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Journal Cover Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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   ISSN (Print) 0169-5347
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Rabbits and the Specious Origins of Domestication
    • Authors: Evan K. Irving-Pease; Laurent A.F. Frantz; Naomi Sykes; Cécile Callou; Greger Larson
      Pages: 149 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): Evan K. Irving-Pease, Laurent A.F. Frantz, Naomi Sykes, Cécile Callou, Greger Larson
      Rabbits are commonly thought to have been domesticated in ∼AD600 by French monks. Using historical and archaeological records, and genetic methods, we demonstrate that this is a misconception and the general inability to date domestication stems from both methodological biases and the lack of appreciation of domestication as a continuum.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.009
  • Ecoevolutionary Dynamics of Carbon Cycling in the Anthropocene
    • Authors: J. Grey Monroe; David W. Markman; Whitney S. Beck; Andrew J. Felton; Megan L. Vahsen; Yamina Pressler
      Pages: 213 - 225
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 33, Issue 3
      Author(s): J. Grey Monroe, David W. Markman, Whitney S. Beck, Andrew J. Felton, Megan L. Vahsen, Yamina Pressler
      Climate change is altering natural selection globally, which could shift the evolutionary trajectories of traits central to the carbon (C) cycle. Here, we examine the components necessary for the evolution of C cycling traits to substantially drive changes in global C cycling and integrate these components into a framework of ecoevolutionary dynamics. Recent evidence points to the evolution of C cycling traits during the Anthropocene and the potential to significantly affect atmospheric CO2. We identify directions for further collaboration between evolutionary, ecosystem, and climate scientists to study these ecoevolutionary feedback dynamics and determine whether this evolution will ultimately accelerate or decelerate the current trend in rising atmospheric CO2.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.006
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 33, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
  • Towards a Comparable Quantification of Resilience
    • Authors: Johannes Ingrisch; Michael Bahn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Johannes Ingrisch, Michael Bahn
      Resilience is a key concept in ecology and describes the capacity of an ecosystem to maintain its state and recover from disturbances. Numerous metrics have been applied to quantify resilience over a range of ecosystems. However, the way resilience is quantified affects the degree to which different trajectories of ecosystem recovery from disturbance are represented as ‘resilient’, precluding a comparison of disturbance responses across ecosystems and their properties and functions. To approach a broadly comparable assessment of resilience we suggest using a bivariate framework that jointly considers the disturbance impact and the recovery rate, both normalized to the undisturbed state of a system. We demonstrate the potential of the framework for attribution and integration across the various components underlying resilience.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.013
  • Evolved Dependence in Response to Cancer
    • Authors: Frédéric Thomas; Irina Kareva; Nynke Raven; Rodrigo Hamede; Pascal Pujol; Benjamin Roche; Beata Ujvari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Frédéric Thomas, Irina Kareva, Nynke Raven, Rodrigo Hamede, Pascal Pujol, Benjamin Roche, Beata Ujvari
      Evolved dependence is a process through which one species becomes ‘dependent’ on another following a long evolutionary history of interaction. This happens when adaptations selected in the first species for interacting lead to fitness costs when the second species is not encountered. Evolved dependence is frequent in host–parasite interactions, where hosts may achieve a higher fitness in the presence of the parasite than in its absence. Since oncogenic manifestations are (i) ubiquitous across multicellular life, (ii) involved in parasitic-like interactions with their hosts, and (iii) have effectively driven the selection of numerous adaptations, it is possible that multicellular organisms display evolved dependence in response to oncogenic processes. We provide a comprehensive overview of the topic, including the implications for cancer prevention and treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.012
  • Towards the Integration of Niche and Network Theories
    • Authors: Oscar Godoy; Ignasi Bartomeus; Rudolf P. Rohr; Serguei Saavedra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Oscar Godoy, Ignasi Bartomeus, Rudolf P. Rohr, Serguei Saavedra
      The quest for understanding how species interactions modulate diversity has progressed by theoretical and empirical advances following niche and network theories. Yet, niche studies have been limited to describe coexistence within tropic levels despite incorporating information about multi-trophic interactions. Network approaches could address this limitation, but they have ignored the structure of species interactions within trophic levels. Here we call for the integration of niche and network theories to reach new frontiers of knowledge exploring how interactions within and across trophic levels promote species coexistence. This integration is possible due to the strong parallelisms in the historical development, ecological concepts, and associated mathematical tools of both theories. We provide a guideline to integrate this framework with observational and experimental studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.007
  • Parasitism and the Biodiversity-Functioning Relationship
    • Authors: André Frainer; Brendan G. McKie; Per-Arne Amundsen; Rune Knudsen; Kevin D. Lafferty
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): André Frainer, Brendan G. McKie, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Kevin D. Lafferty
      Species interactions can influence ecosystem functioning by enhancing or suppressing the activities of species that drive ecosystem processes, or by causing changes in biodiversity. However, one important class of species interactions – parasitism – has been little considered in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BD-EF) research. Parasites might increase or decrease ecosystem processes by reducing host abundance. Parasites could also increase trait diversity by suppressing dominant species or by increasing within-host trait diversity. These different mechanisms by which parasites might affect ecosystem function pose challenges in predicting their net effects. Nonetheless, given the ubiquity of parasites, we propose that parasite–host interactions should be incorporated into the BD-EF framework.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.011
  • Temporal Dynamism of Resource Capture: A Missing Factor in Ecology'
    • Authors: Emily J. Schofield; Jennifer K. Rowntree; Eric Paterson; Rob W. Brooker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Emily J. Schofield, Jennifer K. Rowntree, Eric Paterson, Rob W. Brooker
      Temporal dynamism of plant resource capture, and its impacts on plant–plant interactions, can have important regulatory roles in multispecies communities. For example, by modifying resource acquisition timing, plants might reduce competition and promote their coexistence. However, despite the potential wide ecological relevance of this topic, short-term (within growing season) temporal dynamism has been overlooked. This is partially a consequence of historic reliance on measures made at single points in time. We propose that with current technological advances this is a golden opportunity to study within growing season temporal dynamism of resource capture by plants in highly informative ways. We set out here an agenda for future developments in this research field, and explore how new technologies can deliver this agenda.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.009
  • Why a Planetary Boundary, If It Is Not Planetary, and the Boundary Is
           Undefined' A Reply to Rockström et al.
    • Authors: José M. Montoya; Ian Donohue; Stuart L. Pimm
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): José M. Montoya, Ian Donohue, Stuart L. Pimm

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.008
  • Planetary Boundaries: Separating Fact from Fiction. A Response to Montoya
           et al.
    • Authors: Johan Rockström; Katherine Richardson; Will Steffen; Georgina Mace
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Johan Rockström, Katherine Richardson, Will Steffen, Georgina Mace

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.010
  • Microplastics: No Small Problem for Filter-Feeding Megafauna
    • Authors: Elitza S. Germanov; Andrea D. Marshall; Lars Bejder; Maria Cristina Fossi; Neil R. Loneragan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Elitza S. Germanov, Andrea D. Marshall, Lars Bejder, Maria Cristina Fossi, Neil R. Loneragan
      Microplastic pollution can impact filter-feeding marine megafauna, namely mobulid rays, filter-feeding sharks, and baleen whales. Emerging research on these flagship species highlights potential exposure to microplastic contamination and plastic-associated toxins. Research and its wide communication are needed to understand the magnitude of the issue and improve marine stewardship.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:57:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.005
  • Which Coexistence Mechanisms Should Biogeographers Quantify' A Reply
           to Alexander et al.
    • Authors: William Godsoe; Jill Jankowski; Robert D. Holt; Dominique Gravel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): William Godsoe, Jill Jankowski, Robert D. Holt, Dominique Gravel

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.003
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 33, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
  • Reply to Glazier
    • Authors: Jon F. Harrison
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Jon F. Harrison

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.004
  • A Final Warning to Planet Earth
    • Authors: Guillaume Chapron; Harold Levrel; Yves Meinard; Franck Courchamp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Guillaume Chapron, Harold Levrel, Yves Meinard, Franck Courchamp

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.010
  • Species’ Distributions as a Coexistence Problem: A Response to
           Godsoe et al.
    • Authors: Jake M. Alexander; Jeffrey M. Diez; Jacob Usinowicz; Simon P. Hart
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Jake M. Alexander, Jeffrey M. Diez, Jacob Usinowicz, Simon P. Hart

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.001
  • CRISPR – Not Just the Newest Tool
    • Authors: Norman A. Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Norman A. Johnson

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.002
  • Resource Supply and Demand Both Affect Metabolic Scaling: A Response to
    • Authors: Douglas S. Glazier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Douglas S. Glazier

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.01.006
  • Energy Flux: The Link between Multitrophic Biodiversity and Ecosystem
    • Authors: Andrew D. Barnes; Malte Jochum; Jonathan S. Lefcheck; Nico Eisenhauer; Christoph Scherber; Mary I. O’Connor; Peter de Ruiter; Ulrich Brose
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Andrew D. Barnes, Malte Jochum, Jonathan S. Lefcheck, Nico Eisenhauer, Christoph Scherber, Mary I. O’Connor, Peter de Ruiter, Ulrich Brose
      Relating biodiversity to ecosystem functioning in natural communities has become a paramount challenge as links between trophic complexity and multiple ecosystem functions become increasingly apparent. Yet, there is still no generalised approach to address such complexity in biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) studies. Energy flux dynamics in ecological networks provide the theoretical underpinning of multitrophic BEF relationships. Accordingly, we propose the quantification of energy fluxes in food webs as a powerful, universal tool for understanding ecosystem functioning in multitrophic systems spanning different ecological scales. Although the concept of energy flux in food webs is not novel, its application to BEF research remains virtually untapped, providing a framework to foster new discoveries into the determinants of ecosystem functioning in complex systems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.007
  • Breaking Barriers: Causes, Consequences, and Experimental Utility of
           Human-Mediated Hybridization
    • Authors: Kathryn C. Grabenstein; Scott A. Taylor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Kathryn C. Grabenstein, Scott A. Taylor
      Hybridization between naturally co-occurring species that normally do not interbreed is being documented following anthropogenic habitat modifications for an increasing number of taxa. Here, we evaluate the mechanisms by which disturbance promotes hybridization and highlight the utility of human-caused hybridization for understanding evolution. Monitoring hybridization dynamics before, and following, disturbance over multiple timescales offers a unique opportunity to understand how disturbances alter species interactions and to pinpoint the mechanisms that cause species barriers to fail. Identifying the conditions promoting hybridization in disturbed habitats, the generality of these conditions across taxa, and the taxa most affected by human-mediated change is critical for furthering our understanding of human impacts on evolution and for informing management.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.008
  • The Role of Seasonal Migration in Population Divergence and Reproductive
    • Authors: Sheela P. Turbek; Elizabeth S.C. Scordato; Rebecca J. Safran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Sheela P. Turbek, Elizabeth S.C. Scordato, Rebecca J. Safran
      Seasonal journeys between breeding and non-breeding habitat are undertaken by a diverse array of animals. Parallel developments in tracking and genomic methods are enabling finer resolution of these movements and their role in the evolutionary process. Evidence from allopatric and co-occurring breeding populations indicates that variation in migratory behavior is often associated with genetic differentiation. While assortative mating and selection against hybrids due to divergent migratory phenotypes can contribute to reproductive isolation, the details of these mechanisms remain unclear. Here we identify gaps in our understanding of the role of seasonal migration in the speciation process and propose a framework to test the relative significance of reproductive barriers associated with variation in migratory behavior that might underlie population differentiation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.008
  • Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species
    • Authors: David Díez-del-Molino; Fatima Sánchez-Barreiro; Ian Barnes; M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Love Dalén
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): David Díez-del-Molino, Fatima Sánchez-Barreiro, Ian Barnes, M. Thomas P. Gilbert, Love Dalén
      Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T07:40:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.002
  • Plant States and Fates: Response to Pimm and Raven
    • Authors: Eimear Nic Lughadha; Steven P. Bachman; Rafaël Govaerts
      Pages: 887 - 889
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 32, Issue 12
      Author(s): Eimear Nic Lughadha, Steven P. Bachman, Rafaël Govaerts

      PubDate: 2017-11-22T13:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.09.005
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 33, Issue 1

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T01:21:37Z
  • The Role of Biotic Interactions in the Niche Reduction Hypothesis: A Reply
           to Doherty and Driscoll
    • Authors: Ben C. Scheele; Claire N. Foster; Sam C. Banks; David B. Lindenmayer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Ben C. Scheele, Claire N. Foster, Sam C. Banks, David B. Lindenmayer

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T01:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.001
  • Synergistic Integration of Genomics and Ecoevolutionary Dynamics for
           Sustainable Fisheries: A Reply to Kuparinen and Uusi-Heikkilä
    • Authors: Louis Bernatchez; Maren Wellenreuther
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Louis Bernatchez, Maren Wellenreuther

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T01:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.005
  • Sustainability of Fishing Is about Abundance: A Response to Bernatchez et
    • Authors: Anna Kuparinen; Silva Uusi-Heikkilä
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Anna Kuparinen, Silva Uusi-Heikkilä

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T01:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.003
  • Mechanism, Process, and Causation in Ecological Models: A Reply to McGill
           and Potochnik
    • Authors: Sean R. Connolly; Sally A. Keith; Robert K. Colwell; Carsten Rahbek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Sean R. Connolly, Sally A. Keith, Robert K. Colwell, Carsten Rahbek

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T01:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.009
  • Mechanisms Are Causes, Not Components: A Response to Connolly et al.
    • Authors: Brian J. McGill; Angela Potochnik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Brian J. McGill, Angela Potochnik

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T01:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.010
  • Competition in the Historical Niche: A Response to Scheele et al.
    • Authors: Tim S. Doherty; Don A. Driscoll
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Tim S. Doherty, Don A. Driscoll

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T01:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.12.004
  • Global Carbon Cycling on a Heterogeneous Seafloor
    • Authors: Paul V.R. Snelgrove; Karline Soetaert; Martin Solan; Simon Thrush; Chih-Lin Wei; Roberto Danovaro; Robinson W. Fulweiler; Hiroshi Kitazato; Baban Ingole; Alf Norkko; R. John Parkes; Nils Volkenborn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Paul V.R. Snelgrove, Karline Soetaert, Martin Solan, Simon Thrush, Chih-Lin Wei, Roberto Danovaro, Robinson W. Fulweiler, Hiroshi Kitazato, Baban Ingole, Alf Norkko, R. John Parkes, Nils Volkenborn
      Diverse biological communities mediate the transformation, transport, and storage of elements fundamental to life on Earth, including carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. However, global biogeochemical model outcomes can vary by orders of magnitude, compromising capacity to project realistic ecosystem responses to planetary changes, including ocean productivity and climate. Here, we compare global carbon turnover rates estimated using models grounded in biological versus geochemical theory and argue that the turnover estimates based on each perspective yield divergent outcomes. Importantly, empirical studies that include sedimentary biological activity vary less than those that ignore it. Improving the relevance of model projections and reducing uncertainty associated with the anticipated consequences of global change requires reconciliation of these perspectives, enabling better societal decisions on mitigation and adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T17:51:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.004
  • Finding Evolutionary Processes Hidden in Cryptic Species
    • Authors: Torsten H. Struck; Jeffrey L. Feder; Mika Bendiksby; Siri Birkeland; José Cerca; Vladimir I. Gusarov; Sonja Kistenich; Karl-Henrik Larsson; Lee Hsiang Liow; Michael D. Nowak; Brita Stedje; Lutz Bachmann; Dimitar Dimitrov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Torsten H. Struck, Jeffrey L. Feder, Mika Bendiksby, Siri Birkeland, José Cerca, Vladimir I. Gusarov, Sonja Kistenich, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Lee Hsiang Liow, Michael D. Nowak, Brita Stedje, Lutz Bachmann, Dimitar Dimitrov
      Cryptic species could represent a substantial fraction of biodiversity. However, inconsistent definitions and taxonomic treatment of cryptic species prevent informed estimates of their contribution to biodiversity and impede our understanding of their evolutionary and ecological significance. We propose a conceptual framework that recognizes cryptic species based on their low levels of phenotypic (morphological) disparity relative to their degree of genetic differentiation and divergence times as compared with non-cryptic species. We discuss how application of a more rigorous definition of cryptic species in taxonomic practice will lead to more accurate estimates of their prevalence in nature, better understanding of their distribution patterns on the tree of life, and increased abilities to resolve the processes underlying their evolution.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T17:51:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.007
  • Plant–Soil Feedback: Bridging Natural and Agricultural Sciences
    • Authors: Pierre Mariotte; Zia Mehrabi; T. Martijn Bezemer; Gerlinde B. De Deyn; Andrew Kulmatiski; Barbara Drigo; G.F. (Ciska) Veen; Marcel G.A. van der Heijden; Paul Kardol
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Pierre Mariotte, Zia Mehrabi, T. Martijn Bezemer, Gerlinde B. De Deyn, Andrew Kulmatiski, Barbara Drigo, G.F. (Ciska) Veen, Marcel G.A. van der Heijden, Paul Kardol
      In agricultural and natural systems researchers have demonstrated large effects of plant–soil feedback (PSF) on plant growth. However, the concepts and approaches used in these two types of systems have developed, for the most part, independently. Here, we present a conceptual framework that integrates knowledge and approaches from these two contrasting systems. We use this integrated framework to demonstrate (i) how knowledge from complex natural systems can be used to increase agricultural resource-use efficiency and productivity and (ii) how research in agricultural systems can be used to test hypotheses and approaches developed in natural systems. Using this framework, we discuss avenues for new research toward an ecologically sustainable and climate-smart future.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T17:51:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.005
  • A 2018 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and
           Biological Diversity
    • Authors: William J. Sutherland; Stuart H.M. Butchart; Ben Connor; Caroline Culshaw; Lynn V. Dicks; Jason Dinsdale; Helen Doran; Abigail C. Entwistle; Erica Fleishman; David W. Gibbons; Zhigang Jiang; Brandon Keim; Xavier Le Roux; Fiona A. Lickorish; Paul Markillie; Kathryn A. Monk; Diana Mortimer; James W. Pearce-Higgins; Lloyd S. Peck; Jules Pretty; Colleen L. Seymour; Mark D. Spalding; Femke H. Tonneijck; Rosalind A. Gleave
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): William J. Sutherland, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Ben Connor, Caroline Culshaw, Lynn V. Dicks, Jason Dinsdale, Helen Doran, Abigail C. Entwistle, Erica Fleishman, David W. Gibbons, Zhigang Jiang, Brandon Keim, Xavier Le Roux, Fiona A. Lickorish, Paul Markillie, Kathryn A. Monk, Diana Mortimer, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Lloyd S. Peck, Jules Pretty, Colleen L. Seymour, Mark D. Spalding, Femke H. Tonneijck, Rosalind A. Gleave
      This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community. Themes among these topics include new mechanisms driving the emergence and geographic expansion of diseases, innovative biotechnologies, reassessments of global change, and the development of strategic infrastructure to facilitate global economic priorities.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T09:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.006
  • Sympatric Speciation in the Genomic Era
    • Authors: Andrew D. Foote
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Andrew D. Foote
      Sympatric speciation has been of key interest to biologists investigating how natural and sexual selection drive speciation without the confounding variable of geographic isolation. The advent of the genomic era has provided a more nuanced and quantitative understanding of the different and often complex modes of speciation by which sympatric sister taxa arose, and a reassessment of some of the most compelling empirical case studies of sympatric speciation. However, I argue that genomic studies based on contemporary populations may never be able to provide unequivocal evidence of true primary sympatric speciation, and there is a need to incorporate palaeogenomic studies into this field. This inability to robustly distinguish cases of primary and secondary ‘divergence with gene flow’ may be inconsequential, as both are useful for understanding the role of large effect barrier loci in the progression from localised genic isolation to genome-wide reproductive isolation. I argue that they can be of equivalent interest due to shared underlying mechanisms driving divergence and potentially leaving similar patterns of coalescence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T09:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.003
  • Moving Character Displacement beyond Characters Using Contemporary
           Coexistence Theory
    • Authors: Rachel M. Germain; Jennifer L. Williams; Dolph Schluter; Amy L. Angert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Rachel M. Germain, Jennifer L. Williams, Dolph Schluter, Amy L. Angert
      Character displacement is one of the most studied phenomena in evolutionary biology, yet research has narrowly focused on demonstrating whether or not displacement has occurred. We propose a new experimental approach, adopted from the coexistence literature, that directly measures interspecific competition among sympatric and allopatric populations of species. Doing so allows increased ability to (i) test predictions of character displacement without biases inherent to character-centric tests, (ii) quantify its effect on the stability of coexistence, (iii) resolve the phenotypic pathways through which competitive divergence is achieved, and (iv) perform comparative tests. Our approach extends research to forms of character displacement not readily identified by past methods and will lead to a broader understanding of its consequences for community structure.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T09:25:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.002
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 32, Issue 12

      PubDate: 2017-11-22T13:53:40Z
  • Movers and Stayers: Novel Assemblages in Changing Environments
    • Authors: Richard J. Hobbs; Leonie E. Valentine; Rachel J. Standish; Stephen T. Jackson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Richard J. Hobbs, Leonie E. Valentine, Rachel J. Standish, Stephen T. Jackson
      Increased attention to species movement in response to environmental change highlights the need to consider changes in species distributions and altered biological assemblages. Such changes are well known from paleoecological studies, but have accelerated with ongoing pervasive human influence. In addition to species that move, some species will stay put, leading to an array of novel interactions. Species show a variety of responses that can allow movement or persistence. Conservation and restoration actions have traditionally focused on maintaining or returning species in particular places, but increasingly also include interventions that facilitate movement. Approaches are required that incorporate the fluidity of biotic assemblages into the goals set and interventions deployed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-22T13:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.11.001
  • Predicting Chronic Climate-Driven Disturbances and Their Mitigation
    • Authors: Nate G. McDowell; Sean T. Michaletz; Katrina E. Bennett; Kurt C. Solander; Chonggang Xu; Reed M. Maxwell; Craig D. Allen; Richard S. Middleton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Nate G. McDowell, Sean T. Michaletz, Katrina E. Bennett, Kurt C. Solander, Chonggang Xu, Reed M. Maxwell, Craig D. Allen, Richard S. Middleton
      Society increasingly demands the stable provision of ecosystem resources to support our population. Resource risks from climate-driven disturbances, including drought, heat, insect outbreaks, and wildfire, are growing as a chronic state of disequilibrium results from increasing temperatures and a greater frequency of extreme events. This confluence of increased demand and risk may soon reach critical thresholds. We explain here why extreme chronic disequilibrium of ecosystem function is likely to increase dramatically across the globe, creating no-analog conditions that challenge adaptation. We also present novel mechanistic theory that combines models for disturbance mortality and metabolic scaling to link size-dependent plant mortality to changes in ecosystem stocks and fluxes. Efforts must anticipate and model chronic ecosystem disequilibrium to properly prepare for resilience planning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-22T13:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.002
  • Predicting Predator Recognition in a Changing World
    • Authors: Alexandra J.R. Carthey; Daniel T. Blumstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Alexandra J.R. Carthey, Daniel T. Blumstein
      Through natural as well as anthropogenic processes, prey can lose historically important predators and gain novel ones. Both predator gain and loss frequently have deleterious consequences. While numerous hypotheses explain the response of individuals to novel and familiar predators, we lack a unifying conceptual model that predicts the fate of prey following the introduction of a novel or a familiar (reintroduced) predator. Using the concept of eco-evolutionary experience, we create a new framework that allows us to predict whether prey will recognize and be able to discriminate predator cues from non-predator cues and, moreover, the likely persistence outcomes for 11 different predator–prey interaction scenarios. This framework generates useful and testable predictions for ecologists, conservation scientists, and decision-makers.

      PubDate: 2017-11-22T13:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.009
  • Planetary Boundaries for Biodiversity: Implausible Science, Pernicious
    • Authors: José M. Montoya; Ian Donohue; Stuart L. Pimm
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): José M. Montoya, Ian Donohue, Stuart L. Pimm
      The notion of a ‘safe operating space for biodiversity’ is vague and encourages harmful policies. Attempts to fix it strip it of all meaningful content. Ecology is rapidly gaining insights into the connections between biodiversity and ecosystem stability. We have no option but to understand ecological complexity and act accordingly.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T15:58:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.004
  • Using Biological Insight and Pragmatism When Thinking about
    • Authors: Nick Colegrave; Graeme D. Ruxton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Nick Colegrave, Graeme D. Ruxton
      Pseudoreplication is controversial across experimental biology. Researchers in the same field can disagree on whether a given study suffers from pseudoreplication and on to what extent any pseudoreplication undermines the value of a study. A recent survey indicated that concerns about pseudoreplication can strongly impact peer review of manuscripts submitted for publication. Here we explore controversies around pseudoreplication, identify issues requiring resolution, and in each case offer a resolution. We emphasise that having non-independence in data points and pseudoreplicating are not the same thing. Researchers should be able to demonstrate that in a given experiment they have minimised and controlled the risk of non-independence weakening their study. If they do that to the satisfaction of others, they have avoided pseudoreplication.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T15:58:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.007
  • Environmental Filtering, Niche Construction, and Trait Variability: The
           Missing Discussion
    • Authors: Madhav P. Thakur; Alexandra J. Wright
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Madhav P. Thakur, Alexandra J. Wright

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T15:58:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.09.014
  • The Dangerous Battles Over Sex and Gender
    • Authors: Gillian R. Brown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Gillian R. Brown

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T15:58:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.003
  • Embracing Colonizations: A New Paradigm for Species Association Dynamics
    • Authors: Sören Nylin; Salvatore Agosta; Staffan Bensch; Walter A. Boeger; Mariana P. Braga; Daniel R. Brooks; Matthew L. Forister; Peter A. Hambäck; Eric P. Hoberg; Tommi Nyman; Alexander Schäpers; Alycia L. Stigall; Christopher W. Wheat; Martin Österling; Niklas Janz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Sören Nylin, Salvatore Agosta, Staffan Bensch, Walter A. Boeger, Mariana P. Braga, Daniel R. Brooks, Matthew L. Forister, Peter A. Hambäck, Eric P. Hoberg, Tommi Nyman, Alexander Schäpers, Alycia L. Stigall, Christopher W. Wheat, Martin Österling, Niklas Janz
      Parasite–host and insect–plant research have divergent traditions despite the fact that most phytophagous insects live parasitically on their host plants. In parasitology it is a traditional assumption that parasites are typically highly specialized; cospeciation between parasites and hosts is a frequently expressed default expectation. Insect–plant theory has been more concerned with host shifts than with cospeciation, and more with hierarchies among hosts than with extreme specialization. We suggest that the divergent assumptions in the respective fields have hidden a fundamental similarity with an important role for potential as well as actual hosts, and hence for host colonizations via ecological fitting. A common research program is proposed which better prepares us for the challenges from introduced species and global change.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T15:58:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.005
  • Earth Observation Networks (EONs): Finding the Right Balance
    • Authors: David B. Lindenmayer; Gene E. Likens; Jerry F. Franklin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): David B. Lindenmayer, Gene E. Likens, Jerry F. Franklin
      Earth observation networks (EONs) are an emerging, surveillance-based approach to environmental monitoring and research that are fundamentally different than traditional question-driven, experimentally designed approaches. There is an urgent need to find an optimal balance between these approaches and to develop new integrated initiatives that take advantage of key features of them both.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T00:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.008
  • Meta-Ecosystems 2.0: Rooting the Theory into the Field
    • Authors: Isabelle Gounand; Eric Harvey; Chelsea J. Little; Florian Altermatt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey, Chelsea J. Little, Florian Altermatt
      The meta-ecosystem framework demonstrates the significance of among-ecosystem spatial flows for ecosystem dynamics and has fostered a rich body of theory. The high level of abstraction of the models, however, impedes applications to empirical systems. We argue that further understanding of spatial dynamics in natural systems strongly depends on dense exchanges between field and theory. From empiricists, more and specific quantifications of spatial flows are needed, defined by the major categories of organismal movement (dispersal, foraging, life-cycle, and migration). In parallel, the theoretical framework must account for the distinct spatial scales at which these naturally common spatial flows occur. Integrating all levels of spatial connections among landscape elements will upgrade and unify landscape and meta-ecosystem ecology into a single framework for spatial ecology.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T00:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.006
  • Upward Adaptive Radiation Cascades: Predator Diversification Induced by
           Prey Diversification
    • Authors: Jakob Brodersen; David M. Post; Ole Seehausen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Jakob Brodersen, David M. Post, Ole Seehausen
      The value of biodiversity is widely appreciated, but we are only beginning to understand the interplay of processes that generate biodiversity and their consequences for coevolutionary interactions. Whereas predator–prey coevolution is most often analyzed in the context of evolutionary arms races, much less has been written about how predators are affected by, and respond to, evolutionary diversification in their prey. We hypothesize here that adaptive radiation of prey may lead to diversification and potentially speciation in predators, a process that we call an upwards adaptive radiation cascade. In this paper we lay out the conceptual basis for upwards adaptive radiation cascades, explore evidence for such cascades, and finally advocate for intensified research.

      PubDate: 2017-11-04T00:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.09.016
  • Embracing the Nonindependence of the Environmental Filter: A Reply to
    • Authors: Marc W. Cadotte; Caroline M. Tucker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Marc W. Cadotte, Caroline M. Tucker

      PubDate: 2017-10-26T15:16:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.09.015
  • Environmental Filtering Is a Relic. A Response to Cadotte and Tucker
    • Authors: Carlos A. Aguilar-Trigueros; Matthias C. Rillig; Max-Bernhard Ballhausen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Ecology & Evolution
      Author(s): Carlos A. Aguilar-Trigueros, Matthias C. Rillig, Max-Bernhard Ballhausen

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T16:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.09.013
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