for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Journal Cover World Development
  [SJR: 2.1]   [H-I: 122]   [143 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-750X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Synergy and Learning Effects of Informal Labor-Sharing Arrangements
    • Authors: Dawit K. Mekonnen; Jeffrey H. Dorfman
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Dawit K. Mekonnen, Jeffrey H. Dorfman
      We study the effects of informal labor-sharing arrangements and other social interactions on farmers’ productivity in a developing country context, testing whether these types of social and work interactions lead to productivity gains through learning, synergy, or both. Using a rich panel data set of Ethiopian subsistence farmers, we estimate a distance function of grains production and find large productivity gains (approximately 33% and 29% in 1999 and 2004) from labor sharing due to synergy effects that boost labor productivity. However, labor sharing does not lead to learning as the productivity gains observed in years with labor sharing disappear in following years if the farmers do not continue to engage in labor sharing. Labor-sharing partners are either neighbors, relatives, members of the same funeral and religious associations, or have plots next to each other, which together reduce labor sharing as a single venue for learning. However, the synergy effect is strong enough to warrant the design of extension and outreach policies that recognize and utilize farmers’ informal social networks such as labor-sharing arrangements.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • The Effect of Intellectual Property Rights on Domestic Innovation in the
           Pharmaceutical Sector
    • Authors: Simona Gamba
      Pages: 15 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Simona Gamba
      There is little empirical evidence concerning the effect of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protecting pharmaceutical products and processes on pharmaceutical domestic innovation. Indeed, existing literature does not provide a punctual estimate of this effect for developing countries. This paper fills this gap, by exploiting a self-constructed dataset which provides, for a 22-year period, information concerning IPR reforms involving pharmaceuticals for 74 developed and developing countries. The identification strategy exploits the different timing across these countries of two sets of IPR reforms. Domestic innovation is measured as citation-weighted domestic patent applications filed at the European Patent Office (EPO): the highly skewed distribution of the dependent variable, and the high number of zero observations, are taken into account using count data models. In particular, a Zero Inflated Negative Binomial model is adopted, to overcome previous literature assumption that all innovations are patented in the main markets of reference, and to take into consideration the choice not to patent at the EPO. Results show that innovation is sensitive to IPR protection, but not to its degree. Moreover, the effect is not long lasting. My study also finds that developing countries profit significantly less than developed ones from the protection, benefiting from an effect that is roughly half of that for developed countries. Consequent policy implications are examined, and include the conclusions that a “one size fits all” approach can be inappropriate, and that gradual reforms should be preferred to rare reforms that greatly alter the level of IPR protection.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Women’s Worldwide Education–employment Connection: A Multilevel
           Analysis of the Moderating Impact of Economic, Political, and Cultural
           Contexts
    • Authors: Carlijn Bussemakers; Kars van Oosterhout; Gerbert Kraaykamp; Niels Spierings
      Pages: 28 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Carlijn Bussemakers, Kars van Oosterhout, Gerbert Kraaykamp, Niels Spierings
      Education is a core driver of female employment and empowerment all over the world. As development studies have shown, the strength of this educational effect however varies considerably across countries. Theoretically, we employ mechanisms from human capital theory and modernization theory that explicate the education–employment link. Next, insights from the gender and development approach lead us to hypothesize how economic, political, and socio-cultural features of countries might moderate this effect of educational attainment. Using World Values Survey data on women surveyed in 139 country–year combinations, we empirically test whether and how a country’s labor market structure, social policy, and gender norms condition the influence of women’s education attainment on employment. Employing multilevel logistic regression models with cross-level interactions, our results indicate that in countries where service sector jobs are relatively scarce, having a higher education is more important for women to get a job; it seems that highereducated women push lowereducated women out of employment under those circumstances. Most importantly, women’s educational attainment makes more of a difference in countries with conservative gender norms; in these countries women’s employment is considerably lower than in more liberal countries, but to a lesser extent for higher educated women.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Natural Resource Management and Household Well-being: The Case of POSAF-II
           in Nicaragua
    • Authors: Luis A. De los Santos-Montero; Boris E. Bravo-Ureta
      Pages: 42 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Luis A. De los Santos-Montero, Boris E. Bravo-Ureta
      Measuring the impact of natural resource programs is a key element in the formulation and implementation of policies designed to promote farm income while enhancing the quality of the surrounding environment. In this paper, we analyze the economic impact of natural resource technologies delivered by the Socio-environmental and Forestry Development Program-II (POSAF-II) in Nicaragua. We use cross-sectional data for 1,483 households, from 212 treated and control communities. Results obtained from propensity score matching (PSM), ordinary least squares (OLS), weighted least squares regression (WLS) based on PSM, and instrumental variables (IV) regression indicate that POSAF-II has had a positive impact on the total value of agricultural production of beneficiary farmers. An internal rate of return analysis supports the hypothesis that increasing household income while encouraging the sustainable use of natural resources through the implementation of suitable management programs can be complementary development objectives.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Profits from Peace: The Political Economy of Power-Sharing and Corruption
    • Authors: Felix Haass; Martin Ottmann
      Pages: 60 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Felix Haass, Martin Ottmann
      Does power-sharing drive corruption in post-conflict countries' We conceptualize government elites in any post-conflict situation as rent-seeking agents who need to ensure the support of their key constituencies to remain in power. Power-sharing institutions—especially cabinet-level, executive power-sharing institutions—systematically shape these rent-seeking motives. Power-sharing cabinets create political coalitions dominated by small circles of government and rebel elites with direct access to state resources and low levels of loyalty toward the government leader. Also, the provisional nature of many power-sharing institutions increases rent-seeking incentives: facing a limited time horizon in office, rent-seeking elites within the power-sharing coalition are likely to capture as many rents as possible before they have to leave office. Thus, post-conflict countries with power-sharing institutions should exhibit higher aggregated levels of rent-seeking measured as the level of corruption in a country. In a statistical analysis of all post-conflict situations during 1996–2010, we find that power-sharing cabinets substantively increase corruption in post-conflict countries and that this effect is stronger in the presence of natural resource rents. These findings add quantitative evidence to the debate about drivers of post-conflict corruption. Moreover, they highlight a trade-off between short-term stability and long-term negative effects of corruption for post-conflict political and economic development.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Innovation, Public Support, and Productivity in Colombia. A Cross-industry
           Comparison
    • Authors: Isabel Busom; Jorge Andrés Vélez-Ospina
      Pages: 75 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Isabel Busom, Jorge Andrés Vélez-Ospina
      We investigate the association between perceived barriers to innovation and the allocation of public support for innovation in manufacturing and service industries in Colombia, as well as the potential heterogeneity of returns to innovation across the firm-level productivity distribution. Extending the CDM recursive system, we include an equation for the allocation of direct support and use quantile regression methods to estimate the productivity equation. We find some differences across manufacturing and service industries. Financing constraints are correlated with obtaining public support in manufacturing and in some services, but in knowledge-intensive services (KIS) barriers associated with regulations are more significant. The introduction of innovations increases mostly the productivity of firms below the median of the productivity distribution, especially in services. Increasing human capital would boost productivity of firms in all industries, providing support to the hypothesis that human capital is indeed a bottleneck for productivity growth across the board in Colombia. We conclude that addressing factors that hinder innovation by low-productivity firms in all service industries could significantly contribute to increasing productivity and reduce its dispersion.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Engaging Development and Religion: Methodological Groundings
    • Authors: Séverine Deneulin; Augusto Zampini-Davies
      Pages: 110 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Séverine Deneulin, Augusto Zampini-Davies
      Religion is no longer a neglected dimension in development studies. Not only has the literature on religion and development blossomed over the last decade, but partnerships between international development institutions and faith communities have also multiplied. Yet, little is said about how such engagement is to take place beyond reference to general principles, and beyond the instrumental use of religion for achieving pre-determined international development goals. The aim of the paper is to propose some methodological grounding for engaging development and religion at the normative level. It does so on the basis of Amartya Sen’s capability approach and Pope Francis’s encyclical Laudato Si’: On Care of Our Common Home. Although the latter is written by the global Catholic leader, it is addressed to every human being and urges a redefinition of the meaning of development. Our paper argues that the encyclical contains a potentially fruitful methodological proposal for engaging development and religion. We analyze how such a methodology has been applied in an exercise by the UK Catholic Agency for Overseas Development (CAFOD) to facilitate a global dialogue on development and religion in different geographical contexts. After addressing some of the limits of the methodology of Laudato Si’, we examine how Sen’s normative conceptualization of development and methodological proposal toward dialogue and reason about values—including religious ones—could complement some religious approaches and methodologies, such as in Laudato Si’, to yield innovative proposals for engaging development and religion.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Pro-poor Land Transfers and the Importance of Land Abundance and Ethnicity
           in The Gambia
    • Authors: Ulrik Beck; Benedikte Bjerge
      Pages: 122 - 140
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Ulrik Beck, Benedikte Bjerge
      We ask whether there is empirical evidence that supports the existence of norm-based access rules that give poor households access to important production resources. A substantial literature has investigated informal insurance schemes, which trigger supporting exchanges after negative shocks have occurred. This paper is instead concerned with material exchanges that take place before shocks occur, which has received far less attention in the economic literature. We employ a dataset of 51 rural villages in The Gambia, and we focus on access to the most important production resource in our context—land. We find that poor households are more likely to receive seasonal land usage rights. We also show that these exchanges are more likely to occur in villages where land is abundant and where ethnic fractionalization is low. We argue that this is consistent with the existing qualitative evidence, which argues that informal exchange is thought to be disappearing due to population increases and ethnic fractionalization. Our findings highlight the importance of attention to the local (i.e., village-level) context for assessing welfare and conducting effective policy.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.013
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Legal Empowerment and Social Accountability: Complementary Strategies
           Toward Rights-based Development in Health'
    • Authors: Anuradha Joshi
      Pages: 160 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Anuradha Joshi
      Citizen-based accountability strategies to improve the lives of the poor and marginalized groups are increasingly being used in efforts to improve basic public services. The latest thinking suggests that broader, multi-pronged, multi-level, strategic approaches that may overcome the limitations of narrow, localized successes, hold more promise. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities, in theory and practice, posed by the integration of two such citizen-based accountability strategies—social accountability and legal empowerment. It traces the foundations of each of these approaches to highlight the potential benefits of integration. Consequently it examines whether these benefits have been realized in practice, by drawing upon five cases of organizations pursuing integration of social accountability and legal empowerment for health accountability in Macedonia, Guatemala, Uganda, and India. The cases highlight that while integration offers some promise in advancing the cause of social change, it also poses challenges for organizations in terms of strategies they pursue.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.008
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • How to Find out What’s Really Going On: Understanding Impact through
           Participatory Process Evaluation
    • Authors: Andrea Cornwall; Alia Aghajanian
      Pages: 173 - 185
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Andrea Cornwall, Alia Aghajanian
      This article considers the contribution participatory process evaluation can make to impact assessment, using a case study of a study carried out to evaluate how a Kenyan nutrition education program had brought about change in the nutritional status of children and in their and their parents’ understanding and practices. Using Bhola’s three dimensions of impact—“impact by design”, “impact by interaction”, and “impact by emergence”—focuses not just on what changes as an intended result of an intervention, but on how change happens and how positive changes can be sustained. The principal focus of the article is methodological and as such it describes in some detail the development of a sequence of participatory visualization and discussion methods and their application with a range of stakeholders, from program staff in the headquarters of the implementing agency, to local government officials, front-line program workers, and beneficiaries. It suggests that the use of a participatory approach can enable researchers and evaluators to gain a fuller picture of incidental and unintended outcomes arising from interventions, making participatory process evaluation a valuable complement to other impact assessment methodologies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T20:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Oil, Dissent, and Distribution
    • Authors: Nimah Mazaheri
      Pages: 186 - 202
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Nimah Mazaheri
      This study reveals that social forces condition the extent to which oil-rich nations provide vital public services to the population. Although it is often assumed that oil wealth leads to the formation of a distributive state that generously provides services in the areas of water, sanitation, education, health care, or infrastructure, this study shows that the spread of political dissent conditions the effect of oil wealth on the actual patterns of service distribution. Quantitative tests reveal that oil-rich nations who experience demonstrations or riots provide better water and sanitation services than oil-rich nations who do not experience such dissent. Subsequent tests find that oil-rich nations who experience nonviolent, mass-based movements provide better water and sanitation services than those who experience violent, mass-based movements. The causal mechanisms between oil, dissent, and distribution are evaluated through a case study of Saudi Arabia’s oil-rich Eastern Province. The analysis begins with the early days of Aramco and examines how mobilization activities and the rise of Sunni–Shiite sectarianism altered service distribution in the province. This study provides evidence that social forces can shape the extent to which oil wealth benefits the nation and improves the population’s quality of life.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.05.028
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Strategies for Synergy in a High Modernist Project: Two Community
           Responses to India’s NREGA Rural Work Program
    • Authors: Rajesh Veeraraghavan
      Pages: 203 - 213
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Rajesh Veeraraghavan
      This article asks what led to the successful implementation of the National Rural Employment guarantee program (NREGA) in Andhra Pradesh. In particular, the article ethnographically examines the implementation of the program in two different village panchayats (Dalit and Tribal) in Andhra, with a focus on underprivileged communities and it finds dramatic differences in the outcomes of the program. Both outcomes can be considered successful for the workers of the NREGA, although perhaps in ways that could not have been anticipated by the planners of the program. Theoretically, the analysis is situated between two strands—pessimistic critiques of the high-modernist state and more optimistic visions of state-society synergy. The pessimistic analysis underestimates the possibility a community will take advantage of the opportunities that a high-modernist state can provide. On the other hand, the overly optimistic account of the state-society literature assumes what I am calling “joint intentionality” between state and community is necessary for success, and empirically rules out successes that do not have such joint intentionality. The article shows that high-modernist state actions can create a structural context that opens up avenues for local successes, while local factors—namely the caste, class and livelihood strategy of villagers—determine the distinct avenues through which success is achieved. Top-down centralized implementation characterized by a high-modernist state does not rule out the realization of local goals. State and society can interact to produce positive outcomes even if these outcomes are not jointly intended.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.05.027
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Revisiting the Oil Curse: Does Ownership Matter'
    • Authors: Arpita Asha Khanna
      Pages: 214 - 229
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Arpita Asha Khanna
      A large body of literature finds a negative relationship between oil abundance and economic growth. The existing empirical evidence on the oil curse, however, does not account for variations in the ownership of oil. This article investigates whether the effect of oil abundance on growth varies with ownership structures. It also investigates whether pre-existing institutional conditions influence the effect of oil abundance across different ownership structures. Using a novel database on ownership structures and employing a panel fixed effects estimation method, it analyzes a sample of oil-exporting developing countries during the period 1984–2005. The results show that the effect of oil abundance on growth varies with ownership structures and is also influenced by the quality of pre-existing institutions. Under state ownership and control, oil abundance reduces growth when the institutional quality is poor, but increases growth when the institutional quality is good. Under private ownership, on the other hand, oil abundance increases growth when the institutional quality is poor, but reduces growth when the institutional quality is good. The results suggest that ownership matters and countries can avoid the oil curse by choosing an appropriate ownership structure given their pre-existing institutional circumstances. The policy advice in this article is: adopt state ownership and control if the institutions are strong, if the institutions are weak, transfer ownership to foreign oil companies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Extending a Lifeline or Cutting Losses' The Effects of Conflict on
           Household Receipts of Remittances in Pakistan
    • Authors: Yashodhan Ghorpade
      Pages: 230 - 252
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Yashodhan Ghorpade
      I examine the causal effects of long-term exposure to conflict, measured at the micro level, on households’ receipt of remittances, among households residing in areas affected by the 2010 floods in Pakistan. Using a dataset of 7802 households, representative of all flood-affected areas of Pakistan in 2010, I employ IV estimation to overcome the endogeneity of conflict exposure and remittance receipts, and control for a range of confounding factors. I find that, contrary to the literature from country-level case studies, long-term exposure to conflict reduces households’ likelihood of receiving any remittances at all, as well as the average amounts of remittances received. However for households in the lowest food consumption expenditure quintile, conflict has a positive effect on the likelihood of remittance receipts, which provides evidence for the existence of heterogeneous effects as well as a significant micro–macro gap in understanding the causal effects of conflict on remittance receipts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.05.024
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • The Impact of Terrorism on Governance in African Countries
    • Authors: Simplice A. Asongu; Jacinta C. Nwachukwu
      Pages: 253 - 270
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99
      Author(s): Simplice A. Asongu, Jacinta C. Nwachukwu
      This study investigates how terrorism affects governance in 53 African countries for the period 1998–2012. Four terrorism indicators are used namely: domestic, transnational, unclear, and total terrorism. Ten bundled and unbundled governance indicators are also employed namely: political governance (consisting of political stability and voice and accountability), economic governance (encompassing government effectiveness and regulation quality); institutional governance (entailing corruption-control and the rule of law), and general governance. The governance indicators are bundled by means of principal component analysis. The empirical evidence is based on Generalized Method of Moments. Three key findings are established. First, all selected terrorism dynamics negatively affect political governance and its constituents. Second, evidence of a negative relationship is sparingly apparent in economic governance and its components. Third, no proof was confirmed in relation to the impact of terrorism and institutional governance with its elements. Fourth, compared with domestic terrorism, transnational terrorism more negatively and significantly affects political, economic, and general governances. Policy implications are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.05.023
      Issue No: Vol. 99 (2017)
       
  • Does Social Health Insurance Reduce Financial Burden' Panel Data
           Evidence from India
    • Authors: Mehtabul Azam
      Pages: 1 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Mehtabul Azam
      Indian government launched the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), a national health insurance scheme, in 2008 that provides cashless health services to poor households in India. We evaluate the impact of RSBY on RSBY beneficiary households’ (average treatment impact on treated, ATT) utilization of health services, per capita out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, and per patient OOP expenditure on major morbidities. To address the issue of non-randomness in enrollment into the scheme, we exploit the longitudinal aspect of a large nationally representative household survey data to implement difference-in-differences with matching. We find that RSBY beneficiary households are more likely to report and receive treatment for long-term morbidity in rural areas; however, the differences in reporting and treatment of long-term morbidity is not statistically significant in urban areas. We do not find strong evidence that the RSBY reduced per person OOP expenditure for RSBY beneficiary households in both rural and urban areas. Conditional on having received medical treatment, we find that RSBY beneficiary patient spend less on medicine in rural areas but no statistically significant impact in urban areas. We also conduct a placebo experiment to support the parallel trend assumption of DID.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Balance of Power, Domestic Violence, and Health Injuries: Evidence from
           Demographic and Health Survey of Nepal
    • Authors: Soumi Roy Chowdhury; Alok K. Bohara; Brady P. Horn
      Pages: 18 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Soumi Roy Chowdhury, Alok K. Bohara, Brady P. Horn
      A large literature has documented a complex and interdependent relationship between domestic violence, women empowerment, domestic risk factors, and violence-related health injuries. In this paper, we evaluate this relationship using data drawn from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. We simultaneously estimate the impact of women empowerment and domestic risk factors on domestic violence, and the impact of domestic violence on health consequences. Specifically, an IV ordered probit regression strategy is used, which addresses both the endogenous nature of domestic violence and the ordinal nature of health outcome variables. Our study finds evidence that it is not the autonomous power of women, but a cooperative decision-making environment in a marital relationship that reduces violence. Additionally, education decreases domestic violence and domestic risk factors, including alcohol and multiple unions exacerbate domestic violence. Finally, in terms of adverse health outcomes, we find that domestic violence has a non-linear impact on health injuries. At low levels of violence, the likelihood of injuries is low and injuries are generally not threatening, and as the level of violence increases, it considerably increases the probability of multiple and more serious health injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 102 (2017)
       
  • Agency, Human Dignity, and Subjective Well-being
    • Authors: Daniel A. Hojman; Álvaro Miranda
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Daniel A. Hojman, Álvaro Miranda
      In the last decades, our understanding of human well-being and development has shifted from a traditional focus on income and consumption toward a richer multidimensional approach. This shift has been strongly influenced by a body of research in subjective well-being (SWB) and the capabilities’ approach, which emphasizes the role of freedom, opportunities, and social inclusion on well-being. Using a novel nationally representative survey of Chilean households, this paper explores the relationship between life satisfaction and two “hidden dimensions” of development, agency, and human dignity. Human agency refers to the capability of an individual to control her destiny and make choices to fulfill goals set autonomously. Human dignity is associated with the absence of feelings of shame and humiliation, and is ultimately related to social inclusion. We use a method that allows to isolate the impact of personality traits affecting both SWB and capabilities’ perceptions. Our results show that agency and shame are important predictors of life satisfaction, comparable in magnitude to the effect of income variables. The fact that capabilities that measure freedoms and social inclusion are aligned with well-being measures lends support to the view of human development as integral process. Policies to advance agency, and reduce shame and discrimination are discussed. In the case of shame and discrimination we emphasize the role of interventions that influence stigmatization and group boundaries.

      PubDate: 2017-09-15T11:34:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.029
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Health Expenditures and Global Inequalities in Longevity
    • Authors: Maksym Obrizan; George L. Wehby
      Pages: 28 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Maksym Obrizan, George L. Wehby
      Longevity is a key health and development indicator used for cross-country comparisons. Evidence on the effects of country health expenditures on longevity is mixed. We evaluate the heterogeneity in country health expenditure effects throughout the life expectancy distribution worldwide during 2006–11 using quantile regression and an assembled dataset on 175 countries that includes both historic as well as recent data on life expectancy. Our goal is to evaluate the effects of health expenditures across quantiles of the country-level life expectancy distribution to understand whether increasing expenditures are associated with changes in longevity disparities between countries. We find significant heterogeneity in expenditure effects on life expectancy. The largest returns from increased spending are at the left margin of the life expectancy distribution. The results suggest that increasing health spending in countries with low life expectancy may have important returns to life expectancy and significantly diminish global inequalities in longevity and development by reducing the spread of the world’s life expectancy distribution.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T12:18:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • State Capacity and Health Outcomes: Comparing Argentina’s and Chile’s
           Reduction of Infant and Maternal Mortality, 1960–2013
    • Authors: Daniel Brieba
      Pages: 37 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Daniel Brieba
      There is substantial quantitative evidence linking higher state capacity to better health outcomes, but scant attention has been paid to the specific mechanisms through which this causal influence operates. The problem is compounded by the considerable diversity of ways in which the influence of the state on development outcomes has been conceptualized, making it hard for practitioners to extract policy lessons from this literature. In this study, I seek to help to address both of these problems through a historical-comparative examination of the ways in which state capacity affected infant and maternal mortality reduction in Argentina and Chile over the last half century. I show that Chile’s greater investment in health-specific state capacities was behind the remarkable historical “reversal of fortune” between these two countries in terms of infant and maternal mortality levels from 1960 to the present, as well as behind Chile’s notorious reduction in the territorial inequality of these outcomes. I show the key difference between the two countries was the quality, reach, and homogeneity of their respective public health systems. From a theoretical standpoint, I argue that the notions of bureaucratic quality and infrastructural power are both necessary and complementary perspectives through which to conceptualize state capacity and understand its causal influence over health and other desirable developmental outcomes. In turn, this suggests that a useful way to specify calls for better “governance” and to achieve better long-run health performance may be to invest in the public health system’s technical (bureaucratic) autonomy and in its system-wide planning and coordination capacities.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T12:18:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Informal Groups and Health Insurance Take-up Evidence from a Field
           Experiment
    • Authors: Matthieu Chemin
      Pages: 54 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Matthieu Chemin
      This paper presents the results of 20 randomized experiments aimed at understanding the low take-up of in-patient health insurance observed in developing countries. Take-up does not increase when participants receive information about the product, or an assistance to register, or small subsidies of 2, 10, or 30%. Take-up does not increase when the same information is provided by local respected community leaders, when participants are offered an in-kind gift (a chicken) if they register, when participants are offered the possibility to contribute lower and more frequent payments, or the possibility to pay by cellphone. A full subsidy generates a mere 45% take-up (with no retention after one year). In contrast to these low take-up rates, presenting the same information without any subsidies to existing informal groups raises take-up to 12% (still 7% after one year), as well as trust and knowledge of the product. Social networks play a major role in the adoption of health insurance. This paper provides a cost-effective way to increase take-up of health insurance, while subsidies are found to be largely ineffective at raising take-up in the long run.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T12:18:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Formal but Less Equal. Gender Wage Gaps in Formal and Informal Jobs in
           Urban Brazil
    • Authors: Sarra Ben Yahmed
      Pages: 73 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Sarra Ben Yahmed
      In developing countries, a large share of employees work informally and are not covered by employment protection legislation. I study how gender inequality differs across formal and informal wage-earners in urban Brazil. The raw gender wage gap is about the same on average in informal jobs (5%) as in formal jobs (7%), but I show that this difference is the result of different male and female selection processes. First, female employees have better observable characteristics than male employees, for example in terms of educational attainment. After controlling for observable characteristics, the adjusted gender wage gap is on average about 24% among formal employees and about 20% among informal employees. Second, men and women entering formal and informal jobs have different unobservable characteristics. Controlling for endogenous selection into formal vs. informal jobs, I find that the gender gap in wage offers is high and increases with education in formal jobs. In informal jobs, however, estimated wage offers are the same for men and women. I discuss the potential implications of these findings regarding the effect of labor market regulation on gender wage gaps.

      PubDate: 2017-09-27T12:18:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Do Conditional Cash Transfers Lead to Better Secondary Schools'
           Evidence from Jamaica’s PATH
    • Authors: Marco Stampini; Sofia Martinez-Cordova; Sebastian Insfran; Donna Harris
      Pages: 104 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Marco Stampini, Sofia Martinez-Cordova, Sebastian Insfran, Donna Harris
      Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have become the main anti-poverty program in many Latin American and Caribbean countries. While numerous rigorous impact evaluations have shown that they have been successful in increasing school enrollment and attendance, the evidence on learning achievement is still mixed, and there are no studies that analyze the effect on school placement. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that the Programme of Advancement through Health and Education (PATH), Jamaica’s CCT program, contributes to breaking the intergenerational poverty cycle by placing its urban beneficiaries on a higher educational trajectory. Using a regression discontinuity design, we find that PATH urban male beneficiaries who sat the Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) over the period 2010–14 performed better on the test (scoring 22.48 points, or 5.1%, higher than non-beneficiaries); consequently, they were placed in better secondary schools (7.2 percentiles higher in a national school ranking based on preprogram GSAT scores). In contrast, we find no significant impact on aspirations or on any outcome indicators for urban girls. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first in the literature to take a comprehensive look at the impacts of a CCT program on educational aspirations, school performance, and placement.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Tracking the Quality Premium of Certified Coffee: Evidence from Ethiopia
    • Authors: Bart Minten; Mekdim Dereje; Ermias Engida; Seneshaw Tamru
      Pages: 119 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Bart Minten, Mekdim Dereje, Ermias Engida, Seneshaw Tamru
      Certification of Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) is rapidly increasing in global value chains. While consumers, mostly in developed countries, are willing to pay significant premiums for the certification of such standards, it is not well understood how effectively these incentives are transmitted to producing countries. We study VSS—more in particular Fair Trade and Organic certification—in Ethiopia’s coffee sector, the country’s most important export commodity, using a unique census of transaction data at the export level and large-scale data at the production level. We find that transmission of export quality premiums to coffee producers is limited, with only less than one-third of this premium being passed on, and we find limited evidence of effects due to communal investments. Moreover, as quality premiums are small and average production levels in these settings are low, we estimate that these premiums would only lead to an increased income for coffee farmers of 22 USD per year even with a perfect transmission scenario, and therefore would have little impact on the welfare of the average coffee farmer. Given that the VSS studied are characterized by the highest premiums among VSS schemes, it can be assumed that even lower benefits from other VSS certification schemes trickle down to producers.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Does Collective Action Sequester Carbon' Evidence from the Nepal
           Community Forestry Program
    • Authors: Randall A. Bluffstone; E. Somanathan; Prakash Jha; Harisharan Luintel; Rajesh Bista; Michael Toman; Naya Paudel; Bhim Adhikari
      Pages: 133 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Randall A. Bluffstone, E. Somanathan, Prakash Jha, Harisharan Luintel, Rajesh Bista, Michael Toman, Naya Paudel, Bhim Adhikari
      This paper uses 620 forest plot measurements taken from a nationally representative sample of 130 Nepal community forests combined with information on forest collective action to estimate the effects of collective action on carbon per hectare and three additional measures of forest quality. We use three measures of forest user group collective action, including membership in the Nepal Community Forestry Programme (CFP). Collective action shows large, positive, and statistically significant carbon effects vis-à-vis communities exhibiting no evidence of forest collective action, which do not necessarily correspond with results for other measures of forest quality. We find that depending on the collective action definition and physiographic region, forests controlled by communities exhibiting no evidence of forest collective action may have as little as 34% of the carbon of forests governed under collective action. We do not, however, find evidence that CFP forests, our narrowest measure of collective action, store more carbon than forests outside the CFP. Our results therefore suggest that it is the collective action behavior and not the official CFP label that offers the largest gains. Carbon benefits from collective action are therefore not found to be conditional on CFP participation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.030
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Are Foreign-Owned Firms More Likely to Pay Bribes than Domestic Ones'
           Evidence from Emerging Markets
    • Authors: Allan Webster; Jenifer Piesse
      Pages: 142 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Allan Webster, Jenifer Piesse
      An extensive literature exists on the adverse effects of corruption on inward FDI and the impact this may have on economic development but the reverse causality has not been fully explored. Legislation in the US and the EU prohibits firms from engaging in corrupt practices in foreign countries and this suggests that foreign-owned firms might be less likely to pay bribes. However, such legislation may be ineffective because foreign firms have to adapt to local market conditions or risk being uncompetitive. Using firm-level data for 41 emerging countries, a probit model estimates the probability that a firm pays bribes. To allow for possible endogeneity this probit analysis is repeated with an instrument to proxy for endogenous foreign ownership. Then, a propensity score matching technique tests for differences in the propensity to pay bribes by domestic and foreign firms. The paper finds no difference in the behavior of foreign-owned and domestic firms with respect to corrupt practices. Results are robust to different levels of foreign ownership and support the view that foreign-owned firms adapt to local practices and are neither more nor less likely to pay bribes than comparable domestic firms. The paper finds that other variables including bureaucracy, government contracts, and perceived difficulties with civil society (legal and political) do have statistically significant effects on increasing bribery and that some others, such as per capita GDP, tend to reduce bribery. The study concludes that there is no evidence that foreign ownership, after investment has occurred, tends to reduce bribery but it does support the view that foreign-owned firms adopt local behavioral norms.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Interest Rates in Savings Groups: Thrift or Threat'
    • Authors: Maïté le Polain; Olivier Sterck; Marthe Nyssens
      Pages: 162 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Maïté le Polain, Olivier Sterck, Marthe Nyssens
      Savings group (SG) models are praised for achieving financial inclusion for the poorest at a very low cost. Promoted by international NGOs, SG models are inspired by indigenous savings and credit associations (ROSCAs). SG models however differ in that they prescribe lending the pooled savings to group members for an interest. The interest rate aims to (1) boost capital accumulation, (2) allocate scarce capital efficiently, and (3) remunerate and incentivize savers. This paper builds on a six-month fieldwork conducted in DR Congo consisting of direct observations of SG meetings and interviews with SG participants and practitioners. We study the gaps between SG practitioners’ objectives and SG participants’ perceptions and practices related to the interest rate. Our research pays particular attention to the local context and local norms that interfere with SG practitioners’ objectives. Our analysis highlights three gaps. First, SG participants turn savings into credit for security purposes rather for rapid capital accumulation. Second, credit allocation decisions are guided by fairness and security concerns rather than efficiency. Third, SG participants often regard the accumulated interest as belonging to the group and to active borrowers rather than to passive savers. Our results invite development actors to pay greater attention to the potential risks of the SG approach for its participants. Despite the common appellation “savings groups”, this microfinance innovation builds upon credit and strongly encourages its members to go into debt.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Community-Driven Reconstruction in Colombia: An Experimental Study of
           Collective Action beyond Program Beneficiaries
    • Authors: Ben D'Exelle; Eric Coleman; Maria Claudia Lopez
      Pages: 188 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Ben D'Exelle, Eric Coleman, Maria Claudia Lopez
      Increased community cooperation is an important objective of Community-Driven Reconstruction (CDR) programs in post-conflict settings. While these programs typically work with a limited group of beneficiaries, little is known about the potential community impact beyond these beneficiaries. To investigate this, we empirically analyze how cooperative behavior develops in a lab-in-the-field experiment with mixed groups of CDR program beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries, organized in 42 municipalities in Colombia with active CDR programs. In the experiment, we use two rounds of a binary public goods game with a communication stage between both rounds. The experimental data are complemented with information on pre-existing social proximity among the participants and whether they have participated in a CDR program. We find that cooperation increases after communication, and that it correlates positively with the proportion of cooperators before communication. This peer effect is mainly driven by the cooperative behavior of CDR program beneficiaries while the influence of non-beneficiaries is limited.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Assessing Medium-term Impacts of Conservation Interventions on Local
           Livelihoods in Northern Cambodia
    • Authors: Emilie Beauchamp; Tom Clements; E.J. Milner-Gulland
      Pages: 202 - 218
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Emilie Beauchamp, Tom Clements, E.J. Milner-Gulland
      The success of conservation interventions often depends on the multifaceted and sometimes competing interests and motivations that lead local people to sustainably manage natural resources in the first place. Yet despite an extensive literature exploring the effects of conservation on human livelihoods, there is a lack of robust evidence about which type of conservation intervention works, for whom, and how. This is partly because the social impacts of conservation interventions often affect multiple aspects of human well-being, with changes taking place over long periods during which unintended feedbacks can occur. This paper assesses the medium-term impacts of Protected Areas (PAs) and of three Payment for Environmental Services (PES) projects on three socio-economic indicators across 16 villages in Northern Cambodia. We present a multi-period evaluation including three panel surveys over six years from villages inside and outside PAs to clarify the mechanisms through which social effects of conservation take place and how this translates into the development pathways adopted by households. While livelihood improvements were recorded across all villages, we found that PAs slightly reduce households’ socio-economic status, though does not impede their development. PAs also protect traditional livelihoods. Participants in one of the three PES projects recorded higher economic status and agricultural productivity than non-participants, suggesting that there can be important social co-benefits to conservation interventions when programs are well-designed to respond to local contexts.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.008
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Weather Shocks, Coping Strategies, and Consumption Dynamics in Rural
           Ethiopia
    • Authors: Jianfeng Gao; Bradford F. Mills
      Pages: 268 - 283
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Jianfeng Gao, Bradford F. Mills
      Rural households adopt a broad range of strategies to cope with adverse weather shocks. Previous studies have examined the effectiveness of individual coping strategies in mitigating the impact of adverse weather shocks, but no study to date has presented a comprehensive evaluation of alternative coping strategies. We employ household panel data spanning 15years to estimate the impact of weather shocks on consumption and poverty dynamics in rural Ethiopia, along with the effectiveness of household coping strategies in alleviating the impact of shocks. We find that rainfall increases are positively associated with per adult equivalent consumption, while high temperatures are negatively associated with consumption. In terms of household coping strategies, formal social safety net transfers mitigate the impact of adverse rainfall shocks on consumption and off-farm employment mitigates the impact of high-temperature shocks. Simulations suggest that rainfall shocks and formal social safety net transfers significantly influence household poverty dynamics. By contrast, high-temperature shocks and off-farm employment have less impact on poverty dynamics. The results highlight the need for social protection programs that support existing household coping strategies and that can rapidly respond to weather shocks.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Unleashing Waste-Pickers’ Potential: Supporting Recycling
           Cooperatives in Santiago de Chile
    • Authors: Pablo Navarrete-Hernandez; Nicolas Navarrete-Hernandez
      Pages: 293 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Pablo Navarrete-Hernandez, Nicolas Navarrete-Hernandez
      The informal economy currently provides two out of three jobs worldwide, with waste-picking activities providing employment for millions of the poorest of society. Moreover, waste-picking could provide a sustainable solution for solving the waste management crisis that affects the 3 billion people lacking access to waste services. Governmental policies toward waste-pickers in particular, and the informal economy in general, have been fundamentally based on four policy approaches: (1) dualist and voluntarist, which proposes repressive policies against waste-picker activity and the expansion of formal solid waste management systems; (2) structuralist, which argues for weak supporting policies aimed at reinforcing waste-picker associations; (3) legalist, which promotes the competition of waste-picking with other recycling alternatives without government intervention; and (4) co-production, which supports waste-picking with local policies as a means of enhancing waste-pickers’ productivity. Both qualitative, and particularly quantitative evidence testing the impact of these four approaches is scarce. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap in the literature by operationalizing concepts, building a waste-picker sustainable performance index, and estimating the impacts of these four competing policy approaches. An exploratory sequential design method is used to analyze data: first, a thematic analysis to examine 40 in-depth interviews, and then multiple linear regressions to analyze a census survey of 100 waste-pickers in four cooperatives in Santiago de Chile. Our empirical results suggest a positive association between the level of government support and waste-pickers’ sustainable performance. Consequently, further positive government intervention, particularly in supporting a stronger structural organization for the waste-picker recycling system, is advocated as the primary policy recommendation of this paper.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.08.016
      Issue No: Vol. 101 (2017)
       
  • Performance of Microfinance Institutions: Does Government Ideology
           Matter'
    • Authors: Ferdinand A. Gul; Jyotirmoy Podder; Abu Zafar M. Shahriar
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Ferdinand A. Gul, Jyotirmoy Podder, Abu Zafar M. Shahriar
      We draw on the political economy theory and examine whether incumbent government’s political ideology affects the performance of microfinance institutions (MFIs). We collect data on 619 MFIs from 75 countries over the period of 1996–2012 and merge them with country-level data on government ideology and other economic and institutional factors. We find that MFIs operating in a left wing regime have higher portfolio growth rates relative to the ones operating in a right wing or a centrist regime. Furthermore, under leftist political leadership, MFIs have lower funding costs, lower operating costs, and lower default costs. The electoral incentives of left wing governments, however, impair the capacity of MFIs to increase financial revenue. Thus, despite having lower costs, these MFIs are not more sustainable relative to those operating in right wing or centrist regimes. Academics and policymakers devote substantial resources to better understand the conditions under which MFIs are more likely to flourish and deliver on their promises. We contribute to this endeavor by empirically showing that government ideology is an important determinant of MFI performance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.021
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Does Aid Effectiveness Depend on the Quality of Donors'
    • Authors: Anna Minasyan; Peter Nunnenkamp; Katharina Richert
      Pages: 16 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Anna Minasyan, Peter Nunnenkamp, Katharina Richert
      It has been intensively and controversially discussed whether “good” economic policies and governance in the recipient countries render foreign aid more effective in alleviating poverty and stimulating economic growth. By contrast, the question of whether aid recipient countries would benefit from stronger income effects if foreign donors provided higher quality aid has received scant attention so far. We make use of the index of donor performance from the Center for Global Development to compare the effects of quality-adjusted aid and unadjusted aid on changes in GDP per capita. Our difference-in-differences analysis reveals significant and quantitatively important treatment effects for quality-adjusted aid after the introduction of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness in 2005, while we do not find significant treatment effects for unadjusted aid. This implies that only recipient countries with increased aid inflows of high quality benefit in terms of increasing GDP per capita. The quality of aid matters most when accounting for delayed effects. However, our results depend on the sample of recipient countries.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T22:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.023
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • The “Discouraged Worker Effect” in Public Works Programs: Evidence
           from the MGNREGA in India
    • Authors: Sudha Narayanan; Upasak Das; Yanyan Liu; Christopher B. Barrett
      Pages: 31 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Sudha Narayanan, Upasak Das, Yanyan Liu, Christopher B. Barrett
      This study investigates the consequences of poor implementation in public workfare programs, focusing on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in India. Using nationally representative data, we test empirically for a discouraged worker effect arising from either of two mechanisms: administrative rationing of jobs among those who seek work and delays in wage payments. We find strong evidence at the household and district levels that administrative rationing discourages subsequent demand for work. Delayed wage payments seem to matter significantly during rainfall shocks. We find further that rationing is strongly associated with indicators of implementation ability such as staff capacity. Politics appears to play only a limited role. The findings suggest that assessments of the relevance of public programs over their lifecycle need to factor in implementation quality.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T22:34:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.024
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Child Labor and Household Land Holding: Theory and Empirical Evidence from
           Zimbabwe
    • Authors: Ali Reza Oryoie; Jeffrey Alwang; Nicolaus Tideman
      Pages: 45 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Ali Reza Oryoie, Jeffrey Alwang, Nicolaus Tideman
      The relationship between rural household productive assets and child labor in developing countries is complex. Some empirical evidence shows that child labor tends to increase as land holding increases, or there is an inverted U-shaped curve relationship between the probability of putting children to work and land holding. This paper shows that the relationship between use of children as laborers and land holding is nuanced. Child labor generally decreases as per capita land holding increases, but there can be an upward bump in the relationship between child labor and landholding near the middle of the range of land per capita. The bump can be explained theoretically by the relationship between the marginal productivity of a child worker on the farm and the marginal value placed on his/her education at different levels of wealth. This pattern is repeated in three surveys conducted in Zimbabwe, in 2001, 2007–8, and 2010–11. From the perspective of policy making, the policy maker should be alerted that the programs to promote school retention should not necessarily focus only on the poorest households in rural areas. There is a high probability that middle-wealth households put their children to work, and this probability may change by some other factors such as gender of child and agro-ecological conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.025
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • The Universality, Peculiarity, and Sustainability of Indian Public
           Interest Litigation Reconsidered
    • Authors: Hajime Sato
      Pages: 59 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Hajime Sato
      Since the first decade of the 2000s, there has been serious concern that public interest litigation (PIL) in India, which was launched by the Supreme Court in the late 1970s to protect the rights of weaker sections of the society, has come to be occasionally used against them instead. Can PIL in India truly serve as a model for other developing countries in promoting the basic rights of their citizens' Reconsidering the conditions that enable the judiciary to engage in judicial activism through PIL, this paper argues that writ jurisdiction is the key factor in considering the peculiarity and sustainability of Indian PIL, as the unique development of its jurisdiction has contributed to increased power for judges in delivering social justice to society and has also opened the possibility of judges pursuing their own agendas through the resulting informalization of procedure and remedy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.032
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Dynamic Poverty Decomposition Analysis: An Application to the Philippines
    • Authors: Tomoki Fujii
      Pages: 69 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Tomoki Fujii
      In this paper, we propose a new method of poverty decomposition. Our method remedies the shortcomings of existing methods and has some desirable properties such as time-reversion consistency and subperiod additivity. Our decomposition integrates the existing methods of growth-redistribution decomposition and sector-based decomposition, because it allows us to decompose the change in poverty into growth and redistribution components for each group (e.g., regions or sectors) in the economy. Our decomposition works well in cases where only partial data are available for some periods. It is also flexible and can be extended to have the following six components: population shift, within-region redistribution, between-region redistribution, nominal growth, inflation, and methodological change components. The empirical application of the six-way decomposition to the Philippines for the period 1985–2009 shows that important policies for poverty reduction may differ across regions. For example, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao would need growth-enhancing policies, whereas Eastern Visayas would need policies to improve the income distribution. Our decomposition method has a wide applicability and may complement the poverty profile approach.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.031
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Participation and Power in Climate Change Adaptation Policies:
           Vulnerability in Food Security Programs in Nepal
    • Authors: Sigrid Nagoda; Andrea J. Nightingale
      Pages: 85 - 93
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Sigrid Nagoda, Andrea J. Nightingale
      The article explores the moments wherein participatory approaches in climate change adaptation (CCA) policies contribute to reinforcing, rather than transforming, the underlying causes of vulnerability. Using the case of food insecure households in the district of Humla in northwestern Nepal, the study demonstrates that the same social and power relations that are driving local vulnerability dynamics, such as caste, gender, and access to social and political networks, also play important roles in shaping the impact of CCA policies. By tracing Nepal’s CCA programs, starting with the local level, through district to international-national level dynamics, the study adds insights into the barriers to exclusion that embed power relations all the way through the chain of policy development. The purpose is to better understand how CCA can perpetuate rather than alleviate the conditions that create differential vulnerability patterns at village level. It raises questions about how whether CCA programs are an adequate response to increasing vulnerability for some of the world’s most marginalized people.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.022
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Selecting the State or Choosing the Chief' The Political Determinants
           of Smallholder Land Titling
    • Authors: Lauren Honig
      Pages: 94 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Lauren Honig
      This article examines the effect of customary institutions on smallholder land titling in Sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that the individual’s status within the customary institution conditions his or her demand for land titles. Individuals with greater customary privilege gain advantages from maintaining customary property rights, including stronger tenure security. For households with lower privilege within the customary institution, the benefits of adopting state land titles are higher. Analysis of an original survey of smallholder farmers in Senegal and an existing survey in Zambia demonstrates that households with greater customary privilege are less likely to adopt state land titles, independent of ethnicity, wealth, and land values. I find additional support for the argument in measures of increased tenure security for those with greater customary privilege. Qualitative interviews with customary authorities and smallholder farmers help establish the mechanism. These findings update the dominant wisdom that land values and material transaction costs drive smallholder land titling, demonstrating the important effect of status within the customary institution on demand for land titles. By examining the political underpinnings of customary property rights, this article contributes to our understandings of which farmers benefit most from land titling. This has implications for the improved design of land governance programs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.028
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Mitigating Climate Change in Africa: Barriers to Financing Low-Carbon
           Development
    • Authors: Ademola A. Adenle; Dale T. Manning; Joseph Arbiol
      Pages: 123 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100
      Author(s): Ademola A. Adenle, Dale T. Manning, Joseph Arbiol
      Meeting global climate change mitigation goals requires the participation of developing countries in abatement programs to encourage low-carbon development pathways. Incentivizing developing countries to participate in climate change mitigation often requires a mechanism for developed countries to finance projects in poorer countries. While several funding institutions have been established, African country participation has been low. In this analysis, we conduct interviews with climate change policy stakeholders from across the continent and find a general consensus that a lack of institutional capacity has limited the participation of African countries in existing climate change mitigation programs. To confirm this qualitative observation, we use data from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the World Bank to examine the correlation between country-year measures of institutional capacity and the number of projects implemented by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and find that better institutional quality is associated with more GEF projects implemented in a country-year. We propose to address the lack of institutional capacity with the creation of regional institution, or Climate Change Mitigation Institution (CCMI), that specializes in building local capacity by leveraging external capacity as well as facilitates the integration of African countries into global climate change mitigation efforts by improving capacity, strengthening research and development, forming partnerships, and coordinating the disbursement of financing.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.07.033
      Issue No: Vol. 100 (2017)
       
  • Limitations of Contract Farming as a Pro-poor Strategy: The Case of Maize
           Outgrower Schemes in Upper West Ghana
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 102
      Author(s): Catherine Ragasa, Isabel Lambrecht, Doreen S. Kufoalor
      Contract farming (CF) arrangements have the potential to address market failures and improve technology adoption, productivity, and welfare. In Ghana, government and donors use CF as a strategy for increasing adoption of new agricultural technologies and developing value chains. Yet to date, there has not been a rigorous assessment of these CF schemes. The focus in this paper is on different maize-based CF schemes in the poorest and most remote region in Ghana. It assesses the profitability and potential impact of these CF schemes, utilizing a unique plot-level dataset that covers two periods of data and two maize plots (scheme and non-scheme) per household, and employing matching techniques and an instrumental variable approach to address selection bias and unobserved heterogeneity across farmers. These are complemented by a community-level survey, in-depth interviews with scheme operators, and a series of key informant interviews. Results show that these schemes led to improved technology adoption and yield increases. In addition, a subset of maize farmers with high yield improvements due to CF participation have high profits. Maize CF schemes also enabled market coordination and consistent supply of quality maize to downstream industries. However, on average, the impact of the CF schemes on profitability is negative, even when input diversion is accounted for. Yield increases are not high enough to compensate for higher input requirements and the cost of capital under the schemes. Despite higher yields, the costs to produce one metric tonne of maize under CF schemes are higher than on maize farms without CF schemes, twice that of several countries in Africa, and more than seven times higher than that of major maize-exporting countries (the United States, Brazil, and Argentina). Sustainability of these CF schemes will largely depend on developing and promoting much-improved varieties and technologies that boost yields in order to compensate for the high input and credit costs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T18:33:18Z
       
  • Diversification Strategies and Adaptation Deficit: Evidence from Rural
           Communities in Niger
    • Authors: Solomon Asfaw; Giacomo Pallante Alessandro Palma
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 101
      Author(s): Solomon Asfaw, Giacomo Pallante, Alessandro Palma
      The paper provides fresh empirical evidence on the adaptation process in Niger rural communities using original longitudinal socio-economic panel data merged with granular geo-referenced climatic information. We identify the main drivers and impacts of crop and labor diversification which constitute two livelihood strategies on moderating the adaptation deficit. In doing so, we account for the interdependence between the two diversification practices and potential reverse causality between welfare outcomes and diversification behavior. Moreover, we condition the impacts of diversification on different sections of the welfare distribution to capture potential non-linear effects. Our results reveal that the diversification has positive and significant welfare impacts when most vulnerable households rely on it asan adaptation strategy to mid-run climate variability and asa coping strategy to short-run market shocks. At the same time, our results find lower but still positive impacts for well-endowed households that are likely to diversify their activity portfolio. Given the very limited presence of policy support, we conclude that the rural Nigerien communities are characterized by a large and autonomous adaptation response which constitutes a key leverage mechanism for policy makers. We thus suggest government interventions aimed at supporting the most important diversification drivers, but also aimed at straightening some channels, such as network infrastructures or the promotion of local crop varieties, which may have a greater potential in triggering diversification.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T07:52:14Z
       
  • Editorial Advisory Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 100


      PubDate: 2017-09-20T22:34:03Z
       
  • Editorial Advisory Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:World Development, Volume 99


      PubDate: 2017-09-02T16:06:35Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.162.152.232
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016