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Journal Cover Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  [SJR: 10.161]   [H-I: 224]   [136 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Evidence from Blindness for a Cognitively Pluripotent Cortex
    • Authors: Marina Bedny
      Pages: 637 - 648
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 9
      Author(s): Marina Bedny
      Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind–brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, ‘visual’ cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics. We propose that human cortices are cognitively pluripotent, that is, capable of assuming a wide range of cognitive functions. Specialization is driven by input during development, which is itself constrained by connectivity and experience. ‘The child who methodically adds two numbers from right to left, carrying a digit when necessary, may be using the same algorithm that is implemented by the wires and transistors of the cash register in the neighborhood supermarket…’ ▓▓Vision, 1982, David Marr

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T07:54:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.003
  • Sex-Linked Behavior: Evolution, Stability, and Variability
    • Authors: Cordelia Fine; John Dupré; Daphna Joel
      Pages: 666 - 673
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 9
      Author(s): Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
      Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T07:54:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.012
  • The Sampling Brain
    • Authors: Adam N. Sanborn; Nick Chater
      Pages: 492 - 493
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Adam N. Sanborn, Nick Chater

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T14:42:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.009
  • Advances in fMRI Real-Time Neurofeedback
    • Authors: Takeo Watanabe; Yuka Sasaki; Kazuhisa Shibata; Mitsuo Kawato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato
      Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback in which real-time online fMRI signals are used to self-regulate brain function. Since its advent in 2003 significant progress has been made in fMRI neurofeedback techniques. Specifically, the use of implicit protocols, external rewards, multivariate analysis, and connectivity analysis has allowed neuroscientists to explore a possible causal involvement of modified brain activity in modified behavior. These techniques have also been integrated into groundbreaking new neurofeedback technologies, specifically decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) and functional connectivity-based neurofeedback (FCNef). By modulating neural activity and behavior, DecNef and FCNef have substantially advanced both basic and clinical research.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T20:59:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.010
  • Numerical Cognition: Learning Binds Biology to Culture
    • Authors: Tom Verguts; Qi Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Tom Verguts, Qi Chen

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T20:15:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.004
  • Smiles as Multipurpose Social Signals
    • Authors: Jared Martin; Magdalena Rychlowska; Adrienne Wood; Paula Niedenthal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jared Martin, Magdalena Rychlowska, Adrienne Wood, Paula Niedenthal
      The human smile is highly variable in both its form and the social contexts in which it is displayed. A social-functional account identifies three distinct smile expressions defined in terms of their effects on the perceiver: reward smiles reinforce desired behavior; affiliation smiles invite and maintain social bonds; and dominance smiles manage hierarchical relationships. Mathematical modeling uncovers the appearance of the smiles, and both human and Bayesian classifiers validate these distinctions. New findings link laughter to reward, affiliation, and dominance, and research suggests that these functions of smiles are recognized across cultures. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the smile can be productively investigated according to how it assists the smiler in meeting the challenges and opportunities inherent in human social living.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.007
  • Disruption of Conscious Access in Schizophrenia
    • Authors: Lucie Berkovitch; Stanislas Dehaene Gaillard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lucie Berkovitch, Stanislas Dehaene, Raphaël Gaillard
      Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder resulting in delusions, hallucinations, and cognitive impairments. Across a variety of paradigms, an elevated threshold for conscious perception has been repeatedly observed in persons with schizophrenia. Remarkably, even subtle measures of subliminal processing appear to be preserved. We argue here that the dissociation between impaired conscious access and intact unconscious processing may be due to a specific disruption of top-down attentional amplification. This proposal is compatible with the neurophysiological disturbances observed in schizophrenia, including dysconnectivity, abnormal neural oscillations, and glutamatergic and cholinergic dysregulation. Therefore, placing impaired conscious access as a central feature of schizophrenia can help researchers develop a coherent and parsimonious pathophysiological framework of the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
  • The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split
    • Authors: Yair Pinto; Edward H.F de Haan; Victor A.F. Lamme
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Yair Pinto, Edward H.F de Haan, Victor A.F. Lamme
      The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the ‘conscious unity, split perception’ model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.003
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 10

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
  • On Global fMRI Signals and Simulations
    • Authors: Jonathan D. Power; Timothy O. Laumann; Mark Plitt; Alex Martin; Steven E. Petersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jonathan D. Power, Timothy O. Laumann, Mark Plitt, Alex Martin, Steven E. Petersen

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.002
  • Reading Faces: From Features to Recognition
    • Authors: J. Swaroop Guntupalli; M. Ida Gobbini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): J. Swaroop Guntupalli, M. Ida Gobbini
      Chang and Tsao recently reported that the monkey face patch system encodes facial identity in a space of facial features as opposed to exemplars. Here, we discuss how such coding might contribute to face recognition, emphasizing the critical role of learning and interactions with other brain areas for optimizing the recognition of familiar faces.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.007
  • Flexible Planning in Ravens'
    • Authors: Jonathan Redshaw; Alex H. Taylor; Thomas Suddendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jonathan Redshaw, Alex H. Taylor, Thomas Suddendorf
      Across two different contexts, Kabadayi and Osvath found that ravens preferentially selected items that could be used to obtain future rewards. Do these results demand a rethink of the evolution of flexible planning, or are there leaner alternative explanations for the performance of ravens'

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.001
  • An Integrative Interdisciplinary Perspective on Social Dominance
    • Authors: Chen Qu; Romain Ligneul; Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst; Jean-Claude Dreher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
      In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates. We also review neuropharmacological findings showing how dopamine, serotonin, and testosterone influence social hierarchies and we emphasize their key clinical implications on vulnerabilities to neuropsychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T03:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.004
  • Constructing Experience: Event Models from Perception to Action
    • Authors: Lauren L. Richmond; Jeffrey M. Zacks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lauren L. Richmond, Jeffrey M. Zacks
      Mental representations of everyday experience are rich, structured, and multimodal. In this article we consider the adaptive pressures that led to human construction of such representations, arguing that structured event representations enable cognitive systems to more effectively predict the trajectory of naturalistic everyday activity. We propose an account of how cortical systems and the hippocampus (HPC) interact to construct, maintain, and update event representations. This analysis throws light on recent research on story comprehension, event segmentation, episodic memory, and action planning. It also suggests how the growing science base can be deployed to diagnose impairments in event perception and memory, and to improve memory for everyday events.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.005
  • Serial Dependence in Audition: Free, Fast, and Featureless'
    • Authors: Benjamin James Dyson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Benjamin James Dyson

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.002
  • Why Do the Children (Pretend) Play'
    • Authors: Angeline S. Lillard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Angeline S. Lillard
      Pretend play appears to be an evolved behavior because it is universal and appears on a set schedule. However, no specific functions have been determined for pretend play and empirical tests for its functions in humans are elusive. Yet animal play fighting can serve as an analog, as both activities involve as-if, metacommunicative signaling and symbolism. In the rat and some other animals, adaptive functions of play fighting include assisting social behavior and emotion regulation. Research is presented suggesting that pretend play might serve similar functions for humans.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T07:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.001
  • Neural Noise Hypothesis of Developmental Dyslexia
    • Authors: Roeland Hancock; Kenneth R. Pugh; Fumiko Hoeft
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R. Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T07:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.003
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 9

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T07:54:41Z
  • Crowdsourcing Samples in Cognitive Science
    • Authors: Neil Stewart; Jesse Chandler; Gabriele Paolacci
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Neil Stewart, Jesse Chandler, Gabriele Paolacci
      Crowdsourcing data collection from research participants recruited from online labor markets is now common in cognitive science. We review who is in the crowd and who can be reached by the average laboratory. We discuss reproducibility and review some recent methodological innovations for online experiments. We consider the design of research studies and arising ethical issues. We review how to code experiments for the web, what is known about video and audio presentation, and the measurement of reaction times. We close with comments about the high levels of experience of many participants and an emerging tragedy of the commons.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.007
  • Comparing Parietal Quantity-Processing Mechanisms between Humans and
    • Authors: Ben M. Harvey; Stefania Ferri; Guy A. Orban
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Ben M. Harvey, Stefania Ferri, Guy A. Orban
      Quantity processing studies typically assume functional homology between regions within macaque and human intraparietal sulcus (IPS), where apparently similar locations respond to broadly similar tasks. However, macaque single cell neurophysiology is difficult to compare to human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); particularly in multivoxel pattern analysis and adaptation paradigms, or where different tasks are used. fMRI approaches incorporating neural tuning models allow closer comparison, revealing human numerosity-selective responses only outside the IPS. Extensive functional similarities support this novel homology of physical quantity processing. Human IPS instead houses a network responding to comparisons of physical quantities, symbolic numbers, and other stimulus features. This network likely reflects interactions between physical quantity processing, spatial processing, and (in humans) linguistic processing.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.07.002
  • How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning
    • Authors: Paul H. Thibodeau; Rose K. Hendricks; Lera Boroditsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Paul H. Thibodeau, Rose K. Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
      Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are ‘light bulbs’, crime is a ‘virus’, and cancer is an ‘enemy’ in a ‘war’. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.07.001
  • Reevaluating the Sensory Account of Visual Working Memory Storage
    • Authors: Yaoda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Yaoda Xu
      Recent human fMRI pattern-decoding studies have highlighted the involvement of sensory areas in visual working memory (VWM) tasks and argue for a sensory account of VWM storage. In this review, evidence is examined from human behavior, fMRI decoding, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies, as well as from monkey neurophysiology studies. Contrary to the prevalent view, the available evidence provides little support for the sensory account of VWM storage. Instead, when the ability to resist distraction and the existence of top-down feedback are taken into account, VWM-related activities in sensory areas seem to reflect feedback signals indicative of VWM storage elsewhere in the brain. Collectively, the evidence shows that prefrontal and parietal regions, rather than sensory areas, play more significant roles in VWM storage.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T00:59:23Z
  • Mapping the Consequences of Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Schizophrenia
           through Development: An Integrative Model for Diverse Clinical Features
    • Authors: Jennifer K. Forsyth; David A. Lewis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jennifer K. Forsyth, David A. Lewis
      Schizophrenia is associated with alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions that emerge before psychosis onset; identifying pathogenic processes that can account for this multi-faceted phenotype remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia. Given the role of synaptic plasticity in learning, memory, and neural circuit maturation, impaired plasticity may underlie many features of the schizophrenia syndrome. Here, we summarize the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity, review evidence that plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia, and explore a framework in which impaired synaptic plasticity interacts with brain maturation to yield the emergence of sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychotic features at different times during development in schizophrenia. Key gaps in the literature and future directions for testing this framework are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T00:59:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.006
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 8

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
  • Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience
    • Authors: Emily B. Falk; Danielle S. Bassett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Emily B. Falk, Danielle S. Bassett
      How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain' Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.009
  • Do Intelligent Robots Need Emotion'
    • Authors: Luiz Pessoa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Luiz Pessoa
      What is the place of emotion in intelligent robots' Researchers have advocated the inclusion of some emotion-related components in the information-processing architecture of autonomous agents. It is argued here that emotion needs to be merged with all aspects of the architecture: cognitive–emotional integration should be a key design principle.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.010
  • Submentalizing Cannot Explain Belief-Based Action Anticipation in Apes
    • Authors: Fumihiro Kano; Christopher Krupenye; Satoshi Hirata; Josep Call; Michael Tomasello
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Fumihiro Kano, Christopher Krupenye, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.011
  • Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies
    • Authors: James R. Kubricht; Keith J. Holyoak; Hongjing Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): James R. Kubricht, Keith J. Holyoak, Hongjing Lu
      Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.002
  • Agency and the Calibration of Motivated Behavior
    • Authors: Justin M. Moscarello; Catherine A. Hartley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Justin M. Moscarello, Catherine A. Hartley
      The controllability of positive or negative environmental events has long been recognized as a critical factor determining their impact on an organism. In studies across species, controllable and uncontrollable reinforcement have been found to yield divergent effects on subsequent behavior. Here we present a model of the organizing influence of control, or a lack thereof, on the behavioral repertoire. We propose that individuals derive a generalizable estimate of agency from controllable and uncontrollable outcomes, which serves to calibrate their behavioral strategies in a manner that is most likely to be adaptive given their prior experience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.008
  • Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than
    • Authors: Pieter Moors; Guido Hesselmann; Johan Wagemans; Raymond van Ee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Pieter Moors, Guido Hesselmann, Johan Wagemans, Raymond van Ee
      Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.005
  • Chinese versus English: Insights on Cognition during Reading
    • Authors: Lili Yu; Erik D. Reichle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lili Yu, Erik D. Reichle
      Chinese reading experiments have introduced important caveats to theories of reading that have been largely informed by studies of English reading – especially in relation to our understanding of lexical processing and eye-movement control. This article provides a brief primer on Chinese reading and examples of questions that arise from its study.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T07:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.004
  • Mind Games: Game Engines as an Architecture for Intuitive Physics
    • Authors: Tomer D. Ullman; Elizabeth Spelke; Peter Battaglia; Joshua B. Tenenbaum
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Tomer D. Ullman, Elizabeth Spelke, Peter Battaglia, Joshua B. Tenenbaum
      We explore the hypothesis that many intuitive physical inferences are based on a mental physics engine that is analogous in many ways to the machine physics engines used in building interactive video games. We describe the key features of game physics engines and their parallels in human mental representation, focusing especially on the intuitive physics of young infants where the hypothesis helps to unify many classic and otherwise puzzling phenomena, and may provide the basis for a computational account of how the physical knowledge of infants develops. This hypothesis also explains several ‘physics illusions’, and helps to inform the development of artificial intelligence (AI) systems with more human-like common sense.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T13:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.012
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 7

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T14:49:12Z
  • Meta-Reasoning: Monitoring and Control of Thinking and Reasoning
    • Authors: Rakefet Ackerman; Valerie A. Thompson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A. Thompson
      Meta-Reasoning refers to the processes that monitor the progress of our reasoning and problem-solving activities and regulate the time and effort devoted to them. Monitoring processes are usually experienced as feelings of certainty or uncertainty about how well a process has, or will, unfold. These feelings are based on heuristic cues, which are not necessarily reliable. Nevertheless, we rely on these feelings of (un)certainty to regulate our mental effort. Most metacognitive research has focused on memorization and knowledge retrieval, with little attention paid to more complex processes, such as reasoning and problem solving. In that context, we recently developed a Meta-Reasoning framework, used here to review existing findings, consider their consequences, and frame questions for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T14:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.004
  • A Closer Look at the Hippocampus and Memory
    • Authors: Joel L. Voss; Donna J. Bridge; Neal J. Cohen; John A. Walker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Joel L. Voss, Donna J. Bridge, Neal J. Cohen, John A. Walker
      Current interpretations of hippocampal memory function are blind to the fact that viewing behaviors are pervasive and complicate the relationships among perception, behavior, memory, and brain activity. For example, hippocampal activity and associative memory demands increase with stimulus complexity. Stimulus complexity also strongly modulates viewing. Associative processing and viewing thus are often confounded, rendering interpretation of hippocampal activity ambiguous. Similar considerations challenge many accounts of hippocampal function. To explain relationships between memory and viewing, we propose that the hippocampus supports the online memory demands necessary to guide visual exploration. The hippocampus thus orchestrates memory-guided exploration that unfolds over time to build coherent memories. This new perspective on hippocampal function harmonizes with the fact that memory formation and exploratory viewing are tightly intertwined.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T14:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.008
  • Foraging Cognition: Reviving the Ecological Intelligence Hypothesis
    • Authors: Alexandra G. Rosati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Alexandra G. Rosati
      What are the origins of intelligent behavior' The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that ‘foraging cognition’ – skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control – varies adaptively across primates. These findings provide a new framework for the evolution of human cognition, given our species’ dependence on costly, high-value food resources. Understanding the origins of the human mind will require an integrative theory accounting for how humans are unique in both our sociality and our ecology.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T14:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.011
  • Commentary on Sanborn and Chater: Posterior Modes Are Attractor Basins
    • Authors: Phillip Alday; Matthias Schlesewsky Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Phillip M. Alday, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T14:42:36Z
  • What is Language and How Could it Have Evolved?
    • Authors: Martin B.H.; Everaert Marinus A.C. Huybregts Robert Berwick Noam Chomsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Martin B.H. Everaert, Marinus A.C. Huybregts, Robert C. Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Ian Tattersall, Andrea Moro, Johan J. Bolhuis

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T14:42:36Z
  • Mechanisms of Connectome Development
    • Authors: Marcus Kaiser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Marcus Kaiser
      At the centenary of D’Arcy Thompson’s seminal work ‘On Growth and Form’, pioneering the description of principles of morphological changes during development and evolution, recent experimental advances allow us to study change in anatomical brain networks. Here, we outline potential principles for connectome development. We will describe recent results on how spatial and temporal factors shape connectome development in health and disease. Understanding the developmental origins of brain diseases in individuals will be crucial for deciding on personalized treatment options. We argue that longitudinal studies, experimentally derived parameters for connection formation, and biologically realistic computational models are needed to better understand the link between brain network development, network structure, and network function.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T14:42:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.010
  • How Does Social Network Position Influence Prosocial Behavior?
    • Authors: Oriel FeldmanHall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Oriel FeldmanHall

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T08:56:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.005
  • Leaps of Faith: A Reply to Everaert et al.
    • Authors: Michael C. Corballis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Michael C. Corballis

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T08:56:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.006
  • Origins of the Belief in Good True Selves
    • Authors: Julian De Freitas; Mina Cikara; Igor Grossmann; Rebecca Schlegel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Julian De Freitas, Mina Cikara, Igor Grossmann, Rebecca Schlegel
      Despite differences in beliefs about the self across cultures and relevant individual differences, recent evidence suggests that people universally believe in a ‘true self’ that is morally good. We propose that this belief arises from a general tendency: psychological essentialism (PE).

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T08:56:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.009
  • Retrieval as a Fast Route to Memory Consolidation
    • Authors: James W. Antony; Catarina S. Ferreira; Kenneth A. Norman; Maria Wimber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): James W. Antony, Catarina S. Ferreira, Kenneth A. Norman, Maria Wimber
      Retrieval-mediated learning is a powerful way to make memories last, but its neurocognitive mechanisms remain unclear. We propose that retrieval acts as a rapid consolidation event, supporting the creation of adaptive hippocampal–neocortical representations via the ‘online’ reactivation of associative information. We describe parallels between online retrieval and offline consolidation and offer testable predictions for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T03:04:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.001
  • The Dorsal Frontoparietal Network: A Core System for Emulated Action
    • Authors: Radek Ptak; Armin Schnider; Julia Fellrath
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Radek Ptak, Armin Schnider, Julia Fellrath
      The dorsal frontoparietal network (dFPN) of the human brain assumes a puzzling variety of functions, including motor planning and imagery, mental rotation, spatial attention, and working memory. How can a single network engage in such a diversity of roles? We propose that cognitive computations relying on the dFPN can be pinned down to a core function underlying offline motor planning: action emulation. Emulation creates a dynamic representation of abstract movement kinematics, sustains the internal manipulation of this representation, and ensures its maintenance over short time periods. Based on these fundamental characteristics, the dFPN has evolved from a pure motor control network into a domain-general system supporting various cognitive and motor functions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T03:04:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.002
  • Default Rules Are Better Than Active Choosing (Often)
    • Authors: Cass Sunstein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Cass R. Sunstein
      In recent years, governments have become keenly interested in behavioral science; new findings in psychology and behavioral economics have led to bold initiatives in areas that involve poverty, consumer protection, savings, health, the environment, and much more. Private institutions have used behavioral findings as well. But there is a pervasive and insufficiently explored question: when is it best to ask people to make active choices, and when is it best to use a default rule, which means that people need not make any choice at all? The answer depends on a form of cost–benefit analysis, which means that it is necessary to investigate whether choosing is a burden or a pleasure, whether learning is important, and whether a default rule would satisfy the informed preferences or all of most people.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T02:58:47Z
  • Evolution in Mind: Evolutionary Dynamics, Cognitive Processes, and
           Bayesian Inference
    • Authors: Jordan W. Suchow; David D. Bourgin; Thomas L. Griffiths
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jordan W. Suchow, David D. Bourgin, Thomas L. Griffiths
      Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind. In fact, deep correspondences exist between the mathematics of evolution and of learning, with perhaps the deepest being an equivalence between certain evolutionary dynamics and Bayesian inference. This equivalence permits reinterpretation of evolutionary processes as algorithms for Bayesian inference and has relevance for understanding diverse cognitive capacities, including memory and creativity.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T02:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.005
  • Neurobiology of Schemas and Schema-Mediated Memory
    • Authors: Asaf Gilboa; Hannah Marlatte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Asaf Gilboa, Hannah Marlatte
      Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted commonalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Activated schema templates modulate early perceptual processing, as they get populated with specific informational instances (schema instantiation). Instantiated schemas, in turn, can enhance or distort mnemonic processing from the outset (at encoding), impact offline memory transformation and accelerate neocortical integration. Recent studies demonstrate distinctive neurobiological processes underlying schema-related learning. Interactions between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus, angular gyrus (AG), and unimodal associative cortices support context-relevant schema instantiation and schema mnemonic effects. The vmPFC and hippocampus may compete (as suggested by some models) or synchronize (as suggested by others) to optimize schema-related learning depending on the specific operationalization of schema memory. This highlights the need for more precise definitions of memory schemas.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T02:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.013
  • Serial Dependence across Perception, Attention, and Memory
    • Authors: Anastasia Kiyonaga; Jason M. Scimeca; Daniel P. Bliss; David Whitney
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Anastasia Kiyonaga, Jason M. Scimeca, Daniel P. Bliss, David Whitney
      Information that has been recently perceived or remembered can bias current processing. This has been viewed as both a corrupting (e.g., proactive interference in short-term memory) and stabilizing (e.g., serial dependence in perception) phenomenon. We hypothesize that this bias is a generally adaptive aspect of brain function that leads to occasionally maladaptive outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T02:58:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.011
  • The Coding Question
    • Authors: C.R. Gallistel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): C.R. Gallistel
      Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question – how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T14:53:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.012
  • Metastability in Senescence
    • Authors: Shruti Naik; Arpan Banerjee; Raju S. Bapi; Gustavo Deco; Dipanjan Roy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Shruti Naik, Arpan Banerjee, Raju S. Bapi, Gustavo Deco, Dipanjan Roy
      The brain during healthy aging exhibits gradual deterioration of structure but maintains a high level of cognitive ability. These structural changes are often accompanied by reorganization of functional brain networks. Existing neurocognitive theories of aging have argued that such changes are either beneficial or detrimental. Despite numerous empirical investigations, the field lacks a coherent account of the dynamic processes that occur over our lifespan. Taking advantage of the recent developments in whole-brain computational modeling approaches, we hypothesize that the continuous process of aging can be explained by the concepts of metastability − a theoretical framework that gives a systematic account of the variability of the brain. This hypothesis can bridge the gap between existing theories and the empirical findings on age-related changes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T07:55:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.007
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