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Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.049
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 149  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Humans Are Visual Experts at Unfamiliar Face Recognition
    • Authors: Bruno Rossion
      Pages: 471 - 472
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Bruno Rossion

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.002
  • What We See in Unfamiliar Faces: A Response to Rossion
    • Authors: Andrew W. Young; A. Mike Burton
      Pages: 472 - 473
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Andrew W. Young, A. Mike Burton

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.008
  • Mind-Wandering as a Natural Kind: A Family-Resemblances View
    • Authors: Paul Seli; Michael J. Kane; Jonathan Smallwood; Daniel L. Schacter; David Maillet; Jonathan W. Schooler; Daniel Smilek
      Pages: 479 - 490
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Paul Seli, Michael J. Kane, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel L. Schacter, David Maillet, Jonathan W. Schooler, Daniel Smilek
      As empirical research on mind-wandering accelerates, we draw attention to an emerging trend in how mind-wandering is conceptualized. Previously articulated definitions of mind-wandering differ from each other in important ways, yet they also maintain overlapping characteristics. This conceptual structure suggests that mind-wandering is best considered from a family-resemblances perspective, which entails treating it as a graded, heterogeneous construct and clearly measuring and describing the specific aspect(s) of mind-wandering that researchers are investigating. We believe that adopting this family-resemblances approach will increase conceptual and methodological connections among related phenomena in the mind-wandering family and encourage a more nuanced and precise understanding of the many varieties of mind-wandering.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.010
  • How Memory Replay in Sleep Boosts Creative Problem-Solving
    • Authors: Penelope A. Lewis; Günther Knoblich; Gina Poe
      Pages: 491 - 503
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Penelope A. Lewis, Günther Knoblich, Gina Poe
      Creative thought relies on the reorganisation of existing knowledge. Sleep is known to be important for creative thinking, but there is a debate about which sleep stage is most relevant, and why. We address this issue by proposing that rapid eye movement sleep, or ‘REM’, and non-REM sleep facilitate creativity in different ways. Memory replay mechanisms in non-REM can abstract rules from corpuses of learned information, while replay in REM may promote novel associations. We propose that the iterative interleaving of REM and non-REM across a night boosts the formation of complex knowledge frameworks, and allows these frameworks to be restructured, thus facilitating creative thought. We outline a hypothetical computational model which will allow explicit testing of these hypotheses.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.009
  • How Mouse-tracking Can Advance Social Cognitive Theory
    • Authors: Paul E. Stillman; Xi Shen; Melissa J. Ferguson
      Pages: 531 - 543
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 6
      Author(s): Paul E. Stillman, Xi Shen, Melissa J. Ferguson
      Mouse-tracking – measuring computer-mouse movements made by participants while they choose between response options – is an emerging tool that offers an accessible, data-rich, and real-time window into how people categorize and make decisions. In the present article we review recent research in social cognition that uses mouse-tracking to test models and advance theory. In particular, mouse-tracking allows examination of nuanced predictions about both the nature of conflict (e.g., its antecedents and consequences) as well as how this conflict is resolved (e.g., how decisions evolve). We demonstrate how mouse-tracking can further our theoretical understanding by highlighting research in two domains − social categorization and self-control. We conclude with future directions and a discussion of the limitations of mouse-tracking as a method.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.012
  • Getting Serious about Variation: Lessons for Clinical Neuroscience (A
           Commentary on ‘The Myth of Optimality in Clinical Neuroscience’)
    • Authors: Alexander J. Shackman; Andrew S. Fox
      Pages: 368 - 369
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Alexander J. Shackman, Andrew S. Fox

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.009
  • Is the Type 1/Type 2 Distinction Important for Behavioral Policy'
    • Authors: Nick Chater
      Pages: 369 - 371
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Nick Chater
      Melnikoff and Bargh provide a powerful critique of the Type 1/Type 2 distinction as a typology of cognitive processes. But such a distinction may, nonetheless, be useful in highlighting the need for behaviorally inspired public policy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.007
  • Cross-Species Neuromodulation from High-Intensity Transcranial Electrical
    • Authors: Alik S. Widge
      Pages: 372 - 374
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Alik S. Widge
      Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is a proposed tool for noninvasively modulating human brain circuits, but its ability to affect cortical physiology remains unclear. A recent study merged TES with live animal and human cadaveric recordings to verify intracranial electrical effects, then used these findings to develop a novel neuromodulation protocol.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.006
  • Normalization and the Cholinergic Microcircuit: A Unified Basis for
    • Authors: Taylor W. Schmitz; John Duncan
      Pages: 422 - 437
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Taylor W. Schmitz, John Duncan
      Attention alters three key properties of population neural activity – firing rate, rate variability, and shared variability between neurons. All three properties are well explained by a single canonical computation – normalization – that acts across hierarchically integrated brain systems. Combining data from rodents and nonhuman primates, we argue that cortical cholinergic modulation originating from the basal forebrain closely mimics the effects of directed attention on these three properties of population neural activity. Cholinergic modulation of the cortical microcircuit underlying normalization may represent a key biological basis for the rapid and flexible changes in population neuronal coding that are required by directed attention.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.011
  • Collective Memory from a Psychological Perspective
    • Authors: William Hirst; Jeremy K. Yamashiro; Alin Coman
      Pages: 438 - 451
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): William Hirst, Jeremy K. Yamashiro, Alin Coman
      Social scientists have studied collective memory for almost a century, but psychological analyses have only recently emerged. Although no singular approach to the psychological study of collective memory exists, research has largely: (i) explored the social representations of history, including generational differences; (ii) probed for the underlying cognitive processes leading to the formation of collective memories, adopting either a top-down or bottom-up approach; and (iii) explored how people live in history and transmit personal memories of historical importance across generations. Here, we discuss these different approaches and highlight commonalities and connections between them.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.010
  • Neonatal Transitions in Social Behavior and Their Implications for Autism
    • Authors: Sarah Shultz; Ami Klin; Warren Jones
      Pages: 452 - 469
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 5
      Author(s): Sarah Shultz, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
      Within the context of early infant–caregiver interaction, we review a series of pivotal transitions that occur within the first 6 months of typical infancy, with emphasis on behavior and brain mechanisms involved in preferential orientation towards, and interaction with, other people. Our goal in reviewing these transitions is to better understand how they may lay a necessary and/or sufficient groundwork for subsequent phases of development, and also to understand how the breakdown thereof, when development is atypical and those transitions become derailed, may instead yield disability. We review these developmental processes in light of recent studies documenting disruptions to early-emerging brain and behavior mechanisms in infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, shedding light on the brain–behavior pathogenesis of autism.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.012
  • Persistent Maladies: The Case of Two-Mind Syndrome
    • Authors: Magda Osman
      Pages: 276 - 277
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Magda Osman

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T23:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.005
  • Pint-Sized Public Relations: The Development of Reputation Management
    • Authors: Ike M. Silver; Alex Shaw
      Pages: 277 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ike M. Silver, Alex Shaw
      Until recently, many psychologists were skeptical that young children cared about reputation. New evidence suggests that by age five, children begin to understand the broad importance of reputation and to engage in surprisingly sophisticated impression management. These findings prompt exciting new questions about the development of a fundamental social competency.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T23:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.006
  • The Mythical Number Two
    • Authors: David E. Melnikoff; John A. Bargh
      Pages: 280 - 293
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): David E. Melnikoff, John A. Bargh
      It is often said that there are two types of psychological processes: one that is intentional, controllable, conscious, and inefficient, and another that is unintentional, uncontrollable, unconscious, and efficient. Yet, there have been persistent and increasing objections to this widely influential dual-process typology. Critics point out that the ‘two types’ framework lacks empirical support, contradicts well-established findings, and is internally incoherent. Moreover, the untested and untenable assumption that psychological phenomena can be partitioned into two types, we argue, has the consequence of systematically thwarting scientific progress. It is time that we as a field come to terms with these issues. In short, the dual-process typology is a convenient and seductive myth, and we think cognitive science can do better.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T23:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.001
  • Why Does the Cortex Reorganize after Sensory Loss'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Amy Kalia Singh, Flip Phillips, Lotfi B. Merabet, Pawan Sinha
      A growing body of evidence demonstrates that the brain can reorganize dramatically following sensory loss. Although the existence of such neuroplastic crossmodal changes is not in doubt, the functional significance of these changes remains unclear. The dominant belief is that reorganization is compensatory. However, results thus far do not unequivocally indicate that sensory deprivation results in markedly enhanced abilities in other senses. Here, we consider alternative reasons besides sensory compensation that might drive the brain to reorganize after sensory loss. One such possibility is that the cortex reorganizes not to confer functional benefits, but to avoid undesirable physiological consequences of sensory deafferentation. Empirical assessment of the validity of this and other possibilities defines a rich program for future research.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:04:24Z
  • The Microbiome in Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Amar Sarkar, Siobhán Harty, Soili M. Lehto, Andrew H. Moeller, Timothy G. Dinan, Robin I.M. Dunbar, John F. Cryan, Philip W.J. Burnet
      Psychology and microbiology make unlikely friends, but the past decade has witnessed striking bidirectional associations between intrinsic gut microbes and the brain, relationships with largely untested psychological implications. Although microbe–brain relationships are receiving a great deal of attention in biomedicine and neuroscience, psychologists have yet to join this journey. Here, we illustrate microbial associations with emotion, cognition, and social behavior. However, despite considerable enthusiasm and potential, technical and conceptual limitations including low statistical power and lack of mechanistic descriptions prevent a nuanced understanding of microbiome–brain–behavior relationships. Our goal is to describe microbial effects in domains of cognitive significance and the associated challenges to stimulate interdisciplinary research on the contribution of this hidden kingdom to psychological processes.

      PubDate: 2018-06-18T09:04:24Z
  • With Great Data Comes Great (Theoretical) Opportunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Michael C. Frank
      Is there a ‘critical period’ for language' Using a viral online grammar test, Hartshorne, Tenenbaum, and Pinker (2018) collected a new massive dataset on the relationship between age and language learning. Their data highlight both the importance – and the challenges – of creating quantitative theories linking ‘big data’ to cognitive models.

      PubDate: 2018-06-12T08:55:24Z
  • Neurons That Update Representations of the Future
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Peggy Seriès
      A recent article shows that the brain automatically estimates the probabilities of possible future actions before it has even received all the information necessary to decide what to do next.

      PubDate: 2018-06-12T08:55:24Z
  • Shared Mechanisms May Support Mnemonic Benefits from Self-Referencing and
    • Authors: Angela Gutchess; Elizabeth A. Kensinger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Angela Gutchess, Elizabeth A. Kensinger
      The literatures on episodic memory for self-referential and emotional information have proceeded relatively independently, and most studies examining the effects of age on these memory processes have been interpreted within domain-specific frameworks. However, there is increasing evidence for shared mechanisms that contribute to episodic memory benefits in these two domains. We review this evidence and propose a model that incorporates overlapping as well as domain-specific contributions to episodic memory encoding of self-referential and emotional material. We discuss the implications for understanding the relatively intact memory of older adults for these classes of stimuli, and conclude with suggestions for future research to test key tenets and extensions of this shared-process model.

      PubDate: 2018-06-09T08:51:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.05.001
  • Adolescent Development of Value-Guided Goal Pursuit
    • Authors: Juliet Y. Davidow; Catherine Insel; Leah H. Somerville
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Juliet Y. Davidow, Catherine Insel, Leah H. Somerville
      Adolescents are challenged to orchestrate goal-directed actions in increasingly independent and consequential ways. In doing so, it is advantageous to use information about value to select which goals to pursue and how much effort to devote to them. Here, we examine age-related changes in how individuals use value signals to orchestrate goal-directed behavior. Drawing on emerging literature on value-guided cognitive control and reinforcement learning, we demonstrate how value and task difficulty modulate the execution of goal-directed action in complex ways across development from childhood to adulthood. We propose that the scope of value-guided goal pursuit expands with age to include increasingly challenging cognitive demands, and scaffolds on the emergence of functional integration within brain networks supporting valuation, cognition, and action.

      PubDate: 2018-06-06T08:51:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.05.003
  • Advances in fMRI Real-Time Neurofeedback
    • Authors: Takeo Watanabe; Yuka Sasaki; Kazuhisa Shibata; Mitsuo Kawato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato

      PubDate: 2018-06-03T08:46:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.05.007
  • Shining Light on Social Learning Circuits
    • Authors: Steve W.C.; Chang Olga Dal Monte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Steve W.C. Chang, Olga Dal Monte
      Learning from others powerfully shapes our lives, yet the circuit-specific mechanisms underlying social learning in the brain remain unclear. A recent study in mice provides evidence that direct neuronal projections from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play a critical role in observational fear learning.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:24:36Z
  • Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory
    • Authors: Daniela Palombo; Signy Sheldon Brian Levine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Daniela J. Palombo, Signy Sheldon, Brian Levine
      Although humans have a remarkable capacity to recall a wealth of detail from the past, there are marked interindividual differences in the quantity and quality of our mnemonic experiences. Such differences in autobiographical memory may appear self-evident, yet there has been little research on this topic. In this review, we synthesize an emerging body of research regarding individual differences in autobiographical memory. We focus on two syndromes that fall at the extremes of the ‘remembering’ dimension: highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) and severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM). We also discuss findings from research on less extreme individual differences in autobiographical memory. This avenue of research is pivotal for a full description of the behavioral and neural substrates of autobiographical memory.

      PubDate: 2018-05-26T14:23:29Z
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 6

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
  • Robust, Transient Neural Dynamics during Conscious Perception
    • Authors: Biyu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Biyu J. He
      While neuroscientific research on perceptual awareness has traditionally focused on the spatial and temporal localizations of neural activity underlying conscious processing, recent development suggests that the dynamic characteristics of spatiotemporally distributed neural activity contain important clues about the neural computational mechanisms underlying conscious processing. Here, we summarize recent progress.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
  • Social Learning Strategies: Bridge-Building between Fields
    • Authors: Rachel L. Kendal; Neeltje J. Boogert; Luke Rendell; Kevin N. Laland; Mike Webster; Patricia L. Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Rachel L. Kendal, Neeltje J. Boogert, Luke Rendell, Kevin N. Laland, Mike Webster, Patricia L. Jones
      While social learning is widespread, indiscriminate copying of others is rarely beneficial. Theory suggests that individuals should be selective in what, when, and whom they copy, by following ‘social learning strategies’ (SLSs). The SLS concept has stimulated extensive experimental work, integrated theory, and empirical findings, and created impetus to the social learning and cultural evolution fields. However, the SLS concept needs updating to accommodate recent findings that individuals switch between strategies flexibly, that multiple strategies are deployed simultaneously, and that there is no one-to-one correspondence between psychological heuristics deployed and resulting population-level patterns. The field would also benefit from the simultaneous study of mechanism and function. SLSs provide a useful vehicle for bridge-building between cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.04.003
  • Mind Reading and Writing: The Future of Neurotechnology
    • Authors: Pieter R. Roelfsema; Damiaan Denys; P. Christiaan Klink
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Pieter R. Roelfsema, Damiaan Denys, P. Christiaan Klink
      Recent advances in neuroscience and technology have made it possible to record from large assemblies of neurons and to decode their activity to extract information. At the same time, available methods to stimulate the brain and influence ongoing processing are also rapidly expanding. These developments pave the way for advanced neurotechnological applications that directly read from, and write to, the human brain. While such technologies are still primarily used in restricted therapeutic contexts, this may change in the future once their performance has improved and they become more widely applicable. Here, we provide an overview of methods to interface with the brain, speculate about potential applications, and discuss important issues associated with a neurotechnologically assisted future.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.04.001
  • Nothing Personal: What Psychologists Get Wrong about Identity
    • Authors: Christina Starmans; Paul Bloom
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Christina Starmans, Paul Bloom
      What makes someone the same person over time' There is a growing body of research exploring how people ordinarily think about personal identity. We argue here that many of the experiments in this domain fail to properly distinguish similarity from personal identity, and therefore certain conclusions regarding commonsense intuitions about identity are not supported.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.04.002
  • Boundaries Shape Cognitive Representations of Spaces and Events
    • Authors: Iva K. Brunec; Morris Moscovitch; Morgan D. Barense
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Iva K. Brunec, Morris Moscovitch, Morgan D. Barense
      Efficient navigation from one place to another is facilitated by the ability to use spatial boundaries to segment routes into their component parts. Similarly, memory for individual episodes relies on the ability to use shifts in spatiotemporal contexts to segment the ongoing stream of experience. The segmentation of experiences in spatial and episodic domains may therefore share neural underpinnings, manifesting in similar behavioral phenomena and cognitive biases. Here, we review evidence for such shared mechanisms, focusing on the key role of boundaries in spatial and episodic memory. We propose that a fundamental event boundary detection mechanism enables navigation in both the spatial and episodic domains, and serves to form cohesive representations that can be used to predict and guide future behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-05-16T23:40:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.013
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 5

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
  • Contrary to the Gospel, Ravens Do Plan Flexibly
    • Authors: Mathias Osvath; Can Kabadayi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Mathias Osvath, Can Kabadayi

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.011
  • Stressful Events as Teaching Signals for the Brain
    • Authors: Sabrina Trapp; John P. O’Doherty; Lars Schwabe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Sabrina Trapp, John P. O’Doherty, Lars Schwabe
      Stressful events are better remembered than mundane events. We explain this advantage by reconceptualizing stress in terms of cumulative prediction errors (PEs) that promote rapid learning of events. This proposal integrates the effects of stress on perception and memory, and provides exciting new perspectives for research on stress and cognition.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.007
  • The Original Social Network: White Matter and Social Cognition
    • Authors: Yin Wang; Ingrid R. Olson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Yin Wang, Ingrid R. Olson
      Social neuroscience has traditionally focused on the functionality of gray matter regions, ignoring the critical role played by axonal fiber pathways in supporting complex social processes. In this paper, we argue that research on white matter is essential for understanding a range of topics in social neuroscience, such as face processing, theory of mind, empathy, and imitation, as well as clinical disorders defined by aberrant social behavior, such as prosopagnosia, autism, and schizophrenia. We provide practical advice on how best to carry out these studies, which ultimately will substantially deepen our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.005
  • The Neural Representations Underlying Human Episodic Memory
    • Authors: Gui Xue
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Gui Xue
      A fundamental question of human episodic memory concerns the cognitive and neural representations and processes that give rise to the neural signals of memory. By integrating behavioral tests, formal computational models, and neural measures of brain activity patterns, recent studies suggest that memory signals not only depend on the neural processes and representations during encoding and retrieval, but also on the interaction between encoding and retrieval (e.g., transfer-appropriate processing), as well as on the interaction between the tested events and all other events in the episodic memory space (e.g., global matching). In addition, memory signals are also influenced by the compatibility of the event with the existing long-term knowledge (e.g., schema matching). These studies highlight the interactive nature of human episodic memory.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
  • Interpreting and Utilising Intersubject Variability in Brain Function
    • Authors: Mohamed L. Seghier; Cathy J. Price
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Mohamed L. Seghier, Cathy J. Price
      We consider between-subject variance in brain function as data rather than noise. We describe variability as a natural output of a noisy plastic system (the brain) where each subject embodies a particular parameterisation of that system. In this context, variability becomes an opportunity to: (i) better characterise typical versus atypical brain functions; (ii) reveal the different cognitive strategies and processing networks that can sustain similar tasks; and (iii) predict recovery capacity after brain damage by taking into account both damaged and spared processing pathways. This has many ramifications for understanding individual learning preferences and explaining the wide differences in human abilities and disabilities. Understanding variability boosts the translational potential of neuroimaging findings, in particular in clinical and educational neuroscience.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T13:43:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.003
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T23:08:51Z
  • Neurocognitive Basis of Racial Ingroup Bias in Empathy
    • Authors: Shihui Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Shihui Han
      Racial discrimination in social behavior, although disapproved of by many contemporary cultures, has been widely reported. Because empathy plays a key functional role in social behavior, brain imaging researchers have extensively investigated the neurocognitive underpinnings of racial ingroup bias in empathy. This research has revealed consistent evidence for increased neural responses to the perceived pain of same-race compared with other-race individuals in multiple brain regions and across multiple time-windows. Researchers have also examined neurocognitive, sociocultural, and environmental influences on racial ingroup bias in empathic neural responses, as well as explored possible interventions to reduce racial ingroup bias in empathic brain activity. These findings have important implications for understanding racial ingroup favoritism in social behavior and for improving interracial communication.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T23:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.013
  • Birds of a Feather Synchronize Together
    • Authors: Matthew D. Lieberman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Matthew D. Lieberman

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T23:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.03.001
  • Facial Displays Are Tools for Social Influence
    • Authors: Carlos Crivelli; Alan J. Fridlund
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Carlos Crivelli, Alan J. Fridlund
      Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our ‘facial expressions of emotion’ as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior. Finally, BECV restores continuity of human facial behavior research with modern functional accounts of non-human communication, and provides a non-mentalistic account of facial displays well-suited to new developments in artificial intelligence and social robotics.

      PubDate: 2018-03-20T23:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.006
  • Intracranial Electrophysiology of the Human Default Network
    • Authors: Kieran C.R. Fox; Brett L. Foster; Aaron Kucyi; Amy L. Daitch; Josef Parvizi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Kieran C.R. Fox, Brett L. Foster, Aaron Kucyi, Amy L. Daitch, Josef Parvizi
      The human default network (DN) plays a critical role in internally directed cognition, behavior, and neuropsychiatric disease. Despite much progress with functional neuroimaging, persistent questions still linger concerning the electrophysiological underpinnings, fast temporal dynamics, and causal importance of the DN. Here, we review how direct intracranial recording and stimulation of the DN provides a unique combination of high spatiotemporal resolution and causal information that speaks directly to many of these outstanding questions. Our synthesis highlights the electrophysiological basis of activation, suppression, and connectivity of the DN, each key areas of debate in the literature. Integrating these unique electrophysiological data with extant neuroimaging findings will help lay the foundation for a mechanistic account of DN function in human behavior and cognition.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T07:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.002
  • The Developing Infant Creates a Curriculum for Statistical Learning
    • Authors: Linda B. Smith; Swapnaa Jayaraman; Elizabeth Clerkin; Chen Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Linda B. Smith, Swapnaa Jayaraman, Elizabeth Clerkin, Chen Yu
      New efforts are using head cameras and eye-trackers worn by infants to capture everyday visual environments from the point of view of the infant learner. From this vantage point, the training sets for statistical learning develop as the sensorimotor abilities of the infant develop, yielding a series of ordered datasets for visual learning that differ in content and structure between timepoints but are highly selective at each timepoint. These changing environments may constitute a developmentally ordered curriculum that optimizes learning across many domains. Future advances in computational models will be necessary to connect the developmentally changing content and statistics of infant experience to the internal machinery that does the learning.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T07:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.004
  • How to Characterize the Function of a Brain Region
    • Authors: Sarah Genon; Andrew Reid; Robert Langner; Katrin Amunts; Simon B. Eickhoff
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Sarah Genon, Andrew Reid, Robert Langner, Katrin Amunts, Simon B. Eickhoff
      Many brain regions have been defined, but a comprehensive formalization of each region’s function in relation to human behavior is still lacking. Current knowledge comes from various fields, which have diverse conceptions of ‘functions’. We briefly review these fields and outline how the heterogeneity of associations could be harnessed to disclose the computational function of any region. Aggregating activation data from neuroimaging studies allows us to characterize the functional engagement of a region across a range of experimental conditions. Furthermore, large-sample data can disclose covariation between brain region features and ecological behavioral phenotyping. Combining these two approaches opens a new perspective to determine the behavioral associations of a brain region, and hence its function and broader role within large-scale functional networks.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T07:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.010
  • Cognitive Computational Neuroscience: A New Conference for an Emerging
    • Authors: Thomas Naselaris; Danielle S. Bassett; Alyson K. Fletcher; Konrad Kording; Nikolaus Kriegeskorte; Hendrikje Nienborg; Russell A. Poldrack; Daphna Shohamy; Kendrick Kay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Thomas Naselaris, Danielle S. Bassett, Alyson K. Fletcher, Konrad Kording, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Hendrikje Nienborg, Russell A. Poldrack, Daphna Shohamy, Kendrick Kay
      Understanding the computational principles that underlie complex behavior is a central goal in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, and neuroscience. In an attempt to unify these disconnected communities, we created a new conference called Cognitive Computational Neuroscience (CCN). The inaugural meeting revealed considerable enthusiasm but significant obstacles remain.

      PubDate: 2018-03-09T07:09:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.008
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:54:11Z
  • Infant fMRI: A Model System for Cognitive Neuroscience
    • Authors: Cameron T. Ellis; Nicholas B. Turk-Browne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Cameron T. Ellis, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne
      Our understanding of the typical human brain has benefitted greatly from studying different kinds of brains and their associated behavioral repertoires, including animal models and neuropsychological patients. This same comparative perspective can be applied to early development – the environment, behavior, and brains of infants provide a model system for understanding how the mature brain works. This approach requires noninvasive methods for measuring brain function in awake, behaving infants. fMRI is becoming increasingly viable for this purpose, with the unique ability to precisely measure the entire brain, including both cortical and subcortical structures. Here we discuss potential lessons from infant fMRI for several domains of adult cognition and consider the challenges of conducting such research and how they might be mitigated.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.005
  • Title TBA: Revising the Abstract Submission Process
    • Authors: Roni Tibon; CBU Open Science Committee; Richard Henson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Roni Tibon, CBU Open Science Committee, Richard Henson
      Academic conferences are among the most prolific scientific activities, yet the current abstract submission and review process has serious limitations. We propose a revised process that would address these limitations, achieve some of the aims of Open Science, and stimulate discussion throughout the entire lifecycle of the scientific work.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.008
  • Clarifying the Conceptualization, Dimensionality, and Structure of
           Emotion: Response to Barrett and Colleagues
    • Authors: Alan S. Cowen; Dacher Keltner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Alan S. Cowen, Dacher Keltner
      We present a mathematically based framework distinguishing the dimensionality, structure, and conceptualization of emotion-related responses. Our recent findings indicate that reported emotional experience is high-dimensional, involves gradients between categories traditionally thought of as discrete (e.g., ‘fear’, ‘disgust’), and cannot be reduced to widely used domain-general scales (valence, arousal, etc.). In light of our conceptual framework and findings, we address potential methodological and conceptual confusions in Barrett and colleagues’ commentary on our work.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.02.003
  • The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued
    • Authors: Michael Inzlicht; Amitai Shenhav; Christopher Y. Olivola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Michael Inzlicht, Amitai Shenhav, Christopher Y. Olivola
      According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort’s role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.007
  • Hierarchical Active Inference: A Theory of Motivated Control
    • Authors: Giovanni Pezzulo; Francesco Rigoli; Karl J. Friston
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Giovanni Pezzulo, Francesco Rigoli, Karl J. Friston
      Motivated control refers to the coordination of behaviour to achieve affectively valenced outcomes or goals. The study of motivated control traditionally assumes a distinction between control and motivational processes, which map to distinct (dorsolateral versus ventromedial) brain systems. However, the respective roles and interactions between these processes remain controversial. We offer a novel perspective that casts control and motivational processes as complementary aspects − goal propagation and prioritization, respectively − of active inference and hierarchical goal processing under deep generative models. We propose that the control hierarchy propagates prior preferences or goals, but their precision is informed by the motivational context, inferred at different levels of the motivational hierarchy. The ensuing integration of control and motivational processes underwrites action and policy selection and, ultimately, motivated behaviour, by enabling deep inference to prioritize goals in a context-sensitive way.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T07:54:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.009
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