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Journal Cover World Development
  [SJR: 2.1]   [H-I: 122]   [155 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0305-750X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Conditional cash transfers for primary education: Which children are left
           out'
    • Authors: Jonathan Bauchet; Eduardo A. Undurraga; Victoria Reyes-García; Jere R. Behrman; Ricardo A. Godoy
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jonathan Bauchet, Eduardo A. Undurraga, Victoria Reyes-García, Jere R. Behrman, Ricardo A. Godoy
      Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs to increase primary-school enrollment and attendance among low-income households have been shown to benefit children and households, but to date little is known about who joins such programs. We test three hypotheses about predictors of CCT program participation in indigenous societies in Bolivia, focusing on attributes of the household (ethnicity), parents (modern human capital), and children (age, sex). We model whether children receive a transfer from Bolivia’s CCT program (Bono Juancito Pinto), using data from 811 school-age children and nine ethnic groups. Children from the group least exposed to Westerners (Tsimane’) are 18–22 percentage points less likely to participate in the program than children from other lowland ethnic groups. Parental modern human capital and child sex do not predict participation. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the findings and conclude that the Tsimane’s current lower returns to schooling are the most likely explanation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.021
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • The impact of agricultural extension services in the context of a heavily
           subsidized input system: The case of Malawi
    • Authors: Catherine Ragasa; John Mazunda
      Pages: 25 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Catherine Ragasa, John Mazunda
      This paper examines the interplay between Malawi’s input subsidy and access to extension services, and the impact of both on farm productivity and food security using Malawi’s Integrated Household Panel Survey. A correlated random effects (CRE) device is used, and consistency and robustness of results are checked using various other estimation models. The receipt of fertilizer and seed subsidies is shown to have an inconsistent impact on farm productivity and food security; at the same time, access to agricultural advice is consistently insignificant in explaining these. Further analysis, however, shows a statistically significant and strong association with farm productivity and food security when access to extension services is unpacked to include indicators of usefulness and farmers’ satisfaction. Households that reported receipt of “very useful” agricultural advice had greater productivity and greater food security compared to those that reported receipt of advice that they considered not useful and those that did not receive any advice at all. This result implies the need to ensure the provision of relevant and useful agricultural advice to increase the likelihood of achieving agricultural development outcomes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • An impediment to gender Equality': Religion’s influence on
           development and reproductive policy
    • Authors: Aliza Forman-Rabinovici; Udi Sommer
      Pages: 48 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Aliza Forman-Rabinovici, Udi Sommer
      The effects of religion on development in the area of gender equality have been considered substantial in academic work as well as in popular and political discourse. A common understanding is that religion depresses women’s rights in general and reproductive and abortion rights in particular. The literature on reproductive rights, however, is disproportionately focused on Western cases, and is limited in its definition of religion as a variable. What happens, though, when we switch to a more inclusive framework' To what extent do a variety of religious variables correlate with policy on reproductive rights outside of the Western context' We examine the relevance of the religion-abortion link in a broad comparative framework. We introduce the Comparative Abortion Index and test the effects of a wide range of denominations and religious characteristics on reproductive rights. Our study finds that reproductive rights correlate only with some religious denominations, while others have no significance. Additionally, while religiosity correlates with reproductive policy, variables such as religious freedom, separation of religion and state and religious diversity show no correlative effect. The comparative analyses suggest that the connection between religion and development in general—and in the area of women’s rights in particular—is far more nuanced than previously thought.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.024
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Development aid and infant mortality. Micro-level evidence from Nigeria
    • Authors: Andreas Kotsadam; Gudrun Østby; Siri Aas Rustad; Andreas Forø Tollefsen; Henrik Urdal
      Pages: 59 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Andreas Kotsadam, Gudrun Østby, Siri Aas Rustad, Andreas Forø Tollefsen, Henrik Urdal
      While there is a vast literature studying the effects of official development aid (ODA) on economic growth, there are far fewer comparative studies addressing how aid affects health outcomes. Furthermore, while much attention has been paid to country-level effects of aid, there is a clear knowledge gap in the literature when it comes to systematic studies of aid effectiveness below the country-level. Addressing this gap, we undertake what we believe is the first systematic attempt to study how ODA affects infant mortality at the subnational level. We match new geographic aid data from the AidData on the precise location, type, and time frame of bilateral and multilateral aid projects in Nigeria with available georeferenced survey data from five Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys. Using quasi-experimental approaches, with mother fixed-effects, we are able to control for a vast number of unobserved factors that may otherwise be spuriously correlated with both infant mortality and ODA. The results indicate very clearly that geographical proximity to active aid projects reduces infant mortality. Moreover, aid contributes to reduce systematic inter-group, or horizontal, inequalities in a setting where such differences loom large. In particular, we find that aid more effectively reduces infant mortality in less privileged groups like children of Muslim women, and children living in rural, and in Muslim-dominated areas. Finally, there is evidence that aid projects are established in areas that on average have lower infant mortality than non-aid locations, suggesting that there are biases resulting in aid not necessarily reaching those populations in greatest need.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Do the rich have stronger willingness to pay for environmental
           protection' New evidence from a survey in China
    • Authors: Shuai Shao; Zhihua Tian; Meiting Fan
      Pages: 83 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Shuai Shao, Zhihua Tian, Meiting Fan
      The majority of existing studies argue that rich people and the residents in high-income countries and regions have stronger willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental protection. Does such a rule hold true for China at the present stage' Previous studies pay little attention to this issue due to the lack of related data. Merging the micro data from the Chinese General Social Survey in 2010 (CGSS2010) with the macro data at the corresponding urban level of China, as well as two types of satellite monitoring data, this paper investigates the effect of income on residents’ WTP for environmental protection at both macro and micro perspectives based on the ordered Logit model. The results show that the rich do have stronger WTP for environmental protection. However, with the increase in residents’ income, the marginal WTP for environmental protection will decline, and a reversal occurs at the top income level. Therefore, the WTP does not always rise with the increase in income, and the middle-income class has the strongest WTP for environmental protection. Moreover, after controlling individual characteristics, residents’ WTP for environmental protection more depends on environmental pollution degree rather than urban average income level measured by both GDP per capita and the nighttime lights data from satellite monitoring. The residents in more polluted cities have stronger WTP for environmental protection. Therefore, it is not reasonable to improve people’s environmental preferences purely through economic development.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.033
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • On the impact of demographic change on economic growth and poverty
    • Authors: Marcio Cruz; S. Amer Ahmed
      Pages: 95 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Marcio Cruz, S. Amer Ahmed
      Changing population age structures are shaping the trajectories of development in many countries, bringing opportunities and challenges. While aging has been a matter of concern for upper-middle and high-income economies, rapid population growth is set to continue in the poorest countries over the coming decades. At the same time, these countries will see sustained increases in the working-age shares of their population, and these shifts have the potential to boost growth and reduce poverty. This paper describes the main mechanisms through which demographic change may affect economic outcomes, and estimates the association between changes in the share of working-age population with per capita growth and poverty rate. An increase in the working-age population share and a reduction in the child dependency ratio are found to be associated with an increase in gross domestic product per capita growth, with similarly positive effects on poverty reduction.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.018
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • The potential of the Global Person Generated Index for evaluating the
           perceived impacts of conservation interventions on subjective well-being
    • Authors: Ranaivo A. Rasolofoson; Martin R. Nielsen; Julia P.G. Jones
      Pages: 107 - 118
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Ranaivo A. Rasolofoson, Martin R. Nielsen, Julia P.G. Jones
      There is growing interest in the importance of ensuring that biodiversity conservation is not achieved at the expense of local people’s well-being. It has been suggested that when evaluating the impact of an intervention, the affected population should be allowed to define well-being (requiring a subjective measure), and impacts (requiring a participatory approach), but very few, if any, conservation evaluations live up to these standards. We used a participatory impact evaluation approach with the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI) to investigate the relative impacts of strict protection and community forest management on local well-being in Madagascar’s rainforests. The GPGI captures the subjective and multidimensional nature of well-being by asking respondents to identify the five most important domains for their quality of life, to evaluate their own performance in each domain, and the relative importance of the five identified domains. Participatory impact evaluation establishes local perceptions of the cause-effect relationship between an intervention and respondents’ performance in each domain. Over half the respondents perceived no positive or negative impacts from the conservation interventions. We found no significant difference between strict protection and community forest management in the measures we used to examine the magnitude of their relative impacts, but there were differences in the characteristics of domains impacted and in the priority domains that could be targeted to improve well-being in locally meaningful ways. Because of its subjectivity, the GPGI cannot provide quantitative information on the magnitude of impacts. Its strength lies in the wealth of information it provides on what life domains people value and their performance in these domains. Combined with the participatory impact evaluation approach, the GPGI provides highly relevant insights that can be used to improve interventions in ways which increase the local legitimacy and acceptability of conservation initiatives.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.032
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • From worker to peasant and then to entrepreneur' Land reform and
           agrarian change in the Saïss (Morocco)
    • Authors: Olivier Petit; Marcel Kuper; Fatah Ameur
      Pages: 119 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Olivier Petit, Marcel Kuper, Fatah Ameur
      The aim of this paper is to analyze the emerging entrepreneurial practices on family farms in two agrarian reform cooperatives in Morocco. Their emergence can be explained by the constant negotiation of multiple and sometimes even antagonistic logics within these farms in a context of rapid agrarian change and the juxtaposition of capitalistic, entrepreneurial and peasant farms in the same area. Through their engagement as workers or sharecroppers in the different types of farms and as household members on the family farm, the young farmers from the dismantled agrarian cooperatives participate actively in the transformation of farming modes. The porosity of the peasant and entrepreneurial worlds is the main lesson we draw from our study. There is a subtle process of hybridization between the peasant and entrepreneurial modes of farming, resulting in a wide range of profiles. If we only focus on the political discourse, the trend towards capitalistic and entrepreneurial modes of farming seems inescapable. Nevertheless, our study stresses the resistance of peasant modes of farming that can blend with a ‘modern’ perception of agriculture.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.031
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Change of pace: Accelerations and advances during the Millennium
           Development Goal era
    • Authors: John W. McArthur; Krista Rasmussen
      Pages: 132 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): John W. McArthur, Krista Rasmussen
      This paper presents a quantitative investigation of trends before and after the establishment of the U.N. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to determine which trajectories changed where, and to what scale of human consequence. We perform three empirical assessments: a count of countries that accelerated their rate of progress post-2000; statistical t-tests for differences in mean country rates of progress; and a determination of the incremental lives saved or improved (or not) due to accelerated progress above pre-MDG trends. We find that low-income countries and sub-Saharan African countries had positive acceleration on a majority of indicators and accounted for much of the world’s post-2000 accelerations. Middle-income countries typically registered larger cumulative gains but less acceleration over the period. The greatest advances were in matters of life and death. At least 20.9 million and as many as 30.3 million additional lives were saved due to accelerated rates of progress, with sub-Saharan Africa accounting for approximately two-thirds of the total. Primary school completion also showed considerable overall acceleration, leading to at least 74 million more children having finished primary school. Other measures of basic needs – including undernourishment, access to water and access to sanitation – showed mixed patterns of acceleration. Headcount rates of extreme income poverty declined at an accelerated rate in most regions. Environmental indicators showed no systematic evidence of faster progress.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.030
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Famine systems: A new model for understanding the development of famines
    • Authors: Paul Howe
      Pages: 144 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Paul Howe
      Humans have experienced famines throughout their history. Even today, the world faces the prospect of several of these crises occurring simultaneously. Yet despite their persistence, there is no agreed model for the development of famines, making it difficult to detect their emergence and to prevent their occurrence. Examining a diverse range of historical and contemporary crises, this paper argues that the evolution of famines can be identified by a set of recognizable elements: pressure, hold, self-reinforcing dynamics, famine system, and rebalancing. It suggests that severe pressure on a population, when held in place for sufficient time, leads to self-reinforcing dynamics that can eventually organize into a famine system that rapidly causes high levels of mortality, until it re-balances and collapses. It contends that this famine systems model can provide analytical insight into the development of most famines and can potentially be used to better identify and respond to these crises in the future.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.028
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Change in urban concentration and economic growth
    • Authors: Susanne A. Frick; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
      Pages: 156 - 170
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Susanne A. Frick, Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
      The paper investigates (1) the evolution of urban concentration from 1985 to 2010 in 68 countries around the world and (2) the extent to which the degree of urban concentration affects national economic growth. It aims to overcome the limitations of existing empirical literature by building a new urban population dataset that allows the construction of a set of Herfindahl-Hirschman-Indices which capture a country’s urban structure in a more nuanced way than the indicators used hitherto. We find that, contrary to the general perception, urban concentration levels have on average decreased or remained stable (depending on indicator). However, these averages camouflage diverging trends across countries. The results of the econometric analysis suggest that there is no uniform relationship between urban concentration and economic growth. Urban concentration is beneficial for economic growth in high-income countries, while this effect does not hold for developing countries. The results differ from previous analyses that generally underscore the benefits of urban concentration at low levels of economic development. The results are robust to accounting for reverse causality through IV analysis, using exogenous geographic factors as instruments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.034
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Reducing bureaucratic corruption: Interdisciplinary perspectives on what
           works
    • Authors: Jordan Gans-Morse; Mariana Borges; Alexey Makarin; Theresa Mannah-Blankson; Andre Nickow; Dong Zhang
      Pages: 171 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Jordan Gans-Morse, Mariana Borges, Alexey Makarin, Theresa Mannah-Blankson, Andre Nickow, Dong Zhang
      This article offers the first comprehensive review of the interdisciplinary state of knowledge regarding anti-corruption policies, with a particular focus on reducing corruption among civil servants. Drawing on the work of economists, political scientists, sociologists, and anthropologists, we examine seven policy categories: (1) rewards and penalties; (2) monitoring; (3) restructuring bureaucracies; (4) screening and recruiting; (5) anti-corruption agencies; (6) educational campaigns; and (7) international agreements. Notably, rigorous empirical evaluation is lacking for the majority of commonly prescribed anti-corruption policies. Nevertheless, we find growing evidence of the effectiveness of policies based on monitoring, including anti-corruption audits and e-governance. In addition, adequate civil service wages seem to be a necessary but insufficient condition for control of corruption. An emerging skepticism regarding the effectiveness of anti-corruption agencies also is apparent in the literature. We conclude with broader lessons drawn from our review, such as the recognition that when corruption is a systemic problem, it cannot be treated in the long term with individual-level solutions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Returns to microcredit, cash grants and training for male and female
           microentrepreneurs in Uganda
    • Authors: Nathan Fiala
      Pages: 189 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Nathan Fiala
      Experimental tests of microfinance programs have found little or no impacts on business and household income outcomes. I present experimental evidence that the gender of the individual receiving a loan matters for the impacts measured. Microenterprise owners were randomly offered either capital with repayment (discounted loans) or without (grants) and were randomly chosen to receive business skills training in conjunction with the capital. I find no short-run effects for female-owned enterprises from either form of capital or the training. However, I find large effects on profits and sales for male-owned enterprises that were offered loans. There is no effect for men from the grants, suggesting repayment requirements increased the likelihood of productive investment. The results indicate that cash-constrained men—a sample that is not traditionally targeted by microcredit organizations—can benefit from subsidized microfinance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.027
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • An exploration of the changes in the international comparison program’s
           global economic landscape
    • Authors: Martin Ravallion
      Pages: 201 - 216
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Martin Ravallion
      The Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) rates from the 2011 round of the International Comparison Program (ICP) imply some dramatic revisions to price levels and real incomes across the world as compared to the prior 2005 round. This has important implications for many cross-country comparisons, including measures of poverty and inequality. Without presuming that either round is better methodologically, the paper tries to help the community of ICP users better understand the economic factors underlying the estimated changes in price levels across countries. Differences in domestic inflation rates have played a role, as expected. Two other factors are identified. The excess sensitivity to changes in market exchange rates suggests that the PPPs may put higher weight on internationally traded goods than do domestic deflators. Additionally, faster growing countries have seen a steeper rise in their PPP relative to market exchange rates; this can be explained by a tendency for wage increases in growing economies to lead to a higher price level. Together these factors account for over 70% of the variance in PPP changes even ignoring methodological changes. However, an independent downward drift in price levels is also evident, concentrated in the ICP’s Asia region. A possible explanation lies in the Asia region’s greater success (relative to other regions) in removing urban bias in the price surveys.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.035
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Hurricanes, economic growth and transmission channels
    • Authors: Michael Berlemann; Daniela Wenzel
      Pages: 231 - 247
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Michael Berlemann, Daniela Wenzel
      While the short-term growth consequences of natural disasters are comparatively well studied, little is known about the long-run perspective. Based on truly exogenous storm indicators, derived from a meteorological database, we show that the growth effects of tropical storms go well beyond the short-term perspective. A disaggregated analysis reveals that the reaction of economic growth to the occurrence of hurricanes depends strongly on the level of development of the afflicted countries with developing countries being most negatively affected. We also consider through which channels tropical storms affect long-run growth and find the investment share as well as fertility to react systematically to tropical storms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.020
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • A new model of development coalition building: USAID achieving legitimate
           access and dominant information in Bangladesh’s forest policy
    • Authors: Md Saifur Rahman; Sohag Miah; Lukas Giessen
      Pages: 248 - 261
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Md Saifur Rahman, Sohag Miah, Lukas Giessen
      The influence of non-domestic actors and institutions on domestic policymaking process has been a constant research topic for a long time in the field of development studies. During recent years, however, the coalition strategy of foreign donors seems to have changed in favor of non-governmental allies in development cooperation, instead of state bureaucracies of the target countries. As a key foreign donor, for instance, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has introduced the forest co-management development concept, altering important policy and institutional settings in Bangladesh. The changes resulted from a combination of development inputs and politics, including funding, technical assistance and coalition with multiple, mostly non-state stakeholders. In this article, we use the concepts of development policy change, the global governance theorem of direct access to domestic policymaking process, and bureaucratic politics theory from development policy analysis for analyzing this new coalition strategy. A mixed qualitative-quantitative methods approach and the case of the USAID-induced forest co-management development model were employed to analyze the new coalition strategy based on the main interests of the donor. The results indicate that in the development process, USAID formed coalitions with non-state actors at all levels, thus circumventing national bureaucracies. The donor substantially involved non-state actors to (1) overcome the dominant information of state bureaucracies by eliciting data in the donors’ informal interests, (2) gain control over the implementation process at multiple levels, and (3) enhance pressure on all levels of government for substantive policy changes. In contrast, the initial and very marginal coalitions with state agencies imply an initial cost for legitimately accessing a country’s governance system. Furthermore, such detouring of state agencies poses the questions of operational authority and, concurrently, of ownership to sustain the changed practices. A broader implication based on the study findings is to especially consider the sovereignty issue in a development context in a recipient country.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.029
      Issue No: Vol. 105 (2018)
       
  • Assessing the long-term performance of large-scale land transfers:
           Challenges and opportunities in Malawi’s estate sector
    • Authors: Klaus Deininger; Fang Xia
      Pages: 281 - 296
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Klaus Deininger, Fang Xia
      We use data from the complete computerization of agricultural leases in Malawi, a georeferenced farm survey, and satellite imagery to document challenges and opportunities of land-based investment in novel ways. Covering some 1.35 million hectares or about 25% of the country’s arable area, agricultural estates are an important part of Malawi’s rural economy. However, the analysis shows that 70% of these estates have expired leases, reducing government revenue from ground rent by up to US$35 million or 5% of the total public spending annually. The low quality of spatial records, as indicated by the fact that some 140,000 hectares under estates are subject to overlapping claims could preclude the land market participation, especially under longer-term contracts. Data from a 2006/07 survey suggest that estates’ yield, productivity, and intensity of land use are below those of small farms. While the recently passed land laws create a basis for low-cost systematic demarcation and registration of rights to customary land, our analysis suggests that, to maximize their likely contribution to increasing productivity and welfare rather than conflict, such efforts need to be preceded by a clarification of boundaries and lease status of existing estates and ideally a more detailed study of the reasons underpinning the low productivity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.025
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • Natural disasters, social protection, and risk perceptions
    • Authors: Philip Brown; Adam J. Daigneault; Emilia Tjernström; Wenbo Zou
      Pages: 310 - 325
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Philip Brown, Adam J. Daigneault, Emilia Tjernström, Wenbo Zou
      Natural disasters give rise to loss and damage and may affect subjective expectations about the prevalence and severity of future disasters. These expectations might then in turn shape individuals’ investment behaviors, potentially affecting their incomes in subsequent years. As part of an emerging literature on endogenous preferences, economists have begun studying the consequences that exposure to natural disasters have on risk attitudes, perceptions, and behavior. We add to this field by studying the impact of being struck by the December 2012 Cyclone Evan on Fijian households’ risk attitudes and subjective expectations about the likelihood and severity of natural disasters over the next 20 years. The randomness of the cyclone’s path allows us to estimate the causal effects of exposure on both risk attitudes and risk perceptions. Our results show that being struck by an extreme event substantially changes individuals’ risk perceptions as well as their beliefs about the frequency and magnitude of future shocks. However, we find sharply distinct results for the two ethnicities in our sample, indigenous Fijians and Indo-Fijians; the impact of the natural disaster aligns with previous results in the literature on risk attitudes and risk perceptions for Indo-Fijians, whereas they have little to no impact on those same measures for indigenous Fijians.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • It’s a boy! Women and decision-making benefits from a son in India
    • Authors: Laura Zimmermann
      Pages: 326 - 335
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Laura Zimmermann
      Son preference is widespread in a number of developing countries despite substantial improvements in education levels and economic development. One potential explanation for the persistence of this phenomenon is that individual household members like the mother derive large non-monetary benefits from giving birth to a son and therefore prefer boys to girls. Qualitative evidence suggests that such benefits exist and may depend on the child’s age. This paper uses large nationally representative datasets from India and tests whether having a son leads to higher decision-making powers for mothers than having a daughter. Since the number and gender composition of children is likely to be non-random for families that want a son, I focus on first-born children for whom the sex ratio of girls relative to boys is normal. The main analysis also focuses on young children of up to six months, which gives parents little time to adjust desired birth-spacing intervals that could be systematically correlated with decision-making powers and child gender. The results show little evidence of consistently large female benefits shortly after birth, and any positive impacts of having a son disappear after the first six months. There are also no large benefits for adult sons. These empirical patterns do not support qualitative evidence suggesting that women benefit from the birth of a son through larger decision-making powers in the household because of increased respect by other household members. The benefits also do not heavily depend on the child’s age, which is not consistent with a channel predicting a better bargaining position for women with adult sons who start taking over the running of the household. Overall, these results extend our understanding of individual-specific incentives for son preference.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • Intra-household allocation of educational expenses: Gender discrimination
           and investing in the future
    • Authors: Tara Kaul
      Pages: 336 - 343
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Tara Kaul
      Gender discrimination within the household exists in many contexts. In societies where the norm is to not expect future support from daughters, parents may invest even less in the health and human capital of girls. In India, as in other patriarchal societies, the eldest son occupies a special position as the potential head of the extended family and is expected to assume responsibility for parents' welfare in their old age. In this paper, I explore intra-household differences in educational expenditure and enrollment for children by gender and birth order. Using child level data from the nationally representative India Human Development Survey-II (2011–12), I confirm the presence of a pro-male bias and an additional preference for the eldest son. In families with more children and greater competition for resources within the household, the pro-male bias falls and the bias in favor of the eldest son is greater. Parents in the higher income bracket, who are also less likely to be dependent on their children, discriminate less in favor of the eldest son. As expected, pro-male bias is highest in the north, central and eastern zones of the country. The north-eastern zone exhibits the lowest levels of intra household discrimination based on gender. Finally, I find evidence suggesting reverse discrimination, i.e. discrimination against sons, in the state of Meghalaya which follows a rare matrilineal system where the youngest daughter takes over as the head of the household.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.017
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • The struggle for digital inclusion: Phones, healthcare, and
           marginalisation in rural India
    • Authors: Marco J. Haenssgen
      Pages: 358 - 374
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Marco J. Haenssgen
      The gains from digital technology diffusion are deemed essential for international development, but they are also distributed unevenly. Does the uneven distribution mean that not everyone benefits from new technologies to the same extent, or do some people experience an absolute disadvantage during this process' I explore this question through the case study of curative healthcare access in the context of rapid mobile phone uptake in rural India, contributing thus to an important yet surprisingly under-researched aspect of the social implications of (mobile) technology diffusion. Inspired by a previous analysis of cross-sectional data from rural India, I hypothesise that health systems increasingly adapt to mobile phone users where phones have diffused widely. This adaptation will leave poor non-adopters worse off than before and increases healthcare inequities. I use a panel of 12,003 rural households with an illness in 2005 and 2012 from the Indian Human Development Survey to test this hypothesis. Based on village-cluster robust fixed-effects linear probability models, I find that (a) mobile phone diffusion is significantly and negatively linked to various forms of rural healthcare access, suggesting that health systems increasingly adapt to phone use and discriminate against non-users; that (b) poor rural households without mobile phones experience more adverse effects compared to more affluent households, which indicates a struggle and competition for healthcare access among marginalised groups; and that (c) no effects emerge for access to public doctors, which implies that some healthcare providers are less responsive to mobile phone use than others. Overall, my findings indicate that the rural Indian healthcare system gradually adapts to increasing mobile phone use at the expense of non-users. I conclude that rapid mobile phone diffusion creates an opportunity to improve people’s access to healthcare in rural India, but it also creates new forms of marginalisation among poor rural households.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.023
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • Contestation and negotiation of urban health in India: A situated
           political approach
    • Authors: V.S. Saravanan
      Pages: 375 - 387
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): V.S. Saravanan
      This article examines health as a political struggle, where individuals contest and negotiate to secure health in a situated context. In this context, individuals who are socially embedded and exposed to the existing biosocial arena integrate macro-institutional determinants with everyday micro-institutional settings during the life course. Drawing together institutional analysis and a life course approach, the article examines the interplay of institutions in the exposure, action and outcomes behind individuals health in two case study wards in urban India-one planned settlement, and the other a ‘slum-like’ settlement. It applies longitudinal methods of household survey and life course analyses of individuals reporting diseases to understand the interplay of institutions. The analysis reveals statutory rules creating boundary conditions for exposure to infection. The individuals exploit these using the socially embedded norms to contest and negotiate through coalitions and networks. The statutory rules defines the scope and outcomes of the health-seeking decisions. The study in two case study reveals that seemingly ‘planned settlement’ is conducive over the spread of infections than in slum-like settlement. It calls for strategic focus on improving the boundary conditions – the environmental hygiene and public health infrastructure – which might be more effective than contemporary neo-liberal techno-centric and individualized interventions. Failure to promote these actions will provide an environment conducive to the future spread of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Theoretically, it pushes for greater understanding of the socio-political struggle of individuals, rather than focusing on risk factors and dualistic nature of macro- and micro-institutions. The approach leaves room for applying situated political approach in understanding mobility and seasonality of exposure to diseases in urban regions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • Disability and school attendance in 15 low- and middle-income countries
    • Authors: Suguru Mizunoya; Sophie Mitra; Izumi Yamasaki
      Pages: 388 - 403
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Suguru Mizunoya, Sophie Mitra, Izumi Yamasaki
      Out of school children are a critical issue in education and development. Very little is known as to whether a disability is associated with a higher risk of being out of school for children in developing countries. This paper presents and analyzes the gap in enrolment in both primary and secondary education between children with and without disabilities using for the first time an internationally tested and comparable measure of functional difficulties (e.g. seeing, hearing, and walking). Using nationally representative datasets from 15 developing countries, this paper finds a consistent and statistically significant disability gap in both primary and secondary school attendance. The paper econometrically examines potential explanations for this disability gap using several specifications. A household fixed effect model shows that disability reduces the probability of school attendance by a median 30.9 percentage points, and that neither individual characteristics nor their socio-economic and unobserved household characteristics explain the disability gap. While general poverty reduction policies through for instance social transfers to the poor may improve school attendance in general, they seem unlikely to close the disability gap in schooling. The disability gap for primary–age children follows an inverted U-shape relationship with GNI per capita. This suggests that, as GNI per capita rises and more resources become available for improving access to education in middle-income countries, children without disabilities increasingly attend school, whereas the situation of children with disabilities may improve more slowly. Despite the adoption of an inclusive education agenda globally, this paper shows that more research and policy attention is needed to make schooling disability-inclusive in developing countries. More attention is also necessary regarding the functional difficulties experienced by children, as some may be preventable and the schooling inequalities associated with them may thus be avoidable.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • Natural disasters and agricultural protection: A panel data analysis
    • Authors: Jeroen Klomp; Barry Hoogezand
      Pages: 404 - 417
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Jeroen Klomp, Barry Hoogezand
      We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off between protecting the economic interests of the domestic agricultural sector on the one hand and ensuring food availability for the society at large on the other. Our most important findings suggest that natural disasters generally raise agricultural trade controls to favor domestic farmers. These barriers are mainly provided by limiting imports in the aftermath of a natural event. However, the protection pattern differs among countries. To be more specific, floods and storms increase agricultural protection in high-income countries, while trade barriers in many LDCs are reduced during periods of extreme drought in an attempt to diminish food scarcity. Finally, it turns out that a large part of the change in agricultural protection caused by a natural disaster is explained by a number of commodity specific particularities (i.e., food vs. cash crops).

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • Corrigendum to “Weather Shocks and Agricultural Commercialization in
           Colonial Tropical Africa: Did Export Crops Alleviate Social
           Distress'” [World Dev. 94 (2017) 346–365]
    • Authors: Kostadis J. Papaioannou; Michiel de Haas
      First page: 418
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Kostadis J. Papaioannou, Michiel de Haas


      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.023
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2018)
       
  • Building support for taxation in developing countries: Experimental
           evidence from Mexico
    • Authors: Gustavo
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 105
      Author(s): Gustavo A. Flores-Macías
      Drawing on insights from the literature on institutional design—how rules shape behavior to achieve desired outcomes—this article examines how certain design features of taxes—such as allowing for civil society oversight, earmark mechanisms that direct tax revenue for a specific purpose, and sunset provisions that make the duration of taxes finite—affect political support for tax reforms. It also evaluates how three important aspects of the fiscal exchange—trust in government, perceptions of the public good, and level of income—shape the effect of these design features. Based on an original survey experiment focusing on the provision of public safety in Mexico, I find that these design features increase political support for taxation, especially among those with low trust in government and low income. These findings have important implications not just for Mexico but also a number of other countries across Latin America that have both low levels of extraction and increased public spending imperatives.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T15:54:18Z
       
  • The importance of Ostrom’s Design Principles: Youth group
           performance in northern Ethiopia
    • Authors: Stein T. Holden; Mesfin Tilahun
      Pages: 10 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Stein T. Holden, Mesfin Tilahun
      Youth unemployment and migration are growing challenges that need more political attention in many countries, particularly countries with rapid population growth and economic transformation. Proactively mobilizing the youth as a resource in the creation of sustainable livelihoods can potentially be a win-win-win solution that Ethiopia is currently attempting. The new youth employment strategy includes allocation of rehabilitated communal lands to youth groups. This study investigates the extent to which Ostrom’s Design Principles (DPs) are followed and matter for the early performance of youth groups in terms of their stability, trust and overall performance. Data from a census of 742 youth groups in five districts in Tigray in northern Ethiopia is used. This study utilizes econometric methods to assess correlations between the DPs and a range of early performance indicators. The study contributes to the limited literature on local collective action utilizing large samples. We find a high degree of compliance with the DPs. Some of the DPs appeared more important for early performance of the youth groups. The Ethiopian youth group approach to mobilize landless and unemployed youth is promising and should be tested elsewhere. Further longitudinal research is needed on the Ethiopian model as it is still at an early stage of testing as most groups are less than five years old.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Buying stability: The distributive outcomes of private politics in the
           Bolivian mining industry
    • Authors: Matthew Amengual
      Pages: 31 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Matthew Amengual
      Social movements and interest groups in developing countries increasingly challenge large firms to influence their behavior and make direct claims for redistribution of the gains from economic activity. In response to such private politics, firms seek to maintain political support in the localities in which they operate so that they can avoid conflict and secure access to resources. To secure local support and defuse opposition, some firms take actions that expand access to essential public goods, services, and economic opportunities, while others use targeted clientelistic benefits that reward only a few. What accounts for this variation' Answering this question is key to identifying the development consequences of private politics. This article explores this question through a study of multinational mining firms operating in Bolivia, drawing on qualitative data from interviews as well as an original household survey. It shows that the political structures and organization in the localities in which firms operate create distinct incentives for firms to distribute benefits in targeted or inclusive ways. This finding contributes to studies of the local politics of natural resources and firm responses to social contestation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Contract farming for improving smallholder incomes: What can we learn from
           effectiveness studies'
    • Authors: Giel Ton; Wytse Vellema; Sam Desiere; Sophia Weituschat; Marijke D'Haese
      Pages: 46 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Giel Ton, Wytse Vellema, Sam Desiere, Sophia Weituschat, Marijke D'Haese
      Contract farming is a sales arrangement between a farmer and a firm, agreed before production begins, which provides the farmer with resources or services. Many governments and donors promote contract farming as part of agricultural development policies. However, there is serious concern whether smaller farmers can benefit from these arrangements. This paper presents the results of a systematic review that analysed the evidence in the literature on income effects for smallholders. The review included all studies with an econometric design to reduce selection bias in effect estimates. The meta-analysis covered 26 empirical instances of contract farming in 13 developing countries. The contracts varied widely, with varying service packages provided by the firm to the farmers. Using truth table analysis, we explored combinations of services associated with relatively high or relatively low income effects. The meta-analysis resulted in an overall pooled average effect size of 38%. However, we show that there are publication and survivor biases. Non-significant effects are systematically underreported. Moreover, all studies assessed the effectiveness of the contractual arrangement when these had already survived the start-up problems. Both sources of bias lead to an overestimation of the average income effect. The findings point to the need for substantial income effects for contract farming arrangements to survive over time. Both firms and farmers face risks; for example, farmers may side-sell products after having received the services from the firm. The most effective contractual arrangements included a price premium, especially when there was no farmers’ organisation to broker the contract between the farmer and the firm. We show that smallholders can benefit from the contractual arrangement. However, the poorest farmers are rarely included; we show that, in 61% of the cases, the contract farmers had significantly larger landholdings or more assets than the average farmers in the region.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Resilience mobility in Uganda: A dynamic analysis
    • Authors: Marco d'Errico; Stefania Di Giuseppe
      Pages: 78 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Marco d'Errico, Stefania Di Giuseppe
      Household resilience to food insecurity can be considered as the capacity that ensures stressors and shocks do not have long-lasting adverse development consequences; it is, nowadays, one of the key words in the policy debate on development. Measuring resilience capacity and how it varies over time is extremely significant for policy makers and people living in risk-prone environments. More specifically, there is a gap of empirical evidence about what drives changes in resilience capacity status (i.e. moving from a low resilience profile to a high one, and viceversa). This paper applies econometric techniques for estimating household resilience and adopts transition matrices to estimate how it changes over time. Finally, multinomial logit and bivariate probit models are estimated to identify the main drivers of change. Our study finds that female headed households are less likely to become the most resilient; also this paper demonstrates that education and participation to household enterprises are positively associated with increased resilience capacity. This paper innovates the resilience literature by providing an evidence based analysis of the main drivers of resilience; it brings this evidence in the Uganda’s context, focusing the attention of the policy makers on sub-sample of population which are worse off. More generally, our study suggests that resilience enhancing policies can bridge humanitarian and development interventions by demonstrating how long-term perspectives (i.e. those investing in education) can lead to an immediate increase of resilience.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:13:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.020
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Who practices rights-based development' A progress report on work at
           the nexus of human rights and development
    • Authors: Paul J. Nelson; Ellen Dorsey
      Pages: 97 - 107
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Paul J. Nelson, Ellen Dorsey
      Human rights-based approaches to development have attracted practitioners’ support and scholarly interest for at least 20 years. After two decades of interest, how are they being implemented' This paper is an update and re-assessment of the record of development and human rights agencies’ involvement in human rights-based work on development policy. We find that some development agencies have adopted rights-based approaches and made systematic changes in practice, but the rhetoric has far exceeded substantive changes. Drawing on documentary evidence and the extensive literature, we analyze the factors constraining implementation in development agencies (political, conceptual and organizational), and document broader, more transformative changes among human rights NGOs. Their expanded work on development policy issues has featured new research and advocacy agendas, the embrace of new skill sets, significant new methodologies, and the formation of many new, specialized agencies that provide much of the dynamism in the human rights-development interactions. The findings suggest that we need a careful assessment of the extent of “rights-based” work among development funders and NGOs, and its impact; and they highlight the increasingly influential role that human rights NGOs play in framing and influencing important social, economic and environmental policies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Desert land reclamation programs and family land dynamics in the Western
           Desert of the Nile Delta (Egypt), 1960–2010
    • Authors: Véronique Alary; Adel Aboul-Naga; Mona A. Osman; Ibrahim Daoud; Sahar Abdelraheem; Ehab Salah; Xavier Juanes; Pascal Bonnet
      Pages: 140 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Véronique Alary, Adel Aboul-Naga, Mona A. Osman, Ibrahim Daoud, Sahar Abdelraheem, Ehab Salah, Xavier Juanes, Pascal Bonnet
      The agricultural development on newly reclaimed lands has led to many national debates about food security and budget deficits, and the living conditions of the new settlers at the local level. This debate is still crucial for present day Egypt, a country facing major challenges, including food security, agriculture modernization, employment generation, and land fragmentation due to dramatic population growth. In this context, policy makers are always seeking the best land allocation system for these new lands. This paper analyzes the land tenure and land use dynamics of farmers’ settlements during a program of land reclamation (from 1960 to 2010) in the Western Desert of the Nile Delta. The objective is to describe the land development paths of farm settlement and to identify promising dynamics by cross-referencing the farmers’ stories and their livelihood achievements. To accomplish that, we conducted household surveys and interviews to learn the life stories’ of 175 family farms. Our study finds that, beyond the rules and institutions that fixed the land tenure regimes and its distribution in these new lands, settlers have found different ways to hold on and secure their land farm, even if the unequal land distribution still structure the population. The results highlight also the dynamism of small-scale settlers, regarding livelihood diversification, to face the challenges of these desert environments. In addition, the dual-purpose system embedded in mixed crop-livestock systems can contribute to settlers’ livelihood security. These realities confound the unchanged rhetoric of government and this calls for more social consideration of these new rural spaces based on a combination of heterogeneous networks off relationships and knowledge. The apparent gap between the macro- and micro-perspectives analyses also requires multi-scale assessments. Finally, the life-story method proves to be a complementary and useful approach to integrate the livelihood representation and dynamic.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Does social identity matter in individual alienation' Household-level
           evidence in post-reform India
    • Authors: Prashant Gupta; Sushanta Mallick; Tapas Mishra
      Pages: 154 - 172
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Prashant Gupta, Sushanta Mallick, Tapas Mishra
      Does consumption distance as a measure of individual alienation reveal the effect of social identity' Using the central idea of Akerlof’s ‘social distance’ theory, individual distance is calculated from their own group mean consumption and then we examine whether individuals from different social groups – caste and religion – are alienated across the distance distribution. Using India’s household-level microdata on consumption expenditure covering three major survey rounds since the inception of the reform period, we find a non-unique pattern where the marginalised and minority group households tend to be alienated across the distance distribution. However, among them, the households with higher educational attainment become more integrated as reflected in the interaction effect of education. These results are robust even after controlling for the endogeneity of education. Given this significant group difference in consumption, we undertake a group-level comparison by creating a counterfactual group through exchanging the characteristics of the privileged group to the marginalised group (or Hindus to non-Hindus), and find that the privileged group still consumes more than the counterfactual marginalised group, explaining around 77% of the estimated average consumption gap at the median quantile in 2011–12 (or 59% for Hindus versus Non-Hindus). This suggests other inherent identity-specific social factors as possible contributors to within-group alienation (relative to a better-off category) that can only be minimised through promoting education for the marginalised (or minority religion) group.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Collective demands and secret codes: The multiple uses of “community”
           in “community mobilization”
    • Authors: Gowri Vijayakumar
      Pages: 173 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Gowri Vijayakumar
      The romance of “community mobilization” continues to pervade development and public health programs. Critics argue that “community” has become a buzzword devoid of content or a mechanism of neoliberal governmentality. This article revisits these approaches to community mobilization, using ethnographic data from a context in which “community mobilization” has met with wide acclaim: HIV prevention programs in India. Focusing on how the concept of community is used in everyday practice reveals its multivalence and flexibility. I show that, for many planners and administrators of HIV prevention programs, “community mobilization” is a strategy for placing responsibility for HIV prevention onto groups at risk, but, for those groups, it also has two alternative usages: as the basis for making collective demands, and as a code word for membership in a subversive sexual category. These latter two uses undergird the formation of “communities” that make new demands on the state. While scholars tend to characterize community mobilization programs in terms of their intent, as either mostly empowering or mostly a mechanism of domination, this article shifts the focus to how the concept of community is used, demonstrating its multiple usages within the same program. I show that groups bring to bear on the concept of “community” not only abstracted NGO concepts, but also a history of using “community” in India as a political category of membership. Rather than rejecting or celebrating the concept of “community”, this article uses ethnography to show how community is put to use and given meaning through everyday struggles for control and survival.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Adaptation to climate change: A review through a development economics
           lens
    • Authors: David Castells-Quintana; Maria del Pilar Lopez-Uribe; Thomas K.J. McDermott
      Pages: 183 - 196
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): David Castells-Quintana, Maria del Pilar Lopez-Uribe, Thomas K.J. McDermott
      This paper looks at adaptation to climate change from the point of view of (poor) households. Since the development literature has firmly established the role of weather risk as a source of income volatility for the poor, and climate change is expected to increase this risk, we review the range of risk-coping mechanisms available to poorer households, with a focus on possible barriers to adaptation. We ask both how government interventions affect the set of options available for adaptation and risk coping, and also what these adaptive responses imply for the prospects of sustainable development. Support for adaptation can involve efforts to make existing locations, livelihoods and forms of production more resilient to climate risk (in-situ adaptation), or reductions in vulnerability through the geographical and sectoral mobility of the poor (transformational adaptation). Our review shows how successful adaptation will need to strike a balance between the two forms of adaptation, avoiding locking-in unsustainable practices in locations that are already marginal from an economic perspective, and taking account of broader socio-economic trends already taking place in many developing countries (such as population growth and urbanisation). We also highlight important considerations for policy-makers, which to date have been relatively neglected in the literature, in particular related to the dynamic interaction between adaptation and sustainable development.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • ICT and economic growth – Comparing developing, emerging and
           developed countries
    • Authors: Thomas Niebel
      Pages: 197 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Thomas Niebel
      This paper analyzes the impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) on economic growth in developing, emerging and developed countries. The main question is whether the gains from investments in ICT differ between developing, emerging and developed countries. The analysis is based on a high-quality sample of 59 countries for the period 1995–2010. Various panel data regressions confirm the previously reported positive relationship between ICT capital and GDP growth. For the combined sample of all 59 countries, the estimated output elasticity of ICT is larger than the ICT factor compensation share suggesting excess returns to ICT capital. The regressions for the subsamples of developing, emerging and developed countries do not reveal statistically significant differences in the output elasticity of ICT between these three groups of countries. Thus, the results indicate that developing and emerging countries are not gaining more from investments in ICT than developed economies, calling into question the argument that these countries are ‘leapfrogging’ through ICT.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.024
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Crowding out of solidarity' Public health insurance versus informal
           transfer networks in Ghana
    • Authors: Christoph Strupat; Florian Klohn
      Pages: 212 - 221
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Christoph Strupat, Florian Klohn
      This paper delivers empirical evidence on how transfers that serve as an informal insurance mechanism are affected by a formal and country-wide health insurance scheme. Using the fifth and fourth waves of the Ghanaian Living Standard Household Survey, we investigate the extent to which the implementation of the National Health Insurance Scheme affects health-related outcomes and making or receiving informal transfers. Our findings suggest that there is a reduction of out-of-pocket expenditures for health services and a significant crowding out of informal transfers. We conclude that the provision of formal health insurance does not only relieve ill individuals from out-of-pocket expenditures, but also their network partners from making informal transfers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Do saving promotion interventions increase household savings, consumption,
           and investments in Sub-Saharan Africa' A systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Janina I. Steinert; Juliane Zenker; Ute Filipiak; Ani Movsisyan; Lucie D. Cluver; Yulia Shenderovich
      Pages: 238 - 256
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Janina I. Steinert, Juliane Zenker, Ute Filipiak, Ani Movsisyan, Lucie D. Cluver, Yulia Shenderovich
      Saving promotion interventions have gained momentum in international development in recent years. Our analysis investigates whether saving promotion can effectively increase savings, consumption, and future-oriented investments in Sub-Saharan Africa. In an extensive search of 28 academic and policy-focused databases in the fields of economics, psychology, and social sciences, 9330 titles and abstracts of published and unpublished studies were screened and 27 randomized controlled trials on saving promotion interventions fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 studies reporting on an aggregated sample of 87,025 individuals provided sufficient information to be included in the meta-analysis. Robust-variance estimations of pooled effect sizes show small but significant impacts on poverty reduction, including increases in household expenditures and incomes, higher returns from family businesses, and improved food security. They also show positive and significant impacts on more intermediate outcomes including total savings, pro-saving attitudes, financial literacy, and investments in small-scale family businesses. Our results do not show significant effects on assets, housing quality, education, or health. Results from meta-regressions suggest that supply-based programs are superior to demand-enhancing program types such as financial education. They further reveal reduced program effectiveness for women. Overall, findings from this analysis suggest that saving promotion schemes are highly relevant in reducing poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, and that future efforts should focus on expansion of banking services to the poor as well as gender-sensitive programming.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Saving in the world
    • Authors: Francesco Grigoli; Alexander Herman; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel
      Pages: 257 - 270
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Francesco Grigoli, Alexander Herman, Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel
      This paper presents new evidence on the behavior of saving in the world, by extending previous empirical research in several dimensions. After extensively surveying the relevant theoretical and empirical literature, the paper reports estimates of saving determinants relying on the newly constructed and largest available database covering 165 countries over 1981–2012. The empirical specification includes determinants not considered in the literature, explores differences in saving behavior nesting the 2008–10 crisis period and four different country groups, searches for commonalities across key saving aggregates (national, private, household, and corporate saving rates), and is subject to a robustness analysis based on different estimation techniques. The results confirm in part existing research, but also shed light on some ambiguous or contradictory findings and highlight the role of neglected determinants. Compared to the literature, we find a larger number of significant determinants, changes across periods and country groups, and similarities across different saving aggregates.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.022
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Complicating narratives of women’s food and nutrition insecurity:
           Domestic violence in rural Bangladesh
    • Authors: Erin C. Lentz
      Pages: 271 - 280
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Erin C. Lentz
      A rich body of research confirms a strong association between a mother’s exposure to domestic violence and poor nutritional outcomes of her children. However, there is less empirical research on how domestic violence impacts nutrition and food security. Two pathways described in the literature are (1) perpetrators withhold food as a form violence or control, leading to poor nutrition of women and (2) women’s food preparation and portion allocation trigger “retaliatory” violence by perpetrators. Interviews by community researchers with over 100 women in rural Bangladesh reveal a little documented linkage between violence and food practices in rural Bangladesh. I find that women, in light of the realities and possibilities of domestic violence, weigh choices about food consumption and distribution, often choosing to eat less or lower quality foods. That is, women often demonstrate agentic decision-making in a context of violence, referred to here as “burdened agency.” Women traverse and navigate a complex set of relationships between hunger, undernutrition, agency and domestic violence, differing from the two presumed-causal pathways. Recognizing burdened agency can explain how women make decisions around food practices, and why the uptake of certain food security and nutrition interventions may be reduced.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.019
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
  • Dynamics in health and employment: Evidence from Indonesia
    • Authors: Subha Mani; Sophie Mitra; Usha Sambamoorthi
      Pages: 297 - 309
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:World Development, Volume 104
      Author(s): Subha Mani, Sophie Mitra, Usha Sambamoorthi
      This paper identifies for the first time, the separate causal impacts of both onsets of, and recoveries from, physical disability on both employment status and hours worked. Using panel data from Indonesia we find that more than half of working age adults in our sample experience a physical disability at least once in four waves over 16 years. Changes in physical functioning have no effect on hours worked among the employed. However, onsets of physical limitations lead to an increase in the probability of leaving employment, while recoveries increase the probability of returning to work. A larger effect is found among self-employed workers compared to salaried workers. Given the rising prevalence of physical limitations with age, physical disability may be a significant barrier to employment for older working age adults in Indonesia. These results overall point towards a need in Indonesia for policies that support maintaining work or returning to work for persons with physical disability.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T09:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.021
      Issue No: Vol. 104 (2017)
       
 
 
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