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Journal Cover Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 1364-6613
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • Evidence from Blindness for a Cognitively Pluripotent Cortex
    • Authors: Marina Bedny
      Pages: 637 - 648
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 9
      Author(s): Marina Bedny
      Cognitive neuroscience seeks to discover how cognitive functions are implemented in neural circuits. Studies of plasticity in blindness suggest that this mind–brain mapping is highly flexible during development. In blindness, ‘visual’ cortices take on higher-cognitive functions, including language and mathematics, becoming sensitive to the grammatical structure of spoken sentences and the difficulty of math equations. Visual cortex activity at rest becomes synchronized with higher-cognitive networks. Such repurposing is striking in light of the cognitive and evolutionary differences between vision, language, and mathematics. We propose that human cortices are cognitively pluripotent, that is, capable of assuming a wide range of cognitive functions. Specialization is driven by input during development, which is itself constrained by connectivity and experience. ‘The child who methodically adds two numbers from right to left, carrying a digit when necessary, may be using the same algorithm that is implemented by the wires and transistors of the cash register in the neighborhood supermarket…’ ▓▓Vision, 1982, David Marr

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T07:54:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.003
  • Sex-Linked Behavior: Evolution, Stability, and Variability
    • Authors: Cordelia Fine; John Dupré; Daphna Joel
      Pages: 666 - 673
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 9
      Author(s): Cordelia Fine, John Dupré, Daphna Joel
      Common understanding of human sex-linked behaviors is that proximal mechanisms of genetic and hormonal sex, ultimately shaped by the differential reproductive challenges of ancestral males and females, act on the brain to transfer sex-linked predispositions across generations. Here, we extend the debate on the role of nature and nurture in the development of traits in the lifetime of an individual, to their role in the cross-generation transfer of traits. Advances in evolutionary theory that posit the environment as a source of trans-generational stability, and new understanding of sex effects on the brain, suggest that the cross-generation stability of sex-linked patterns of behavior are sometimes better explained in terms of inherited socioenvironmental conditions, with biological sex fostering intrageneration variability.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T07:54:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.012
  • Computational Complexity and Human Decision-Making
    • Authors: Peter Bossaerts; Carsten Murawski
      Pages: 917 - 929
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12
      Author(s): Peter Bossaerts, Carsten Murawski
      The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective. To be plausible, future theories of decision-making will need to take into account both the resources required for implementing the computations implied by the theory, and the resource constraints imposed on the decision-maker by biology.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.005
  • Expansion and Renormalization of Human Brain Structure During Skill
    • Authors: Elisabeth Wenger; Claudio Brozzoli; Ulman Lindenberger; Martin Lövdén
      Pages: 930 - 939
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12
      Author(s): Elisabeth Wenger, Claudio Brozzoli, Ulman Lindenberger, Martin Lövdén
      Research on human brain changes during skill acquisition has revealed brain volume expansion in task-relevant areas. However, the large number of skills that humans acquire during ontogeny militates against plasticity as a perpetual process of volume growth. Building on animal models and available theories, we promote the expansion–renormalization model for plastic changes in humans. The model predicts an initial increase of gray matter structure, potentially reflecting growth of neural resources like neurons, synapses, and glial cells, which is followed by a selection process operating on this new tissue leading to a complete or partial return to baseline of the overall volume after selection has ended. The model sheds new light on available evidence and current debates and fosters the search for mechanistic explanations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.008
  • Towards a Unitary Approach to Human Action Control
    • Authors: Bernhard Hommel; Reinout W. Wiers
      Pages: 940 - 949
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12
      Author(s): Bernhard Hommel, Reinout W. Wiers
      From its academic beginnings the theory of human action control has distinguished between endogenously driven, intentional action and exogenously driven, habitual, or automatic action. We challenge this dual-route model and argue that attempts to provide clear-cut and straightforward criteria to distinguish between intentional and automatic action have systematically failed. Specifically, we show that there is no evidence for intention-independent action, and that attempts to use the criterion of reward sensitivity and rationality to differentiate between intentional and automatic action are conceptually unsound. As a more parsimonious, and more feasible, alternative we suggest a unitary approach to action control, according to which actions are (i) represented by codes of their perceptual effects, (ii) selected by matching intention-sensitive selection criteria, and (ii) moderated by metacontrol states.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.009
  • Associative Learning Should Go Deep
    • Authors: Esther Mondragón; Eduardo Alonso; Niklas Kokkola
      Pages: 822 - 825
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 11
      Author(s): Esther Mondragón, Eduardo Alonso, Niklas Kokkola
      Conditioning, how animals learn to associate two or more events, is one of the most influential paradigms in learning theory. It is nevertheless unclear how current models of associative learning can accommodate complex phenomena without ad hoc representational assumptions. We propose to embrace deep neural networks to negotiate this problem.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.001
  • The Role of Inhibition in Avoiding Distraction by Salient Stimuli
    • Authors: Nicholas Gaspelin; Steven J. Luck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Nicholas Gaspelin, Steven J. Luck
      Researchers have long debated whether salient stimuli can involuntarily ‘capture’ visual attention. We review here evidence for a recently discovered inhibitory mechanism that may help to resolve this debate. This evidence suggests that salient stimuli naturally attempt to capture attention, but capture can be avoided if the salient stimulus is suppressed before it captures attention. Importantly, the suppression process can be more or less effective as a result of changing task demands or lapses in cognitive control. Converging evidence for the existence of this suppression mechanism comes from multiple sources, including psychophysics, eye-tracking, and event-related potentials (ERPs). We conclude that the evidence for suppression is strong, but future research will need to explore the nature and limits of this mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.001
  • Predicting Violent Behavior: What Can Neuroscience Add'
    • Authors: Russell A. Poldrack; John Monahan; Peter B. Imrey; Valerie Reyna; Marcus E. Raichle; David Faigman; Joshua W. Buckholtz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Russell A. Poldrack, John Monahan, Peter B. Imrey, Valerie Reyna, Marcus E. Raichle, David Faigman, Joshua W. Buckholtz
      The ability to accurately predict violence and other forms of serious antisocial behavior would provide important societal benefits, and there is substantial enthusiasm for the potential predictive accuracy of neuroimaging techniques. Here, we review the current status of violence prediction using actuarial and clinical methods, and assess the current state of neuroprediction. We then outline several questions that need to be addressed by future studies of neuroprediction if neuroimaging and other neuroscientific markers are to be successfully translated into public policy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.11.003
  • Network Neuroscience Theory of Human Intelligence
    • Authors: Aron K. Barbey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Aron K. Barbey
      An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence, examining the stunning breadth and diversity of intellectual abilities and the remarkable neurobiological mechanisms from which they arise. This Opinion article surveys recent neuroscience evidence to elucidate how general intelligence, g, emerges from individual differences in the network architecture of the human brain. The reviewed findings motivate new insights about how network topology and dynamics account for individual differences in g, represented by the Network Neuroscience Theory. According to this framework, g emerges from the small-world topology of brain networks and the dynamic reorganization of its community structure in the service of system-wide flexibility and adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:24:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.001
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 12

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
  • Constraints on Statistical Learning Across Species
    • Authors: Chiara Santolin; Jenny R. Saffran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Chiara Santolin, Jenny R. Saffran
      Both human and nonhuman organisms are sensitive to statistical regularities in sensory inputs that support functions including communication, visual processing, and sequence learning. One of the issues faced by comparative research in this field is the lack of a comprehensive theory to explain the relevance of statistical learning across distinct ecological niches. In the current review we interpret cross-species research on statistical learning based on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that characterize the human and nonhuman models under investigation. Considering statistical learning as an essential part of the cognitive architecture of an animal will help to uncover the potential ecological functions of this powerful learning process.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:43:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.003
  • Data-Driven Methods to Diversify Knowledge of Human Psychology
    • Authors: Rachael E. Jack; Carlos Crivelli; Thalia Wheatley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Rachael E. Jack, Carlos Crivelli, Thalia Wheatley
      Psychology aims to understand real human behavior. However, cultural biases in the scientific process can constrain knowledge. We describe here how data-driven methods can relax these constraints to reveal new insights that theories can overlook. To advance knowledge we advocate a symbiotic approach that better combines data-driven methods with theory.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.002
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 11

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
  • Segregated Systems of Human Brain Networks
    • Authors: Gagan S. Wig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Gagan S. Wig
      The organization of the brain network enables its function. Evaluation of this organization has revealed that large-scale brain networks consist of multiple segregated subnetworks of interacting brain areas. Descriptions of resting-state network architecture have provided clues for understanding the functional significance of these segregated subnetworks, many of which correspond to distinct brain systems. The present report synthesizes accumulating evidence to reveal how maintaining segregated brain systems renders the human brain network functionally specialized, adaptable to task demands, and largely resilient following focal brain damage. The organizational properties that support system segregation are harmonious with the properties that promote integration across the network, but confer unique and important features to the brain network that are central to its function and behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.006
  • Single-Neuron Correlates of Awareness during Attentional Blinks
    • Authors: Zhongzheng Fu; Ueli Rutishauser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Zhongzheng Fu, Ueli Rutishauser
      A recent single-neuron study revealed an anatomical anterior-to-posterior gradient of awareness-related responses by ‘concept neurons’ in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL). Delayed and weaker responses were indicative of the failure of a stimulus to reach awareness, suggesting that reliable fast responses are a critical aspect of the neural mechanisms of consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.10.005
  • Parallel Distributed Processing Theory in the Age of Deep Networks
    • Authors: Jeffrey S. Bowers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jeffrey S. Bowers
      Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models in psychology are the precursors of deep networks used in computer science. However, only PDP models are associated with two core psychological claims, namely that all knowledge is coded in a distributed format and cognition is mediated by non-symbolic computations. These claims have long been debated in cognitive science, and recent work with deep networks speaks to this debate. Specifically, single-unit recordings show that deep networks learn units that respond selectively to meaningful categories, and researchers are finding that deep networks need to be supplemented with symbolic systems to perform some tasks. Given the close links between PDP and deep networks, it is surprising that research with deep networks is challenging PDP theory.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.013
  • Network Design and the Brain
    • Authors: Saket Navlakha; Ziv Bar-Joseph; Alison L. Barth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Saket Navlakha, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Alison L. Barth
      Neural circuits have evolved to accommodate similar information processing challenges as those faced by engineered systems. Here, we compare neural versus engineering strategies for constructing networks. During circuit development, synapses are overproduced and then pruned back over time, whereas in engineered networks, connections are initially sparse and are then added over time. We provide a computational perspective on these two different approaches, including discussion of how and why they are used, insights that one can provide the other, and areas for future joint investigation. By thinking algorithmically about the goals, constraints, and optimization principles used by neural circuits, we can develop brain-derived strategies for enhancing network design, while also stimulating experimental hypotheses about circuit development and function.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.012
  • Visual Working Memory Storage Recruits Sensory Processing Areas
    • Authors: Surya Gayet; Chris L.E. Paffen; Stefan Van der Stigchel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Surya Gayet, Chris L.E. Paffen, Stefan Van der Stigchel

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T07:08:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.011
  • Advances in fMRI Real-Time Neurofeedback
    • Authors: Takeo Watanabe; Yuka Sasaki; Kazuhisa Shibata; Mitsuo Kawato
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Takeo Watanabe, Yuka Sasaki, Kazuhisa Shibata, Mitsuo Kawato
      Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback in which real-time online fMRI signals are used to self-regulate brain function. Since its advent in 2003 significant progress has been made in fMRI neurofeedback techniques. Specifically, the use of implicit protocols, external rewards, multivariate analysis, and connectivity analysis has allowed neuroscientists to explore a possible causal involvement of modified brain activity in modified behavior. These techniques have also been integrated into groundbreaking new neurofeedback technologies, specifically decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) and functional connectivity-based neurofeedback (FCNef). By modulating neural activity and behavior, DecNef and FCNef have substantially advanced both basic and clinical research.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T20:59:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.010
  • Numerical Cognition: Learning Binds Biology to Culture
    • Authors: Tom Verguts; Qi Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Tom Verguts, Qi Chen

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T20:15:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.004
  • Smiles as Multipurpose Social Signals
    • Authors: Jared Martin; Magdalena Rychlowska; Adrienne Wood; Paula Niedenthal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jared Martin, Magdalena Rychlowska, Adrienne Wood, Paula Niedenthal
      The human smile is highly variable in both its form and the social contexts in which it is displayed. A social-functional account identifies three distinct smile expressions defined in terms of their effects on the perceiver: reward smiles reinforce desired behavior; affiliation smiles invite and maintain social bonds; and dominance smiles manage hierarchical relationships. Mathematical modeling uncovers the appearance of the smiles, and both human and Bayesian classifiers validate these distinctions. New findings link laughter to reward, affiliation, and dominance, and research suggests that these functions of smiles are recognized across cultures. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the smile can be productively investigated according to how it assists the smiler in meeting the challenges and opportunities inherent in human social living.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.007
  • Disruption of Conscious Access in Schizophrenia
    • Authors: Lucie Berkovitch; Stanislas Dehaene Gaillard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lucie Berkovitch, Stanislas Dehaene, Raphaël Gaillard
      Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder resulting in delusions, hallucinations, and cognitive impairments. Across a variety of paradigms, an elevated threshold for conscious perception has been repeatedly observed in persons with schizophrenia. Remarkably, even subtle measures of subliminal processing appear to be preserved. We argue here that the dissociation between impaired conscious access and intact unconscious processing may be due to a specific disruption of top-down attentional amplification. This proposal is compatible with the neurophysiological disturbances observed in schizophrenia, including dysconnectivity, abnormal neural oscillations, and glutamatergic and cholinergic dysregulation. Therefore, placing impaired conscious access as a central feature of schizophrenia can help researchers develop a coherent and parsimonious pathophysiological framework of the disease.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
  • The Split-Brain Phenomenon Revisited: A Single Conscious Agent with Split
    • Authors: Yair Pinto; Edward H.F de Haan; Victor A.F. Lamme
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Yair Pinto, Edward H.F de Haan, Victor A.F. Lamme
      The split-brain phenomenon is caused by the surgical severing of the corpus callosum, the main route of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. The classical view of this syndrome asserts that conscious unity is abolished. The left hemisphere consciously experiences and functions independently of the right hemisphere. This view is a cornerstone of current consciousness research. In this review, we first discuss the evidence for the classical view. We then propose an alternative, the ‘conscious unity, split perception’ model. This model asserts that a split brain produces one conscious agent who experiences two parallel, unintegrated streams of information. In addition to changing our view of the split-brain phenomenon, this new model also poses a serious challenge for current dominant theories of consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T14:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.003
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 10

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
  • On Global fMRI Signals and Simulations
    • Authors: Jonathan D. Power; Timothy O. Laumann; Mark Plitt; Alex Martin; Steven E. Petersen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jonathan D. Power, Timothy O. Laumann, Mark Plitt, Alex Martin, Steven E. Petersen

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.002
  • Reading Faces: From Features to Recognition
    • Authors: J. Swaroop Guntupalli; M. Ida Gobbini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): J. Swaroop Guntupalli, M. Ida Gobbini
      Chang and Tsao recently reported that the monkey face patch system encodes facial identity in a space of facial features as opposed to exemplars. Here, we discuss how such coding might contribute to face recognition, emphasizing the critical role of learning and interactions with other brain areas for optimizing the recognition of familiar faces.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.007
  • Flexible Planning in Ravens'
    • Authors: Jonathan Redshaw; Alex H. Taylor; Thomas Suddendorf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jonathan Redshaw, Alex H. Taylor, Thomas Suddendorf
      Across two different contexts, Kabadayi and Osvath found that ravens preferentially selected items that could be used to obtain future rewards. Do these results demand a rethink of the evolution of flexible planning, or are there leaner alternative explanations for the performance of ravens'

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T16:55:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.09.001
  • An Integrative Interdisciplinary Perspective on Social Dominance
    • Authors: Chen Qu; Romain Ligneul; Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst; Jean-Claude Dreher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
      In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates. We also review neuropharmacological findings showing how dopamine, serotonin, and testosterone influence social hierarchies and we emphasize their key clinical implications on vulnerabilities to neuropsychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T03:39:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.004
  • Constructing Experience: Event Models from Perception to Action
    • Authors: Lauren L. Richmond; Jeffrey M. Zacks
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lauren L. Richmond, Jeffrey M. Zacks
      Mental representations of everyday experience are rich, structured, and multimodal. In this article we consider the adaptive pressures that led to human construction of such representations, arguing that structured event representations enable cognitive systems to more effectively predict the trajectory of naturalistic everyday activity. We propose an account of how cortical systems and the hippocampus (HPC) interact to construct, maintain, and update event representations. This analysis throws light on recent research on story comprehension, event segmentation, episodic memory, and action planning. It also suggests how the growing science base can be deployed to diagnose impairments in event perception and memory, and to improve memory for everyday events.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.005
  • Serial Dependence in Audition: Free, Fast, and Featureless'
    • Authors: Benjamin James Dyson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Benjamin James Dyson

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T04:48:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.002
  • Why Do the Children (Pretend) Play'
    • Authors: Angeline S. Lillard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Angeline S. Lillard
      Pretend play appears to be an evolved behavior because it is universal and appears on a set schedule. However, no specific functions have been determined for pretend play and empirical tests for its functions in humans are elusive. Yet animal play fighting can serve as an analog, as both activities involve as-if, metacommunicative signaling and symbolism. In the rat and some other animals, adaptive functions of play fighting include assisting social behavior and emotion regulation. Research is presented suggesting that pretend play might serve similar functions for humans.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T07:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.001
  • Neural Noise Hypothesis of Developmental Dyslexia
    • Authors: Roeland Hancock; Kenneth R. Pugh; Fumiko Hoeft
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R. Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T07:57:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.08.003
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 9

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T07:54:41Z
  • Crowdsourcing Samples in Cognitive Science
    • Authors: Neil Stewart; Jesse Chandler; Gabriele Paolacci
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Neil Stewart, Jesse Chandler, Gabriele Paolacci
      Crowdsourcing data collection from research participants recruited from online labor markets is now common in cognitive science. We review who is in the crowd and who can be reached by the average laboratory. We discuss reproducibility and review some recent methodological innovations for online experiments. We consider the design of research studies and arising ethical issues. We review how to code experiments for the web, what is known about video and audio presentation, and the measurement of reaction times. We close with comments about the high levels of experience of many participants and an emerging tragedy of the commons.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.007
  • Comparing Parietal Quantity-Processing Mechanisms between Humans and
    • Authors: Ben M. Harvey; Stefania Ferri; Guy A. Orban
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Ben M. Harvey, Stefania Ferri, Guy A. Orban
      Quantity processing studies typically assume functional homology between regions within macaque and human intraparietal sulcus (IPS), where apparently similar locations respond to broadly similar tasks. However, macaque single cell neurophysiology is difficult to compare to human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); particularly in multivoxel pattern analysis and adaptation paradigms, or where different tasks are used. fMRI approaches incorporating neural tuning models allow closer comparison, revealing human numerosity-selective responses only outside the IPS. Extensive functional similarities support this novel homology of physical quantity processing. Human IPS instead houses a network responding to comparisons of physical quantities, symbolic numbers, and other stimulus features. This network likely reflects interactions between physical quantity processing, spatial processing, and (in humans) linguistic processing.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.07.002
  • How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning
    • Authors: Paul H. Thibodeau; Rose K. Hendricks; Lera Boroditsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Paul H. Thibodeau, Rose K. Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
      Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are ‘light bulbs’, crime is a ‘virus’, and cancer is an ‘enemy’ in a ‘war’. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T19:01:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.07.001
  • Reevaluating the Sensory Account of Visual Working Memory Storage
    • Authors: Yaoda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Yaoda Xu
      Recent human fMRI pattern-decoding studies have highlighted the involvement of sensory areas in visual working memory (VWM) tasks and argue for a sensory account of VWM storage. In this review, evidence is examined from human behavior, fMRI decoding, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies, as well as from monkey neurophysiology studies. Contrary to the prevalent view, the available evidence provides little support for the sensory account of VWM storage. Instead, when the ability to resist distraction and the existence of top-down feedback are taken into account, VWM-related activities in sensory areas seem to reflect feedback signals indicative of VWM storage elsewhere in the brain. Collectively, the evidence shows that prefrontal and parietal regions, rather than sensory areas, play more significant roles in VWM storage.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T00:59:23Z
  • Mapping the Consequences of Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Schizophrenia
           through Development: An Integrative Model for Diverse Clinical Features
    • Authors: Jennifer K. Forsyth; David A. Lewis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Jennifer K. Forsyth, David A. Lewis
      Schizophrenia is associated with alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions that emerge before psychosis onset; identifying pathogenic processes that can account for this multi-faceted phenotype remains a challenge. Accumulating evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia. Given the role of synaptic plasticity in learning, memory, and neural circuit maturation, impaired plasticity may underlie many features of the schizophrenia syndrome. Here, we summarize the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity, review evidence that plasticity is impaired in schizophrenia, and explore a framework in which impaired synaptic plasticity interacts with brain maturation to yield the emergence of sensory, motor, cognitive, and psychotic features at different times during development in schizophrenia. Key gaps in the literature and future directions for testing this framework are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T00:59:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.006
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Volume 21, Issue 8

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
  • Brain and Social Networks: Fundamental Building Blocks of Human Experience
    • Authors: Emily B. Falk; Danielle S. Bassett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Emily B. Falk, Danielle S. Bassett
      How do brains shape social networks, and how do social ties shape the brain' Social networks are complex webs by which ideas spread among people. Brains comprise webs by which information is processed and transmitted among neural units. While brain activity and structure offer biological mechanisms for human behaviors, social networks offer external inducers or modulators of those behaviors. Together, these two axes represent fundamental contributors to human experience. Integrating foundational knowledge from social and developmental psychology and sociology on how individuals function within dyads, groups, and societies with recent advances in network neuroscience can offer new insights into both domains. Here, we use the example of how ideas and behaviors spread to illustrate the potential of multilayer network models.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.009
  • Do Intelligent Robots Need Emotion'
    • Authors: Luiz Pessoa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Luiz Pessoa
      What is the place of emotion in intelligent robots' Researchers have advocated the inclusion of some emotion-related components in the information-processing architecture of autonomous agents. It is argued here that emotion needs to be merged with all aspects of the architecture: cognitive–emotional integration should be a key design principle.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.010
  • Submentalizing Cannot Explain Belief-Based Action Anticipation in Apes
    • Authors: Fumihiro Kano; Christopher Krupenye; Satoshi Hirata; Josep Call; Michael Tomasello
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Fumihiro Kano, Christopher Krupenye, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T14:09:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.011
  • Intuitive Physics: Current Research and Controversies
    • Authors: James R. Kubricht; Keith J. Holyoak; Hongjing Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): James R. Kubricht, Keith J. Holyoak, Hongjing Lu
      Early research in the field of intuitive physics provided extensive evidence that humans succumb to common misconceptions and biases when predicting, judging, and explaining activity in the physical world. Recent work has demonstrated that, across a diverse range of situations, some biases can be explained by the application of normative physical principles to noisy perceptual inputs. However, it remains unclear how knowledge of physical principles is learned, represented, and applied to novel situations. In this review we discuss theoretical advances from heuristic models to knowledge-based, probabilistic simulation models, as well as recent deep-learning models. We also consider how recent work may be reconciled with earlier findings that favored heuristic models.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.002
  • Agency and the Calibration of Motivated Behavior
    • Authors: Justin M. Moscarello; Catherine A. Hartley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Justin M. Moscarello, Catherine A. Hartley
      The controllability of positive or negative environmental events has long been recognized as a critical factor determining their impact on an organism. In studies across species, controllable and uncontrollable reinforcement have been found to yield divergent effects on subsequent behavior. Here we present a model of the organizing influence of control, or a lack thereof, on the behavioral repertoire. We propose that individuals derive a generalizable estimate of agency from controllable and uncontrollable outcomes, which serves to calibrate their behavioral strategies in a manner that is most likely to be adaptive given their prior experience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.008
  • Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than
    • Authors: Pieter Moors; Guido Hesselmann; Johan Wagemans; Raymond van Ee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Pieter Moors, Guido Hesselmann, Johan Wagemans, Raymond van Ee
      Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex.

      PubDate: 2017-07-16T11:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.005
  • Chinese versus English: Insights on Cognition during Reading
    • Authors: Lili Yu; Erik D. Reichle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Lili Yu, Erik D. Reichle
      Chinese reading experiments have introduced important caveats to theories of reading that have been largely informed by studies of English reading – especially in relation to our understanding of lexical processing and eye-movement control. This article provides a brief primer on Chinese reading and examples of questions that arise from its study.

      PubDate: 2017-07-07T07:50:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.06.004
  • Mind Games: Game Engines as an Architecture for Intuitive Physics
    • Authors: Tomer D. Ullman; Elizabeth Spelke; Peter Battaglia; Joshua B. Tenenbaum
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Tomer D. Ullman, Elizabeth Spelke, Peter Battaglia, Joshua B. Tenenbaum
      We explore the hypothesis that many intuitive physical inferences are based on a mental physics engine that is analogous in many ways to the machine physics engines used in building interactive video games. We describe the key features of game physics engines and their parallels in human mental representation, focusing especially on the intuitive physics of young infants where the hypothesis helps to unify many classic and otherwise puzzling phenomena, and may provide the basis for a computational account of how the physical knowledge of infants develops. This hypothesis also explains several ‘physics illusions’, and helps to inform the development of artificial intelligence (AI) systems with more human-like common sense.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T13:08:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.012
  • Foraging Cognition: Reviving the Ecological Intelligence Hypothesis
    • Authors: Alexandra G. Rosati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Alexandra G. Rosati
      What are the origins of intelligent behavior' The demands associated with living in complex social groups have been the favored explanation for the evolution of primate cognition in general and human cognition in particular. However, recent comparative research indicates that ecological variation can also shape cognitive abilities. I synthesize the emerging evidence that ‘foraging cognition’ – skills used to exploit food resources, including spatial memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control – varies adaptively across primates. These findings provide a new framework for the evolution of human cognition, given our species’ dependence on costly, high-value food resources. Understanding the origins of the human mind will require an integrative theory accounting for how humans are unique in both our sociality and our ecology.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T14:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.011
  • Mechanisms of Connectome Development
    • Authors: Marcus Kaiser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Marcus Kaiser
      At the centenary of D’Arcy Thompson’s seminal work ‘On Growth and Form’, pioneering the description of principles of morphological changes during development and evolution, recent experimental advances allow us to study change in anatomical brain networks. Here, we outline potential principles for connectome development. We will describe recent results on how spatial and temporal factors shape connectome development in health and disease. Understanding the developmental origins of brain diseases in individuals will be crucial for deciding on personalized treatment options. We argue that longitudinal studies, experimentally derived parameters for connection formation, and biologically realistic computational models are needed to better understand the link between brain network development, network structure, and network function.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T14:42:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.010
  • Origins of the Belief in Good True Selves
    • Authors: Julian De Freitas; Mina Cikara; Igor Grossmann; Rebecca Schlegel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Author(s): Julian De Freitas, Mina Cikara, Igor Grossmann, Rebecca Schlegel
      Despite differences in beliefs about the self across cultures and relevant individual differences, recent evidence suggests that people universally believe in a ‘true self’ that is morally good. We propose that this belief arises from a general tendency: psychological essentialism (PE).

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T08:56:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2017.05.009
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