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Journal Cover Australian Journal of Public Administration
  [SJR: 0.418]   [H-I: 29]   [406 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0313-6647 - ISSN (Online) 1467-8500
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Should Love Conquer Evidence in Policy-Making' Challenges in
           Implementing Random Drug-Testing of Welfare Recipients in Australia
    • Authors: Sue Olney
      Abstract: The Australian Government announced in its 2017 budget that it would trial random drug-testing of recipients of the Newstart Allowance and Youth Allowance in three locations from January 2018. The Prime Minister described it as a policy ‘based on love’, but that sentiment is hard to find in the policy rhetoric, which situates it in a suite of measures designed to ‘ensure taxpayers’ money is not being used to fund drug addictions which are creating significant barriers to employment'. The policy may make it harder for people to buy drugs with their welfare payments, through income management, but research suggests it will not help them overcome addiction and its costs will exceed any savings it generates in income support. Furthermore, the policy perpetuates ‘medicalisation’ of the problem of long-term unemployment by suggesting it stems from deficiencies in individuals that can be ‘treated’, despite evidence to the contrary. Finally, the policy claims to close loopholes in enforcement of mutual obligation requirements without addressing structural weaknesses in the welfare-to-work model. Each of these issues will pose challenges for those charged with implementing the policy.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T00:15:24.269677-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12297
       
  • Political Donations in Australia: What the Australian Electoral Commission
           Disclosures Reveal and What They Don't
    • Authors: Lindy Edwards
      Abstract: The transparent disclosure of political donations is an important anti-corruption measure. However Australia's current disclosure system has been too poor to sustain rigorous empirical analysis by either journalists or researchers. The barriers to analysis lie in the data collected and in how it is disclosed to the public. This article seeks to give an overview of the transparency problems in the disclosures. It then outlines what limited insights can be gleaned about the political donations landscape. It finds that donations are dominated by the federal election cycle, transparently declared donations make up a small and declining proportion of parties’ incomes at 12–15%, and the amount of money going entirely undisclosed is more than 50% and growing. It also finds indications of paying for access and donor strikes being used to punish government that require further research.
      PubDate: 2017-11-05T23:46:43.612998-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12283
       
  • National Registration of Health Practitioners: A Comparative Study of the
           Complaints and Notification System Under the National System and in New
           South Wales – Decision Makers who Handle Complaints/Notifications About
           Regulated Health Practitioners in Australia
    • Authors: Mary Chiarella; Marie Nagy, Claudette S Satchell, Merrilyn Walton, Terry Carney, Belinda Bennett, Suzanne M Pierce, Patrick J Kelly
      Abstract: When the National Registration and Accreditation Scheme (NRAS) for health practitioners commenced in Australia in 2010, all jurisdictions joined the scheme for the registration and accreditation of health practitioners, but NSW retained its existing co-regulatory complaint-handling system. We sought to compare the new National notifications and the NSW complaints handling processes, as NSW has an independent investigative and prosecutory body to manage serious complaints. Decision makers from both the National and NSW schemes, who handled notifications/complaints at assessment, were invited to participate in a survey consisting of case studies. A qualitative thematic approach was used to determine and compare contributing factors to decision makers’ priorities when assessing a notification/complaint for the National and NSW schemes. The 123 completed surveys comprised 50 NSW respondents and 73 National respondents from the other jurisdictions. No consistent differences in contributory factors when assessing a complaint/notification were observed between the two schemes. This evidence points towards national consistency in decisions about assessment of complaints and notifications in Australia.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T00:25:30.221357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12285
       
  • Do Municipal Mergers Improve Technical Efficiency' An Empirical
           Analysis of the 2008 Queensland Municipal Merger Program
    • Authors: Dana McQuestin; Joseph Drew, Brian Dollery
      Abstract: Municipal mergers remain an important instrument of local government policy in numerous countries, including Australia, despite some concerns surrounding its efficacy. We consider the claim that amalgamations enhance the technical efficiency of the merged entities by examining the 2008 Queensland compulsory consolidation program that reduced the number of local authorities from 157 to 73 councils. To test the claim, we conduct locally inter-temporal data envelopment analysis over the period 2003–2013 inclusive. Our evidence suggests that (1) in the financial year preceding the mergers, there was no statistically significant difference in the typical efficiency scores of amalgamated and non-amalgamated councils and (2) 2 years following the mergers, the typical technical efficiency score of the amalgamated councils was well below the non-amalgamated cohort. We argue this may be attributed to increased spending on staffing expenses, although comparatively larger operational expenditure also served to diminish efficiency.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T23:45:40.181796-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12286
       
  • Are We Being Served' Emotional Labour in Local Government in Victoria,
           Australia
    • Authors: Julie Rayner; Alan Lawton
      Abstract: This paper explores how front-line street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) cope with the expectations of citizens, clients, or ‘customers’ in daily work and how SLBs may be impacted by emotional labour. The study analyses data from 41 interviews with SLBs in local councils in Victoria, Australia. Although exploratory, it builds awareness and understanding of the emotional labour associated with public service. The situations that SLBs engage with on a daily basis are many and varied and take the form of increased expectations and intense encounters. Respondents experienced abuse, threats, violence, but also ‘sparkle moments’. Resources that helped SLBs cope are diverse and located both within and outside organisations. Implications are discussed and issues that merit additional investigation are raised concerning how SLBs can be supported to better meet the demands of the public. The research is of value to public managers and SLBs operating in a changing society with increased ‘customer’ expectations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15T23:30:27.870759-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12282
       
  • Conceptualising a Framework for Effective Performance Measurement in
           Cultural Precinct Development and Operation
    • Authors: Rebekah Schulz; Andrew Sense, Matthew Pepper
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to firstly identify and synthesise critical measurement themes in extant academic literature concerning performance measurement in cultural precincts. Secondly, the paper posits for consideration a holistic and systematic framework (which embraces those themes) for developing appropriate performance measures for cultural precincts. The outcomes in this paper (a) confirm and clarify the complexity of performance measurement needed, (b) furnish a framework for practitioners embarking on the development of such measures, and (c) indicate the conceptual and pragmatic challenges faced in developing and enacting appropriate and meaningful measures for cultural precincts. Consequently, this paper serves as a conceptual positioning paper and a practical embarkation point for practitioners willing to engage with and pursue this phenomenon. Thereby, it endorses more dialogue on and further research and analysis of performance measurement in government operated cultural precincts.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T23:20:33.449164-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12281
       
  • Managerial Career Choices: Evidence from South Australian Local Government
    • Authors: Bradley S. Jorgensen; John F. Martin, Melissa Nursey-Bray
      Abstract: There are structural and individual factors that contribute to and compound the current and continuing under-representation of women in leadership and senior management positions. We explore these factors by investigating the beliefs and intentions of male and female senior managers with respect to applying for promotion to executive level in local government organisations in South Australia. Survey data from 148 senior managers indicated that men and women have similar belief structures when it comes to their intentions to apply for promotion in South Australian local government. The imbalance in the proportion of women and men in CEO positions in South Australian local government, we suggest, reflects earlier findings of the inherent bias towards men in the selection process for these positions. Our analysis supports a number of structural and managerial recommendations, which we believe will address this imbalance overtime.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T03:25:31.576903-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12269
       
  • Structural Changes to the Public Sector and Cultural Incompatibility: The
           Consequences of Inadequate Cultural Integration
    • Authors: Fiona Buick; Gemma Carey, Melanie Pescud
      Abstract: Structural changes are commonly undertaken to achieve gains, such as enhanced efficiency and performance. In this paper, we explore the cultural issues associated with a structural change in the Australian Public Service. We argue that cultural differences across merged functions were disruptive and challenging to overcome. We posit, however, that these challenges were exacerbated by the lack of systemic effort to integrate cultures, thus impeding synergy realization. Our findings are consistent with the private sector literature that warns mergers and acquisitions undertaken with too much haste and without adequate planning can lead to cultural issues when not managed appropriately.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T02:25:35.629864-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12262
       
  • Justice, Efficiency, and the New Public Management
    • Authors: Alexandru Volacu
      Abstract: In this article I aim to explore the link between two normative values, namely justice and efficiency, and the New Public Management approach. In pursuing this task I offer several critical arguments against some of the recent justice-based objections levied against New Public Management by David Arellano-Gault. I claim that Arellano-Gault's account of the relation between justice and the New Public Management is seriously undermined by two conceptual flaws: (1) a conflation of right-libertarianism, utilitarianism, and desert theories of justice and (2) a conflation of the technical/productive sense of efficiency with the social/distributive sense. Furthermore, I maintain that even when the different theories of justice and the different senses of efficiency are properly delineated, the case for necessarily linking NPM to a particular theory of justice is markedly unconvincing.
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T00:28:15.323768-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12263
       
  • Determinant Factors of Satisfaction with Public Services in Spain
    • Authors: Roxana Alemán; Ramón Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas
      Abstract: The concept of marketing has evolved significantly, as have its applications in various sectors, including services. Diverse opinions have been expressed for and against the use of marketing techniques in public administration. In this paper, we present a conceptual and methodological review of the main contributions made by marketing to the public sector, measuring variables and related concepts that determine public satisfaction with public services. These elements, termed key drivers of opinion, were measured by reference to the information provided by the Spanish Sociological Research Centre (CIS), and provide an alternative way to display and analyse the data of interest, through perception models and figures using multivariate factor analysis. In this study, the components or factors containing the main drivers of opinion were found to be, on the one hand, commitment to efficient service, and on the other, user convenience.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28T23:50:24.759586-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12252
       
  • Who is Looking after Country' Interpreting and Attributing Land
           Management Responsibilities on Native Title Lands
    • Authors: Jessica K Weir; Nicholas Duff
      Abstract: Australian law imposes certain responsibilities on landholders to protect environmental and economic values of the land, however native title has significant consequences for understanding and attributing these land management responsibilities. In 1992, the High Court recognised Indigenous peoples’ rights and interests in land could survive the assertion of British sovereignty, effectively introducing a new category of land tenure into Australian law. Reporting on both law and management practice, we consider the implications for the collective provision of land management functions across Australia – including reforms required for legislative rationale and regulatory models. Relying on a test-case, we found native title holders are substantial landholders who appear, at least in some circumstances in most jurisdictions, to owe the same legal obligations as other landholders. Much ambiguity remains, especially regarding ‘non-exclusive’ possession native title. Together, the legal uncertainty and poor policy alignment necessitate a substantial revision of Australia's land management laws and governance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T01:04:37.677559-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12261
       
  • Political Representation on the New Auckland Council – Has Amalgamation
           Led to Greater Diversity'
    • Authors: Karen Lesley Webster; Emiliana Fa'apoi
      Abstract: This paper explores the diversity of local government electoral candidates and elected members, in Auckland – one of the world's most diverse cities (Chen 2015: 56) – following the 2010 amalgamation. It responds to questions raised over the democratic gaps created by enlarged wards, a lack of diverse representation, and higher elected member ratios. The research asks the question – who stood and who was elected in the election following the Auckland 2010 reforms, and how does this compare with the city's diverse population. Pitkin's (1967) concept of descriptive representation provides the foundation for a comparison of the gender, age, and ethnicity of local population, local government candidates, and elected members, to ascertain descriptive representation. The human rights framework provides a theoretical foundation to examine the diversity of representation. Preliminary findings support the view that under the shared governance model, electoral candidates are becoming more ethnically and gender diverse at the local level; while at the regional level, the dominance of the archetypal councillor as European, middle-aged and male, prevails.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T00:37:49.473906-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12259
       
  • Diffusion of Corporate Risk-Management Characteristics: Perspectives of
           Chief Audit Executives through a Survey Approach
    • Authors: Joe Christopher; Gerrit Sarens
      Abstract: This study examines how corporate risk-management characteristics in Australian public universities have diffused under an environment of conflicting management cultures. The findings reveal that corporate risk-management characteristics have diffused in a pluralist form to satisfy stakeholders of different management approaches across its governance levels as opposed to a unilateral form aligned to the corporate approach. The accepted practice of this adapted version challenges the existing notion that the adoption of corporate control processes in the public sector is problematic, and provides insights into the emergence of a hybrid control process to address the needs of multiple stakeholders. These findings have policy implications for defining a new hybrid governance-control paradigm for the public sector as an alternative to the corporate-influenced control paradigm, and provide avenues for further research to confirm the phenomenon with other corporate control processes, public-sector entities, and if so its impact on effective governance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T00:40:25.96688-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12257
       
  • Norfolk Island as Region: A Pacific Puzzle
    • Authors: Roger Wettenhall
      Abstract: Commonwealth-enforced changes to the constitutional status of Norfolk Island through 2014–2016 have removed the island's autonomous identity as a self-governing Australian territory. Its conversion to what is effectively a part of New South Wales, with the main instrument of governance titled ‘regional council’, is said to be based on a NSW local government model. However, it is difficult to view Norfolk Island as a region, and difficult also to trace the thinking that bestowed the form of the regional council on its governance. This article briefly summarizes the Norfolk changes. It then considers how the concept of the regional council has been used in NSW, and moves on to Queensland where the concept is better defined. It notes particularly how it has been applied in the case of the Torres Strait Islands, and asks whether that application might have relevance for Norfolk. It concludes with speculation about what might be a better approach in designing a system of governance suitable for Norfolk conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06T05:30:22.744552-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12258
       
  • Why Be Accountable' Exploring Voluntary Accountability of Australian
           Private Ancillary Funds
    • Authors: Alexandra Williamson; Belinda Luke, Craig Furneaux
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to consider why Private Ancillary Funds (PAFs), endowed philanthropic foundations with no public reporting requirements, engage in accountability in its various forms. This exploratory, qualitative study reports on perspectives on accountability from 10 semi-structured interviews with PAF managers and/or trustees from three Australian states. Through the lens of March and Olsen's (2011) logics of action and Karsten's (2015) typology of motivational forms for voluntary accountability, findings show that although logics of appropriateness and consequentiality explain many reasons why PAFs engage in voluntary accountability, some reasons do not fit comfortably within either logic. The findings challenge conceptions embedded in much non-profit accountability literature that motivations for and purposes of accountability are linked with sustainability and survival. By examining this subset of non-profit organisations subject to limited regulatory accountability, a clearer understanding of motivations for voluntary accountability is achieved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T00:25:45.606438-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12255
       
  • Do Partners in PPPs view Public and Private Management Differently'
    • Authors: Anne-Marie Reynaers; Zeger der Wal
      Abstract: Differences between public and private management have been studied extensively by comparing sectors, but not within cross-sectoral collaborative arrangements. As participants in such arrangements have actually experienced both management styles, examining their perceptions of how these styles differ may contribute innovatively to existing literature. This paper compares such perceptions between public and private sector project members (N = 63) involved in four PPPs in the Netherlands. We assess (1) to what extent and under which conditions these project members view public and private management differently and (2) how they evaluate these differences. By triangulating quantitative and qualitative interview data, we examine Boyne's classical hypotheses and find that more than two-thirds of the statements making reference to these hypotheses offer support for them; more so, the vast majority of such statements evaluate sectoral differences negatively. Intriguingly, type of PPP is a stronger determinant of perceived differences than the manager's sector of origin.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T06:25:26.932676-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12254
       
  • Bureaucratic Readiness in Managing Local Level Participatory Governance: A
           Developing Country Context
    • Authors: Wahed Waheduzzaman; Bernadine Gramberg, Justine Ferrer
      Abstract: Participatory governance in developing countries is broadly viewed as an essential prerequisite for successful implementation of public projects. However, it poses many challenges for public bureaucrats in terms of their skills and willingness to engage citizens. Despite the growing evidence of the pervasiveness of participatory governance, research to date has not explored bureaucratic readiness to adopt participatory practices. This research presents findings of a bureaucratic readiness assessment for participatory governance in Bangladesh by exploring how public bureaucrats perceive the value of participation; how they are educated to collaborate with stakeholders; and the extent to which their attitudes are amenable to enhancing participatory governance. Our findings suggest that we can classify readiness in terms of both motivational and educational factors. The study has implications for how readiness can be developed in public officials that may assist in fostering participatory governance in Bangladesh and be informative to other countries experiencing similar issues.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T06:31:01.844927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12256
       
  • Avoiding Theoretical Stagnation: A Systematic Review and Framework for
           Measuring Public Value
    • Authors: Nicholas Faulkner; Stefan Kaufman
      Abstract: Public value theory has become a hot topic in public administration research, but its proponents have long recognised difficulties in empirically testing the theory's central propositions. There has been a lack of clarity about how to measure the extent to which organisations are generating public value, which has rendered researchers unable to quantitatively study the causes, consequences and correlates of public value. The current study systematically reviews the growing literature on public value measurement to identify, evaluate, and synthesise available measures. Through a qualitative synthesis of the themes present in published measures, we identify four key components for measuring public value that appear to be important across a range of policy and national contexts. Our review identifies a promising framework that could be used to structure a comprehensive measure of public value and, in doing so, provides a means to progress theoretical development and testing of the public value approach.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T06:30:58.557121-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12251
       
  • A Portrait of Failure: Ongoing Funding Cuts to Australia's Cultural
           Institutions
    • Authors: Kristin Barneveld; Osmond Chiu
      Abstract: Three decades of government budget cuts have placed significant financial pressure on Australia's cultural institutions. Institutions are increasingly trying to attract non-government funding to fulfil their legislative mandates to collect, maintain, and exhibit Australian and international art, to educate and inform the public, and preserve Australia's political, social, and cultural history. Evidence suggests that, despite these efforts, sources of funding have not changed significantly. Budget cuts are impacting a range of areas including acquisitions, preservation, digitisation, as well as limiting access to researchers and the public. This paper concludes that a public review of the roles played by cultural institutions is required, including consideration of the level of public funding provided. To do otherwise is to ignore the importance of Australia's cultural heritage.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T01:08:10.400007-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12248
       
  • The Investment Approach to Public Service Provision
    • Authors: Michael Mintrom; Joannah Luetjens
      Abstract: The investment approach to public service provision is now receiving considerable attention worldwide. By promoting data-intensive assessments of baseline conditions and how government action can improve on them, the approach holds the potential to transform policy development, service implementation, and program evaluation. Recently, variations on the investment approach have been applied in Australia to explore the effectiveness of specific programs in employment training, criminal justice, and infrastructure development. This article reviews the investment approach, presents a Public Investment Checklist to guide such work, and discusses three examples. It concludes by considering the implications of investment thinking for the work of policy designers and public managers.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T23:40:48.196504-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12250
       
  • Grantmaking in a Disorderly World: The Limits of Rationalism
    • Authors: Diana Leat; Alexandra Williamson, Wendy Scaife
      Abstract: This article reflects on the real world relevance of rational approaches to grantmaking. The characteristics and environment of foundation work are outlined, then both traditional and newer funding practices are analysed. Unpacking implicit assumptions of a rational approach, eight costs to foundations and their grantees are identified. The final sections of the paper consider what grantmaking for a complex and disorderly world might encompass. In conclusion, while rational approaches to grantmaking provide a comfortable aura of certainty, funders need to adapt to a little discomfort.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T23:45:32.143193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12249
       
  • Testing an International Measure of Public Service Motivation: Is There
           Really a Bright or Dark Side?
    • Authors: Julie Rayner; Vaughan Reimers, Chih-Wei (Fred) Chao
      Abstract: ‘Public service motivation’ (PSM) is usually reported as a bright force although recent debate alludes to a dark side. Variables representing each side are, respectively, job satisfaction and burnout. This study tests for both the bright and potential dark direct effects of PSM and responds to calls to further validate the international PSM instrument developed by Kim et al. (2013). Using a sample of 455 local council workers in Australia, analysis confirmed that while the measure was robust and generalizable in its structure, none of the dimensions of PSM were found to influence either job satisfaction or burnout. Plausible explanations include contextual factors, nomological concerns with the measurement instrument, and the notion that PSM has a non-significant influence on either. The implications of these findings are discussed and future research proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T00:25:23.595857-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12247
       
  • Accountability in Public Service Quasi-markets: The Case of the Australian
           National Disability Insurance Scheme
    • Authors: Eleanor Malbon; Gemma Carey, Helen Dickinson
      Abstract: Australia's National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) represents the latest in a worldwide shift towards individualised funding models for the delivery of care services. However, market-based models for care deliveries bring new considerations and dilemmas for accountability. Drawing on previous work by Dickinson et al. (2014), we examine a range of accountability dilemmas developing within the early implementation of the NDIS. These relate to accountability for the following: care outcomes, the spending of public money, care workers, and advocacy and market function. Examining these accountability dilemmas reveals differences in underpinning assumptions within the design and on-going implementation of the NDIS, suggesting a plurality of logics within the scheme, which are in tension with one another. The contribution of this paper is to set out the accountability dilemmas, analyse them according to their underpinning logics, and present the NDIS as having potential to be a hybrid institution (Skelcher and Smith 2015). How these dilemmas will be settled is crucial to the implementation and ultimate operation of the scheme.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T01:40:33.113797-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12246
       
  • Evidence in the Networked Governance of Regional Decarbonisation: A
           Critical Appraisal
    • Authors: Sally Weller; John Tierney
      Abstract: This paper examines the use of evidence in collaborative policy making focusing on the challenges of implementing national decarbonisation policies in regional areas. Its case study of a staged policy intervention to promote the ‘transition to a low carbon economy’ in Victoria's coal-dependent Latrobe Valley reveals the selective use of evidence to support policy directions that emerged from the interaction of policy knowledge and the political mood. The paper shows how local conditions can be manipulated to enable the production of evidence consistent with the policy objective, but also suggests that despite combining orchestrated evidence with customised forms of networked governance, it is not possible to suppress or deflect unresolved political disagreements.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T10:15:24.875193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12244
       
  • Encouraging Writing on the White Walls: Co-production in Museums and the
           Influence of Professional Bodies
    • Authors: Anne Kershaw; Kerrie Bridson, Melissa A. Parris
      Abstract: Museums, along with other public sector organisations, have been urged to co-produce. Co-production may offer increased resourcing and greater effectiveness, and enhances public value through stronger relationships between government and citizens. However, co-production, particularly that which involves collaboration with communities, is largely resisted by public sector organisations such as museums. This research examines the extent to which museums co-produce and the role played by professional bodies in driving or inhibiting co-production. It finds that the study of co-production in museums reveals the influence of ‘institutional inertia’ and the limits to which professional bodies are able to ‘diffuse’ co-production and change established professional practice.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T01:05:40.13348-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12245
       
  • Why Performance Management Should Not Be Like Dieting
    • Authors: Deborah Blackman; Fiona Buick, Michael O'Donnell
      Abstract: Globally, organisations have long been preoccupied with using employee performance management to enhance organisational performance. However, due to the compliance-based way in which it is often implemented, success has been limited. This paper proposes lessons can be learnt from adopting the analogy of ‘dieting’. Short-term weight-loss practices can lead to a cyclical pattern that generates weight gain, rather than loss, in longer term. This occurs due to dieters following fads focused on short-term loss, rather than habitual modifications necessary for long-term weight change. This may explain why despite organisations pursuing the perfect employee performance management system (akin to dieting fads), they remain ineffective. We argue that compliance-based approaches encourage a short-term focus on completing the process (known pejoratively as ‘tick-and-flick’). However, where performance management is considered core business, more sustainable practices emerge. Similar to weight loss, these represent the habitual modifications necessary for enabling high performance over the longer term.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T02:10:30.364277-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12238
       
  • Neutral – Neither Trustees nor Hired Guns: The Experiences and
           Preferences of Local Government Councillors of NSW Australia
    • Authors: Ali Haidar; Keri Spooner
      Abstract: This paper reports on the preferences and experiences of the councillor level of New South Wales (NSW, Australia) local government, concerning the public service values that guide the council staff working under a politicised employment relationship. The results of the study show that councillors perceive council staff to be as largely neutral in their behaviour as they expect them to be. The paper further reports that the council staff (in the view of councillors) do not politically respond to any unreasonable demands made by elected officials or act as the trustee of the public interest in competition with them. Data for this study were collected through interviews, a survey, and from secondary sources.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T09:45:28.528101-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12240
       
  • Issue Information - TOC
    • Pages: 271 - 271
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:54.334061-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12222
       
  • Public-Private Partnerships: The Way They Were and What They Can Become
    • Authors: Graeme Hodge; Carsten Greve, Anthony Boardman
      Pages: 273 - 282
      Abstract: Infrastructure PPPs are now main-stream. Both partnership language and its contractual forms have evolved over the past few decades, though. Compared to early optimistic promises, we now have a more nuanced and balanced view of what PPPs are and what they can achieve. Indeed, modern PPPs are tied more to seeking economic growth and political success rather than demonstrating ‘one-best-way’ to deliver efficient infrastructure. This article traces where the infrastructure PPP idea has come from and what it is now becoming. It takes a global perspective and places Australian and international experience in this context, particularly through the global financial crisis. It concludes that PPP can become an integrated part of infrastructure development around the world, assuming learning occurs from past experience. It presents several lessons on deepening partnerships; on the multiplicity of the PPP ‘model’ and its ingredients; on policy learning and on governing infrastructure in the medium term. And it also concludes that not only does the PPP brand today still offer manifold possibilities, even more public policy experimentation is currently warranted.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:53.717065-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12260
       
  • Busting Some of the Public Private Partnership Myths from a Government
           Perspective
    • Authors: Kim Curtain; Jim Betts
      Pages: 283 - 287
      Abstract: Since the 1980s, state governments across Australia have procured critical and complex infrastructure projects via a Public Private Partnership (“PPP”). Despite the long history and widespread use of PPPs in many sectors, there are still many misconceptions and myths regarding PPPs. This article attempts to demystify, from a government's perspective, some of those common misconceptions and myths. We noted that there are multiple ways of structuring a PPP arrangement, that the purpose is not to maximise risk transfer to the private sector but to allocate risks to the party best able to manage them and that a PPP structure does not circumvent funding constraints.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:54.772525-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12264
       
  • Swimming or Drowning in the Depths of Partnership
    • Authors: Sophie Sturup
      Pages: 288 - 300
      Abstract: This exploratory research paper seeks to consider the problems that may arise in the process of creating deep and lasting partnerships in public-private partnerships (PPPs). It does this by contrasting two case studies of very different PPPs, Copenhagen's metro project and Melbourne City Link. The paper puts forward the case for the author's concern that a deep partnership could lead either to mercantile government or quasi-governmental private parties and thus lead to a diminution of the benefits of PPPs. The paper concludes that these concerns are relevant and need to be considered and guarded against no matter the contract conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:53.996547-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12241
       
  • Choose Your Own Adventure: Finding a Suitable Discount Rate for Evaluating
           Value for Money in Public–Private Partnership Proposals*
    • Authors: Sebastian Zwalf; Graeme Hodge, Quamrul Alam
      Pages: 301 - 315
      Abstract: The public sector comparator (PSC) is the key test for determining value for money in public–private partnership (PPP) proposals. Central to the use of the PSC is the discount rate adopted to develop a net present cost for the comparison of privately financed versus traditional delivery options. Several major theories exist informing what the discount rate should be; however, scholarly debate has been inconclusive about which theory is most suitable. This paper considers the two major discount rate theories and examines the discount rate policy applied in eight jurisdictions giving consideration to the rate applied and the theoretical basis on which discount rate policy is developed. It finds that the majority of jurisdictions rely on a variable project specific discount rate formula; a prescribed number is rare; most jurisdictions depart from the major theoretical schools and no two jurisdictions have the same approach; further, that a very wide range of discount rates are in use, ranging from 3.94% (nominal) to 10.15% (nominal) being observed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:53.337011-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12242
       
  • Ten Lessons from Ten Years PPP Experience in Belgium
    • Authors: Tom Willems; Koen Verhoest, Joris Voets, Tom Coppens, Wouter Dooren, Martijn den Hurk
      Pages: 316 - 329
      Abstract: In 2004 Flanders, the northern region of Belgium launched a range of large public–private partnership (PPP) projects for a total value of 6 billion euros. Ten years later, PPP has become a well-embedded procurement method for long-term public infrastructure projects. This article makes a critical ‘round-up’ of PPP experience in Belgium based on the perspectives of infrastructure professionals who were asked to provide their views on performance-related issues in PPP projects. Two workshops were held to further enrich the input and ideas. Based on this empirical material this article formulates 10 lessons to improve PPP performance, which is deliberately broadly defined. It argues that the dominant ‘value for money’ evaluations, following strictly financial or commercial logics (in both the private and public sectors), need to be broadened. Given the large impact and cost of large infrastructure projects on society, broader societal and spatial contributions of PPPs are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:54.403227-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12207
       
  • After the Ribbon Cutting: Governing PPPs in the Medium to Long Term*
    • Authors: Graeme Hodge; Emille Boulot, Colin Duffield, Carsten Greve
      Pages: 330 - 351
      Abstract: Much attention has gone towards ‘up-front’ processes when delivering infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), but less on how to best govern after the ribbon is cut and the infrastructure built. This paper identifies the primary contractual and institutional governance challenges arising in the medium to long term of PPP concession contracts and explores these governance challenges through interviews with high-level PPP industry insiders. The paper presents new findings on the importance of good public administration for successful PPP operation, and on the interesting evolution of medium- to long-term governance arrangements. It finds that although industry interviewees agreed PPP governance had improved significantly, they had differing views on how capable Australian states were in governing PPP and how well this task was being undertaken. They were also split on the adequacy of transparency; half feeling satisfied with the current contractual arrangements, and the other half favouring greater transparency, because commercial confidentiality had alienated the public.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:55.650334-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12239
       
  • The East West Link PPP Project's Failure to Launch: When One Crash-Through
           Approach is Not Enough*
    • Authors: Michael Martinis; Leslie Moyan
      Pages: 352 - 377
      Abstract: The East West Link (EWL) project was to have been a $22.8 billion public–private partnership (PPP) to construct and manage an 18 kilometre road linking freeways east and west of Melbourne. Contracts were signed before and terminated after a state election by different governments. These actions are examples of government control over traditional governance conventions and operational outcomes, also referred to as the ‘crash-through’ approach. This long-term infrastructure PPP project enabled the first government to crash-through its infrastructure plans. However, the newly elected government argued that a new democratic mandate was more important than commercial contract continuation. This option came with a significant cost in excess of $1.1 billion. The project's failure to launch is examined via key events and controversies, and fulfilment of 13 PPP requirements. None were fulfilled, including the proper choice of a PPP as the procurement method and the delivery of value for money. Lessons learnt include the risk of suboptimal PPP outcomes when substandard and rushed state advice is used for decision making. We consider Victoria's Auditor-General's new ‘follow-the-money’ powers and the recently established Infrastructure Victoria in addressing PPP legitimacy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:54.942869-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12243
       
  • Examining the Use of Corporate Governance Mechanisms in Public–Private
           Partnerships: Why Do They Not Deliver Public Accountability'
    • Authors: Anne Stafford; Pamela Stapleton
      Pages: 378 - 391
      Abstract: The paper examines corporate governance mechanisms which aim to ensure financial accountability in the context of long-term Public–Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in Britain, and assesses the degree to which they provide taxpayers with control and accountability. The corporate governance arrangements are drawn from the private sector, and therefore downplay the traditional concepts of probity and stewardship, in part due to the British Treasury's adoption of private sector financial reporting. The paper draws on Shaoul et al.’s (2012a) governance-based reporting framework to critique the corporate governance mechanisms of structure, financial reporting, contracts, and scrutiny in relation to British PPP projects. It shows that the way these mechanisms are set up means there is a lack of control by the public sector, thus rendering public accountability ineffective.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T09:48:52.905241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1467-8500.12237
       
 
 
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