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Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 7.049
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 159  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Connectivity Fingerprints: From Areal Descriptions to Abstract Spaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Rogier B. Mars, Richard E. Passingham, Saad JbabdiFifteen years ago, Passingham and colleagues proposed that brain areas can be described in terms of their unique pattern of input and output connections with the rest of the brain, and that these connections are a crucial determinant of their function. We explore how the advent of neuroimaging of connectivity has allowed us to test and extend this proposal. We show that describing the brain in terms of an abstract connectivity space, as opposed to physical locations of areas, provides a natural and powerful framework for thinking about brain function and its variation across the brains of individuals, populations, and species.
       
  • The Regulatory Role of the Human Mediodorsal Thalamus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Giulio Pergola, Lola Danet, Anne-Lise Pitel, Giovanni A. Carlesimo, Shailendra Segobin, Jérémie Pariente, Boris Suchan, Anna S. Mitchell, Emmanuel J. BarbeauThe function of the human mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) has so far eluded a clear definition in terms of specific cognitive processes and tasks. Although it was at first proposed to play a role in long-term memory, a set of recent studies in animals and humans has revealed a more complex, and broader, role in several cognitive functions. The MD seems to play a multifaceted role in higher cognitive functions together with the prefrontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical brain areas. Specifically, we propose that the MD is involved in the regulation of cortical networks especially when the maintenance and temporal extension of persistent activity patterns in the frontal lobe areas are required.
       
  • Modelling the Human Cortex in Three Dimensions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Esther Kuehn, Martin I. SerenoIn cognitive neuroscience, brain-behaviour relationships are usually mapped onto a 2D cortical sheet. Cortical layers are a critical but often ignored third dimension of human cortical function. Improved resolution has put us on the threshold of beginning to image human cognition in three dimensions.
       
  • Being a Beast Machine: The Somatic Basis of Selfhood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Anil K. Seth, Manos TsakirisModern psychology has long focused on the body as the basis of the self. Recently, predictive processing accounts of interoception (perception of the body ‘from within’) have become influential in accounting for experiences of body ownership and emotion. Here, we describe embodied selfhood in terms of ‘instrumental interoceptive inference’ that emphasises allostatic regulation and physiological integrity. We apply this approach to the distinctive phenomenology of embodied selfhood, accounting for its non-object-like character and subjective stability over time. Our perspective has implications for the development of selfhood and illuminates longstanding debates about relations between life and mind, implying, contrary to Descartes, that experiences of embodied selfhood arise because of, and not in spite of, our nature as ‘beast machines’.
       
  • Process-Specific Alliances (PSAs) in Cognitive Neuroscience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Roberto Cabeza, Matthew L. Stanley, Morris MoscovitchMost cognitive neuroscience theories have focused on the functions of individual brain regions, but cognitive abilities depend also on functional interactions among multiple regions. Many recent studies on these interactions have examined large-scale, resting-state networks, but these networks are difficult to link to theories about specific cognitive processes. Cognitive theories are easier to link to the mini-networks we call process specific alliances (PSAs). A PSA is a small team of brain regions that rapidly assemble to mediate a cognitive process in response to task demands but quickly disassemble when the process is no longer needed. We compare PSAs to resting-state networks and to other connectivity-based, task-related networks, and we characterize the advantages and disadvantages of each type of network.
       
  • The Family-Resemblances Framework for Mind-Wandering Remains Well Clad
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Paul Seli, Michael J. Kane, Thomas Metzinger, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel L. Schacter, David Maillet, Jonathan W. Schooler, Daniel Smilek
       
  • Mind-Wandering as a Scientific Concept: Cutting through the Definitional
           Haze
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Kalina Christoff, Caitlin Mills, Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna, Zachary C. Irving, Evan Thompson, Kieran C.R. Fox, Julia W.Y. Kam
       
  • Studying Implicit Social Cognition with Noninvasive Brain Stimulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Maddalena Marini, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Alvaro Pascual-LeoneGiven that globalization has brought different sociocultural groups together on an unprecedented scale, understanding the neurobiology underlying intergroup social behavior has never been more urgent. Social and cognitive scientists are increasingly using noninvasive brain-stimulation techniques (NBS) to explore the neural mechanisms underlying implicit attitudes and stereotyping. NBS methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), can interfere with ongoing brain activity in targeted brain areas and distributed networks, and thus offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying how we perceive, understand, and make decisions about others. NBS represents a promising tool to promote knowledge about the social minds of humans.
       
  • Memory Control: A Fundamental Mechanism of Emotion Regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Haakon G. Engen, Michael C. AndersonMemories play a ubiquitous role in our emotional lives, both causing vivid emotional experiences in their own right and imbuing perception of the external world with emotional significance. Controlling the emotional impact of memories therefore poses a major emotion-regulation challenge, suggesting that there might be a hitherto unexplored link between the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying memory control (MC) and emotion regulation. We present here a theoretical account of how the mechanisms of MC constitute core component processes of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), and how this observation may help to understand its basic mechanisms and their disruption in psychiatric disorders.
       
  • The Little Engine That Can: Infants’ Persistence Matters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Kelsey Lucca, Jessica A. SommervillePersistence is central to outcomes across a range of domains: the harder you try, the further you get. Yet relatively little is known about the developmental origins of persistence. Here, we highlight key reasons for a surge of interest in persistence in infancy and early childhood.
       
  • Mere Membership
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 9Author(s): Yarrow DunhamHuman social groups are central to social organization and pervasively impact interpersonal interactions. Although immensely varied, all social groups can be considered specific instantiations of a common and abstract ingroup–outgroup structure. How much of the power of human social groups stems from learned variation versus abstract commonality' I review evidence demonstrating that from early in development a wide range of intergroup phenomena, most prominently many ingroup biases, follow solely from simple membership in an abstract social collective. Such effects cannot be attributed to rich social learning, and thus (i) constrain theories seeking to explain or intervene on ingroup bias, and (ii) provide reason to think that our species is powerfully predisposed towards ingroup favoritism from early in development.
       
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 9Author(s):
       
  • Using Anesthesia to Reveal the Elements of Consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Ken SoltGeneral anesthesia provides an invaluable experimental tool to probe the essential neural circuits that underlie consciousness. A new study reports that cholinergic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex restores wake-like behaviors in anesthetized rodents, suggesting that cholinergic inputs to the prefrontal cortex play a fundamental role in modulating consciousness.
       
  • Integration despite Fractionation: Continuous Flash Suppression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Asael Y. Sklar, Leon Y. Deouell, Ran R. Hassin
       
  • Priors in Animal and Artificial Intelligence: Where Does Learning
           Begin'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Elisabetta Versace, Antone Martinho-Truswell, Alex Kacelnik, Giorgio VallortigaraA major goal for the next generation of artificial intelligence (AI) is to build machines that are able to reason and cope with novel tasks, environments, and situations in a manner that approaches the abilities of animals. Evidence from precocial species suggests that driving learning through suitable priors can help to successfully face this challenge.
       
  • Face Space Representations in Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Alice J. O’Toole, Carlos D. Castillo, Connor J. Parde, Matthew Q. Hill, Rama ChellappaInspired by the primate visual system, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have made impressive progress on the complex problem of recognizing faces across variations of viewpoint, illumination, expression, and appearance. This generalized face recognition is a hallmark of human recognition for familiar faces. Despite the computational advances, the visual nature of the face code that emerges in DCNNs is poorly understood. We review what is known about these codes, using the long-standing metaphor of a ‘face space’ to ground them in the broader context of previous-generation face recognition algorithms. We show that DCNN face representations are a fundamentally new class of visual representation that allows for, but does not assure, generalized face recognition.
       
  • Approximating Bayesian Inference through Model Simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Brandon M. Turner, Trisha Van ZandtThe ultimate test of the validity of a cognitive theory is its ability to predict patterns of empirical data. Cognitive models formalize this test by making specific processing assumptions that yield mathematical predictions, and the mathematics allow the models to be fitted to data. As the field of cognitive science has grown to address increasingly complex problems, so too has the complexity of models increased. Some models have become so complex that the mathematics detailing their predictions are intractable, meaning that the model can only be simulated. Recently, new Bayesian techniques have made it possible to fit these simulation-based models to data. These techniques have even allowed simulation-based models to transition into neuroscience, where tests of cognitive theories can be biologically substantiated.
       
  • Finding Consistency in Boredom by Appreciating its Instability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Caitlin Mills, Kalina ChristoffBoredom has recently piqued cognitive neuroscientific interest, but remains a challenge to scientific investigation in this field. We propose that to advance this research, we should (i) seek greater consistency of operationalization and measurement across studies and participants; and (ii) appreciate the temporal instability of boredom and its ensuing dynamics.
       
  • Rewarding Research Transparency
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Morton Ann GernsbacherCognitive scientists are increasingly enthusiastic about research transparency. However, their enthusiasm could be tempered if the research reward system fails to acknowledge and compensate these efforts. This article suggests ways to reward greater research transparency during academic job searches, academic promotion and tenure evaluations, and society and national award selections.
       
  • Social Origins of Cortical Face Areas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Lindsey J. Powell, Heather L. Kosakowski, Rebecca SaxeRecently acquired fMRI data from human and macaque infants provide novel insights into the origins of cortical networks specialized for perceiving faces. Data from both species converge: cortical regions responding preferentially to faces are present and spatially organized early in infancy, although fully selective face areas emerge much later. What explains the earliest cortical responses to faces' We review two proposed mechanisms: proto-organization for simple shapes in visual cortex, and an innate subcortical schematic face template. In addition, we propose a third mechanism: infants choose to look at faces to engage in positively valenced, contingent social interactions. Activity in medial prefrontal cortex during social interactions may, directly or indirectly, guide the organization of cortical face areas.
       
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 22, Issue 8Author(s):
       
  • How the Brain’s Navigation System Shapes Our Visual Experience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Matthias Nau, Joshua B. Julian, Christian F. DoellerWe explore the environment not only by navigating, but also by viewing our surroundings with our eyes. Here we review growing evidence that the mammalian hippocampal formation, extensively studied in the context of navigation and memory, mediates a representation of visual space that is stably anchored to the external world. This visual representation puts the hippocampal formation in a central position to guide viewing behavior and to modulate visual processing beyond the medial temporal lobe (MTL). We suggest that vision and navigation share several key computational challenges that are solved by overlapping and potentially common neural systems, making vision an optimal domain to explore whether and how the MTL supports cognitive operations beyond navigation.
       
  • Striatal Microstructure and Its Relevance for Cognitive Control
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Christian Beste, Christian K.E. Moll, Monika Pötter-Nerger, Alexander MünchauThe relevance of the striatum for cognitive control processes is increasingly appreciated. The striatum is not a homogenous structure but instead is compartmentalized into the ‘matrix’ and ‘striosomes’. Here, we discuss experiments on a model disease of striosomal dysfunction and provide evidence for the importance of the striatal microstructure for cognitive control in humans.
       
  • Surprise: A More Realistic Framework for Studying Action Stopping'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Jan R. WesselMotor inhibition enables rapid action stopping, even post initiation. When action stopping is anticipated (such as in laboratory stopping tasks), inhibition is engaged proactively. Such proactive inhibition changes the physiological implementation of action stopping. However, many real-world action-stopping scenarios involve little proactive inhibition. To investigate purely reactive inhibition, researchers need a different paradigm: studying surprise.
       
  • Development (of Walking): 15 Suggestions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Karen E. Adolph, Justine E. Hoch, Whitney G. ColeAlthough a fundamental goal of developmental science is to identify general processes of change, developmental scientists rarely generalize beyond their specific content domains. As a first step toward a more unified approach to development, we offer 15 suggestions gleaned from a century of research on infant walking. These suggestions collectively address the multi-leveled nature of change processes, cascades of real-time and developmental events, the diversity of developmental trajectories, inter- and intraindividual variability, starting and ending points of development, the natural input for learning, and the roles of body, environment, and sociocultural context. We argue that these 15 suggestions are not limited to motor development, and we encourage researchers to consider them within their own areas of research.
       
  • How Do Expectations Shape Perception'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Floris P. de Lange, Micha Heilbron, Peter KokPerception and perceptual decision-making are strongly facilitated by prior knowledge about the probabilistic structure of the world. While the computational benefits of using prior expectation in perception are clear, there are myriad ways in which this computation can be realized. We review here recent advances in our understanding of the neural sources and targets of expectations in perception. Furthermore, we discuss Bayesian theories of perception that prescribe how an agent should integrate prior knowledge and sensory information, and investigate how current and future empirical data can inform and constrain computational frameworks that implement such probabilistic integration in perception.
       
  • Moral Goodness Is the Essence of Personal Identity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Julian De Freitas, Mina Cikara, Igor Grossmann, Rebecca Schlegel
       
  • If You Become Evil, Do You Die'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Christina Starmans, Paul Bloom
       
  • The Insidious Number Two
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): David E. Melnikoff, John A. Bargh
       
  • The Mythical Dual-Process Typology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Gordon Pennycook, Wim De Neys, Jonathan St. B.T. Evans, Keith E. Stanovich, Valerie A. Thompson
       
  • Hippocampal Maturation Drives Memory from Generalization to Specificity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Attila Keresztes, Chi T. Ngo, Ulman Lindenberger, Markus Werkle-Bergner, Nora S. NewcombeDuring early ontogeny, the rapid and cumulative acquisition of world knowledge contrasts with slower improvements in the ability to lay down detailed and long-lasting episodic memories. This emphasis on generalization at the expense of specificity persists well into middle childhood and possibly into adolescence. During this period, recognizing regularities, forming stable representations of recurring episodes, predicting the structure of future events, and building up semantic knowledge may be prioritized over remembering specific episodes. We highlight recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence suggesting that maturational differences among subfields within the hippocampus contribute to the developmental lead–lag relation between generalization and specificity, and lay out future research directions.
       
  • Collective Memory from a Psychological Perspective: (Trends in Cognitive
           Sciences 22, 438–451, 2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): William Hirst, Jeremy K. Yamashiro, Alin Coman
       
  • Flexible Redistribution in Cognitive Networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Gesa HartwigsenPrevious work has emphasized that cognitive functions in the human brain are organized into large-scale networks. However, the mechanisms that allow these networks to compensate for focal disruptions remain elusive. I suggest a new perspective on the compensatory flexibility of cognitive networks. First, I demonstrate that cognitive networks can rapidly change the functional weight of the relative contribution of different regions. Second, I argue that there is an asymmetry in the compensatory potential of different kinds of networks. Specifically, recruitment of domain-general functions can partially compensate for focal disruptions of specialized cognitive functions, but not vice versa. Considering the compensatory potential within and across networks will increase our understanding of functional adaptation and reorganization after brain lesions and offers a new perspective on large-scale neural network (re-)organization.
       
  • Neurons That Update Representations of the Future
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Peggy SerièsA recent article shows that the brain automatically estimates the probabilities of possible future actions before it has even received all the information necessary to decide what to do next.
       
  • With Great Data Comes Great (Theoretical) Opportunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Michael C. FrankIs there a ‘critical period’ for language' Using a viral online grammar test, Hartshorne, Tenenbaum, and Pinker (2018) collected a new massive dataset on the relationship between age and language learning. Their data highlight both the importance – and the challenges – of creating quantitative theories linking ‘big data’ to cognitive models.
       
  • Shared Mechanisms May Support Mnemonic Benefits from Self-Referencing and
           Emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Angela Gutchess, Elizabeth A. KensingerThe literatures on episodic memory for self-referential and emotional information have proceeded relatively independently, and most studies examining the effects of age on these memory processes have been interpreted within domain-specific frameworks. However, there is increasing evidence for shared mechanisms that contribute to episodic memory benefits in these two domains. We review this evidence and propose a model that incorporates overlapping as well as domain-specific contributions to episodic memory encoding of self-referential and emotional material. We discuss the implications for understanding the relatively intact memory of older adults for these classes of stimuli, and conclude with suggestions for future research to test key tenets and extensions of this shared-process model.
       
  • Adolescent Development of Value-Guided Goal Pursuit
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Juliet Y. Davidow, Catherine Insel, Leah H. SomervilleAdolescents are challenged to orchestrate goal-directed actions in increasingly independent and consequential ways. In doing so, it is advantageous to use information about value to select which goals to pursue and how much effort to devote to them. Here, we examine age-related changes in how individuals use value signals to orchestrate goal-directed behavior. Drawing on emerging literature on value-guided cognitive control and reinforcement learning, we demonstrate how value and task difficulty modulate the execution of goal-directed action in complex ways across development from childhood to adulthood. We propose that the scope of value-guided goal pursuit expands with age to include increasingly challenging cognitive demands, and scaffolds on the emergence of functional integration within brain networks supporting valuation, cognition, and action.
       
  • Advances in fMRI Real-Time Neurofeedback: (Trends in Cognitive Sciences
           21, 997–1010, 2017)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato
       
  • Shining Light on Social Learning Circuits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Steve W.C. Chang, Olga Dal MonteLearning from others powerfully shapes our lives, yet the circuit-specific mechanisms underlying social learning in the brain remain unclear. A recent study in mice provides evidence that direct neuronal projections from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) play a critical role in observational fear learning.
       
 
 
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