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Journal Cover Trends in Cognitive Sciences
  [SJR: 10.161]   [H-I: 224]   [154 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3123 journals]
  • Nature of Emotion Categories: Comment on Cowen and Keltner
    • Authors: Lisa Feldman Barrett; Zulqarnain Khan; Jennifer Dy; Dana Brooks
      Pages: 97 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lisa Feldman Barrett, Zulqarnain Khan, Jennifer Dy, Dana Brooks
      Cowen and Keltner (2017) published the latest installment in a longstanding debate about whether measures of emotion organize themselves into categories or array themselves more continuously along affective dimensions. We discuss several notable features of the study and suggest future studies should consider asking questions more directly about physical and psychological variation within emotion categories as well as similarities between categories.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T10:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.12.004
  • Memory as Perception of the Past: Compressed Time inMind and Brain
    • Authors: Marc W. Howard
      Pages: 124 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Marc W. Howard
      In the visual system retinal space is compressed such that acuity decreases further from the fovea. Different forms of memory may rely on a compressed representation of time, manifested as decreased accuracy for events that happened further in the past. Neurophysiologically, “time cells” show receptive fields in time. Analogous to the compression of visual space, time cells show less acuity for events further in the past. Behavioral evidence suggests memory can be accessed by scanning a compressed temporal representation, analogous to visual search. This suggests a common computational language for visual attention and memory retrieval. In this view, time functions like a scaffolding that organizes memories in much the same way that retinal space functions like a scaffolding for visual perception.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T10:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.004
  • Seeing Other Minds in 3D
    • Authors: Rebecca Saxe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Rebecca Saxe

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T01:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.003
  • Anxiety and Threat-Related Attention: Cognitive-Motivational Framework and
    • Authors: Karin Mogg; Brendan P. Bradley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Karin Mogg, Brendan P. Bradley
      Research in experimental psychopathology and cognitive theories of anxiety highlight threat-related attention biases (ABs) and underpin the development of a computer-delivered treatment for anxiety disorders: attention-bias modification (ABM) training. Variable effects of ABM training on anxiety and ABs generate conflicting research recommendations, novel ABM training procedures, and theoretical controversy. This article summarises an updated cognitive-motivational framework, integrating proposals from cognitive models of anxiety and attention, as well as evidence of ABs. Interactions between motivational salience-driven and goal-directed influences on multiple cognitive processes (e.g., stimulus evaluation, inhibition, switching, orienting) underlie anxiety and the variable manifestations of ABs (orienting towards and away from threat; threat-distractor interference). This theoretical analysis also considers ABM training as cognitive skill training, describes a conceptual framework for evaluating/developing novel ABM training procedures, and complements network-based research on reciprocal anxiety–cognition relationships.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T01:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.001
  • A Dynamic Structure of Social Trait Space
    • Authors: Ryan M. Stolier; Eric Hehman; Jonathan B. Freeman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Ryan M. Stolier, Eric Hehman, Jonathan B. Freeman
      Facial appearance evokes robust impressions of other people’s personality traits. Recent research suggests that the trait space arising from face-based impressions shifts due to context and social cognitive factors. We suggest a novel framework in which multiple bottom-up and top-down processes mutually determine a dynamic rather than fixed trait space.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T01:17:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.12.003
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T10:31:24Z
  • Modeling the Predictive Social Mind
    • Authors: Diana I. Tamir; Mark A. Thornton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Diana I. Tamir, Mark A. Thornton
      The social mind is tailored to the problem of predicting the mental states and actions of other people. However, social cognition researchers have only scratched the surface of the predictive social mind. We discuss here a new framework for explaining how people organize social knowledge and use it for social prediction. Specifically, we propose a multilayered framework of social cognition in which two hidden layers – the mental states and traits of others – support predictions about the observable layer – the actions of others. A parsimonious set of psychological dimensions structures each layer, and proximity within and across layers guides social prediction. This simple framework formalizes longstanding intuitions from social cognition, and in doing so offers a generative model for deriving new hypotheses about predictive social cognition.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T10:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.12.005
  • How Primate Brains Vary and Evolve
    • Authors: Aida
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Aida Gómez-Robles
      Studies of brain evolution tend to focus on differences across species rather than on variation within species. A new study measures and compares intraspecific variation in macaque and human brain anatomy to explore the effect that short-term diversity has on long-term evolution.

      PubDate: 2018-01-28T10:31:24Z
  • Beyond Functional Connectivity: Investigating Networks of Multivariate
    • Authors: Stefano Anzellotti; Marc N. Coutanche
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Stefano Anzellotti, Marc N. Coutanche
      For over two decades, interactions between brain regions have been measured in humans by asking how the univariate responses in different regions co-vary (‘Functional Connectivity’). Thousands of Functional Connectivity studies have been published investigating the healthy brain and how it is affected by neural disorders. The advent of multivariate fMRI analyses showed that patterns of responses within regions encode information that is lost by averaging. Despite this, connectivity methods predominantly continue to focus on univariate responses. In this review, we discuss the recent emergence of multivariate and nonlinear methods for studying interactions between brain regions. These new developments bring sensitivity to fluctuations in multivariate information, and offer the possibility to ask not only whether brain regions interact, but how they do so.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:55:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.12.002
  • The Anatomy of Friendship
    • Authors: R.I.M. Dunbar
      Pages: 32 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1
      Author(s): R.I.M. Dunbar
      Friendship is the single most important factor influencing our health, well-being, and happiness. Creating and maintaining friendships is, however, extremely costly, in terms of both the time that has to be invested and the cognitive mechanisms that underpin them. Nonetheless, personal social networks exhibit many constancies, notably in their size and their hierarchical structuring. Understanding the processes that give rise to these patterns and their evolutionary origins requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines social and neuropsychology as well as evolutionary biology.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:34:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.004
  • Computational Complexity and Human Decision-Making
    • Authors: Peter Bossaerts; Carsten Murawski
      Pages: 917 - 929
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12
      Author(s): Peter Bossaerts, Carsten Murawski
      The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective. To be plausible, future theories of decision-making will need to take into account both the resources required for implementing the computations implied by the theory, and the resource constraints imposed on the decision-maker by biology.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.005
  • Expansion and Renormalization of Human Brain Structure During Skill
    • Authors: Elisabeth Wenger; Claudio Brozzoli; Ulman Lindenberger; Martin Lövdén
      Pages: 930 - 939
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12
      Author(s): Elisabeth Wenger, Claudio Brozzoli, Ulman Lindenberger, Martin Lövdén
      Research on human brain changes during skill acquisition has revealed brain volume expansion in task-relevant areas. However, the large number of skills that humans acquire during ontogeny militates against plasticity as a perpetual process of volume growth. Building on animal models and available theories, we promote the expansion–renormalization model for plastic changes in humans. The model predicts an initial increase of gray matter structure, potentially reflecting growth of neural resources like neurons, synapses, and glial cells, which is followed by a selection process operating on this new tissue leading to a complete or partial return to baseline of the overall volume after selection has ended. The model sheds new light on available evidence and current debates and fosters the search for mechanistic explanations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.008
  • Towards a Unitary Approach to Human Action Control
    • Authors: Bernhard Hommel; Reinout W. Wiers
      Pages: 940 - 949
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12
      Author(s): Bernhard Hommel, Reinout W. Wiers
      From its academic beginnings the theory of human action control has distinguished between endogenously driven, intentional action and exogenously driven, habitual, or automatic action. We challenge this dual-route model and argue that attempts to provide clear-cut and straightforward criteria to distinguish between intentional and automatic action have systematically failed. Specifically, we show that there is no evidence for intention-independent action, and that attempts to use the criterion of reward sensitivity and rationality to differentiate between intentional and automatic action are conceptually unsound. As a more parsimonious, and more feasible, alternative we suggest a unitary approach to action control, according to which actions are (i) represented by codes of their perceptual effects, (ii) selected by matching intention-sensitive selection criteria, and (ii) moderated by metacontrol states.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.009
  • Associative Learning Should Go Deep
    • Authors: Esther Mondragón; Eduardo Alonso; Niklas Kokkola
      Pages: 822 - 825
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 11
      Author(s): Esther Mondragón, Eduardo Alonso, Niklas Kokkola
      Conditioning, how animals learn to associate two or more events, is one of the most influential paradigms in learning theory. It is nevertheless unclear how current models of associative learning can accommodate complex phenomena without ad hoc representational assumptions. We propose to embrace deep neural networks to negotiate this problem.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.001
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 1

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:34:26Z
  • Individual Differences in Language Acquisition and Processing
    • Authors: Evan Kidd; Seamus Donnelly; Morten H. Christiansen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Evan Kidd, Seamus Donnelly, Morten H. Christiansen
      Humans differ in innumerable ways, with considerable variation observable at every level of description, from the molecular to the social. Traditionally, linguistic and psycholinguistic theory has downplayed the possibility of meaningful differences in language across individuals. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is significant variation among speakers at any age as well as across the lifespan. Here, we review recent research in psycholinguistics, and argue that a focus on individual differences (IDs) provides a crucial source of evidence that bears strongly upon core issues in theories of the acquisition and processing of language; specifically, the role of experience in language acquisition, processing, and attainment, and the architecture of the language system.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:34:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.006
  • Forecasting Faces in the Cortex
    • Authors: Lucy S. Petro; Lars Muckli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lucy S. Petro, Lars Muckli
      Although theories of predictive coding in the brain abound, we lack key pieces of neuronal data to support these theories. Recently, Schwiedrzik and Freiwald found neurophysiological evidence for predictive codes throughout the face-processing hierarchy in macaque cortex. We highlight how these data enhance our knowledge of cortical information processing, and the impact of this more broadly.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T11:34:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.12.001
  • Are We Face Experts'
    • Authors: Andrew Young; Mike Burton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Andrew W. Young, A. Mike Burton
      According to a widely used theoretical perspective, our everyday experiences lead us to become natural experts at perceiving and recognising human faces. However, there has been considerable debate about this view. We discuss criteria for expertise and show how the debate over face expertise has often missed key points concerning the role and nature of face familiarity. For identity recognition, most of us show only limited expertise with unfamiliar faces. Carefully evaluating the senses in which it is appropriate or inappropriate to assert that we are face experts leads to the conclusion that we are, in effect, familiar face experts.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T06:03:31Z
  • Negotiating the Traffic: Can Cognitive Science Help Make Autonomous
           Vehicles a Reality'
    • Authors: Nick Chater; Jennifer Misyak; Derrick Watson; Nathan Griffiths; Alex Mouzakitis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Nick Chater, Jennifer Misyak, Derrick Watson, Nathan Griffiths, Alex Mouzakitis
      To drive safely among human drivers, cyclists and pedestrians, autonomous vehicles will need to mimic, or ideally improve upon, humanlike driving. Yet, driving presents us with difficult problems of joint action: ‘negotiating’ with other users over shared road space. We argue that autonomous driving provides a test case for computational theories of social interaction, with fundamental implications for the development of autonomous vehicles.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T06:03:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.008
  • Frontal Cortex and the Hierarchical Control of Behavior
    • Authors: David Badre; Derek Evan Nee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): David Badre, Derek Evan Nee
      The frontal lobes are important for cognitive control, yet their functional organization remains controversial. An influential class of theory proposes that the frontal lobes are organized along their rostrocaudal axis to support hierarchical cognitive control. Here, we take an updated look at the literature on hierarchical control, with particular focus on the functional organization of lateral frontal cortex. Our review of the evidence supports neither a unitary model of lateral frontal function nor a unidimensional abstraction gradient. Rather, separate frontal networks interact via local and global hierarchical structure to support diverse task demands.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T10:01:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.005
  • Consciousness, Representation, Action: The Importance of Being
    • Authors: Cyriel M.A. Pennartz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Cyriel M.A. Pennartz
      Recent years have witnessed fierce debates on the dependence of consciousness on interactions between a subject and the environment. Reviewing neuroscientific, computational, and clinical evidence, I will address three questions. First, does conscious experience necessarily depend on acute interactions between a subject and the environment' Second, does it depend on specific perception–action loops in the longer run' Third, which types of action does consciousness cohere with, if not with all of them' I argue that conscious contents do not necessarily depend on acute or long-term brain–environment interactions. Instead, consciousness is proposed to be specifically associated with, and subserve, deliberate, goal-directed behavior (GDB). Brain systems implied in conscious representation are highly connected to, but distinct from, neural substrates mediating GDB and declarative memory.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T10:01:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.006
  • Large-Scale Gradients in Human Cortical Organization
    • Authors: Julia M. Huntenburg; Pierre-Louis Bazin; Daniel S. Margulies
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Julia M. Huntenburg, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Daniel S. Margulies
      Recent advances in mapping cortical areas in the human brain provide a basis for investigating the significance of their spatial arrangement. Here we describe a dominant gradient in cortical features that spans between sensorimotor and transmodal areas. We propose that this gradient constitutes a core organizing axis of the human cerebral cortex, and describe an intrinsic coordinate system on its basis. Studying the cortex with respect to these intrinsic dimensions can inform our understanding of how the spectrum of cortical function emerges from structural constraints.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T10:01:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.002
  • The Role of Inhibition in Avoiding Distraction by Salient Stimuli
    • Authors: Nicholas Gaspelin; Steven J. Luck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Nicholas Gaspelin, Steven J. Luck
      Researchers have long debated whether salient stimuli can involuntarily ‘capture’ visual attention. We review here evidence for a recently discovered inhibitory mechanism that may help to resolve this debate. This evidence suggests that salient stimuli naturally attempt to capture attention, but capture can be avoided if the salient stimulus is suppressed before it captures attention. Importantly, the suppression process can be more or less effective as a result of changing task demands or lapses in cognitive control. Converging evidence for the existence of this suppression mechanism comes from multiple sources, including psychophysics, eye-tracking, and event-related potentials (ERPs). We conclude that the evidence for suppression is strong, but future research will need to explore the nature and limits of this mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.001
  • Predicting Violent Behavior: What Can Neuroscience Add'
    • Authors: Russell A. Poldrack; John Monahan; Peter B. Imrey; Valerie Reyna; Marcus E. Raichle; David Faigman; Joshua W. Buckholtz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Russell A. Poldrack, John Monahan, Peter B. Imrey, Valerie Reyna, Marcus E. Raichle, David Faigman, Joshua W. Buckholtz
      The ability to accurately predict violence and other forms of serious antisocial behavior would provide important societal benefits, and there is substantial enthusiasm for the potential predictive accuracy of neuroimaging techniques. Here, we review the current status of violence prediction using actuarial and clinical methods, and assess the current state of neuroprediction. We then outline several questions that need to be addressed by future studies of neuroprediction if neuroimaging and other neuroscientific markers are to be successfully translated into public policy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.003
  • Network Neuroscience Theory of Human Intelligence
    • Authors: Aron K. Barbey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Aron K. Barbey
      An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence, examining the stunning breadth and diversity of intellectual abilities and the remarkable neurobiological mechanisms from which they arise. This Opinion article surveys recent neuroscience evidence to elucidate how general intelligence, g, emerges from individual differences in the network architecture of the human brain. The reviewed findings motivate new insights about how network topology and dynamics account for individual differences in g, represented by the Network Neuroscience Theory. According to this framework, g emerges from the small-world topology of brain networks and the dynamic reorganization of its community structure in the service of system-wide flexibility and adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.001
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
  • Constraints on Statistical Learning Across Species
    • Authors: Chiara Santolin; Jenny R. Saffran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Chiara Santolin, Jenny R. Saffran
      Both human and nonhuman organisms are sensitive to statistical regularities in sensory inputs that support functions including communication, visual processing, and sequence learning. One of the issues faced by comparative research in this field is the lack of a comprehensive theory to explain the relevance of statistical learning across distinct ecological niches. In the current review we interpret cross-species research on statistical learning based on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that characterize the human and nonhuman models under investigation. Considering statistical learning as an essential part of the cognitive architecture of an animal will help to uncover the potential ecological functions of this powerful learning process.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.003
  • Data-Driven Methods to Diversify Knowledge of Human Psychology
    • Authors: Rachael E. Jack; Carlos Crivelli; Thalia Wheatley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Rachael E. Jack, Carlos Crivelli, Thalia Wheatley
      Psychology aims to understand real human behavior. However, cultural biases in the scientific process can constrain knowledge. We describe here how data-driven methods can relax these constraints to reveal new insights that theories can overlook. To advance knowledge we advocate a symbiotic approach that better combines data-driven methods with theory.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.002
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 11

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
  • Segregated Systems of Human Brain Networks
    • Authors: Gagan S. Wig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Gagan S. Wig
      The organization of the brain network enables its function. Evaluation of this organization has revealed that large-scale brain networks consist of multiple segregated subnetworks of interacting brain areas. Descriptions of resting-state network architecture have provided clues for understanding the functional significance of these segregated subnetworks, many of which correspond to distinct brain systems. The present report synthesizes accumulating evidence to reveal how maintaining segregated brain systems renders the human brain network functionally specialized, adaptable to task demands, and largely resilient following focal brain damage. The organizational properties that support system segregation are harmonious with the properties that promote integration across the network, but confer unique and important features to the brain network that are central to its function and behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.006
  • Single-Neuron Correlates of Awareness during Attentional Blinks
    • Authors: Zhongzheng Fu; Ueli Rutishauser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Zhongzheng Fu, Ueli Rutishauser
      A recent single-neuron study revealed an anatomical anterior-to-posterior gradient of awareness-related responses by ‘concept neurons’ in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL). Delayed and weaker responses were indicative of the failure of a stimulus to reach awareness, suggesting that reliable fast responses are a critical aspect of the neural mechanisms of consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.005
  • Parallel Distributed Processing Theory in the Age of Deep Networks
    • Authors: Jeffrey S. Bowers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jeffrey S. Bowers
      Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks. Given the close links between PDP and deep networks, it is surprising that research with deep networks is challenging PDP theory.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.013
  • Network Design and the Brain
    • Authors: Saket Navlakha; Ziv Bar-Joseph; Alison L. Barth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Saket Navlakha, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Alison L. Barth
      Neural circuits have evolved to accommodate similar information processing challenges as those faced by engineered systems. Here, we compare neural versus engineering strategies for constructing networks. During circuit development, synapses are overproduced and then pruned back over time, whereas in engineered networks, connections are initially sparse and are then added over time. We provide a computational perspective on these two different approaches, including discussion of how and why they are used, insights that one can provide the other, and areas for future joint investigation. By thinking algorithmically about the goals, constraints, and optimization principles used by neural circuits, we can develop brain-derived strategies for enhancing network design, while also stimulating experimental hypotheses about circuit development and function.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.012
  • Visual Working Memory Storage Recruits Sensory Processing Areas
    • Authors: Surya Gayet; Chris L.E. Paffen; Stefan Van der Stigchel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Surya Gayet, Chris L.E. Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.011
  • Advances in fMRI Real-Time Neurofeedback
    • Authors: Takeo Watanabe; Yuka Sasaki; Kazuhisa Shibata; Mitsuo Kawato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato
      Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback in which real-time online fMRI signals are used to self-regulate brain function. Since its advent in 2003 significant progress has been made in fMRI neurofeedback techniques. Specifically, the use of implicit protocols, external rewards, multivariate analysis, and connectivity analysis has allowed neuroscientists to explore a possible causal involvement of modified brain activity in modified behavior. These techniques have also been integrated into groundbreaking new neurofeedback technologies, specifically decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) and functional connectivity-based neurofeedback (FCNef). By modulating neural activity and behavior, DecNef and FCNef have substantially advanced both basic and clinical research.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T20:59:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.010
  • Numerical Cognition: Learning Binds Biology to Culture
    • Authors: Tom Verguts; Qi Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Tom Verguts, Qi Chen

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T20:15:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.004
  • Smiles as Multipurpose Social Signals
    • Authors: Jared Martin; Magdalena Rychlowska; Adrienne Wood; Paula Niedenthal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jared Martin, Magdalena Rychlowska, Adrienne Wood, Paula Niedenthal
      The human smile is highly variable in both its form and the social contexts in which it is displayed. A social-functional account identifies three distinct smile expressions defined in terms of their effects on the perceiver: reward smiles reinforce desired behavior; affiliation smiles invite and maintain social bonds; and dominance smiles manage hierarchical relationships. Mathematical modeling uncovers the appearance of the smiles, and both human and Bayesian classifiers validate these distinctions. New findings link laughter to reward, affiliation, and dominance, and research suggests that these functions of smiles are recognized across cultures. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the smile can be productively investigated according to how it assists the smiler in meeting the challenges and opportunities inherent in human social living.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.007
  • Disruption of Conscious Access in Schizophrenia
    • Authors: Lucie Berkovitch; Stanislas Dehaene Gaillard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lucie Berkovitch, Stanislas Dehaene, Raphaël Gaillard
      Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder resulting in delusions, hallucinations, and cognitive impairments. Across a variety of paradigms, an elevated threshold for conscious perception has been repeatedly observed in persons with schizophrenia. Remarkably, even subtle measures of subliminal processing appear to be preserved. We argue here that the dissociation between impaired conscious access and intact unconscious processing may be due to a specific disruption of top-down attentional amplification. This proposal is compatible with the neurophysiological disturbances observed in schizophrenia, including dysconnectivity, abnormal neural oscillations, and glutamatergic and cholinergic dysregulation. Therefore, placing impaired conscious access as a central feature of schizophrenia can help researchers develop a coherent and parsimonious pathophysiological framework of the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
  • The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split
    • Authors: Yair Pinto; Edward H.F de Haan; Victor A.F. Lamme
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Yair Pinto, Edward H.F de Haan, Victor A.F. Lamme
      The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the ‘conscious unity, split perception’ model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.003
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 10

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
  • On Global fMRI Signals and Simulations
    • Authors: Jonathan D. Power; Timothy O. Laumann; Mark Plitt; Alex Martin; Steven E. Petersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jonathan D. Power, Timothy O. Laumann, Mark Plitt, Alex Martin, Steven E. Petersen

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.002
  • Reading Faces: From Features to Recognition
    • Authors: J. Swaroop Guntupalli; M. Ida Gobbini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): J. Swaroop Guntupalli, M. Ida Gobbini
      Chang and Tsao recently reported that the monkey face patch system encodes facial identity in a space of facial features as opposed to exemplars. Here, we discuss how such coding might contribute to face recognition, emphasizing the critical role of learning and interactions with other brain areas for optimizing the recognition of familiar faces.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.007
  • Flexible Planning in Ravens'
    • Authors: Jonathan Redshaw; Alex H. Taylor; Thomas Suddendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jonathan Redshaw, Alex H. Taylor, Thomas Suddendorf
      Across two different contexts, Kabadayi and Osvath found that ravens preferentially selected items that could be used to obtain future rewards. Do these results demand a rethink of the evolution of flexible planning, or are there leaner alternative explanations for the performance of ravens'

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.001
  • An Integrative Interdisciplinary Perspective on Social Dominance
    • Authors: Chen Qu; Romain Ligneul; Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst; Jean-Claude Dreher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
      In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates. We also review neuropharmacological findings showing how dopamine, serotonin, and testosterone influence social hierarchies and we emphasize their key clinical implications on vulnerabilities to neuropsychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T03:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.004
  • Constructing Experience: Event Models from Perception to Action
    • Authors: Lauren L. Richmond; Jeffrey M. Zacks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lauren L. Richmond, Jeffrey M. Zacks
      Mental representations of everyday experience are rich, structured, and multimodal. In this article we consider the adaptive pressures that led to human construction of such representations, arguing that structured event representations enable cognitive systems to more effectively predict the trajectory of naturalistic everyday activity. We propose an account of how cortical systems and the hippocampus (HPC) interact to construct, maintain, and update event representations. This analysis throws light on recent research on story comprehension, event segmentation, episodic memory, and action planning. It also suggests how the growing science base can be deployed to diagnose impairments in event perception and memory, and to improve memory for everyday events.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.005
  • Serial Dependence in Audition: Free, Fast, and Featureless'
    • Authors: Benjamin James Dyson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Benjamin James Dyson

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.002
  • Why Do the Children (Pretend) Play'
    • Authors: Angeline S. Lillard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Angeline S. Lillard
      Pretend play appears to be an evolved behavior because it is universal and appears on a set schedule. However, no specific functions have been determined for pretend play and empirical tests for its functions in humans are elusive. Yet animal play fighting can serve as an analog, as both activities involve as-if, metacommunicative signaling and symbolism. In the rat and some other animals, adaptive functions of play fighting include assisting social behavior and emotion regulation. Research is presented suggesting that pretend play might serve similar functions for humans.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T07:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.001
  • Neural Noise Hypothesis of Developmental Dyslexia
    • Authors: Roeland Hancock; Kenneth R. Pugh; Fumiko Hoeft
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R. Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T07:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.003
  • How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning
    • Authors: Paul H. Thibodeau; Rose K. Hendricks; Lera Boroditsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Paul H. Thibodeau, Rose K. Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
      Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are ‘light bulbs’, crime is a ‘virus’, and cancer is an ‘enemy’ in a ‘war’. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.07.001
  • Do Intelligent Robots Need Emotion'
    • Authors: Luiz Pessoa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Luiz Pessoa
      What is the place of emotion in intelligent robots' Researchers have advocated the inclusion of some emotion-related components in the information-processing architecture of autonomous agents. It is argued here that emotion needs to be merged with all aspects of the architecture: cognitive–emotional integration should be a key design principle.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.010
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