SSA, Ghana’s rapid growth translated into fast poverty reduction. A closer look at the distributional changes that occurred in the same period, however, suggests less optimism. The present paper develops an innovative methodology to analyze the distributional changes that occurred and their drivers, with a high degree of accuracy and granularity. Looking at the results from 1991 to 2012, the paper documents how the distributional changes over time hollowed out the middle of the Ghanaian household consumption distribution and increased the concentration of households around the highest and lowest deciles; there was a clear surge in polarization indeed. When looking at the drivers of polarization, household characteristics, educational attainment, and access to basic infrastructure all tended to increase over time the size of the upper and lower tails of the consumption distribution and, as a consequence, the degree of polarization.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.019
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Supermarket Shopping and Nutritional Outcomes: A Panel Data Analysis for
           Urban Kenya
    • Authors: Kathrin M. Demmler; Olivier Ecker; Matin Qaim
      Pages: 292 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Kathrin M. Demmler, Olivier Ecker, Matin Qaim
      Overweight and obesity are growing health problems in many developing countries. Rising obesity rates are the result of changes in people’s diets and lifestyles. Income growth and urbanization are factors that contribute to these changes. Modernizing food retail environments may also play a certain role. For instance, the rapid spread of supermarkets in many developing countries could affect consumer food choices and thus nutritional outcomes. However, concrete evidence about the effects of supermarkets on consumer diets and nutrition is thin. A few existing studies have analyzed related linkages with cross-sectional survey data. We add to this literature by using panel data from households and individuals in urban Kenya. Employing panel regression models with individual fixed effects and controlling for other factors we show that shopping in supermarkets significantly increases body mass index (BMI). We also analyze impact pathways. Shopping in supermarkets contributes to higher consumption of processed and highly processed foods and lower consumption of unprocessed foods. These results confirm that the retail environment affects people’s food choices and nutrition. However, the effects depend on the types of foods offered. Rather than thwarting modernization in the retail sector, policies that incentivize the sale of more healthy foods—such as fruits and vegetables—in supermarkets may be more promising to promote desirable nutritional outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Editorial Advisory Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102


      PubDate: 2017-11-17T12:16:27Z
       
  • The Consequences of Legal Minimum Wages in Honduras
    • Authors: Ham
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Andrés Ham
      Minimum wage policies are implemented in most developing countries, so understanding their consequences is critical to determine their effectiveness. This paper quantifies the labor market and poverty effects of Honduran minimum wages from 2005 to 2012. Using 13 household surveys as repeated cross-sections, I estimate the net effects of minimum wage hikes using variation from annual reforms to multiple minimum wages, a 60% increase, and changes in the number of minimum wage categories. Evidence shows that employers are partially complying with minimum wage laws, and respond to hikes by increasing their level of non-compliance. Higher minimum wages reduce covered (formal) employment and increase uncovered (informal) employment. Formal sector wages increase but greater labor supply in the informal sector leads to a negative net effect on wages. This last result is often empirically ambiguous, although consistent with the dual-sector minimum wage model. I find no evidence that minimum wages reduce extreme or moderate poverty.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T15:37:28Z
       
 
 
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