for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
 
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover
Trends in Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.524
Citation Impact (citeScore): 10
Number of Followers: 152  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0167-7799
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • The Human Genome Editing Race: Loosening Regulatory Standards for
           Commercial Advantage'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Toni Cathomen, Silke Schüle, Martina Schüßler-Lenz, Mohamed Abou-El-EneinMedicinal products based on genome editing must undergo rigorous preclinical testing and are subject to regulatory oversight for proper risk assessment prior to first evaluation in humans. We give a European perspective on the regulatory expectations to translate genome editing to the clinic to ensure their timely progress to market.
       
  • Chemoproteomics and Chemical Probes for Target Discovery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Gerard Drewes, Stefan KnappChemical probes represent versatile tools to validate disease-modifying targets. However, evaluating the selectivity of chemical probes in complex cellular systems is a major challenge that needs to be addressed to better understand the mode of action of small molecules and the interpretation of their pharmacological effects. Chemoproteomics has emerged as a key technology to characterize the mode of action of pharmacological modulators such as chemical probes and drugs, and these studies have unraveled the cellular targets of many bioactive compounds. Here we review the role of chemical probes for the validation of new therapeutic targets and their characterization by proteome wide affinity- and activity-based chemical proteomics and recently developed label-free technologies.
       
  • Holistic Approaches in Lipid Production by Yarrowia lipolytica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Zbigniew Lazar, Nian Liu, Gregory StephanopoulosConcerns about climate change have driven research on the production of lipid-derived biofuels as an alternative and renewable liquid fuel source. Using oleaginous yeasts for lipid synthesis creates the potential for cost-effective industrial-scale operations due to their ability to reach high lipid titer, yield, and productivity resulting from their unique metabolism. Yarrowia lipolytica is the model oleaginous yeast, with the best-studied lipid metabolism, the greatest number of genetic tools, and a fully sequenced genome. In this review we highlight multiomics studies that elucidate the mechanisms allowing this yeast to achieve lipid overaccumulation and then present several major metabolic engineering efforts that enhanced the production metrics in Y. lipolytica. Recent achievements that applied novel engineering strategies are emphasized.
       
  • Synthetic Biology Ethics at iGEM: iGEMer Perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Christopher M. Whitford, Nils-Christian Lübke, Christian RückertThe Human Practice (HP) work of the international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition can serve as a great example of integrating ethical considerations into synthetic biology research. By highlighting three independent perspectives from those involved in various aspects of iGEM, here we aim to provide an informative picture of how ethical issues are approached within the iGEM competition.
       
  • Green Therapeutic Biocapsules: Using Plant Cells to Orally Deliver
           Biopharmaceuticals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Ricardo Nieto-GómezThe use of innovative platforms to produce biopharmaceuticals cheaply and deliver them through noninvasive routes could expand their social benefits. Coverage should increase as a consequence of lower cost and higher patient compliance due to painless administration. For more than two decades of research, oral therapies that rely on genetically engineered plants for the production of biopharmaceuticals have been explored to treat or prevent high-impact diseases. Recent reports on the successful oral delivery of plant-made biopharmaceuticals raise new hopes for the field. Several candidates have shown protection in animal models, and efforts to establish their production on an industrial scale are ongoing. These advances and perspectives for the field are analyzed.
       
  • Point-of-Care Periodontitis Testing: Biomarkers, Current Technologies, and
           Perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Wanghong He, Minli You, Wanting Wan, Feng Xu, Fei Li, Ang LiPeriodontitis has become one of the most universal chronic inflammatory diseases worldwide. Subclinical symptom progression, ultimately leading to permanent damage, calls for early diagnosis and long-term monitoring. However, traditional clinical diagnostic methods are complex and expensive, and cannot meet these requirements. Recently, with more biomarkers and the development of new technologies, various point-of-care testing (POCT) platforms have been developed for periodontitis diagnosis and monitoring. These are easy to perform, rapid, low-cost, and are perfectly suited for high-frequency diagnosis of periodontitis at the point-of-care (POC). We summarize existing biomarkers of different periodontitis stages and recent developed POCT platforms (including lab-on-a-chip, paper-based platforms, and chairside tests), discuss their existing challenges and future potential, and provide some inspiration and guidelines for future POC periodontitis testing.
       
  • Translating Current Bioanalytical Techniques for Studying Corona Activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Chunming Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Lei DongThe recent discovery of the biological corona is revolutionising our understanding of the in vivo behaviour of nanomaterials. Accurate analysis of corona bioactivity is essential for predicting the fate of nanomaterials and thereby improving nanomedicine design. Nevertheless, current biotechniques for protein analysis are not readily adaptable for analysing corona proteins, given that their conformation, activity, and interaction may largely differ from those of the native proteins. Here, we introduce and propose tailor-made modifications to five types of mainstream bioanalytical methodologies. We specifically illustrate how these modifications can translate existing techniques for protein analysis into competent tools for dissecting the composition, bioactivity, and interaction (with both nanomaterials and the tissue) of corona formed on specific nanomaterial surfaces.
       
  • Restoring the p53 ‘Guardian’ Phenotype in p53-Deficient Tumor
           Cells with CRISPR/Cas9
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Sergiu Chira, Diana Gulei, Amin Hajitou, Ioana Berindan-NeagoeWith an increasing prevalence in the human population, cancer has become one of the most investigated fields of medicine. Among the potential targets for cancer therapy is the tumor suppressor gene TP53, which is found in a mutated state in approximately 50% of human cancers and is often associated with poor prognosis. We propose a novel, highly tumor-specific delivery system for TP53, based on the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. This system will restore the normal p53 phenotype in tumor cells by replacing the mutant TP53 gene with a functional copy, leading to sustained expression of p53 protein and tumor regression.
       
  • Diagnostic Potential of Imaging Flow Cytometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Minh Doan, Ivan Vorobjev, Paul Rees, Andrew Filby, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Anne E. Goldfeld, Judy Lieberman, Natasha Barteneva, Anne E. Carpenter, Holger HennigImaging flow cytometry (IFC) captures multichannel images of hundreds of thousands of single cells within minutes. IFC is seeing a paradigm shift from low- to high-information-content analysis, driven partly by deep learning algorithms. We predict a wealth of applications with potential translation into clinical practice.
       
  • Therapeutic Opportunities in Intestinal Microbiota–Virus
           Interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Vicente Monedero, María Carmen Collado, Jesús Rodríguez-DíazThe host microbiota has emerged a third player in interactions between hosts and viral pathogens. This opens new possibilities to use different tools to modulate the intestinal microbial composition, aimed at reducing the risk of or treating viral enteric infections.
       
  • Biotechnology Patenting in the BRICS Countries: Strategies and Dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Ekaterina Streltsova, Jonathan D. LintonThe BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) account for 25% of global biotechnology patents. To understand the current and future landscape of the domain, it is important to better understand the capacity of these contributors. Here, we consider the thematic priorities, strategies, and key players of the BRICS countries in biotechnology patenting.
       
  • Building Capacity for a Global Genome Editing Observatory: Conceptual
           Challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): J. Benjamin Hurlbut, Sheila Jasanoff, Krishanu Saha, Aziza Ahmed, Anthony Appiah, Elizabeth Bartholet, Françoise Baylis, Gaymon Bennett, George Church, I. Glenn Cohen, George Daley, Kevin Finneran, William Hurlbut, Rudolf Jaenisch, Laurence Lwoff, John Paul Kimes, Peter Mills, Jacob Moses, Buhm Soon Park, Erik ParensA new infrastructure is urgently needed at the global level to facilitate exchange on key issues concerning genome editing. We advocate the establishment of a global observatory to serve as a center for international, interdisciplinary, and cosmopolitan reflection. This article is the first of a two-part series.
       
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s):
       
  • l-Serine+from+Renewable+Feedstocks&rft.title=Trends+in+Biotechnology&rft.issn=0167-7799&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Microbial Production of l-Serine from
           Renewable Feedstocks
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Xiaomei Zhang, Guoqiang Xu, Jinsong Shi, Mattheos A.G. Koffas, Zhenghong Xul-Serine is a non-essential amino acid that has wide and expanding applications in industry with a fast-growing market demand. Currently, extraction and enzymatic catalysis are the main processes for l-serine production. However, such approaches limit the industrial-scale applications of this important amino acid. Therefore, shifting to the direct fermentative production of l-serine from renewable feedstocks has attracted increasing attention. This review details the current status of microbial production of l-serine from renewable feedstocks. We also summarize the current trends in metabolic engineering strategies and techniques for the typical industrial organisms Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli that have been developed to address and overcome major challenges in the l-serine production process.
       
  • Detecting Rare Mutations and DNA Damage with Sequencing-Based Methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Daniel B. Sloan, Amanda K. Broz, Joel Sharbrough, Zhiqiang WuThere is a great need in biomedical and genetic research to detect DNA damage and de novo mutations, but doing so is inherently challenging because of the rarity of these events. The enormous capacity of current DNA sequencing technologies has opened the door for quantifying sequence variants present at low frequencies in vivo, such as within cancerous tissues. However, these sequencing technologies are error prone, resulting in high noise thresholds. Most DNA sequencing methods are also generally incapable of identifying chemically modified bases arising from DNA damage. In recent years, numerous specialized modifications to sequencing methods have been developed to address these shortcomings. Here, we review this landscape of emerging techniques, highlighting their respective strengths, weaknesses, and target applications.
       
  • Antigen-Specific Tolerization and Targeted Delivery as Therapeutic
           Strategies for Autoimmune Diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Akhilesh Kumar Shakya, Kutty Selva NandakumarThe prevalence of autoimmune disorders is increasing steadily and there is no permanent cure available. Immunomodulation through repeated exposure of antigens, known as antigen-specific immune tolerance or antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASI), is a promising approach to treat or prevent autoimmune disorders. Different optimization protocols (immunization routes, delivery systems, and approaches) are being developed to implement ASI against self-proteins. Including appropriate adjuvants, altered peptide ligand, and using multipeptides are approaches that can be used to specifically target autoimmunity. This review explores various ASI application methods, including different routes of antigen-specific sensitization, delivery systems, immunomodulators containing specific antigens, and other targeted approaches that have been successfully demonstrated to have therapeutic effects on autoimmune diseases.
       
  • Simultaneous Removal of Multicomponent VOCs in Biofilters
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Chunping Yang, Hui Qian, Xiang Li, Yan Cheng, Huijun He, Guangming Zeng, Jinying XiVolatile organic compounds (VOCs) are significant atmospheric pollutants that cause environmental and health risks. Waste gases polluted with multiple VOCs often need to be purified simultaneously in biofilters, which may lead to antagonistic, neutral, or synergistic effects on removal performance. Antagonism limits the application of biofilters to simultaneous treatment of multiple VOCs, while synergism has not yet been fully exploited. We review the interactions among multiple target pollutants and the changes in the bioavailability and biodegradability of substrates that are responsible for substrate interactions. Potential strategies for enhancing biofilter performance are then discussed. Finally, we propose further efforts to alleviate antagonism by enhancing bioavailability and biodegradability, and discuss possible challenges to take advantage of synergism.
       
  • Design of Polymeric Gene Carriers for Effective Intracellular Delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 7Author(s): Wing-Fu Lai, Wing-Tak WongPolymeric carriers have emerged as major non-viral alternatives for gene delivery due to their lower immunogenicity and pathogenicity. However, during intracellular delivery of these carriers, multiple barriers have to be overcome or the efficiency of gene delivery will be impeded. A thorough understanding of these cellular impediments is pivotal to optimizing the efficiency of polymer-based gene delivery. This review delineates the major barriers encountered during intracellular delivery of polyplexes and discusses possible molecular designs to overcome these barriers. Based on a review of the latest strategies to enhance the intracellular delivery process, we provide insights into the further development of polymeric carriers with enhanced efficiency in transfection.
       
  • Standardized Immunomonitoring: Separating the Signals from the Noise
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Darragh DuffyClassical immunoassays are routinely performed in the clinic for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Recent advances in phenotyping technologies offer huge potential in expanding the breadth of immune response monitoring. Challenges remain, however, in translating many of these tools to routine clinical practice. This Opinion focuses on two strategies that may advance the clinical adoption of immune-based biomarkers: protein-based assays employing digital readouts can reduce nonspecific signals that limit more classical assays; and approaches that stimulate immune responses in more standardized ways can help to reveal disease-specific immune response signatures by elevating the signal above the background. The integration of such immune response phenotypes is a critical step for the increased implementation of precision medicine-based strategies.
       
  • Graphene-like Metal-Free 2D Nanosheets for Cancer Imaging and Theranostics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Yanan Luo, Zhaohui Li, Chengzhou Zhu, Xiaoli Cai, Lingbo Qu, Dan Du, Yuehe LinThe great success of graphene has driven the discovery and development of new 2D nanomaterials with different optical, electrical, and thermal properties. Compared with other graphene-like 2D nanomaterials, metal-free 2D nanomaterials hold great potential in biomedical applications since they exhibit much better biocompatibility and biosafety. We give an overview of some rapidly emerging graphene-like metal-free 2D nanomaterials including black phosphorus, hexagonal boron nitride, and graphitic carbon nitride, as well as 2D organic polymer-based nanomaterials, and highlight their impressive advances for bioimaging and cancer theranostics in recent years. The challenges and some thoughts on future perspectives in this field are also addressed.
       
  • The Increasingly Human and Profitable Monoclonal Antibody Market
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): António L. Grilo, A. MantalarisThe monoclonal antibody (mAb) market has changed rapidly in the past 5 years: it has doubled in size, becoming dominated by fully human molecules, launched bispecific molecules, and faced competition from biosimilars. We summarize the market in terms of therapeutic applications, type and structure of mAbs, dominant companies, manufacturing locations, and emerging markets.
       
  • The Vascularised Chamber as an In Vivo Bioreactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Kiryu K. Yap, George C. Yeoh, Wayne A. Morrison, Geraldine M. MitchellVascularisation is key to developing large transplantable tissue constructs capable of providing therapeutic benefits. The vascularised tissue engineering chamber originates from surgical concepts in tissue prefabrication and microsurgery. It serves as an in vivo bioreactor in the form of a closed, protected space surgically created and embedded within the body by fitting a noncollapsible chamber around major blood vessels. This creates a highly angiogenic environment which facilitates the engraftment and survival of transplanted cells and tissue constructs. This article outlines the chamber concept and explores its application in the context of recent advances in biomedical engineering, and how this can play a role in the future of cell therapies and regenerative medicine.
       
  • CRISPR-Based Technologies for Metabolic Engineering in Cyanobacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Juliane Behler, Dhanya Vijay, Wolfgang R. Hess, M. Kalim AkhtarIn metabolic engineering, the production of industrially relevant chemicals, via rational engineering of microorganisms, is an intensive area of research. One particular group of microorganisms that is fast becoming recognized for their commercial potential is cyanobacteria. Through the process of photosynthesis, cyanobacteria can use CO2 as a building block to synthesize carbon-based chemicals. In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-dependent approaches have rapidly gained popularity for engineering cyanobacteria. Such approaches permit markerless genome editing, simultaneous manipulation of multiple genes, and transcriptional regulation of genes. The drastically shortened timescale for mutant selection and segregation is especially advantageous for cyanobacterial work. In this review, we highlight studies that have implemented CRISPR-based tools for the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria.
       
  • Regulatory Convergence for Biologics through Capacity Building and
           Training
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Jared R. AuclairSeveral regulatory convergence efforts for biologics are underway globally, with the goal of ensuring global standards are applied consistently across regulatory agencies. Training and capacity building will ensure convergence through fostering international collaborations between agencies and ensure harmonized standards are applied, which will bring products to market faster and cheaper.
       
  • Enzymes as Green Catalysts and Interactive Biomolecules in Wound Dressing
           Hydrogels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Georg M. Guebitz, Gibson S. NyanhongoHydrogels are 3D hydrophilic polymer networks that absorb and hold huge amounts of water. Although hydrogels have traditionally been synthesized using chemical and physical methods, rapid developments in enzyme technology that, like chemical-based methods, enable the formation of stable covalent bonds are fast emerging as alternative ‘green catalyst’ tools. Enzymes show great potential for the synthesis of complex multifunctional wound dressing hydrogels (WDHs) ex situ and in situ as well as in acting as interactive molecules to promote the wound healing process. This review presents advances in the use of enzymes to synthesize WDHs and their fascinating role as bioactive molecules promoting the wound healing process, preventing microbial infection, and providing in situ, in-built infection-detection and diagnostic systems.
       
  • Teaching Shrimps Self-Defense to Fight Infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Parisa Norouzitallab, Kartik Baruah, Daisy Vanrompay, Peter BossierA paradigm shift in our understanding of shrimp immunity offers the potential to develop novel disease-control strategies. We summarize cutting-edge findings on the phenomenon of trained immunity in shrimps and discuss how it may contribute to new avenues for controlling disease in these aquaculturally important animals.
       
  • Evaluating and Mitigating the Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Zuben E. Sauna, Daniel Lagassé, Joao Pedras-Vasconcelos, Basil Golding, Amy S. RosenbergTherapeutic proteins provide interventions for some of the most complex and intractable diseases and are an essential part of modern medicine. Immunogenicity is the development of immune responses, usually measured by antibodies, to therapeutic proteins. These responses can adversely affect the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic agent and may have the following consequences: neutralization of a life-saving biotherapeutic, crossreactivity to non-redundant endogenous proteins, and hypersensitivity responses. These concerns have been underscored by the discontinuation of development of several drugs in recent years owing to immunogenicity issues. We review here recent progress in technological approaches that are useful for the clinical and non-clinical risk assessment of immunogenicity as well as mitigation strategies including deimmunizing protein molecules and inducing immune tolerance to the therapeutic protein.
       
  • CRISPR–Cas13a: Prospects for Plant Virus Resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Muhammad Zuhaib Khan, Imran Amin, Amir Hameed, Shahid MansoorCRISPR–Cas13a is an efficient RNA targeting and editing tool characterized recently in prokaryotes. This system can be recruited to engineer resistance against plant RNA viruses and regulate gene expression. We discuss some important achievements in using the CRISPR–Cas13a system to confer resistance against plant RNA viruses.
       
  • Building Capacity for a Global Genome Editing Observatory: Institutional
           Design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Krishanu Saha, J. Benjamin Hurlbut, Sheila Jasanoff, Aziza Ahmed, Anthony Appiah, Elizabeth Bartholet, Françoise Baylis, Gaymon Bennett, George Church, I. Glenn Cohen, George Daley, Kevin Finneran, William Hurlbut, Rudolf Jaenisch, Laurence Lwoff, John Paul Kimes, Peter Mills, Jacob Moses, Buhm Soon Park, Erik ParensA new infrastructure is urgently needed at the global level to facilitate exchange on key issues concerning genome editing. We advocate the establishment of a global observatory to serve as a center for international, interdisciplinary, and cosmopolitan reflection. This article is the second of a two-part series.
       
  • Time to Get Serious about Measurement in Synthetic Biology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Jacob Beal, Traci Haddock-Angelli, Natalie Farny, Randy RettbergFor synthetic biology to mature, composition of devices into functional systems must become routine. This requires widespread adoption of comparable and replicable units of measurement. Interlaboratory studies organized through the International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition show that fluorescence can be calibrated with simple, low-cost protocols, so fluorescence should no longer be published without units.
       
  • Synthetic Biology Expands the Industrial Potential of Yarrowia
           lipolytica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Kelly A. Markham, Hal S. AlperThe oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is quickly emerging as the most popular non-conventional (i.e., non-model organism) yeast in the bioproduction field. With a high propensity for flux through tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and biological precursors such as acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, this host is especially well suited to meet our industrial chemical production needs. Recent progress in synthetic biology tool development has greatly enhanced our ability to rewire this organism, with advances in genetic component design, CRISPR technologies, and modular cloning strategies. In this review we investigate recent developments in metabolic engineering and describe how the new tools being developed help to realize the full industrial potential of this host. Finally, we conclude with our vision of the developments that will be necessary to enhance future engineering efforts.
       
  • Modeling of Plasmas for Biomedicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Natalia Yu. Babaeva, George V. NaidisStudies in plasma medicine, which are currently actively expanding, are of multidisciplinary character, involving physical, chemical and biological processes. Rapid progress has been achieved in this field due to synergy between experimental and theoretical/computational methods. Joint use of diagnostic tools and computations gives a better understanding of mechanisms of interaction of plasma with bio-objects. This review focuses on recent achievements in modeling of plasma for biomedical applications. Various computational approaches used in these studies are described. We discuss some results of simulations that concern the production of reactive species by plasma and their delivery to bio-objects, and we consider the effect of electroporation at direct contact of cold plasma with cells.
       
  • The Potential of Cold Plasma for Safe and Sustainable Food Production
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Paula Bourke, Dana Ziuzina, Daniela Boehm, Patrick J. Cullen, Kevin KeenerCold plasma science and technology is increasingly investigated for translation to a plethora of issues in the agriculture and food sectors. The diversity of the mechanisms of action of cold plasma, and the flexibility as a standalone technology or one that can integrate with other technologies, provide a rich resource for driving innovative solutions. The emerging understanding of the longer-term role of cold plasma reactive species and follow-on effects across a range of systems will suggest how cold plasma may be optimally applied to biological systems in the agricultural and food sectors. Here we present the current status, emerging issues, regulatory context, and opportunities of cold plasma with respect to the broad stages of primary and secondary food production.
       
  • Cold Plasmas for Biofilm Control: Opportunities and Challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Brendan F. Gilmore, Padrig B. Flynn, Séamus O’Brien, Noreen Hickok, Theresa Freeman, Paula BourkeBacterial biofilm infections account for a major proportion of chronic and medical device associated infections in humans, yet our ability to control them is compromised by their inherent tolerance to antimicrobial agents. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) represents a promising therapeutic option. CAP treatment of microbial biofilms represents the convergence of two complex phenomena: the production of a chemically diverse mixture of reactive species and intermediates, and their interaction with a heterogeneous 3D interface created by the biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix. Therefore, understanding these interactions and physiological responses to CAP exposure are central to effective management of infectious biofilms. We review the unique opportunities and challenges for translating CAP to the management of biofilms.
       
  • Editors, Contents, Cover details
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s):
       
  • Frugal Biotech Applications of Low-Temperature Plasma
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Zdenko Machala, David B. GravesGas discharge low-temperature air plasma can be utilized for a variety of applications, including biomedical, at low cost. We term these applications ‘frugal plasma’ – an example of frugal innovation. We demonstrate how simple, robust, low-cost frugal plasma devices can be used to safely disinfect instruments, surfaces, and water.
       
  • Cold Atmospheric Plasmas: A Novel and Promising Way to Treat Neurological
           Diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Zilan XiongCold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) can enhance neural cell differentiation into neurons both in vitro and in vivo, which is of great interest for medical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic injuries of the central nervous system. CAPs represent a promising method for future neurological disease therapy.
       
  • Plasma in Dentistry: Brief History and Current Status
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Matteo Gherardi, Riccardo Tonini, Vittorio ColomboWe briefly discuss the history of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) applications in dentistry. The reasons for seeking innovative solutions in dentistry are reported, highlighting results showing the potential of plasma along with some still-open questions. Finally, we suggest the next steps on the road from the laboratory to the dental chair.
       
  • Plasmas for Treating Cancer: Opportunities for Adaptive and Self-Adaptive
           Approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Michael Keidar, Dayun Yan, Isak I. Beilis, Barry Trink, Jonathan H. ShermanPlasma is an ionized gas that is typically formed under high-temperature laboratory conditions. Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) devices with ion temperatures close to room temperature. The unique chemical and physical properties of CAP have led to its use in various biomedical applications including cancer therapy. CAP exhibits a spontaneous transition from a spatially homogeneous state to a modifiable pattern that is subject to self-organization. In this Opinion article, we discuss some new applications for plasma in cancer therapy based on plasma self-organization, which enables adaptive features in plasma-based therapeutic systems.
       
  • Tracking the Penetration of Plasma Reactive Species in Tissue Models
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Endre J. Szili, Sung-Ha Hong, Jun-Seok Oh, Nishtha Gaur, Robert D. ShortElectrically generated cold atmospheric plasma is being intensively researched for novel applications in biology and medicine. Significant attention is being given to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), initially generated upon plasma–air interactions, and subsequently delivered to biological systems. Effects of plasma exposure are observed to millimeter depths within tissue. However, the exact nature of the initial plasma–tissue interactions remains unknown, including RONS speciation and delivery depth, or how plasma-derived RONS intervene in biological processes. Herein, we focus on current research using tissue and cell models to learn more about the plasma delivery of RONS into biological environments. We argue that this research is vital in underpinning the knowledge required to realize the full potential of plasma in biology and medicine.
       
  • A New Phase in Applied Biology
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018Source: Trends in Biotechnology, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Zdenko Machala, Matthew J. Pavlovich
       
  • Infliximab Biosimilars in the Age of Personalized Medicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Jukyung Kang, Karthik Pisupati, Alexander Benet, Brandon T. Ruotolo, Steven P. Schwendeman, Anna SchwendemanStructural and functional differences between REMICADE and its two FDA-approved biosimilars appear to have clinical implications. We suggest a personalized biosimilar substitution approach based on prescribed indication, biosimilar afucosylation level, and a patient’s FCGR3A polymorphism. We also advocate for establishing glycosylation variation limits for biosimilar approvals.
       
  • A Welcome Proposal to Amend the GMO Legislation of the EU
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Dennis Eriksson, Wendy Harwood, Per Hofvander, Huw Jones, Peter Rogowsky, Eva Stöger, Richard G.F. VisserIs the European Union (EU) regulatory framework for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) adequate for emerging techniques, such as genome editing' This has been discussed extensively for more than 10 years. A recent proposal from The Netherlands offers a way to break the deadlock. Here, we discuss how the proposal would affect examples from public plant research.
       
  • Exploiting Bacteriophage Proteomes: The Hidden Biotechnological Potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Sílvio B. Santos, Ana Rita Costa, Carla Carvalho, Franklin L. Nóbrega, Joana AzeredoBacteriophages encode many distinct proteins for the successful infection of a bacterial host. Each protein plays a specific role in the phage replication cycle, from host recognition, through takeover of the host machinery, and up to cell lysis for progeny release. As the roles of these proteins are being revealed, more biotechnological applications can be anticipated. Phage-encoded proteins are now being explored for the control, detection, and typing of bacteria; as vehicles for drug delivery; and for vaccine development. In this review, we discuss how engineering approaches can be used to improve the natural properties of these proteins and set forth the most innovative applications that demonstrate the unlimited biotechnological potential held by phage-encoded proteins.
       
  • Solvent Tolerance in Bacteria: Fulfilling the Promise of the Biotech
           Era'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Hadiastri Kusumawardhani, Rohola Hosseini, Johannes H. de WindeThe challenge of sustainably producing highly valuable chemical compounds requires specialized microbial cell factories because many of these compounds can be toxic to microbial hosts. Therefore, solvent-tolerant bacteria are promising production hosts because of their intrinsic tolerance towards these compounds. Recent studies have helped to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in solvent tolerance. Advances in synthetic biological tools will enable further development of streamlined solvent-tolerant production hosts and the transfer of solvent-tolerant traits to established industrial strains. In this review, we outline challenges and opportunities to implement solvent tolerance in bacteria as a desired trait for industrial biotechnology.
       
  • Overview of Silk Fibroin Use in Wound Dressings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Mehdi Farokhi, Fatemeh Mottaghitalab, Yousef Fatahi, Ali Khademhosseini, David L. KaplanRecently, biomimetic wound dressings were introduced as potential replacements for treating skin injuries. Although there are some clinically available skin replacements, the range of wound types and locations necessitates a broader range of options for the clinic. Natural polymeric-based dressings are of central interest in this area due to their outstanding biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, and non-allergenic nature. Among them, silk fibroin (SF) has exceptional characteristics as a wound dressing. SF-based dressings can also be used as carriers for delivering drugs, growth factors, and bioactive agents to the wound area, while providing appropriate support for complete healing. In this review, we describe recent advances in the development of SF-based wound dressings for skin regeneration.
       
  • Genome Editing: Targeting Susceptibility Genes for Plant Disease
           Resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Syed Shan-e-Ali Zaidi, M. Shahid Mukhtar, Shahid MansoorPlant pathogens pose a major threat to crop productivity. Typically, phytopathogens exploit plants’ susceptibility (S) genes to facilitate their proliferation. Disrupting these S genes may interfere with the compatibility between the host and the pathogens and consequently provide broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance. In the past, genetic manipulation of such S genes has been shown to confer disease resistance in various economically important crops. Recent studies have accomplished this task in a transgene-free system using new genome editing tools, including clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR). In this Opinion article, we focus on the use of genome editing to target S genes for the development of transgene-free and durable disease-resistant crop varieties.
       
  • Inflammation-on-a-Chip: Probing the Immune System Ex Vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Daniel Irimia, Xiao WangInflammation is the typical result of activating the host immune system against pathogens, and it helps to clear microbes from tissues. However, inflammation can occur in the absence of pathogens, contributing to tissue damage and leading to disease. Understanding how immune cells coordinate their activities to initiate, modulate, and terminate inflammation is key to developing effective interventions to preserve health and combat diseases. Towards this goal, inflammation-on-a-chip tools provide unique features that greatly benefit the study of inflammation. They reconstitute tissue environments in microfabricated devices and enable real-time, high-resolution observations and quantification of cellular activities relevant to inflammation. We review here recent advances in inflammation-on-a-chip technologies and highlight the biological insights and clinical applications enabled by these emerging tools.
       
  • Single-Cell DNA Methylation Profiling: Technologies and Biological
           Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ino D. Karemaker, Michiel VermeulenDNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in gene expression regulation, development, and disease. Recent technological innovations have spurred the development of methods that enable us to study the occurrence and biology of this mark at the single-cell level. Apart from answering fundamental biological questions about heterogeneous systems or rare cell types, low-input methods also bring clinical applications within reach. Ultimately, integrating these data with other single-cell data sets will allow deciphering multiple layers of gene expression regulation within each individual cell. Here, we review the approaches that have been developed to facilitate single-cell DNA methylation profiling, their biological applications, and how these will further our understanding of the biology of DNA methylation.
       
  • Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery towards Advancing Plant Genetic Engineering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Francis J. Cunningham, Natalie S. Goh, Gozde S. Demirer, Juliana L. Matos, Markita P. LandryGenetic engineering of plants has enhanced crop productivity in the face of climate change and a growing global population by conferring desirable genetic traits to agricultural crops. Efficient genetic transformation in plants remains a challenge due to the cell wall, a barrier to exogenous biomolecule delivery. Conventional delivery methods are inefficient, damaging to tissue, or are only effective in a limited number of plant species. Nanoparticles are promising materials for biomolecule delivery, owing to their ability to traverse plant cell walls without external force and highly tunable physicochemical properties for diverse cargo conjugation and broad host range applicability. With the advent of engineered nuclease biotechnologies, we discuss the potential of nanoparticles as an optimal platform to deliver biomolecules to plants for genetic engineering.
       
  • Strategies for In Vivo Genome Editing in Nondividing Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Fatemeharefeh Nami, Mohsen Basiri, Leila Satarian, Cameron Curtiss, Hossein Baharvand, Catherine VerfaillieProgrammable nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9), have enhanced our ability to edit genomes by the sequence-specific generation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) with subsequent homology-directed repair (HDR) of the DSB. However, the efficiency of the HDR pathway is limited in nondividing cells, which encompass most of the cells in the body. Therefore, the HDR-mediated genome-editing approach has limited in vivo applicability. Here, we discuss a mutation type-oriented viewpoint of strategies devised over the past few years to circumvent this problem, along with their possible applications and limitations.
       
  • Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Food/Feed Safety: A Way Forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Antonio Fernandez, Claudia PaolettiIdentifying and assessing unintended effects in genetically modified food and feed are considered paramount by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and Codex Alimentarius, despite heated debate. This paper addresses outstanding needs: building consensus on the history-of-safe-use concept, harmonizing criteria to select appropriate conventional counterparts, and improving endpoint selection to identify unintended effects.
       
  • Mastering Complexity: Towards Bottom-up Construction of Multifunctional
           Eukaryotic Synthetic Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Kerstin Göpfrich, Ilia Platzman, Joachim P. SpatzWith the ultimate aim to construct a living cell, bottom-up synthetic biology strives to reconstitute cellular phenomena in vitro – disentangled from the complex environment of a cell. Recent work towards this ambitious goal has provided new insights into the mechanisms governing life. With the fast-growing library of functional modules for synthetic cells, their classification and integration become increasingly important. We discuss strategies to reverse-engineer and recombine functional parts for synthetic eukaryotes, mimicking the characteristics of nature’s own prototype. Particularly, we focus on large outer compartments, complex endomembrane systems with organelles, and versatile cytoskeletons as hallmarks of eukaryotic life. Moreover, we identify microfluidics and DNA nanotechnology as two technologies that can integrate these functional modules into sophisticated multifunctional synthetic cells.
       
  • Organ-Derived Decellularized Extracellular Matrix: A Game Changer for
           Bioink Manufacturing'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Deepak Choudhury, Han Win Tun, Tianyi Wang, May Win NaingThe extracellular matrix (ECM) comprises a complex milieu of proteins and other growth factors that provide mechanical, biophysical, and biochemical cues to cells. The ECM is organ specific, and its detailed composition varies across organs. Bioinks are material formulations and biological molecules or cells processed during a bioprinting process. Organ-derived decellularized ECM (dECM) bioinks have emerged as arguably the most biomimetic bioinks. Here, we review bioinks derived from different decellularized organs, the techniques used to obtain these bioinks, and the characterization methods used to evaluate their quality. We emphasize that obtaining a good-quality bioink depends on the choice of organ, animal, and decellularization method. Finally, we explore potential large-scale applications of bioinks and challenges in manufacturing such bioinks.
       
  • Bio-Based Strategies for Producing Glycosaminoglycans and Their
           Oligosaccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Zhen Kang, Zhengxiong Zhou, Yang Wang, Hao Huang, Guocheng Du, Jian ChenGlycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and their oligosaccharides have attracted extensive attention because of their wide applications in cosmetics, health, and clinical treatment of, for example, thrombus, osteoarthritis, rheumatism, and cancer. Compared to conventional preparation approaches, bio-based strategies for producing GAGs and their oligosaccharides are more promising because they avoid cross-infection of human and animal diseases, use green production processes, and can precisely control the degree of sulfation and molecular weight. This review summarizes recently developed bio-based strategies for producing GAGs, highlighting in particular enzymatic, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology strategies. Directions and prospects for near-future research are also outlined and discussed.
       
  • Single-Cell Microgels: Technology, Challenges, and Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Tom Kamperman, Marcel Karperien, Séverine Le Gac, Jeroen LeijtenSingle-cell-laden microgels effectively act as the engineered counterpart of the smallest living building block of life: a cell within its pericellular matrix. Recent breakthroughs have enabled the encapsulation of single cells in sub-100-μm microgels to provide physiologically relevant microniches with minimal mass transport limitations and favorable pharmacokinetic properties. Single-cell-laden microgels offer additional unprecedented advantages, including facile manipulation, culture, and analysis of individual cell within 3D microenvironments. Therefore, single-cell microgel technology is expected to be instrumental in many life science applications, including pharmacological screenings, regenerative medicine, and fundamental biological research. In this review, we discuss the latest trends, technical challenges, and breakthroughs, and present our vision of the future of single-cell microgel technology and its applications.
       
  • Coating with Microbial Hydrophobins: A Novel Approach to Develop Smart
           Drug Nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Brahma N. Singh, Braj R. Singh, Vijai K. Gupta, Ravindra N. Kharwar, Lorenzo PecoraroMicrobial hydrophobin (MH)-based surface coating is emerging as a novel protein engineering approach for drug nanoparticles to enhance the solubility and stability of therapeutic agents. These hydrophobins are amphiphilic proteins that can form self-assembled monolayers on hydrophobic materials and can coat nanoparticles for efficient drug delivery.
       
  • Phage Aggregation–Dispersion by Ions: Striving beyond Antibacterial
           Therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Marek DrabBacteriophages sense alkaline cations in their immediate extracellular environment, which regulates virion–virion interactions. An ion-steerable aggregation–dispersion (A/D) phenomenon among virions is a recently discovered step in group behavior in the phage life cycle. When powered by the octanol-based water-immiscible lipopolysaccharide (LPS) trap (oWILT) purification approach, A/D promises breakthroughs for a plethora of biotechnological applications beyond phage therapy.
       
  • Bio-Based Products from Microalgae Cultivated in Digestates
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Eleni Koutra, Christina N. Economou, Panagiota Tsafrakidou, Michael KornarosIn recent years the increasing demand for food, energy, and valuable chemicals has necessitated research and development on renewable, novel, and sustainable sources. Microalgae represent a promising option to produce various products with environmentally friendly applications. However, several challenges must be overcome to reduce production cost. To this end, using effluents from biogas production units, called digestates, in cultivation systems can help to optimize bioprocesses, and several bioproducts including biofuels, biofertilizers, proteins and valuable chemicals can be obtained. Nevertheless, several parameters, including the productivity and quality of biomass and specific target products, downstream processes, and cost-effectiveness, must be improved. Further investigations will be necessary to take full advantage of the produced biomass and effectively upscale the process.
       
  • Debugging Nano–Bio Interfaces: Systematic Strategies to Accelerate
           Clinical Translation of Nanotechnologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Morteza MahmoudiDespite considerable efforts in the field of nanomedicine that have been made by researchers, funding agencies, entrepreneurs, and the media, fewer nanoparticle (NP) technologies than expected have made it to clinical trials. The wide gap between the efforts and effective clinical translation is, at least in part, due to multiple overlooked factors in both in vitro and in vivo environments, a poor understanding of the nano–bio interface, and misinterpretation of the data collected in vitro, all of which reduce the accuracy of predictions regarding the NPs’ fate and safety in humans. To minimize this bench-to-clinic gap, which may accelerate successful clinical translation of NPs, this opinion paper aims to introduce strategies for systematic debugging of nano–bio interfaces in the current literature.
       
  • In Situ Organ-Specific Vascularization in Tissue Engineering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Jiayin Fu, Dong-An WangOther than a few avascular tissues, almost all human tissues are connected to the systemic circulation via blood vessels that promote metabolism and function. Accordingly, engineered vascularization is a vital goal in tissue engineering for regenerative medicine. Endothelial cells (ECs) play a central role in vascularization with two significant specificities: physical interfaces between vascular stroma and blood, and phenotypic organ-specificity. Biomaterial scaffolding technologies that address these unique properties of ECs have been developed to promote the vascularization of various engineered tissues, and these have advanced from mimicking vascular architectures ex situ towards promoting spontaneous angiogenic remodeling in situ. Simultaneously, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and organ-specific ECs are attracting more and more attention with the increasing awareness of the diversity of ECs in different organs.
       
  • Biohacking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ali K. YetisenBiohacking is a do-it-yourself citizen science merging body modification with technology. The motivations of biohackers include cybernetic exploration, personal data acquisition, and advocating for privacy rights and open-source medicine. The emergence of a biohacking community has influenced discussions of cultural values, medical ethics, safety, and consent in transhumanist technology.
       
  • CRISPR-Based Antibacterials: Transforming Bacterial Defense into Offense:
           (Trends in Biotechnology 36, 127–130, 2018)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Adrienne C. Greene
       
  • Designing Reactor Microbiomes for Chemical Production from Organic Waste
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Piotr Oleskowicz-PopielMicroorganisms are responsible for biochemical cycles and therefore play essential roles in the environment. By using omics approaches and network analysis to understand the interaction and cooperation within mixed microbial communities, it would be possible to engineer microbiomes in fermentation and digestion reactors to convert organic waste into valuable products.
       
  • Lifetime and Aging of Chromatography Resins during Biopharmaceutical
           Manufacture
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Mauryn C. Nweke, Anurag S. Rathore, Daniel G. BracewellPoor understanding of the events leading to chromatography column aging makes it difficult to monitor column lifetimes. The lack of established procedures in this area has made it difficult to establish industry standards. Therefore, it is important to understand resin aging mechanisms and techniques to monitor column aging during operation.
       
  • Gene Circuits for Dynamically Regulating Metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2018Source: Trends in BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Xiulai Chen, Liming LiuGene circuits are a functional innovation in synthetic biology for engineering cellular behavior. Recent advances have demonstrated that gene circuits can be exploited for dynamically controlling pathway redirection and pathway balance to produce valuable chemicals. The next frontier is to engineer robust, sensitive, and efficient circuits that adapt to changing conditions.
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.196.31.117
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-